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Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448

13th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management, GCMM 2016

QFD Design of Machine - made Sand Based on Independent /

Decomposition Axiom
Shuhai Fana,b, Jiawei Xionga,b, Tian Xua,b,*, SiYu Chena,b,Wenqian Zhanga,b
Department of Industrial Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, China
MIT Quality Information Program Data Quality & Info Security Lab, Cambridge, MA, USA


Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Axiomatic Design (Axiomatic Design, referred to as AD) as two kinds to meet
customer needs and the exact needs of customers into the design of the product approach. However, both approaches have their
own limitations. Based on the original QFD quality development, the axiomatic design is used to optimize the quality house, to
ensure the independence of the parameters, to construct the axiomatic quality house, and to make the quality house more clearly
the correlation between the reaction function demand and the design parameters. Based on the parameter correlation of axiomatic
design, QFD2000 is used to plan the production of machine-made sand.
Authors. Published
Published by Elsevier
by Elsevier Ltd. is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Ltd. This
Peer-review under responsibility ofthe organizing committee of the 13th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of the 13th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management
Keywords: Axiomatic design; Quality Function Deployment; Machine - made Sand; QFD2000;

1. Introduction

Machine-made sand is different from the natural sand, it is made by making machines and other specific
equipments. In recent years, sand and gravel market demand shows an increasing trend year by year. According to
the data show that China's aggregate annual production reached 10 billion tons. Because of the influence of
environment and national policy, the production of mechanism sand and gravel becomes the key to substitute natural
sand in sand and gravel industry, and the improvement of machine-made sand production process becomes the key
of high quality mechanism sand.

* Corresponding author. Xu-Tian. Tel.: 15651708185.

E-mail address:

1877-7058 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of the 13th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management
Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448 443

2. Customer demands mapping

In order to obtain the customer's demand for machine-made sand, this research mainly takes the market research
as the main method, uses the brain storm method, and utilizes the customer feedback information in the product
forum to carry on the full excavation to the demand information.
Through the above work, we can obtain a more comprehensive customer demand for sand. Customers have two
main needs for sand sold in the market: First, to meet the characteristics of daily demand for construction; Second,
high-quality characteristics of machine-made sand. Changing customers' vague demand to a description of the
specific functional requirements. FR1: General function of machine-made sand, FR2: High quality performance of
machine-made sand. According to customer needs, and to meet the axiom of independence, one by one mapping,
DP1: manufacturing ordinary sand, DP2: manufacturing high-quality machine-made sand. Through the market
survey to obtain the corresponding needs of customer demand for the importance of 1-3-5-7-9 evaluation. Definition
to FR1: The routine function of the sand is evaluated as 7, FR2: The important evaluation of the high quality
performance of the machine-made sand is 9.
When the functional requirements are mapped as design parameters, mapping is performed according to the
independent axiom requirement. First use QFD2000 to design quality housing, as shown in Figure 1. Set the left
function requirement to FR1: Machine-made sand daily function, FR2: Machine-made sand high quality
performance. The upper part of the design parameters set to DP1: making ordinary machine-made sand, DP2:
making high-quality machine-made sand. In the correlation matrix, the correlation between the parameters is set by
using the strong correlation symbol z
design of multi-level decomposition.

Fig. 1. First level axiomatic quality house.

3. Multistage Expansion Based on Decomposition Control

3.1. First and second level axiomatic quality house

According to the establishment of one level axiomatic quality house, write the design matrix:
FR u  DP
FR  u DP
In order to facilitate the research, we continue to weaken the weak correlation, so that the parameters in the
theoretical calculation for the non-correlation, the design matrix, which is diagonal matrix, to meet the independent
axiom. After satisfying the axiom of independence, it is clear that DP1: Manufacture of ordinary machine-made
sand, DP2: Manufacturing of high-quality machine-made sand is incomplete.
According to the "Z" glyph mapping principle, to re-expand the functional requirements. The basic performance
of ordinary sand mainly include: strength, viscosity, water retention. High quality gravel contains a workability. The
design proceeds from four performance optimizations[11].
444 Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448

After mapping customer requirements to functional requirements, determine the functional requirements as
FR11: strength
FR12: viscosity
FR13: Water retention
FR21: Workability
To meet the independent needs of the parameters, reduce the design of the coupling phenomenon, corresponding
to the functional requirements of the design, the mapping is as follows design parameters:
DP11: Made of large particles of gravel
DP12: Gravel shape full
DP13: Methylene blue value is normal
DP21: Sand and gravel gap
Design matrix as:

The multi-level axiomatic quality house is shown in the picture:

Fig.2. Six level axiomatic quality house.

3.2. Third, fourth level axiomatic quality house

DP11, DP12, DP21 are descriptive parameters, DP13 are numerical parameters, according to the decomposition
control integrity, DP11, DP12, DP21 have not reached operational feasibility, DP13 quantization range, further the
next level decomposition. According to the production performance of the machine-made sand, the strength is
related to the fineness modulus, the viscosity is related to the grain quality, and the methylene blue value mainly
guarantees the water retention of the machine-made sand, and the workability is affected by the continuous
gradation of the machine-made sand. Therefore, the third layer is decomposed into:
FR111: Fineness modulus
FR121: Grain quality
FR131: Methylene blue value
FR211: Continuous gradation
Corresponding to the functional requirements of the design, the following design parameters are mapped:
DP111: Large particle gravel crusher
DP121: Plastic gravel machine
DP131: Fine particles were screened
DP211: Matching the specifications of gravel
Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448 445

Design matrix as:


The design matrix is a diagonal matrix, consistent with the independent axiom.
DP111, DP121, DP211 are descriptive parameters, accord with operability, can choose as:
PV111: large particle gravel jaw crusher
PV121: plastic gravel machine
PV131: String screen
PV211: Batching machine
As a process variable, perform the operability. The DP131 can't simply select the screening equipment for
production. As the methylene blue value is used to determine the fine aggregate particle size is less than 0.075mm
particle content is mainly soil or the chemical composition of the parent rock was processed the same stone powder
indicators, so the screening equipment will be fine powder and fine particles out, so select PV131 : String screen is
not a reasonable design result, require further decomposition for FR131: methylene blue value as follows:
FR1311: Stone powder content
FR1312: Sediment content
Corresponding to the functional requirements of the design, FR1311: stone powder content is mapped to DP1311:
sieving powder. FR1312: sediment content corresponds to the simplest design is washed, design DP1312: washed.
As the washing will be directly washed away in addition to 75m particles, while 150m, 300m and 600m
particles and a large number of stone powder are also washed away, the beneficial part of the stone ingredients are
wasted[1]. According to the standard of "construction sand", GB / T14685-2011 "gravel gravel" grading index and
classification of the main quality constraints, see Appendix A, B. Grading interval can't be effectively controlled, the
fineness of the finished product after the modulus, continuous grading have a serious impact.
According to the above parameters, design matrix as:
FR u u DP
FR u
u DP
FR u u DP
The above design matrix is coupling matrix, it is obviously not a reasonable design. We take into account the
design parameters DP1312: washed, the impact of a number of functional design parameters, so in exchange for
DP1312content. The traditional design of dust removal from the powder process, so the design DP1312: dust
removal dust. By the actual production of finished product testing, the value of methylene blue is difficult to achieve,
mainly FR1311: stone powder content of the impact of finished powder content exceeding the standard, obviously
the traditional design can't become an excellent and reasonable design. According to the design matrix, we consider
DP1312can wash away the sediment, not take away the production value of small particles of gravel and beneficial
stone powder. So we consider the atomization program, atomization including droplet size less than 10m dry mist
and droplet size is located in 10 ~ 50m wet fog. As the droplet and dust particle diameter ratio between 1.25 to 5,
its diameter and diameter of fine dust particles close to each other in the adsorption, condensation moment, excellent
dust collection. In the local dust collection space, part of the droplets can evaporate very quickly, making the
surrounding air in the humidity saturation, and the combination of dust is even more evident. Scouring the sediment
of water due to the weight of heavy, sink to the lower row away, combined with small particles of fog in the local
space quickly evaporate, the air humidity quickly saturated, water vapor dust particles as nuclear condensation into
the "cloud", can be recycled to prevent small granular gravel and stone powder were washed away. To meet the
446 Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448

axiom of independence, we choose two options, one, DP1312: dust removal dust, two, DP1312: atomization dust
suppression. Design matrix as follows:

FR A     DP

FR  A    DP

FR   A   DP

   A  DP
FR     A DP

4. Application Examples

4.1. Program design

According to our selection of two options, DP1312:Remove the powder; DP1312: Atomization to suppress dust.
Corresponding design: PV1312: Dry sand machine; PV1312: Dust suppression atomizer. According to mechanism
of decomposition control, design parameters meet the integrity of descriptive parameters then finish the design.
Designs as following Table 1, 2.

Table 1. Decomposition level chart of functional requirements.

FR11:Strength FR111:Fineness modulus

FR1:Normal function of machine- FR12:viscosity FR121:Grain quality

made sand FR1311:Stone powder content
FR131:Methylene blue
FR13:Water retention
value FR1312:Sediment content

FR2:High quality performance of

FR21:Workability FR211:Continuous gradation
machine-made sand

Table 2. Decomposition level chart of design parameters.

DP11:Made of large particles of
DP111:Large gravel crusher
DP12:Shape full of gravel DP121:Shaping sandstone machine
DP1:Normal function of
machine-made sand DP1311:Screening
stone powder
DP13:Methylene blue value is DP131:Screening fine
normal particles
removal / Atomization
to dust suppression
DP2:High quality performance
DP21:Small sand and gravel gap DP211:Matching each specifications of gravel
of machine-made sand

4.2. Multi-plan decision making

In order to verify its superiority of two kinds of existing design scheme through calculating its information
quantity, the decision-making enterprise chooses the superior plan. The design parameters of gradation modulus,
stone powder content and mud content are in accordance with GB / T14684-2011 <<Construction sand>>standard,
that is, GB / T14684-2011 limits the parameters of the design parameters for the design range. Now writing the
expression for the correlation coefficient A[12]. Assumptions: E4.75(i)E2.36(i)E1.18(i)E0.6(i)E0.3(i)
E0.15(i)i value 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively, representing 0-1mm, 0-5mm (shaping), 0-5mm (normal), 0-3mm four
specifications of the square hole sieve screening ratio detection value; The other parameters are defined in Table 3.

Table 3. The definition of other parameters

Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448 447

Parameters 0-1mm 0-5mm(shaping) 0-5mm(normal) 0-3mm

Clay content F1 F2 F3 F4

Stone powder content G1 G2 G3 G4

Ingredients content X1 X2 X3 X4

According to GB / T14684-2011 <<Construction Sand>> in the grading constraints, fineness modulus, stone
powder content and mud content calculation method[2].
FR111:The Correlation Coefficient of Fineness Modulus[3]

E i  E i  E i  E i  E i   u E i X
. . . . . . i

  E i X . i
i  (1)

FR211:Six specifications for the correlation coefficient A211 for continuous gradation

E. i X i E. i X i i E. i X i

A . i

A . i

A . i

i X
i X


E i X . i E i X
. i E i X
. i
A . i

A . i

A . i

X i X i X i
i  i  i  (2)
FR1311:Stone powder content:

Fi X i

X i
i  (3)
FR1312:Sediment content:

i i

X i
i  (4)
According to the above expression, the correlation coefficient A only with the diameter of the sieve residue ratio,
mud content, sand content, ratio. According to the characteristics of the process, the cost of process is
  PP QRUPDO    PP   PP    PP VKDSLQJ , in order to reduce product costs and improve market
competitiveness, the best decision - the principle of making ingredients: ; !;!; !; . The company
adopts 0 ~ 5mm general machine-made sand, 0 ~ 5mm shaping machine sand, 0 ~ 3mm specification machine sand,
0 ~ 1mm specification machine sand in 35%30%25%15% and use batching machine to produce in due ratio.
Option 1: According to the actual production calculation, the dry powder content of stone powder and mud
content are partially exceeded, according to the ratio of mixing ratio, the finished machine sand powder content and
mud content as shown in I1.
I  log  P  log  P  log  P  log  P  log  P
  log    log    log   log   log   .
Option 2: According to the actual production calculation, the dust content of the dust suppressor atomizer and the
mud content of a small part of the excessive, according to the ratio of mixing ratio, the finished machine sand
powder content and mud content as shown in I2.
448 Shuhai Fan et al. / Procedia Engineering 174 (2017) 442 448

I  log  P  log  P  log  P  log  P  log  P
  log    log    log   log   log   .
The amount of informationI1>I2, so the choice of program II.

5. Conclusion

In this paper, a QFD expansion method based on axiomatic design is applied to a machine-made sand
manufacturing company. First, an axiomatic quality house is developed. QFD2000 is used to express the correlation
between design elements. And then use the independent axiom and decomposition control mechanism, multi-stage
expansion decomposition design until the decomposition completely. According to the information axiomatic
decision-making evaluation system, the optimal scheme is obtained and the feasibility of the method based on
axiomatic design is verified.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.71671089), National
Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.71171110) and National Natural Science Foundation of China
(Grant No. 71371097).


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