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Production Planning,

UNIT 1 PRODUCTION PLANNING, PROCESS Process Planning and


Operations Planning
PLANNING AND OPERATIONS
PLANNING
Structure
1.1 Introduction
Objectives

1.2 Production Planning


1.3 Process Planning
1.4 Operations Planning
1.5 Single Component and Multi-Machine Domain
1.6 CAPP Benefits
1.7 Summary
1.8 Keywords
1.9 Answers to SAQs

1.1 INTRODUCTION
As companies look to implement computer-aided process planning along with other
manufacturing information systems, they will do well to scrutinize the needs of all
system users.
One of the most important steps in converting a design concept into a manufactured
product is process planning. The essence of that task is the creation of a complete
package of information on how to perform the manufacturing process, which may
include work instructions for the shop floor, a bill of material, a quality control plan, tool
planning, and so on. Also, there may be links to other manufacturing systems such as
MRP (material requirements planning), PDM (product data management), time
standards, engineering and manufacturing change control, shopfloor control and data
collection systems. In most cases, this initial package of information ultimately
determines the final cost and quality of the product.
Traditionally, manufacturing engineers produced the necessary process planning
documents from scratch using manual techniques. That required the retrieval and
manipulation of a great deal of information from many sources including established
standards, machinability data, machine capabilities, tooling inventories, stock availability
and, hopefully, existing practice. The resulting process plan was then manifest in the
form of printed text, lists and drawings.
Process planning translates design information into the process steps and instructions to
efficiently and effectively manufacture products. As the design process is supported by
many computer-aided tools, computer-aided process planning (CAPP) has evolved to
simplify and improve process planning and achieve more effective use of manufacturing
resources.
Prior to CAPP, manufacturers attempted to overcome the problems of manual process
planning by basic classification of parts into families and developing somewhat
standardized process plans for parts families. When a new part was introduced, the
process plan for that family would be manually retrieved, marked-up and retyped. While 5
Introduction to Process this improved productivity, it did not improve the quality of the planning of processes
Planning and it did not easily take into account the differences between parts in a family nor
improvements in production processes.
Computer-aided process planning initially evolved as a means to electronically store a
process plan once it was created, retrieve it, modify it for a new part and print the plan.
Other capabilities of this stage are table-driven cost and standard estimating systems.
This initial computer-aided approach evolved into what is now known as variant
CAPP. However, variant CAPP is based on a Group Technology (GT) coding and
classification approach to identify a larger number of part attributes or parameters. These
attributes allow the system to select a baseline process plan for the part family and
accomplish about ninety percent of the planning work. The planner will add the
remaining ten percent of the effort modifying or fine-tuning the process plan. The
baseline process plans stored in the computer are manually entered using a super planner
concept, that is, developing standardized plans based on the accumulated experience and
knowledge of multiple planners and manufacturing engineers.
The next stage of evolution is toward generative CAPP. At this stage, process planning
decision rules are built into the system. These decision rules will operate based on a part's
group technology or features technology coding to produce a process plan that will
require minimal manual interaction and modification (e.g., entry of dimensions).
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to
explain significance of computer aided process planning in computer
integrated manufacturing,
describe production planning, process planning, and operation planning,
define production planning system, and
understand benefits of CAPP.

1.2 PRODUCTION PLANNING


Production planning involves the oragnisation of an overall manufacturing system to
produce a product. Specifically, it consists of designing the output, determining
equipment and capacity requirements, designing the physical layout and material
handling system, determining the sequence of operations together with the proper
methods of performance and time requirements, and specifying certain production
quantity and quality levels.
The objective of production planning is to provide a physical system together with a set
of operating guidelines to efficiently convert raw materials, human skills, and other
inputs into finished products. The production planning system may be divided into two
interrelated subsystems :
(a) Production planning system, and
(b) Process planning system.
Figure 1.1 illustrates the two subsystems. The subsystems are closely interrelated.
The indicated lines of information feed back illustrate the need to coordinate the systems.
In considering available processes and technology in the process planning system it often
becomes evident that it will be difficult or even impossible to produce according to
original product specifications. This information is then passed back to the product
planning function where adjustments are made in the product design. Within each
subsystem, a wide variety of decisions must be made. These too are interrelated.

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Market Product
Requirements Research
Production Planning,
Process Planning and
Operations Planning

Figure 1.1 : Production Planning System

1.3 PROCESS PLANNING


Process planning is the systematic determination of method or process by which the
product is to be manufactured economically and competitively within the limits of design
specifications laid down. It consists of devising, selecting and specifying processes,
machine tools and other equipment to convert raw materials into finished products.
It is an intermediate stage between designing the product and manufacturing it. The
following factors are considered while preparing the process plan :
(a) The functional requirements of the product.
(b) Time phased volume of output.
(c) The necessary operations and their sequence.
(d) Necessary tools and equipment.
(e) Estimated manufacturing cost for producing the product.
(f) Requirements of tools, labour and other resources.
The process planning is mainly concerned with, determining the manufacturing
processes, sequence of operations, equipments, tools and labour required for the 7
Introduction to Process production of a component or a product, coordinating the efforts of all factors in
Planning manufacturing the product and to furnish a guide to use the existing or the proposed
facilities.
Process planning consists of two parts :
(a) Process design and
(b) Operations design or planning
Process Design
It is concerned with the overall sequence of operations to realize the product
specifications. It specifies the type of work stations that are to be used, the
machines and equipment necessary, and the quantities of each required.
Operations Design or Planning
It is concerned with the makeup of the individual manufacturing operation. The
details of which are discussed in the next section.

1.4 OPERATIONS PLANNING


In operations planning the various types of manufacturing operations needed are
identified and their sequence established. The operations are grouped into the following
basic classes :
(a) Basic process operations
(b) Principal process operations
(c) Major operations
(d) Auxiliary process operations
(e) Supporting operations
The sequence of operations is subjected to occasional review to see if new or better
methods can be adopted for increased productivity and reduced costs. To establish
operation sequence for a new product or new component, for cost estimation, plant layout
and design purpose and also for the guidance of the workers, the process planner prepares
the operation sequence best suited for a particular type of production.
The operations are studied properly and the unnecessary operations are eliminated, the
remaining operations are arranged in a proper sequence and if possible some operations
should be combined to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the production process. To
plan operation sequence in an existing plant, the equipment available, its capacity and
present load condition should be taken into consideration. The equipment most suited
may be overloaded or not available at all. For establishing the operation sequence in such
cases, the following information is necessary :
(a) List of available machines
(b) List of available general purpose toolings
(c) Capacity of equipment
(d) Machine load chart
(e) Plant layout
(f) Standard data.

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Production Planning,
1.5 SINGLE COMPONENT AND MULTI-MACHINE Process Planning and
DOMAIN Operations Planning

A typical processing sequence to fabricate an individual part consists of the selection of :


(a) a basic process,
(b) secondary processes,
(c) operations to enhance physical properties, and
(d) finishing operations.
The sequence is shown in Figure 1.2.

Property enhancement processes


not always required

Starting Property
Basic Secondary Finishing Finish
Raw Enhancing
Process Processes Operation
Materials Processes Product

Additional secondary processes


sometimes required following
property enhancement

Figure 1.2 : Typical Sequence of Processes Required in Part Fabrication

Basic Process
It determines the starting geometry of workpart. Metal casting, plastic moulding
and rolling of sheet metal, etc. are examples of basic processes.
Secondary Processes
The starting geometry must often be refined by secondary processes, operations
that transform the starting geometry into final geometry (or close to the final
geometry). The secondary processes that might be used are closely correlated to
the basic process that provides the starting geometry. Examples of secondary
operations are : machining, sheet metal operations, etc.
Operations to Enhance Properties
Once the geometry has been established, the next step for some parts is to improve
their mechanical and physical properties. Operations to enhance properties do not
alter the geometry of the part; instead, they alter physical properties. Typical
examples are heat treatment, sintering, etc.
Finishing Operations
They usually improve the appearance of the workpart by providing a coating on
the workpart (or assembly) surface. Examples include polishing, electroplating,
thin film deposition techniques and painting. The purpose of the coating is to
enhance appearance, change colour or protect the surface from corrosion, abrasion
and so forth.
Table 1.1 below presents some typical processing sequences for common engineering
materials used in manufacturing.

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Introduction to Process Table 1.1 : Some Typical Process Sequences
Planning
Basic Process Starting Secondary Final Shape Enhancing Finishing
Material Processes Processes Processes
Sand casting Sand casting Machining Machined part (Optional) Painting
Die casting Die casting (Net shape) Die casting (Optional) Painting
Casting of glass Glass ingot Pressing, blow Glass ware Heat treatment (None)
molding
Injection molding Molded part (Net shape) Plastic molding (None) (None)
Rolling Sheet metal Blanking, Stamping (None) Plating, painting
punching,
bending, forming
Rolling Sheet metal Deep drawing Drawing (None) Plating, painting
Forging Forging (Neat net shape) Machined part (None) Plating, painting
Machining
Rolling and bar Bar stock Machining Machined part Heat treatment Plating, painting
drawing grinding
Extrusion of Extrudate Cutoff Extruded part (None) Painting,
aluminium anodizing
Atomize Metal powders Press PM part Sinter Paint
Communication Ceramic powders Press Ceramic ware Sinter Glaze
Ingot pulling Silicon boule Sawing and Silicon wafer Cleaning
grinding
Sewing and Silicon wafer Oxidation, CVD, IC chip Coating
grinding PVD, etching

In most cases parts and materials arriving at the factory have completed their basic
process. Thus the first operation in the process plan follows the basic process that has
provided the starting geometry of the part. For example, machined parts begin as bar
stock or castings or forgings, which are purchased from outside vendors. The process
plan begins with the selection of basics part followed by the machining operations in the
companys own plant. Stampings begin as sheet metal coils or strips that are bought from
the rolling mill. These raw materials are supplied from outside sources so that the
secondary processes, property-enhancing operations, and finishing operations can be
performed in the companys own factory.
In addition to the route sheet, a more detailed description of each operation is usually
prepared. This is filed in the particular production department office where the operation
is performed. It lists specific details of the operation, such as cutting conditions and
tooling (if the operation is machining) and other instructions that may be useful to the
machine operator. The descriptions often include sketches of the machine setup.

1.6 CAPP BENEFITS


Significant benefits can result from the implementation of CAPP. In a detailed survey of
twenty-two large and small companies using generative-type CAPP systems, the
following estimated cost savings were achieved :
58% reduction in process planning effort
10% saving in direct labor
4% saving in material
10% saving in scrap
12% saving in tooling
6% reduction in work-in-process
10 In addition, there are intangible benefits as follows :
Reduced process planning and production leadtime; faster response to Production Planning,
Process Planning and
engineering changes Operations Planning
Greater process plan consistency; access to up-to-date information in a
central database
Improved cost estimating procedures and fewer calculation errors
More complete and detailed process plans
Improved production scheduling and capacity utilization
Improved ability to introduce new manufacturing technology and rapidly
update process plans to utilize the improved technology
SAQ 1
(a) Define production planning, process planning and operations planning.
(b) Explain production planning system with a neat sketch.
(c) Explain the processing sequence required to fabricate a single part on
multiple machines.

1.7 SUMMARY
CAPP is a highly effective technology for discrete manufacturers with a significant
number of products and process steps. Production planning involves the oragnisation of
an overall manufacturing system to produce a product. Specifically, it consists of
designing the output, determining equipment and capacity requirements, designing the
physical layout and material handling system, determining the sequence of operations
together with the proper methods of performance and time requirements, and specifying
certain production quantity and quality levels.
Process planning is the systematic determination of method or process by which the
product is to be manufactured economically and competitively within the limits of design
specifications laid down. It consists of devising, selecting and specifying processes,
machine tools and other equipment to convert raw materials into finished products.
In operations planning the various types manufacturing operations needed are identified
and their sequence are established.
A typical processing sequence to fabricate an individual part consists of :
(a) a basic process,
(b) secondary processes,
(c) operations to enhance physical properties, and
(d) finishing operations.

1.8 KEY WORDS


Process Planning : Systematic determination of methods by which a
product is to be manufactured, economically, and
competitively.
Computer Aided Manufacturing : The use of programmable automation in the
manufacturing of a product.

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Introduction to Process Computer Integrated : The total integration of design, manufacture,
Planning Manufacturing and delivery of a product through the use of
computer technology.
Bill of Material : A document that lists the materials and
components that go into a product, provides a brief
description, and specifies the quantities required
for assembly.
Continuous Process : The production of a very high volume commodity
product with highly automated equipment.
Group Technology : The grouping of parts into families based on
similar shapes or processing requirements.
Process Flow Chart : A document that uses standardized symbols to
chart the productive and non-productive flow of
activities involved in a process.

1.9 ANSWERS TO SAQs


Refer the preceding text for all the Answers to SAQs.

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