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National

Intimate Partner and


Sexual Violence Survey
2010 Summary Report

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The National Intimate Partner
and Sexual Violence Survey:
2010 Summary Report

Executive Summary
Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith,
Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick,
Jieru Chen, and Mark R. Stevens

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Director

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control


Linda C. Degutis, DrPH, MSN, Director

Division of Violence Prevention


Howard R. Spivak, MD, Director

November 2011

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia

Suggested Citation:
Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National
Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey | 2010 Summary Report | Executive Summary 1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Sexual violence, stalking, and violence, stalking, and intimate of data collection, and are based
intimate partner violence are partner violence on complete interviews. Complete
major public health problems in t Who is most likely to experience interviews were obtained from
the United States. Many survivors these forms of violence 16,507 adults (9,086 women and
of these forms of violence can 7,421 men). The relative standard
t The patterns and impact of the
experience physical injury, mental error (RSE), which is a measure
violence experienced by specific
health consequences such as of an estimates reliability, was
perpetrators
depression, anxiety, low self- calculated for all estimates in this
esteem, and suicide attempts, t The health consequences of report. If the RSE was greater than
and other health consequences these forms of violence 30%, the estimate was deemed
such as gastrointestinal disorders, unreliable and is not reported.
substance abuse, sexually trans- The National Intimate Partner Consideration was also given to
mitted diseases, and gynecological and Sexual Violence Survey is an the case count. If the estimate
or pregnancy complications. These ongoing, nationally represen- was based on a numerator 20,
consequences can lead to hospital- tative random digit dial (RDD) the estimate is also not reported.
ization, disability, or death. telephone survey that collects Estimates for certain types of
information about experiences violence reported by subgroups of
Our understanding of these forms of sexual violence, stalking, and men such as rape victimization by
of violence has grown substantially intimate partner violence among racial/ethnic group are not shown
over the years. However, timely, non-institutionalized English and/ because the number of men in
ongoing, and comparable national or Spanish-speaking women and these subgroups reporting rape
and state-level data are lacking. men aged 18 or older in the United was too small to calculate a reliable
Less is also known about how States. NISVS provides detailed estimate. These tables are included
these forms of violence impact information on the magnitude in the report so that the reader
specific populations in the United and characteristics of these forms can easily determine what was
States or the extent to which rape, of violence for the nation and for assessed and where gaps remain.
stalking, or violence by a romantic individual states.
or sexual partner are experienced Key Findings
in childhood and adolescence. This report presents information
related to several types of violence Sexual Violence by
CDCs National Center for Injury that have not previously been Any Perpetrator
Prevention and Control launched measured in a national population- t Nearly 1 in 5 women (18.3%) and
the National Intimate Partner and based survey, including types 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the United
Sexual Violence Survey in 2010 with of sexual violence other than States have been raped at some
the support of the National Institute rape; expressive psychological time in their lives, including
of Justice and the Department of aggression and coercive control, completed forced penetration,
Defense to address these gaps. and control of reproductive or attempted forced penetration,
sexual health. This report also or alcohol/drug facilitated
The primary objectives of the provides the first ever simultaneous completed penetration.
National Intimate Partner and national and state-level prevalence t More than half (51.1%) of female
Sexual Violence Survey are to estimates of violence for all states. victims of rape reported being
describe: raped by an intimate partner
t The prevalence and The findings presented in this and 40.8% by an acquaintance;
characteristics of sexual report are for 2010, the first year for male victims, more than
2 The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey | 2010 Summary Report | Executive Summary

half (52.4%) reported being or an acquaintance, 41.4% and partner (e.g., hit with a fist
raped by an acquaintance 40.0%, respectively. or something hard, beaten,
and 15.1% by a stranger. t Repeatedly receiving unwanted slammed against something)
t Approximately 1 in 21 men telephone calls, voice, or at some point in their lifetime.
(4.8%) reported that they were text messages was the most t An estimated 10.7% of women
made to penetrate someone else commonly experienced stalking and 2.1% of men have been
during their lifetime; most men tactic for both female and male stalked by an intimate partner
who were made to penetrate victims of stalking (78.8% for during their lifetime.
someone else reported that women and 75.9% for men). t Nearly half of all women and
the perpetrator was either an t More than half of female victims men in the United States have
intimate partner (44.8%) or an and more than one-third of male experienced psychological
acquaintance (44.7%). victims of stalking indicated that aggression by an intimate
t An estimated 13% of they were stalked before the partner in their lifetime (48.4%
women and 6% of men have age of 25; about 1 in 5 female and 48.8%, respectively).
experienced sexual coercion victims and 1 in 14 male victims t Most female and male victims of
in their lifetime (i.e., unwanted experienced stalking between rape, physical violence, and/or
sexual penetration after being the ages of 11 and 17. stalking by an intimate partner
pressured in a nonphysical (69% of female victims; 53% of
way); and 27.2% of women and Violence by an male victims) experienced some
11.7% of men have experienced Intimate Partner form of intimate partner violence
unwanted sexual contact. t More than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) for the first time before 25 years
t Most female victims of and more than 1 in 4 men of age.
completed rape (79.6%) (28.5%) in the United States
experienced their first rape have experienced rape, physical Impact of Violence by
before the age of 25; 42.2% violence, and/or stalking by an an Intimate Partner
experienced their first completed intimate partner in their lifetime. t Nearly 3 in 10 women and 1
rape before the age of 18 years. t Among victims of intimate in 10 men in the United States
t More than one-quarter of male partner violence, more than have experienced rape, physical
victims of completed rape 1 in 3 women experienced violence, and/or stalking by an
(27.8%) experienced their first multiple forms of rape, stalking, intimate partner and reported
rape when they were 10 years of or physical violence; 92.1% at least one impact related to
age or younger. of male victims experienced experiencing these or other
physical violence alone, and forms of violent behavior in the
Stalking Victimization 6.3% experienced physical relationship (e.g., being fearful,
by Any Perpetrator violence and stalking. concerned for safety, post
t One in 6 women (16.2%) and 1 t Nearly 1 in 10 women in the traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
in 19 men (5.2%) in the United United States (9.4%) has been symptoms, need for health care,
States have experienced stalking raped by an intimate partner in injury, contacting a crisis hotline,
victimization at some point her lifetime, and an estimated need for housing services, need
during their lifetime in which 16.9% of women and 8.0% of for victims advocate services,
they felt very fearful or believed men have experienced sexual need for legal services, missed at
that they or someone close to violence other than rape by an least one day of work or school).
them would be harmed or killed. intimate partner at some point in
t Two-thirds (66.2%) of female their lifetime. Violence Experienced
victims of stalking were stalked t About 1 in 4 women (24.3%) by Race/Ethnicity
by a current or former intimate and 1 in 7 men (13.8%) have t Approximately 1 in 5 Black
partner; men were primarily experienced severe physical (22.0%) and White (18.8%)
stalked by an intimate partner violence by an intimate non-Hispanic women, and 1 in 7
Hispanic women (14.6%) in the
The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey | 2010 Summary Report | Executive Summary 3

United States have experienced rape, physical violence and/or Health Consequences
rape at some point in their stalking by an intimate partner t Men and women who
lives. More than one-quarter of during their lifetime. experienced rape or stalking
women (26.9%) who identified by any perpetrator or physical
as American Indian or as Alaska Number and Sex violence by an intimate partner
Native and 1 in 3 women (33.5%) of Perpetrators in their lifetime were more likely
who identified as multiracial t Across all types of violence, the to report frequent headaches,
non-Hispanic reported rape majority of both female and male chronic pain, difficulty with
victimization in their lifetime. victims reported experiencing sleeping, activity limitations,
t One out of 59 White non- violence from one perpetrator. poor physical health and poor
Hispanic men (1.7%) has mental health than men and
t Across all types of violence,
experienced rape at some point women who did not experience
the majority of female victims
in his life. Nearly one-third of these forms of violence.
reported that their perpetrators
multiracial non-Hispanic men Women who had experienced
were male.
(31.6%) and over one-quarter of these forms of violence were
t Male rape victims and male also more likely to report
Hispanic men (26.2%) reported
victims of non-contact having asthma, irritable bowel
sexual violence other than rape
unwanted sexual experiences syndrome, and diabetes than
in their lifetimes.
reported predominantly male women who did not experience
t Approximately 1 in 3 multiracial perpetrators. Nearly half of these forms of violence.
non-Hispanic women (30.6%) stalking victimizations against
and 1 in 4 American Indian or males were also perpetrated
Alaska Native women (22.7%) by males. Perpetrators of other
State-Level Estimates
reported being stalked during t Across all types of violence
forms of violence against males
their lifetimes. One in 5 Black examined in this report, state-
were mostly female.
non-Hispanic women (19.6%), level estimates varied with
1 in 6 White non-Hispanic women lifetime estimates for women
Violence in the 12 Months ranging from 11.4% to 29.2% for
(16.0%), and 1 in 7 Hispanic
Prior to Taking the Survey rape; 28.9% to 58% for sexual
women (15.2%) experienced
t One percent, or approximately violence other than rape; and
stalking in their lifetimes.
1.3 million women, reported 25.3% to 49.1% for rape, physical
t Approximately 1 in 17 Black non- being raped by any perpetrator violence, and/or stalking by an
Hispanic men (6.0%), and in the 12 months prior to taking intimate partner.
1 in 20 White non-Hispanic men the survey.
(5.1%) and Hispanic men (5.1%) t For men, lifetime estimates
t Approximately 1 in 20 women ranged from 10.8% to 33.7% for
in the United States experienced
and men (5.6% and 5.3%, sexual violence other than rape;
stalking in their lifetime.
respectively) experienced sexual and 17.4% to 41.2% for rape,
t Approximately 4 out of every 10 violence victimization other than physical violence, and/or stalking
women of non-Hispanic Black or rape by any perpetrator in the by an intimate partner.
American Indian or Alaska Native 12 months prior to taking the
race/ethnicity (43.7% and 46.0%, survey.
respectively), and 1 in 2 multiracial
t About 4% of women and 1.3%
non-Hispanic women (53.8%)
of men were stalked in the 12
Implications for
have experienced rape, physical
violence, and/or stalking by an
months prior to taking the survey. Prevention
intimate partner in their lifetime. t An estimated 1 in 17 women The findings in this report under-
and 1 in 20 men (5.9% and 5.0%, score the heavy toll that sexual
t Nearly half (45.3%) of American
respectively) experienced rape, violence, stalking, and intimate
Indian or Alaska Native men and
physical violence, and/or stalking partner violence places on women,
almost 4 out of every 10 Black
by an intimate partner in the 12 men, and children in the United
and multiracial men (38.6% and
months prior to taking the survey. States. Violence often begins at
39.3%, respectively) experienced
4 The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey | 2010 Summary Report | Executive Summary

an early age and commonly leads and access needed services and by providing policymakers much
to negative health consequences resources in the short and long term. needed information for enhancing
across the lifespan. Collective action One way to strengthen the response prevention efforts at the state level.
is needed to implement prevention to survivors is through increased
approaches, ensure appropriate training of healthcare professionals. Ongoing data collection and moni-
responses, and support these efforts It is also critically important to toring of these problems through
based on strong data and research. ensure that legal, housing, mental NISVS and other data sources at
health, and other services and the local, state, and national level
Prevention efforts should start early resources are available and acces- must lead to further research to
by promoting healthy, respectful sible to survivors. develop and evaluate strategies
relationships in families by fostering to effectively prevent first-time
healthy parent-child relation- An important part of any response perpetration of sexual violence,
ships and developing positive to sexual violence, stalking, and stalking, and intimate partner
family dynamics and emotionally intimate partner violence is to hold violence. This research should focus
supportive environments. These perpetrators accountable. Survivors on key gaps to address the social
environments provide a strong foun- may be reluctant to disclose their and economic conditions (e.g.,
dation for children, help them to victimization for a variety of reasons poverty, sexism, and other forms of
adopt positive interactions based on including shame, embarrassment, discrimination and social exclusion)
respect and trust, and foster effective fear of retribution from perpetrators, that increase risk for perpetration
and non-violent communication or a belief that they may not receive and victimization. This work should
and conflict resolution in their peer support from law enforcement. be complemented with efforts to
and dating relationships. It is equally Laws may also not be enforced monitor strategies being used by
important to continue addressing adequately or consistently and the field, to identify and rigorously
the beliefs, attitudes and messages perpetrators may become more evaluate these approaches and
that are deeply embedded in our dangerous after their victims report document their value. As effective
social structures and that create these crimes. It is important to strategies are identified, research
a climate that condones sexual enhance training efforts within the examining how to best disseminate,
violence, stalking, and intimate criminal justice system to better implement, and adapt evidence-
partner violence. For example, engage and support survivors and based prevention strategies, will
this can be done through norms thus hold perpetrators accountable become increasingly important.
change, changing policies and for their crimes.
enforcing existing policies against Much progress has been made in
violence, and promoting bystander Implementing strong data systems the prevention of violence. There
approaches to prevent violence for the monitoring and evaluation is strong reason to believe that the
before it happens. of sexual violence, stalking, and application of effective strategies
intimate partner violence is critical combined with the capacity to
In addition to prevention efforts, to understand trends in these implement them will make a differ-
survivors of sexual violence, stalking, problems, to provide information ence. The lessons already learned
and intimate partner violence need on which to base development during public healths short experi-
coordinated services to ensure and evaluation of prevention and ence with violence prevention are
healing and prevent recurrence intervention programs, and to consistent with those from public
of victimization. The healthcare monitor and measure the effective- healths much longer experience
systems response must be strength- ness of these efforts. Establishing with the prevention of infectious and
ened and better coordinated for cost-efficient and timely surveillance chronic diseases. Sexual violence,
both sexual violence and intimate systems for all states, by using stalking, and intimate partner
partner violence survivors to help consistent definitions and uniform violence can be prevented with
navigate the health care system survey methods, will assist states data-driven, collaborative action.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Division of Violence Prevention

4770 Buford Highway NE, MS-F64


Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3742
www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention