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LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

Balay Paglaum: A Rehabilitation and Reformation Center for Children-in-Conflict with the

Law

A Thesis Proposal Submitted to the

Faculty of the Arfien Department of

La Consolacion College - Bacolod

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture

Calvin B. Chavez III

October 2017
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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The children of the world are innocent, vulnerable and dependent. They are also

curious, active and full of hope. Their time should be one of joy and peace, of playing,

learning and growing. Their future should be shaped in harmony and co-operation. Their

lives should mature, as they broaden their perspectives and gain new experiences.

-World Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children

John F. Kennedy

1.1 Background of the Study

Ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng bayan. (The youth is the hope of the nation.)

One of the famous dictum inculcated to us by our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal that

reminds us of the worth of the young ones in the community. On a reality scale, not all

of the youth paves the walk towards light and hope, some walks with darkness and

despair. These kind of things are inevitable with the current generation of youth, where

doing wrong is easier than doing what is right.


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So what should we do to shed some light towards the ones in need of it? Its a

privilege for this profession, in the field of architecture, to be able to contribute such

things that can affect the transformation process for such individuals, especially the

youth. According to a statement by Henry Omaga-Diaz pertaining to Juvenile

Delinquency on the TV program KRUSADA, he stated that these children put up a face

that brings fear and a sense of defiance. In return, society denounces them with intense

aversion, forgetting that they are children who are just in need of greater guidance.

Studies show that the families where these delinquent youths came from are

often harshly dysfunctional and relations between the parents are seriously strained,

often, to the point of separation. These situations moved them to find a family outside

their homes, but unfortunately, what they found was a company of delinquents who

present them the techniques, values and beliefs of delinquency.

The problems of street children and juvenile delinquents are much related social

problems. To survive in the street you almost have to become delinquent. Exposed to

criminal elements these children are vulnerable to prostitution, drug addiction and

pushing and commission of crimes. Most street children have become juvenile

delinquents either out of necessity (because they are poor) or through force (because of

the syndicates). Young people in the streets are also criminalized and stigmatized for no
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obvious crime committed. So many times the streets were cleaned up at the start of the

tourist season and as a consequence many street children were jailed because of

vagrancy laws. (Sumaya, 2016)

Juvenile Delinquency is a social issue or a social problem, it is defined as a

problem of human relationship which seriously threatens society or impedes the

important aspirations of the people. (Jarapa, 1997) According to a statement by Aurora

Flores of the Philippine Mental Health Association in Dumaguete, youth offenders have

mental health issues and reiterates that such is not just the absence of mental illness.

The concept of right and wrong among youth offenders is vague or erroneous;

leading to their low self-control. Putting up a rehabilitation and reformation center is not

only a refuge for the children who needs the place to reform, but also as a precautionary

measure for the state or province, in order to protect the future of the community from

future criminals if left untreated.

According to a data tallied by PNP of minor surrenderees from July 1 to August

28, 2016, and still growing in figures, there are 729 minors in Negros Island involved in

cases that surrendered themselves to the authority on Pres. Dutertes first two months.

These facts are only about drug related delinquency, much more figures when we talk

about other juvenile crimes. A headline article from PhilStar wrote topics about the
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overbooked centers, bursting populations on Boys towns, and ineffective facilities, as

the major hindrances and needs in terms of the reformation of the Children-in-Conflict

with the law.

The Juvenile Justice Welfare Council (JJWC) is set to get more funding to build

additional rehabilitation facilities. Approved by the Department of Budget and

Management, the amount is 55% higher than the P85.55 million budget that the council

got in 2017. JJWC has the biggest budget among the attached agencies of the DSWD.

The built environment has a great factor in the efficiency of the intervention

programs. The built environment must be conducive to change for the CICLs, and it must

also promote autonomy and cooperation between the staffs and the residents. These

CICLs need to be in proper guidance with adequate counseling methods that can

reconcile hope and faith for better future within them. Juvenile delinquents must not be

treated as prisoners nor be treated like offenders but as children who are in need of

attention, care, faith, hope, especially love, so that they can be fruitful and productive to

each of their respective society.

In order to help solve this problem and to provide precautions for the next

generations of youth, the provincial officials are proposing to put up a facility where it

can house diverse youth and help them change in a community-based society. The
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setting for the said proposal is being aimed to be put ideally on a rural environment,

away from the distractions of the negative urban lifestyles and the influence of chaotic

society. The character of the built-environment of juvenile rehabilitation centers directly

impacts on the outcome of the rehabilitation process. The design of such centers should

ensure that young offenders who pass through them do not come out more disoriented

and hardened. The built environment of juvenile rehabilitation centers should portray

rehabilitation rather than retribution (Auwalu, 2016)

Agricultural activities and intervention programs will be incorporated to promote

a more humane way of living inside a rehabilitation and reformation center. The farm-

like environment, and the different skills programs, counseling, educational programs,

livelihood techniques, and other residential-care services that will be catered upon the

juveniles will act as a treatment-oriented activity for them to improve their behaviors.

The conduct and planning of this facility will also be covered with respect to R.A.

no. 9344, an act establishing a comprehensive juvenile justice and welfare council under

the Department of Justice, appropriating funds, therefore, and for other purposes. Thus,

the law recognizes the vital role of children and youth in nation building and shall

promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being

(R. A. 9344, Sec. 2 (a)).


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To ensure the advantage of this facility and its programs and services, separation

from the family and the community will be observed and implemented depending to the

gravity of offenses that CICL acted upon, in line with the legalities.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The proposal of the said project; Balay Paglaum: A Reformation & Rehabilitation

Center for Children-in-Conflict with the Law, is dedicated towards juvenile delinquents

and their reintegration towards the society. In the Province of Negros Occidental, the

current alarming situation of cases pertaining to juvenile delinquency and their

confinement is not enough, suitable, and satisfactory to the Children-in-Conflict with the

law that are in need of a change. Lack of facilities, amenities, and reformation services

are some of the important elements that needs improvement in the existing centers,

which hinders their healing process towards reformation.

This study aims to sight what kind of environment must be established to provide

therapeutic change to these offenders, and evaluate the architectural needs in relation

to the programs and services. Aside from that, this research also aims to determine what

facilities, amenities and structures are to be planned and designed. The design solution

aims to answer the following areas of concern:


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SITE ANALYSIS

How suitable is the site with regards to accessibility, land use and zoning,

and availability of utilities?

How does the natural environment present in the site address to the

needs of the occupants?

What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the

site?

What are the characteristics of the site with regards on safety on peace

and order?

SITE DEVELOPMENT

What is the type of site planning concept applicable for the site?

What are the requirements for the development of the site?

BUILDING FUNCTION

What are the required facilities, spaces and amenities?

What are the sizes of the areas required?

What is the spatial organization on the required facilities and spaces?


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BUILDING AESTHETICS

What is the general aesthetic character applicable to a rehabilitation

facility?

What is the general design concept?

What is the design philosophy?

BUILDING STRENGTH AND DURABILITY

What method of construction shall be applied to this project?

What are the materials to be used that conforms to the function and

character of the project?

BUILDING UTILITIES

What are the necessary engineering and utility systems to be provided?

What utility systems is applicable for farming and agricultural activities?


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1.3 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

These frameworks will be the guide and foundation of the survey. It will include

theories, concepts, philosophies and the likes that will enable this research to be

sound and ideal. It will be the basis for planning and programming the proposed

Balay Paglaum: A Reformation & Rehabilitation Center for Children-in-Conflict

with the Law.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The challenge was to create a normalized environment to rehabilitate kids not a lock-

up facility. (KMD,1995)

Site Development

The cluster type of planning is suitable for this kind of facility planning. According

to the book Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan, clustered organization

uses proximity to relate its spaces to one another. It can accept within its composition

spaces that are dissimilar in size, form, and function, but related to on another by

proximity and a visual ordering device such as symmetry or an axis. Clustered spaces can

be organized about a point of entry into a building or along the path of movement

through it.
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Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the present

without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

(Holmberg, 1992)

Environmental- An environmentally sustainable system must maintain a

stable resource base, avoiding over-exploitation of renewable resource

systems or environmental sink functions, and depleting non-renewable

resources only to the extent that investment is made in adequate

substitutes. This includes maintenance of biodiversity, atmospheric

stability, and other ecosystem functions not ordinarily classed as

economic resources.

Social- A socially sustainable system must achieve distributional equity,

adequate provision of social services including health and education,

gender equity, and political accountability and participation.

Economic- An economically sustainable system must be able to produce

goods and services on a continuing basis, to maintain manageable levels

of government and external debt, and to avoid extreme sectoral

imbalances which damage agricultural or industrial production.


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Use of Bioretention

In context of sustainable site design, transportation networks should consider

integrating storm-water management through retention in the right way where

feasible, use of permeable pavements, narrow streets, and stabilized vegetated

shoulders where possible as substitutes for grey infrastructure. (McDonald-King,

2005)

This type of facility is recommend for areas where high recharge of

groundwater would be beneficial. Because there is no underdrain, the in situ soils

need to have a high infiltration rate to accommodate the inflow levels. The infiltration

rate of the in situ soils must be determined through proper soil testing. Preferably,

facilities of this type should have infiltration rates of 1 inch/hour or greater. Facilities

must be at least 2.5 feet deep to allow adequate filtration processes to occur. (OBD,

2005)

The use of an underdrain ensures that the facility will drain at a desired rate.

Partial groundwater recharge is also achieved. An impervious liner can be used to

eliminate the risk of groundwater contamination in urban environments. The

underdrain can be blocked for clean-up in the event of a spill.


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Building Function

Nature as Treatment

Outdoor therapy involves the use of challenges found in nature to provide growth

experiences that can help people make fundamental changes in their lives. These

programs have been used for many years as a supplement to the integration process of

the children. Therapeutic Environment theory stems from the fields of environmental

psychology (the psycho-social effects of environment), psychoneuroimmunology (the

effects of environment on the immune system), and neuroscience (how the brain

perceives architecture). (Whole Bldg Design Guide)

Farming and Gardening

Time and again research reveals that gardening has a positive effect on our

mental health. The other beauty about gardening on a small or a large scale is that it can

be done by people almost any age or ability. Similar to caring for a goldfish, caring for a

plant can teach a young child responsibility (as well as a bit about science, nature, and

nutrition, if the plant is also a food). Researchers at Kansas State University say that

through gardening, older adults can gain hand strength, boost their self-esteem, and aid

in stroke rehabilitation and recovery.


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According to Rayner (2015), on why is gardening good for mental health:

Looking after plants gives us a sense of responsibility.


Gardening allows us all to be nurturers.
Gardening keeps us connected to other living things.
Gardening helps us relax and let go.
Working in nature releases happy hormones.
Being amongst plants and flowers reminds us to live in the present
moment.
Gardening reminds us of the cycle of life, and thus come to terms with that
most universal of anxieties: death.
Some aspects of gardening allow us to vent anger and aggression...
...whilst others allow us to feel in control.
Last but not least, gardening is easy.

Therapeutic Architecture

Rural life is often portrayed in an idyllic down to earth fashion. Rural

communities are assumed to be less stressful and more humane than urban life.

(Shanteau, 2001) Providing views with positive distractions towards children will help

them satisfy themselves on staying in a rehabilitation facility. Growing evidence

suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-

being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the
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associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of

the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions

in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural

outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. (BMJ Journals)

Increased physical activity and social contacts, psychological restoration/stress

reduction, a reduction in pollutants such as noise and air pollution, and temperature

have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the health benefits of green space.

Access to and/or use of green space has been associated with higher levels of physical

activity

Environmental Psychology

Engagement with natural beauty moderates the positive relation between

connectedness with nature and psychological well-being. 1 Prior research has

demonstrated that people who are more connected with nature report more

subjective well-being. However, guided by the sensitization model of well-being, we

expected that the positive relation between connectedness with nature and

psychological well-being would only be significant for those who tend to engage in
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nature's beauty (i.e., experience positive emotional responses when witnessing

nature's beauty).

Biophilic Architecture

The idea of biophilic design is that our (built) environment is critical to people's

health, productivity, and emotional, intellectual, and spiritual well-being. Buildings

and landscape can support human health or they can be detrimental. The so-called

sustainability movement (embodied most prominently by LEED standards) is more

concerned with how people (through our buildings and landscape) affect nature than

how nature affects people. It'd be good to shift the emphasis of our development to

how we can make our built environments better for human health. (Hafsepstein,

2013) Biophilic design is about creating good habitat for people as a biological

organism in the modern buildings and constructions that advance peoples health,

fitness and wellbeing.

The successful application of biophilic design requires consistently adhering

to a number of basic objectives or principles. These principles represent

fundamental conditions for the effective practice of biophilic design. They

include:
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Biophilic design requires repeated and sustained engagement with

nature.

Biophilic design focuses on human adaptations to the natural world that

over evolutionary time have advanced peoples health and fitness.

Biophilic design emphasizes an emotional attachment to particular

settings and places.

Biophilic design promotes positive interactions between people and

nature that expand our understanding of community to include both

humans and nature.

Biophilic design encourages ecologically connected, mutual reinforcing,

and integrated design solutions.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

A significant challenge facing the juvenile justice system is the task of

transitioning and reintegrating juveniles from youth corrections facilities back into the

community. This challenge, in part, is related to determining whether the referred

community programs are effective. 2 . Community treatment may be relevant at any

of the decision points outlined above.


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Community treatment in juvenile justice refers to a number of interventions

whose main similarity is that they are alternatives to placement in large, secure

institutions, such as detention centers or training schools.2

Good juvenile facility design derives largely from understanding the needs of

those who will use the facility: the young people who reside there and the agencies

responsible for the youth in their care. It is not simply a matter of creating a given amount

of space or a handsome facade. Rather, good design depends on developing space that

is responsive to resident and staff perceptions and behaviors, to the demands of daily

programming, and to the need for safety, security, and positive management at all

times.3

The key areas which must always be examined in a juvenile facility is, the analyses

of needs, safety, security and management priorities, environmental character, daily

programming activities and opportunities, and staffing efficiency. 3

Through the gathered concepts and ideas derived from various authorities and

conversation partners, the researcher came up with the following synthesis for the

problem statements.

The paradigm illustrates the relationship of each input (independent variable)

wherein it undergoes certain processes (intervening variable) that could possibly aid the
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formulation of the output (dependent variable). For the site, its major conditions and

consideration is the site development and site topography study. Space planning,

functioning and programming must be done for the building function while choosing the

appropriate building character and materials for the building aesthetics. For the building

strength, it requires structural durability analyses and proper implementation of building

utilities.

An accessible and properly planned Reformation and Rehabilitation Center with

conducive character could be achieved by using the advantages of the pre-selected site

which meets most of the site criteria and considerations.


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PARADIGM

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

INDEPENDENT INTERVENING
VARIABLE VARIABLE
THE SITE THE SITE
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Accessibility, Proper site
availability of assessment to major
utilities, consideration.
safety,SWOT analysis
SITE DEVELOPMENT
SITE DEVELOPMENT
Site analysis, site
Suitable site requirements for Balay Paglaum: A
planning development, traffic Reformation and
concept,Practical flow Rehabilitation Center
and sustainable
BUILDING FUNCTION for Children-in-Conflict
approach in planning
with the Law.
Space requirements,
BUILDING FUNCTION
Space programming
Compliance on
spaces required by BUILDING
authorities, AESTHETICS
standards, and
findings on research. Interpretation of
design concepts and
BUILDING AESTHETICS
theory in visual
Design Concepts and forms.
Aesthetic Philosophy
STRENGTH
STRENGTH
Structural analysis
Applicable Structural and applying
Design Principles construction
principles.
UTILITY SYSTEMS
FEEDBACK
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DEFINITION OF TERMS

To provide a better understandng regarding the research, the researcher sub-

divided the terms, terms for operational, and architectural. The following terms are

defined:

OPERATIONAL TERMS

RA 9344

An act establishing a comprehensive juvenile justice and welfare system, creating

the juvenile justice and welfare council under the department of justice, appropriating

funds therefor and for other purposes

CHILD

Refers to a person under the age of eighteen (18) years.

JUVENILES

Is a child or young person who is not yet old enough to be regarded as an adult.

CHILD IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW (CICL)

Refers to a child who is alleged as, accused of, or adjudged as, having committed

an offense under Philippine laws.


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CHILD-AT-RISK (CAR)

Refers to a child who is vulnerable to and at the risk of committing criminal

offenses because of personal, family and social circumstances, such as, but not

limited to, the following:

being abused by any person through sexual, physical, psychological, mental,

economic or any other means and the parents or guardian refuse, are unwilling,

or unable to provide protection for the child;

being exploited including sexually or economically;

being abandoned or neglected, and after diligent search and inquiry, the parent

or guardian cannot be found;

coming from a dysfunctional or broken family or without a parent or guardian;

being out of school;

being a streetchild;

being a member of a gang;

living in a community with a high level of criminality or drug abuse; and

living in situations of armed conflict.


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COMMUNITY-BASED PROGRAMS

Refers to the programs provided in a community setting developed for purposes of

intervention and diversion, as well as rehabilitation of the child in conflict with the law,

for reintegration into his/her family and/or community.

INTERVENTION

Refers to a series of activities which are designed to address issues that caused the child

to commit an offense. It may take the form of an individualized treatment program which

may include counseling, skills training, education, and other activities that will enhance

his/her psychological, emotional and psycho-social well-being.

JUVENILE JUSTICE AND WELFARE SYSTEM

Refers to a system dealing with children at risk and children in conflict with the law, which

provides child-appropriate proceedings, including programs and services for prevention,

diversion, rehabilitation, re-integration and aftercare to ensure their normal growth and

development.

YOUTH DETENTION HOME


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Refers to a 24-hour child-caring institution managed by accredited local government

units (LGUs) and licensed and/or accredited nongovernment organizations (NGOs)

providing short-term residential care for children in conflict with the law who are

awaiting court disposition of their cases or transfer to other agencies or jurisdiction.

YOUTH REHABILITATION CENTER

Refers to a 24-hour residential care facility managed by the Department of Social Welfare

and Development (DSWD), LGUs, licensed and/or accredited NGOs monitored by the

DSWD, which provides care, treatment and rehabilitation services for children in conflict

with the law. Rehabilitation services are provided under the guidance of a trained staff

where residents are cared for under a structured therapeutic environment with the end

view of reintegrating them into their families and communities as socially functioning

individuals. Physical mobility of residents of said centers may be restricted pending court

disposition of the charges against them.

REHABILITATION

The action of restoring someone to health or normal life through training and

therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or illness.


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DSWD

DANGEROUS DRUG BOARD

DRUGS

ARCHITECTURAL TERMS

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

The term built environment, or builtworld, refers to the man-made surroundings

that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It

has been defined as "the humanitarian-made space in which people live, work, and

recreate on a day-to-day basis

BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE

Biophilic design emphasizes human adaptations to the natural world that over

evolutionary time have proven instrumental in advancing peoples health, fitness, and

wellbeing. Exposures to nature irrelevant to human productivity and survival exert little

impact on human wellbeing and are not effective instances of biophilic design.

THERAPEUTIC ARCHITECTURE
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COGNITIVE

SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE

Is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by

efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and

the ecosystem at large. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy

and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sometimes termed as sustainable design, it is an approach to design that seeks

to maximize the quality of the built environment while minimizing the impact to the

environment while minimizing the impact to the environment (McLennan, 2004).

BAMBOO
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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The proposal of this study will benefit the community of the Province of Negros

Occidental especially to the youth where juvenile delinquency cases falls. This will help

the current Juvenile Justice System situation improve the system of detentions and

rehabilitations with regards to enhancing the humanity of such individuals, with the aid

of architecture and its conducive built-environment. he compliance of this thesis

proposal can surely help the community in terms of social aspects, economic aspects,

livelihood, and rehabilitation education.

This study may not solve the problems of child development in the Philippines

but will surely be an impetus to develop the system of taking care of juveniles in the

Province of moreover in the country. Using different farming and architectural concepts

will help shape the environment and facilities for the juveniles, a farm and a good

architecture of facilities is an exquisite combination in helping individuals shape their way

of thinking and their way of life.

As an architecture student proposing this kind of project, my efforts in this

research will help the current Child minding system in their ways of rehabilitating these

problems with the youth with the help of my Architectural Design together with farming

and agricultural programs that can help them become more productive branch of our
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society. Moreover, not only that this project will implicate literacy, justice and care, it

shall also demonstrate hope to children and their respective families, that there is always

a way to change our path from darkness towards the light, it only takes the right

environment to nurture it.

To the Government of Negros

The efforts of the researcher pertaining to this thesis proposal can be used as a

reference for future developments with regards to the topics and concepts discussed in

the contents. The solidification of facts, data and programs gathered in this research will

help the concerned branches of the government improve the system of rehabilitating

the children in conflict with law. This will lead to an impetus of change for the population

of youth in the province.

To the Negrosanon Community

This study will make the people of the province be aware of the negative implications of

the wrong influence being contributed by a wrong environment to the cognitive process

of the youth. Restorative justice, with the help of various educational and vocational

programs will surely benefit not only the delinquents but also the families of our

community having problems with the youth with regards to their conduct.
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To the Children-in-Conflict with Law

This research will be supplemental to their proposed rehabilitation. Reintegration

of family, love and care is what they need for them to open their eyes and see the positive

side of living. This proposal is dedicated to them despite their grievances and

misconducts. As a designer, its the researchers job to translate the needs of the users

into architecture.

TO ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS AND OTHER RESEARCHERS

This study will help future researchers who are having identical or related studies

in which they can refer to as guidelines, or make use of the information as indicated

herein. For Architecture students, this study shall become a reference for future plates,

research, homework and other projects, especially on their architectural design thesis

with regards to rehabilitation, residential care, reformation, and the likes.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

This study only puts its scope to the CICL of the Province of Negros

Occidental.With the inspiration from the change of government being undergone by

Pres. Rodigo Roa Duterte, which is Federalism, this integration to help the province will

supplement the movement of federalism to promote the administration within the


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province. Moreover, this research and proposal only limits it sovereignty to juveniles,

which is 13-18 years old, and of male gender only.

This study will be comprehensive only on the planning and aesthetic design of

the built-environment and cognitive implications to the residents and users, although

the researcher has considered reviewing some related Republic Act and other legalities

pertaining to CICL and JJWS, management and operation concerns is out of the

sovereignty of the researchers responsibility, although it will be considered during the

design process.

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

In this study, the researcher predicated the following assumptions:

Qualitative findings such as in-depth interview to focal persons is vital to

the understanding of the needed information rather than quantitative

approaches.

As the present situation shows, the researcher assumes that the Province

of Negros Occidental is in urgent need of a properly planned Youth

Center.
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The pre-selected site given by the Government of the Province is suitable

for this kind of project in terms of soil bearing capacity, force of nature

incidents, and possibility for future expansion.

The materials to be used in this project is locally available.

The researcher assumes that this kind of project is vital for the

preservation of peace in the Province.


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Chapter 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter covers an overview of the methodology used in the study. The

discussion in the chapter is structured around the research design, population and

sampling techniques, research instruments, the validity of research instruments, the

reliability of research instruments, data collection, statistical treatment of data and

ethical considerations. Ethical considerations and measures to provide trustworthiness

are also discussed

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative research focuses in understanding a research query as a humanistic

or idealistic approach. Though quantitative approach is a more reliable method as it is

based upon numeric and methods that can be made objectively and propagated by other

researchers. Qualitative method is used to understand people's beliefs, experiences,

attitudes, behavior, and interactions. It generates non-numerical data. The integration


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of qualitative research into intervention studies is a research strategy that is gaining

increased attention across disciplines.4

RESEARCH DESIGN

Burns and Grove (2013) defined research design as a blueprint for conducting a

study with maximum control over factors that may interfere with the validity of the

findings. Parahoo (1997) describes a research design as a plan that describes how,

when and where data are to be collected and analyzed. Polit (2001) define a research

design as the researchers overall for answering the research question or testing the

research hypothesis.

In this study, the proponent will use the descriptive research method. The

descriptive method of research attempts to systematically describe a situation, problem,

phenomenon, service or program. It provides information on the living condition of a

community, or describes attitudes towards an issue.

The descriptive research approach is a primary research method that examines

the situation, as it exists in its current state. Descriptive research involves identification

of attributes of particular phenomenon based on an observational basis, or the

exploration of correlation between two or more phenomena (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001).
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

Descriptive research refers to research studies that have as their primary

objective the accurate portrayal of the characteristics of persons, situations or

The researcher chooses this type of research method in order to collect

consistent and accurate information and data that leads to feasible and suitable design

solutions to the problem. This kind of investigation method is the most appropriate and

fits to answer the six areas of concern.

Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative

or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often

within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research

question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive

statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. (The

Handbook Research for Communications and Technology).

The research study deals with the areas related to architectural design about the site,

site development, building function, building aesthetics, building strength and durability

as well as building engineering and utility systems.


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Non-Probability Sampling

The respondents in the study cannot be determined in figure, moreover

that researcher seeks to acquire qualitative data and information. The researcher

will use Non-probability Sampling in contrast with probability sampling, non-

probability sample is not a product of a randomized selection processes. Subjects

in a non-probability sample are usually selected on the basis of their accessibility

or by the purposive personal judgment of the researcher.

Based on the nature of the research framework, Purposive type of Non-

Probability Sampling was applied, where the researcher chooses a sample based

on their knowledge about the population and the study itself. The study

participants are chosen based on the studys purpose.

Research Locale

The study is conducted in the Province of Negros Occidental, and the City of Bacolod,

therefore all data and facts will be gathered in government agencies that are in the

sovereignty of the province. Various interviews and data gathering were conducted in

the Provincial Social Welfare Development Office (PSWDO), Social Development Center

(SDC), Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), Provincial Planning and
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

Development Offoce (PPDO), Provincial Engineers Office (PEO), Negros Occidental

Provincial Police Office (NOPPO) and other government agencies and centers that has

concerns with the proposal.

Also the researcher consults to some NGOs that are accountable to this kind of project,

their experiences and know-hows are crucial for the development of the said proposal,

furthermore, these NGOs has satellite offices that can be found in the province.

SOURCES OF DATA

Primary Data

Primary data are information, facts, or resources which can be collected from the

field under control and supervision. These data can be gathered from conversation

partners using focus group discussions, individual depth interview, observations, and etc.

Conversation partners will be qualified through a criteria of inclusion formulated.

o Inclusion Criteria

The sample is a subset of population selected to participate in a research

study. It defines the selected groups of elements, that is, individuals, groups or

organizations. The sample is chosen from the study population that is commonly

referred to as the target population or accessible population. (Burns & Grove

2003)
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

The participants that were chosen met the eligibility criteria set for the study. Eligibility

criteria are the reason or criteria for including the sample in the study (Polit & Hungler

2004).

The respondent should be a:

Licensed Professional on concerned Architect, Registered Social Workers,

fields Psychologists, Agriculturists

Government Employee/Personnel Rehabilitation Personnel, House-

from the province that have worked parents, Staffs

on a center or the like.

Knowledgeable of Children-in-Conflict Focal Person, DSWD Officers, NGO

with the law. Representatives

o Conversation Partners

The researcher determined several conversation partners that are vital to the

discovery of facts, and are gatekeepers of information. These people are the respondents

which can help the researcher achieve the aspired output. For the credibility and
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dependability of the feedbacks of these conversation partners, criteria for inclusion will

be formulated by the researcher.

Mr. Narciso Pagunsan Abad III, RSW Focal Person CICL, PSWDO

Mr. Paolo Sajo, RSW- Social Worker, Social Devt Center Bacolod

Ms. Leah Pilipina Canayon, RSW- SWO I, Child & Youth Welfare Program CSWDO,

Bago City

PINSP. Erica Apellido- WCPD Officer

Mr. Wendy Castro, RSW- Director, Social Devt Center, Bacolod City

Ar. Levi John Cayayan, UAP- Architect III, Provl Engrs Office

Ms. Jeni San Lazarito, RSW- Director Bahay Pag-asa La Salle

Ms. Dina Genzola- Provincial Senior Agriculturist

Secondary Data

Secondary data are gathered or recorded facts or information by someone else prior to

and for a purpose other than the current project. These are data collected by other

concerned branches for different purposes, which are still essential to the study.

Examples of these data are news, data from periodicals, journals, magazines, books,

libraries, internet, and other external sources.


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

Research Instruments

Each major area in this architectural research was given an area of investigation

as to the topic indicators for data gathering. Major areas and their respective medium of

instruments should correlate to their functions.

The following methods/instruments will also be used in gathering necessary data

for the study:

Documents/Photos: The researcher will seek documents, presentations and

statistical data from existing government agencies with sovereignty to the topic

concerned.

Data were gathered from PSWD (Provincial Social Welfare Development), SDC

(Social Development Center) , PNP and other concerned agencies.

Questionnaire:

One of the most traditional ways of conducting a scholarly research study. They

provide a convenient way of collecting information from a target population. (Walonick,

1993).The researcher utilizes a questionnaire presented with questions pertaining to

important statements and facts that are crucial to the study. It is composed of several

questions on a paper related to the study with corresponding space provided for the
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

response to each of the questions given intended for submission to some persons for

the reply. The research will have these questionnaires validated first by statisticians or

master degree holders. It will then be distributed to the respondents of the said study.

Library Research:

The researcher gathered data that were taken from books, internet sources, and

other media that are related to the study. There are some previous studies of some

famous authors, architects, and other related people whose concepts are very much

helpful and related to the study. Government laws, amendments, rules and regulations,

and other systematic guidelines was observed to ensure legality.

Observation:

Naturalistic observation, involves studying the spontaneous behavior of CICL in

natural surroundings. The researcher tallies the factors that are contributors to the

reformation being undergone by the delinquents. Using naturalistic observation, the

researcher only records what they see in whatever they can, (Saul McLeod, 2015)

The researcher will adopt the usage of naturalistic observation as the focal part

of data gathering in the study, since it deals with confidential information and people.

This tool is very much applicable to the study.


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Facility Survey: The researcher utilized a self-made facility survey form, in order

to evaluate the present facilities that can be found on youth centers and

rehabilitation centers that can be found in the province. The researcher aims to

use the facility survey to improve the facilities for future implementation.

VALIDITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Validity and Reliability of Interview Materials

Interview Questionnaires

In order to ensure effectiveness in the gathering of data needed in the research,

the instruments that will be used by the researcher in conducting the study should be

reliable and valid. WEBSTER DICTIONARY (1980) defines reliability as the state of being

reliable, hence, that may be relied or depended upon, and it is the degree of being

precise and consistent. The credibility and dependability of the interview materials are

refined through an interview protocol refinement checklist, validated by professionals

with masters degrees.

Interview Questions

The questions stated in the interview questionnaires underwent Content Validity

Ratio to ensure that the questions being asked is related and in line to the primary

purpose of this study, to provide an architectural solution to the statement of the


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problem. The researcher conducted dry-runs and mock interview to the Subject Matter

Experts, which are the Architects. The questions are evaluated and thoroughly refined in

order to satisfy the architectural solutions that are being sought.

The following are the Subject Matter Experts:

Ar. Levi John Cayayan UAP Architect III, Provincial Engrs Office

Ar. Roberto Aguillon UAP- AB Designs, MS Arch

Ar. Nelson Nessia Jr. UAP- Nessia & Associates

Ar. Alvin Samodal UAP

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES

This part of the study includes the details on how the data is being collected. The

procedure was a specific way of doing the data gathering that focuses more on what is

needed in the study. Since the identified research methods involved in-depth interview,

observations, library and online research, documentary reviews and the likes. Each of

these procedures were used according to their use and natures.

The researcher first sought guidance to the Provincial Engrs Office to get data

about the site and its corresponding maps. Letters were written and sent out pertaining

to the aim of the research and the thesis proposal and be able to request guidance and

assistance in obtaining the needed data. Also the researcher conducted in-depth
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

interviews to specific focal persons that has the utmost knowledge of the subject matters

being discussed.

During the observation and site visitation, the researcher made an ocular

inspection in the site with the guidance of the Provincial Engrs Office and the Office of

the Provincial Agriculturist.

The researcher identified several conversation partners for the study that are

very essential for the acquisition of needed knowledges. The researcher made a set of

inclusion criteria in order to make sure that the conversation partners were legible and

reliable partners.

In the course of the composition of the interview questions, the researcher

undergone the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and the Interview Protocol Refinement (IPR

Framework) as a guideline to help the researcher obtain the needed specific set of

wisdom and data.

Interview Protocol Refinement

The Interview Protocol Refinement (IPR) framework consists of a four-phase

process. The four-phase process includes: (1) Ensuring interview questions align with the

research questions, (2) constructing an inquiry-based conversations, (3) receiving

feedback on interview protocols, and (4) piloting the interview protocol. The IRP method
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT

can support efforts to strengthen the reliability of interview protocols used for

qualitative research and thereby contribute to improving the quality of data obtained

from research interviews.

In-depth Interview

An in-depth interview is a conversation with an individual conducted by trained staff

that usually collects specific information about one person.


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 44

Chapter 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this chapter the results of the data analysis are presented. The data were

collected and then processed in response to the problems posed in Chapter 1 of this

study. Two fundamental goals drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data

analysis. Those goals were to develop a base of knowledge about how existing centers

and reformation programs work in terms of management and operation, and to what

possible architectural hypotheses can contribute to the problems presented. The data

gathered from interviews using themes, observations, library/internet research, and

legal documents were analyzed according to usage in order to help in the formulation of

results.

The first section presents the demographic information pertaining the primary
occupants of the proposal, the number of cases of Children-in-Conflict with the Law. The
second section presents the qualitative findings gathered after a meticulous data analysis
and explication from conducted interviews.
Demographic Data
The data was obtained as a secondary data, collected from the Provincial Social
Welfare Development Office. The data conveys general demographic characteristics of
the number of cases served by LGUs in the province. Results from the 31 municipalities
and cities in the Province were obtained (see table 3.1)
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 45

City/Municipality Male Female Total

1. Don Salvador Benedicto 6 0 6


2. San Carlos City 35 5 40
3. Calatrava - - -
4. Toboso 11 0 11
5. Escalante City 14 1 15
6. Sagay City 8 0 8
7. Cadiz City 35 2 37
8. Manapla 8 1 9
9. Victorias City 48 11 59
10. E.B. Magalona 13 0 13
11. Silay City 20 20 22
12. Talisay City 53 4 57
13. Murcia 5 2 7
14. Bago City 40 0 40
15. Pulupandan 2 0 2
16. Valladolid 26 0 26
17. San Enrique 7 0 7
18. La Carlota City 3 0 3
19. Pontevedra 3 0 3
20. Hinigaran 41 1 42
21. Binalbagan - - -
22. Himamaylan City 10 1 11
23. Isabela 14 1 15
24. Moises Padilla 6 0 6
25. La Castellana 24 0 24
26. Kabankalan City 13 3 16
27. Ilog 14 1 15
28. Candoni 3 0 3
29. Cauayan 4 0 4
30. Sipalay City 27 4 31
31. Hinobaan 15 1 16
TOTAL 508 40 548
TOTAL 508 40 548
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 46

QUALITATIVE FINDINGS

Qualitative Data Analysis is the range of processes and procedures whereby we

examine words, phrases and sentences collected and to provide some form of

explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are

investigating. (Compte, 2000) After several data analysis and explication, there were _

essential themes that emerged to be the concern of the respondents. Each theme was

elaborated by the statements of the conversational partners and is supported by related

literatures pertaining to the said theme.

Interview

The interview statements were gathered from three (3) sets of conversation

partners (CP); CP for the Management & Operations, which are the Social Workers,

Psychologists, Directors, DSWD Focal Persons. CP for the Architectural Design and

Development, which are the Architects, Agriculturists, Environmental Planners. CP for

the Personal experiences and observations, which are Focus-grouped CICL residents,

staffs, and personnel.


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Management and Operations- For improvement of the Facilitys Circulation and Built-

Environment

Human Psychology and Architecture

Human psychology is directly related with architecture. Appropriate use of

various architectural components has the capacity of enlightening the atmosphere

whereas inappropriate use does the opposite. The building forms, the functions

incorporated in it, colors, negative and positive spaces in and around it may be the few

points but architecture is directly attached with human psychology from conscious to

subconscious level. (Archijanu, 2011)

Some of the components of architecture which affects human psychology are

building form, positive and negative spaces, colors, open spaces, openings, lighting,

acoustics, Green techniques, and landscapes.

Architectural Psychology can be described as a branch of environmental or

ecological psychology. It is the interaction between human and their environment. This

includes spatial perception, orientation behavior, living requirement and satisfaction.

The architecture provides a sense of space and support to all type of human activities if

used appropriately and it provides firmness, service, and delight. Architectural

psychology is an important multidisciplinary field, bridging traditional psychology,


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engineering, architecture, domestic planning, and much more to assist people to design

buildings and living spaces for better occupation. By understanding more about how

people experience the built form, one can further take a more occupant-centered

approach towards designing and engineering, which will lead to more truly innovative

architectural designs. (Janetius, S.T. 2016)

Mr. Paulo Sajo, RSW, Social Devt Center Bacolod stated in an interview, dapat ang
design sang surroundings kag sang facility ma bulig divert sa energy sang mga CICLs. Ang
design sang facilities mo kag sang environment dapat conducive sya sa change, not only
sa mga kabataan, kundi sa mga staffs pa gid nga ga bulig sa mga kabataan. Tanawa bala
di sa amon, (SDC) maski papano lang di ang gawi nila ti ako mismo mahambal ko
budlayan na di sila magbag-o (The design of the surroundings and the facility must aid
in diverting the energy of the CICLs. The Design of the facilities and the built environment
must be conducive towards change, not only to the youth, but also to the staffs that are
the one helping the children. In our present situation, I can say that change and hope is
difficult to achieve, because the facility do not imply good habits.)
Arch. Majekodunmi, who is the Chairman of the Students Affairs Committee of the

Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA), noted that each building type has different

functions, and for each, there is an imperative to use the building to help create an

optimal mood, desire or sense of coherence, security or meaning. He said, Architecture

does influence human behavior in many ways. This is true whether the environment is

natural or man-made. Understanding the way in which environments affect people could

enable the design and construction work, recreation and living space that have the ability

to influence peoples behavior.


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The psychologist Joan Meyers-Levy, at the Carlson School of Management, conducted an

interesting experiment that examined the relationship between ceiling height and

thinking style. She demonstrated that, when people are in a low-ceilinged room, they are

much quicker at solving anagrams involving confinement, such as "bound," "restrained"

and "restricted." In contrast, people in high-ceilinged rooms excel at puzzles in which the

answer touches on the theme of freedom, such as "liberated" and "unlimited." According

to Levy, this is because airy spaces prime us to feel free.

Relating to the findings said above, the researcher could imply that architecture is a tool

to supplement the rehabilitation and reformation programs backboned by the DSWD

and NGOs. Architecture can help dictate how will the occupants move and behave. By

the use of different elements in architecture affecting the psychological aspects, the

research could come up with a synthesis pertaining to a sound architectural design.

A Homely Environment

The role of the built environment in behavior control has long been recognized

by environmental psychologists and environment behavior studies. This is because the

built environment can support or inhibit human change (Wener, 2012).

A rehabilitative built environment for juveniles should create the conditions that

will engage the inmates and promote the development of positive attitudes and
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 50

behaviors. In addition to provision of facilities, utilities, and functional built environment,

it should have a soothing image and the appropriate sensual characteristics. While many

studies have focused on the built environment in urban and rural settings and their effect

on juvenile delinquency, it is important to examine the built environment within the

rehabilitation centers, especially from the perspective of the young offenders

themselves. (Schubert and Mulvey, 2013) highlighted the importance of seeing the

environment of juvenile institutions through the eyes of the adolescents confined there.

Their perceptions and attitudes should matter if the goal is truly their reformation.

Creating a safe environment should be the primary focus of formal principles that

set the tone for how youth and staff are treated in the facility. The first principle, for

example, might be a statement about shared responsibility for maintaining a safe and

supportive environment; a process for informing staff and youth of the principles; and a

process for addressing violations of the principles. In addition, there should be a values

statement specifying that all individuals must be treated with respect; that no

harassment or abuse of any kind will be tolerated; and that youth will not be subjected

to categorical treatment based on actual or perceived race, ethnic group identification,

national origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, mental or physical

disability, or HIV status. (Burrell,S. 2013)


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In an interview with Mr. Wendy Castro, Director of SDC Bacolod, he stated, balo ka noy,
kalabanan sa mga kabataan nga mga CICL, they came from bad family backgrounds,
wala sila bala mayo na tudluan, ang iban mismo wala nagdako nga may amay kag iloy.
Amo na nga naging susceptible sila sa mga bad influences kay wala man sang may ma
guide sa ila. Amo na tani nga ang centers, ang ma serve as refuge home nila, dapat ang
ila nga environment di, may pag alaga sang pamilya, amo na nga may mga houseparents
kita diri, pero dapat mismo ang ila palibot daw mayo man nga panimalay eh, in order for
change to be effective, there must be a change of scenery... (Most of these CICLs, they
came from bad family backgrounds, they werent taught well, most of them didnt have
parents to raise them well. Thats why they are susceptible to bad influences, because
theres no one to guide them properly. Thats why centers should serve as their refuge
home and their environment must have the atmosphere of a family care, thats why we
have house-parents here, but their surroundings should also exhibit homely environment,
because in order for change to be effective, there must be a change of scenery.)
Mr. Paulo Sajo, Social Worker of SDC Bacolod added, isa gid sa importante nga
maka affect sa reformation sang isa ka CICL wala labot sa intervention programs ka
DSWD is ang iya palibot, ang iya environment kag surroundings. They are just children pa
lang mo may quote gani nga Youth is a moment and condition of life when a person may
be most susceptible to influence. Kay ang mga bata nga ini, kung na guide-an lang ni sila
mayo sang ila mga parents sa ila pagdako, hindi ni mag abot sa punto nga ma ngita sila
bad influences especially sa mga slums. Numero uno gid nga factor ina sa ila cognitive
development, ang pag aruga sang isa ka pamilya, kag ang ginatawag nga panimalay...
(One of the most important factor that can affect the reformation process of a CICL,
besides the intervention programs of DSWD, is their environment and surroundings. They
are all just children, there is a quote Youth is a moment and condition of life when a
person may be most susceptible to influence. These children if only they were guided
properly by their parents during their growing years, it will not come to this point that
they will seek the bad influences especially in the slums. That is the number one factor in
their cognitive development, the care of a family, and the thing we call home.)
It also affects cognitive behaviors of an individual, and and understanding about

this relationship can help to determine and predict the activity and behavior of its users

(Cummings, 2012). Positive behavioral interventions seek to prevent juveniles from


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 52

engaging in negative behaviors by changing the environment in which the behaviors

occur (Duda and Utley, 2005).

A homely-environment is and evidence-based observation that considers the perception

and feelings of the user. Applying this concept to a rehabilitation facility not only impacts

its effectiveness but also promotes its image.

Security, Safety and Peace

The character of the built environment in juvenile rehabilitation centers should

play both a conducive and restrictive role (Cummings, 2012). While supervision and

security is essential in juvenile rehabilitation centers, an effective design of the built

environment should maximize freedom, mobility and flexibility (Marmot, 2002).

Territory refers to private and public spaces. Territory is established by

establishing tangible distinctions between spaces. Distinctions can be made using

textural changes in pavements of walls, elevation changes (a step up or down), barriers

such as walls or fences, visual barriers such as low fences or shrubs, or psychological

barriers such as consistent neighborhood organization or themes.

Access refers to providing and restricting access; in short, control. Blocking off

streets is sometimes helpful, but it is usually not the preferred method. Through streets

are preferable because they provide necessary access for pedestrians and vehicles. In
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addition, blocked streets are considered more threatening, and residents may not want

to project that image of their neighborhood. (Russ, 2002)

Mr. Paulo Sajo, Social Worker of SDC Bacolod stated that, in terms of security, which is
importante katama, sad to say pero pigaw gid ang security kag peacekeeping di namon,
were having a hard time na i-contain ang ila nga mga giho, problema gid namon damo
di pirmi may gapalagyo, kag kis-a may cases man gakadakpan sila may deadly weapon
sila, because may access sila japon sa gwa, kay ang amon nga facility daw ka open lang,
dapat siguro sa imo design implement mo gid ang restriction sang ila movements, pero
panumdomon mo man nga dapat hindi daw presohan ang imo environment. Exhibit mo
man ang surveillance na gina tawag, kay para maka contribute sa safety and
precaution... ( In terms of security, which is very important, its sad to say but our security
and peacekeeping do not meet the optimum, were having hard time in containing their
movements. We have problems of absconds here, and in some cases some are caught
with deadly weapon, because they still have access in the outside, the reason is because
our facility is still open to outside contact. You must implement in your design the
restriction of movements, but always keep in mind that the environment must not look
like a prison. You must also exhibit surveillance, in order to promote safety and
precaution.)
Ar. Levi John Cayayan, Provincial Architect III said that, Consider mo gid ya kung paano
mo ma promote ang homely environment, nga mga restrain mo tuod ang ila movements,
pero hindi dapat nila ma feel nga na constraint sila, promote mo ang freedom of
movement without sacrificing security and order. Use buffers and plantings, para not only
ma ka provide wayfinding kag restrictions sang access, maka bulig ka pa sa reduction
sang noise and site albedo. (You must consider how wil you promote a homely
environment, that you can restrain their movements, while not letting them feel that they
are being constrained. Promote freedom of movement without sacrificing security and
order. Use buffers and plantings, not only to provide wayfinding and restriction of access,
but also to help in reduction of noise and site albedo.)

The challenge to the designer to protect the site from intruders in a fashion that

is more than simply hardening the facility. New facilities that might be the target of such
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 54

attacks should incorporate security into the most basic design considerations. (Russ,

2002)

Surveillance refers to seeing and being seen. The suggestion of surveillance can

be made simply by opening more windows and doors onto the street so that people are

seen as both the observers and the observed. Points of congregation such as playgrounds

and porches encourage residents to see and be seen, increasing the degree of visible

surveillance in a neighborhood. While lighting is important, the sense that there are eyes

on the street is more likely than lighting to be a deterrent to unwanted activity. (Russ,

2002)

The researcher can conclude using the statements and literatures stated above

that, security and peacekeeping can be obtained while preserving the visual comfort

intended for the reformation of the occupants or users. Implementation of surveillance

systems can greatly contribute to the safety and precautionary measures of the

operations in the site.


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Current Issues and Difficulties

It also affects cognitive behaviours of an individual, and an understanding about this

relationship can help to determine and predict the activity and behavior of its users

(Cummings, 2012). Positive behavioral interventions seek to prevent juveniles from

engaging in negative behaviors by changing the environment in which the behaviors

occur (Duda and Utley, 2005).

Most of the architectural psychology books agreed on certain architectural elements that

seem to affect behavior. These elements are: lighting, colors, and enclosure of the space,

outdoor-indoor relationships, privacy, and semiotics. (Vargas, 1998)

Ms. Jeni San Lazarito, Director of Bahay Pag-asa stated that, the first thing nga
gina consider namon nga difficulty, is kung paano namon ma butang ang first impression
sa CICL nga mag stay sya kag mag undergo sang intervention program. We consider it as
important as his basic needs, that he must have the preference to stay and discover what
is right by himself, with our guidance and care. Another one nga gusto ko makita tungod
importante gid, is the development of the areas intended for educational and
recreational, these areas are vital for their well-being. Kag as of now, ang aton existing
amenities isnt that conducive to change at all. For me, I can fundamentally say that the
criteria for a good center, is if it has the mental, spiritual, physical, social, and emotional
wellness exhibited in the built-environment... (The first thing that we consider as a
difficutly, is on how we will put a first impression on the CICL for him to stay and undergo
the intervention program. We consider it as important as his basic needs, that he must
have the preference to stay and discover what is right by himself, with our guidance and
care. Another one that I want to see because its important, is the development of the
areas intended for educational and recreational activities, these areas are vital for their
well-being. And as of now, our existing amenities isnt that conducive to change at all. .
For me, I can fundamentally say that the criteria for a good center, is if it has the mental,
spiritual, physical, social, and emotional wellness exhibited in the built-environment)
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 56

Mr. Paulo Sajo of SDC Bacolod also added that, Another issue is about the staffing
efficiency, another thing that is important as the CICLs are the staffs. The staffs are the
ones who will act as house parents of these youth. In our present condition, hindi ko
makita mismo nga efficient ang ila workforce, because they dont have the right
surrounding to promote their working efficiency, believer gid ako ya nga ang imo palibot
ga influence gid on how you will do your responsibilities and chores. Dapat ang built-
environment mismo ang mga lead sa residents/users sa ginatawag nga social interaction.
If nami ang built-environment, mas ga encourage sya autonomy kag good relationship
between the CICL and the staffs. (Another issue is about the staffing efficiency, another
thing that is important as the CICLs are the staffs. The staffs are the ones who will act as
house parents of these youth. In our present condition, I cant see the efficiency in their
workforce, because they dont have the right surroundings to promote their working
efficiency, I am a believer that the surrounding influences you on how will you do your
responsibilities and chores. The built-environment must lead the residents/users on the
thing that we call social interaction. If the built-environment is nice, it will encourage
autonomy and good relationship between the CICL and the staffs.)
Residential facilities for youthful offenders typically feature higher staffing ratios

than those of adult facilities. This is essential for purposes of managing youth directly

and engaging in purposeful interaction. It is especially important when effective

intervention and redirection of behavior is a priority. Staffing levels of one staff per eight

to twelve residents in housing areas are fairly typical in juvenile facilities. In larger units,

more than one direct care staff person is usually assigned to promote safety and

appropriate interaction with residents. (Atlas, 2000)

Planning and designing a building that works well, that fulfills the needs of all

those who will use it, requires a comprehensive understanding of all the operational

goals envisioned for the facility. In the case of secure residential facilities for youth, It

further demands a clear understanding of the activities that will take place throughout
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 57

the day, the way residents will move through the building, and the space required to

support all programs and services. (McMillen, 2000)

With the findings said above, the researcher implies that the consideration of the

existing issues and difficulties gathered from personal experiences is vital in the

formulation of a new and improved design solution. As an insight, the researcher can say

that the facility shall not only be planned for the CICL alone, but also for all the users that

will inhibit the project, in order to promote autonomy and social interaction.

OBSERVATION

In order to determine the conditions that may contribute to new features or

pose challenges to the proposed redevelopment, ocular inspection and observation of

certain site elements were undertaken. Site conditions and the neighboring areas were

gauged as to suitability in terms of vehicular and pedestrian access, availability of utilities,

peace and order situation, and access to the citys emergency facilities. The neighboring

buildings were also observed and the major city landmarks determined.

o Site Development

The proposed location of the said proposal is pre-selected. The site is owned by the

Province of Negros Occidental and has a magnitude of ________ square meters. The

present status of the site is a rice field. It is located across the Abuanan-Sum-ag road
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 58

adjacent to Negros Occidental District Jail. With two roads for accessibility, it also

provides a vast space for landscaping, plantation, farming developments, future

development on the site, and also to eliminate congestion to public.

The Site- Existing Rice Field

o Site Analysis

The site intended for the proposed Balay Paglaum must be analyzed with

regards to the following concerns:

Accessibility The site is connected to a major road. The site is very secluded

which is good for an institutional, residential and health-care facility.


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The site is very accessible as it is connected to a minor road connected from a

reformation facilities. Also the site is accessible by means of transportation passing by in

the road networks.

Road Networks

The site is bounded by two (2) roads which is the Abuanan-Sum-ag road, going to Brgy.

Abuanan and the other is the road going to Prk. Province.

Distance

Transportation System

Public Transportation is present in the site in the form of tricycle and double tire

(coaster). It is 10 km away from Bacolod City.

Private Transportation is also applicable, it will only take less or more than 20 minutes

ETA from Bacolod City.

o Utilities system

Water Supply

The water supply will be supplied from Bacolod City Water District (BACIWA); water line

will be from Brgy. Tangub, also other water source will be from a deep well.
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 60

Power Supply

There is an existing power supply within the site. The power supply is supplied by Central

Negros Electric Cooperative, Inc. (CENECO). However in case of power failure, the Balay

Paglaum will also need of a generator to supply the needs of the facilities.

Sewage System

There are existing drainage systems within the site to help control the flow of water

during rainy seasons.

Communication Systems

The site can easily access on Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) for the

communication system, also other options will be walkie-talkie and inter-

communication.

o Safety, Peace and Order Situation

The site is known to be safe and serene, away from urban noise and pollution. Adjacent

to the site is the Provincial Jail which is already a police-vicinity precaution. There are no

hazards and noise pollution present in the area since it is an agricultural area and located

in the suburbs giving it a stress-free surrounding. No accidents or crime have been


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 61

reported in the site. The police force from the nearby Provincial Jail can aid the

supervision of the area especially from people residing near the site.

Building Function

Based on the researchers observation on existing facilities and the like,

rehabilitation, reformation and social development centers were planned in a way that

the circulation areas of the residents are visible to the employees or personnel of the

facilities. They do all have an open area where resident children can do their activities

and sports engagements. They also have chapels to serve the spiritual healing of the

children.

In planning and programming the rehabilitation and reformation center, the

researcher should consider the movement and activities inside it to create a functional

institution conducive to change and learning.

o Flow and Protocol

When the CICL has been admitted to the center by the respective authorities,

they will be delivered from the vehicle sally port, going to the main grounds of the

counseling room with the psychologist or social worker that has been assigned to the
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 62

CICL. The CICL will undergo several orientation and evaluation tests, depending on his

type and gravity of offense. Its either the CICL will go to physical check-up, medical

diagnosis, psychiatric examination and etc. As soon as the CICL left the counseling room,

the family or the acting guardian will take over the room for they will also be oriented

and counseled by the psychologist and social workers. Furthermore, the activities and

intervention programs intended for the CICL is up to the management.

o Security

As per visitation to existing centers for youth, the researcher has observed that

there were no any police visible in the campus, there were only security guards and

house prefects. The site is enclosed by a perimeter fence, and all the structures and

spaces were planned to face the open space, to promote surveillance and control at the

center.

Building Strength and Durability

The use of concrete is a very evident material being used to institutional

buildings. Other materials include glass, aluminum cladding, galvanized iron, bamboo,

timber, etc. Several major factors are involved in the structural design of the facility:

Properties of concrete

Supporting strength of the subgrade or sub-based grade combination.


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Building Utilities

Electrical and water system must be applied to the site. Sewage systems must

also be put into consideration. Good and high-speed communication systems, inter-

communication systems must also be present on the site in order to improve its

efficiency.

LIBRARY AND INTERNET RESEARCH

Site Analysis

In many respects site analysis is the most important step in the successful site

design process. The purposes of the preliminary site analysis are to gather data for

preliminary planning, evaluate the site for compatibility with the proposed project or

use, recognize concerns requiring additional study, and form an understanding of the

administrative requirements of the project such as building permits and approvals. The

value of an analysis is in its clear and complete identification of issues and the character

of the site as they relate to a proposed use. (Russ, 2002)

o Location

The first consideration of the site analysis is to locate the site. Site location entails

more than simply locating the site on a map. Location in this sense is referring to the

site in terms of the projects relationship to the community.


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o Site Analysis Checklist, Administrative Issues

Site Condition:

Developed existing buildings or structures


Former uses
Known site conditions
Character and/or condition of existing roads
Points of access and egress (approximate site distances)
Expected road improvements
Visibility into and out of site
Security considerations
Neighboring property uses
Existing rights of way or easements on property
Other encumbrances (condominium or community association?)

SITE DEVELOPMENT

o Cluster Planning

A.F. Cuthbert Salmon, AIA, and Christine F. Salmon, AIA

A rehabilitation center has several areas. These include medical area, social

adjustment area, and vocational or training area. Residential Treatment and

Rehabilitation Center.

o Sustainable Site Planning

Sustainable Site Design, Development Plan and Land Use Planning McDonald-King ,2005)
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Sustainable site design is one of the most economical and critical tools for

incorporating green infrastructure into development projects. Specifically, sustainable

design incorporates:

Stream buffers
Bioswales
Rain Gardens
Reduced Hard Surfaces
Low Impact Development
Network of Green Spaces
Prevent Flash Floods
Storage and Treatment of Stormwater Runoff
Minimize Impervious Surface and Direct Runoff Connections

o Minimize Impervious Surface and Direct Connections

Substitute pervious pavements when repairing or replacing


curb,gutter and sidewalk sections.
Eliminate unnecessary or rarely used parking areas and replace with
vegetation.
Allow minimal on-site parking where adequate on-street parking is
available nearby.
Allow and encourage green roof technologies to increase open space
for building tenants while decreasing runoff.
Disconnect downspouts from collection systems or connect to storage
systems.
Use pervious pavements with infiltration capacity in parking areas and
driveways.
Allow shared driveways
Cluster homes
Use pervious pavements in low traffic areas
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o Maximize Infiltration and Reuse

Apply distributed storage in the right of way using bioretention in


place of elevated landscapes.
Connect treatment practices in a stormwater treatment train when
possible.
Create distributed pocket parks in vacant or abandoned properties to
manage overflows from water quality stormwater control measures.
Use rain barrels, storage tanks orcisterns where possible to harvest
rainwater for reuse.

o Maximize native plantings, favoring hardy species. Plantings can increase the

aesthetic value of communities, and also manage stormwater.

Favor shade trees over ornamentals where possible to help reduce


heat island effects and increase carbon sequestering. Trees also
provide the greatest water uptake.
Consider root patterns that may affect adjacent pavements.
Provide adequate structural or other planting soil to support the
mature tree size.
Select deep rooted herbaceous species and favor perennilas over
annuals to decrease watering needs and seasonal replanting.

Building Function

Residential Treatment and Rehabilitation Center

Time-saver Standards for Building Types ,F. Cuthbert Salmon, AIA, and Christine F,

Salmon, AIA
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The center shall have at least four hundred (400) square meters for 30 patients for the

following:

Registration area/waiting area/reception


Counseling/testing room
Administrative office/Directors Office(with secured storage files)
Emergency Clinic- must be located near the area where center personnel are on
duty.
Living quarters, separate rooms for male and female
Toilet/Bath/Lavatory- One for every ten patients
Multi-purpose area/recreational area
Dining Area
Kitchen Area with Provision for security/ lock of all sharp objects
Area for outdoor activity

Whole Building Design Guide Youth Centers

Typical Youth Center activity spaces include the following:


Control desk/check-in
Commons/game room
Snack bar
Activity rooms/classrooms
Multipurpose room/gymnasium
Computer room
Teen room and
Outdoor activity areas.
Typical Youth Center support spaces include the following:
Administrative office space
Toilets and janitor facilities
Kitchen and
Mechanical/electrical/communications space
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Create a Homelike Environment

While meeting the durability requirements for a public facility, the finishes,
furnishings, fixtures, and equipment in Youth Centers should be comfortable and
have a homelike quality:
Provide ample natural light
Provide a sense of welcome and arrival at the entrance, lobby, and control desk
Use residential-style doors and windows
Use indirect lighting as main ambient lighting, and
Avoid institutional, unnatural finishes, textures, and colors.
Encourage Creativity

Part of the facility's mission is to encourage creative development. The project


development process and final design can help accomplish this in several ways:
Carefully consider interior colors and textures. Design the Youth Center to
communicate a sense of fun, but use restraint (e.g., neutral tones for
backgrounds and ceilings, with warm colors for accents). Consider wall murals in
some common areas.
Particularly for the teen room, consider guiding a teen focus group to select an
interior color scheme
Provide space and consider various techniques to display and celebrate youth
artwork, and
Design display areas to be easily changed and updated, minimize permanent
graphics.

Encourage Autonomy

Youth centers are not schools. While supervision must be maintained at all times, the

design should accommodate autonomy in the unstructured activity areas. The youth

patrons should have independent access to the following:


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 69

Snack bar and toilets


Games, computers, and TV
Friends and companions, and
Quiet space for solitude

Include Appropriate Space for Staff

Provide space to assist staff in developing and maintaining the center's programs and

business. Outside of normal day-to-day operations, staff must be able to accomplish the

following:

Think and plan


Meet and communicate
Host visitors, and
Store equipment and records.

Maintain a safe and healthy environment

Design the facility to accommodate equipment and operational strategies to both

protect the youth and maintain a healthy environment. Consider the following critical

elements:

Prevent unauthorized access by potentially dangerous personnel


Provide visual access to all spaces to monitor potential child abuse situations
Provide easily-cleaned finishes
Use non-toxic building materials and improved maintenance practices
Ensure good indoor air quality and abundant natural light, and
Ensure that equipment, furnishings, and finishes do not contain asbestos or lead.
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Whole Building Design Guide- Continuous Child Care Facility

Space Types and Building Organization

CCCF facility spaces are intended to emulate typical residential spaces. Administrative

space is minimal

Foyer. Primary facility entry and check-in, should allow entering children to view
other children in living and play rooms.
Living room. Gathering and quiet social activity area
Play room. Gathering and play area with a variety of structured activity subareas
Dining room. Family-style dining area for all children, also accommodating table-
based activities such as crafts and homework
Kitchen. Full-service, residential-style kitchen
Crib/infant room. Sleeping space and infant activity area, including diaper
changing facilities
Bedrooms. Separate rooms for boys and girls
Child toilets. These may be unisex facilities and/or gender-specific facilities and
include child-sized fixtures and a bath/shower.
Staff den / office
Staff toilet
Laundry
Spaces are organized to achieve the key goals of supervising the children,

maintaining a home-like setting, and providing ample space for active play. Explore

opportunities to dual-use circulation space as additional activity area for children: To the

degree possible, open areas should easily flow from one to the other in order to

maximize gross motor activity areas for children.


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Design Considerations

Key design goals and considerations for CCCF are very similar to those for CDCs,

with special emphasis on the following:

Be Homelike

Even more than in a CDC, a CCCF is designed to emulate a single-family residential

environment. (However, as these are commercial facilities, the applicable facility

classification and building codes may be more stringent than residential codes.) Pay

particular attention to the following:

Provide a sense of arrival and welcome upon entering the facility for both
children and parents
Allow children to independently address bodily needs such as hunger, thirst,
using the toilet, and sleep
Avoid institutional, unnatural finishes and textures. Use natural finishes to the
extent possible or a natural appearance when not possible. For example, resilient
sheet flooring should have a simulated stone or wood-grain pattern.
Maintain a Safe and Healthy Environment

Safety is a critical element of CCCF design and includes both child-abuse prevention as

well as injury prevention:

Provide vision panels in all interior doors


Ensure controlled access to the facility, including outdoor spaces
Provide window treatments that are either cordless, have cords that are out of
reach of children, or have continuous-loop cords that are permanently anchored
to the wall
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Specify easily cleaned finishes


Provide good indoor air quality as well as to the use of daylighting, non-toxic
building materials and improved maintenance practices
Use rounded corners (" bull-nose) on all counters, casework, and furnishings
Provide a Durable and Maintainable Facility

The continuous use (24 hours per day, 7 days per week) and gross motor activities will

impact the facility interior:

Provide durable interior finishes and furnishings while maintaining a residential-


style appearance
Use solid surface/solid composite counters
Provide heavy-duty, "professional" grade, residential appliances for the kitchen
and laundry
Built Environment for Rehabilitation: Dept. of Architecture, ABU, Nigeria

Although barriers may be necessary to maintain security in juvenile rehabilitation

centers, (Gendreau and Keyes 2001) noted that rehabilitation centers are public social

institutions which should be integrated in the community and blend with the

surrounding built environment. This is important in order not to disconnect the young

offenders from the environment into which they will be discharged. The site design of

the centers should aim at deinstitutionalizing them through the creation of a normal and

modern built environment that aids rehabilitation of delinquents. It should also allow the

physical contact with the outside for individual and group activities (Mcmillen and Justice

Planners International JPI, 2005)


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LEGAL DOCUMENTS

Legal documents were gathered through the analyses of PD 1096 (NBC), RA 9514

(FCP). Through rigorous explication of legal data, the research was able to come up with

the legal standards that needs to be implemented especially for an institutional project.

Occupancy Classifications

PD 1096

Majority of institutional occupancies are included in Group D in the National

Building Code of the Philippines. Group D is subdivided into three divisions:

Division D-1

Institutional Occupancy where personal liberties of in-mates are restrained, or

quarters of those rendering public assistance and maintaining peace and order.

Principal Use: Mental hospitals, mental sanitaria, mental asylums, police and fire

stations, guard houses, jails, prisons, reformatories, leprosaria, and quarantine stations

Accessory Use: Welfare homes, Orphanages, boys and girls town, home for the aged,

rehabilitation and vocational training center, military camps, penitentiary and

correctional institutions.
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Developmental Controls

Maximum Total Gross Floor Area (Table VII.1 of PD 1096)

Corner
Lot
Abutting
Interior Inside Corner Through Corner- 3 or
and End Lot Lot Lot Through more
Lot Lot Streets,
Rivers
etc.
Institutional

w/out
BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x
Sprinklers &
50% of 50% of 60 % of 60 % of 60 % of 60 % of
Firewalls
TLA TLA TLA TLA TLA TLA

Institutional

w/ Sprinklers
BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x BHL x
& Firewalls
60 % of 60 % of 70 % of 70 % of 70 % of 70 % of

TLA TLA TLA TLA TLA TLA


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Building Height Limit (From Table VII.2 of PD 1096)

15.00 m or BHL of Major Zone of Occupancy

Floor to Lot Area Ratio (From Table VII.G.2 of PD 1096)

FLAR= 2.50

Maximum Allowable Percentage of Site Occupancy, Impervious Surface Area, Unpaved

Surface Area, and Total Open Space within Lot

(Table VII.1 of PD 1096)

Character of % of Total Lot Area (TLA)

Use/Occupancy
Maximum Maximum Minimum TOSL (ISA +
and Zoning
Allowable Allowable USA USA)

PSO ISA

Institutional w/o 50% 20% 30% 50%

Firewall

Institutional w/ 60% 20% 20% 40%

Firewall
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Minimum Setbacks

(Table VIII.3 of PD 1096)

RROW Width (m) Front (m) Side (m) Rear (m)

30 & above 8 5 5

25 to 29 6 3 3

20 to 24 5 3 3

10 to 19 5 2 2

Below 10 5 2 2

Parking Requirements

Nursing Homes, school and home for children, and orphanages- 1 car slot for every 12

beds (From Table VII.4 of PD 1096)


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General Design Requirements

Parameters PD 1096 RA 9514

Occupant Loads Unit Area per Occupant Unit Area per Occupant

(sqm) (sqm)

Nursing Homes, 7.4 22 (inpatient 23.1 (Inpatient

Childrens Homes, Treatment) Treatment)

Homes for the Aged

Minimum Corridor

Width ( Residential-
1.10 m 1.83
custodial care

institutions)

Minimum Ramp Width 1.10 m 1.12 m

DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS

Documents acquired by the researcher included maps from online sources, a site

technical description and lot plan from the Provincial Engineering Office, and a Zoning

and Land Use Map from the City Planning and Development Office of Bago City
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 78

Location Map

The figure above is the Location map showing the proximity of the site to nearby

structures and landmarks. (maps.google.com and satellite view)


LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 79

Zoning Map of Bago City


(City Planning & Development
Office,2017)
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 80

Chapter IV

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter represents the summary of findings, conclusions and

recommendations from the presented analyses and findings. This investigation was

conducted in order to present an architectural design solution for the proposed, Balay

Paglaum: A Rehabilitation and Reformation Center for Children-in-Conflict with the Law.

The descriptive method of research was adopted and various data collection procedure

were applied. Techniques such as interviews, library and internet research, observation,

documentary analysis, and facility surveys.

INTERVIEW FINDINGS

The interviews conducted to conversation partners led to the following main

topics, the management & operations, and the architectural insights most importantly.

The researcher inquired to Directors of Social Development Center in Bacolod

City and Bahay Pag-asa in Granada. For the technicalities, formalities and knowledges of

legal procedures, the researcher consulted to the Focal Persons for the Children-in-

Conflict with the Law Program of the PSWD Office.


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For the architectural inquiries, the researcher consulted to Architects and

environmental planners, which is vital inputs for the formulation of the design solution.

The conclusion of themes determined are as follows:

Themes for Management and Operations- For improvement of the Facilitys Circulation

and Built-Environment

Human Psychology and Architecture

Conclusion and Recommendation

Architecture can contribute in so many ways in terms of influencing how the

interaction and collaboration will take place in an area or space. Architecture is directly

related to human psychology because the built environment gives the perception of the

user. Strategic usage of colors, open spaces, and materials will help promote this

concept.

A Homely Environment

Conclusion and Recommendation

The researcher found out that a homely environment is vital to the reformation

process of the Children-in-Conflict with the Law. The cognitive behavior of the users will

greatly improve depending on how their surroundings will exhibit love and care. A
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 82

homely-environment is and evidence-based observation that considers the perception

and feelings of the user. Psychologists, directors, social workers attest to this stimuli.

Applying this concept to a rehabilitation facility not only impacts its effectiveness but also

promotes its image. The implementation of a residential type of dwelling instead of

isolated type prison like room will greatly impact their outlook in life.

Security and Safety

Conclusion and Recommendation

The goal of a reformation center is also to make the children feel they are safe

and secure while not sacrificing their freedom of movement. Security and peacekeeping

can be obtained while preserving the visual comfort intended for the reformation of the

occupants or users. Implementation of surveillance systems can greatly contribute to the

safety and precautionary measures of the operations in the site.

Current Issues and Difficulties

Conclusion and Recommendation

The struggle for proper planning of spaces and making it conducive to change

and learning is what the interview findings conveys. Directors stated that if the goal is to

change this youngsters, it will always make a cost, but with good architecture, it will make

the cost worth it. Reformation and rehabilitation centers are vital elements of the
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 83

society, it serves as the immune system of the human body, same as why we take

vitamins and medicines to fight free radicals.

Peace and Comfort

Conclusion and Recommendation

Relaxation, reflection and self-finding can only be found through peace and

comfort. Psychologists conclude that in order to inculcate change with these offenders,

there must be a change of scenery, and change of scenery can be achieved by changing

their daily dose of vistas, and lifestyle. Implementation of the concept of Biophilic

Architecture is an advantage in the reformation progress. Incorporation of vegetation,

connection with nature,

Themes for the Architectural Insights

As to Site Analysis:

Advantage of the Selected Site

The site is pre-selected and the researcher evaluated its suitability in terms of land-use

and zoning. Interviews and ocular inspection reveal that the site coincides with the

criteria intended for an institutional project with residential care, healthcare facilities,

and training facilities. The site is proximal to several opportunities, the OISCA training
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 84

center, the OPAs Demo Farms, the Bamboo Culturing Village of the Province, and the

peacekeeping of the District Jail.

Maximization of the Site

The site already dictated its best use, a farm, or an agricultural land. Its soil is

already in good quality for cultivation and vegetation. Implementation of Bioretention is

also a key factor that can help in water runoff during rainy seasons. The site is also away

from any urban nuisance and disturbances, it is serene and promotes the purpose of the

project, which is rehabilitation.

As to Site Development:

Sustainable Site Planning

As far as sustainable development is concerned, the intended use of the site,

which is a farm-like environment is very advantageous for the concept of sustainability.

A farm is where you gather materials and resources and use it for propagation or

consumption.

Stormwater and Rainwater Harvesting

Another crucial part of sustainable approach is the utilization of storm-water. The

rainwater harvested will be used for cleaning the poultry and livestock. It can also be
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 85

used for many purposes, that can contribute to water conservation and watering of

plants and vegetation.

Circulation and Movement

According to interviews and statements of architects and planners, restriction of

movements often leads to secrecy of actions. Surveillance is another thing, it is a

precaution to what may unwantedly happen. In promoting a homelike environment,

freedom of movement is encouraged, but surveillance and safety is considered.

Building Aesthetics:

Character Considerations

Arkitekturang Filipino is the preference of most of the interviewee. The whole

concept of Filipino Architecture coincides with the humbleness of the project. The

concepts, philosophies, and culture of the Filipino traits also coincides with the purpose

of the structures that is to be formulated. Filipino Architecture is the researchers way of

embracing the beauty of Filipino hospitality.

Materials

With regards to maximization of the site, bamboo will be incorporated.

Vernacular materials, and materials that can be seen locally will be used. According to
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 86

interviews, the materials for aesthetics depends on the designers preference, but

careful selection is vital for the sustainable approach of the project.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The themes used above are the vital elements needed in order to provide a sound

solution to the observed difficulties in existing centers. Implementation and application

of these design considerations will not only alter the way of life of this children but will

also improve the child minding system, with the aid of architecture. Maximize the natural

beauty of the pre-selected site. Encourage serenity and zen space. The environment,

well-architectured dwellings, staffs, animals, and good vistas and daylighting, natural

ventilation, acoustical treatment, and addition of new facilities, are the vital elements to

be implemented, in order to promote a humane community inside the site. Due to the

ineffectiveness of existing center pertaining to the objective which is reformation and

rehabilitation, it is recommended to apply various concepts of architecture in order to

make the center conducive to change.


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OBSERVATION

Site Visits on Existing Centers

Ocular observation was conducted to the site and the familiar existing facilities.

Site visit have helped the researcher gather and synthesize more data and information

pertaining to the formulation of the design solution.

Aside from the selected site, the researcher also visited several youth centers for

operation and management observations. The researcher observed on how the

activities, protocols, operations, and circulations are being operated inside the center.

Site Ocular Visit

The proposed project is located in the farm lots owned by the Provincial

Government, currently being used as demo farm by the Office of the Provincial

Agriculturist. The farming and agricultural activities proposed in the site is very suitable,

because of the fertility of the soil already present in its current state.

The site is also serene and tranquil because of the vegetation and treeline

surrounding the site. It can help promote the healing being brought by the built-

environment.
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The researcher will take advantage of the every feature of the site, the fact that the site

is away from the busyness, noise, and influence of the urban society, makes it suitable

and comply the site criteria.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The researcher concludes that the pre-selected site is suitable for the proposed

development of Balay Paglaum: A Reformation and Rehabilitation Center for Children-in-

Conflict with the Law. It is in an isolated area that is away from urban disturbances and

the likes, which is vital in promoting a serene community environment. In terms of

accessibility and availability of utilities, the site is also compliant with site criteria.

Serenity, silence, tranquility, are the biophilic environment elements that promotes

conduciveness to change. The site must be a new scenery towards its users. The farm-

like environment that can already be seen in the site, is already an advantage to the

purpose of the site. Architectural characters are also in context of the environment, using

different materials such as concrete, bamboo, stones, wood, and etc.

The site is considerably fertile, and in terms of planting and farming activities, it

would be an advantage in terms of promoting agriculture which is already the advocacy

of the city, and the province. The maximization of the existing features of the pre-

selected site can also promote sustainable site planning.


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LIBRARY AND INTERNET RESEARCH

Data, information, and experts opinions were gathered from library and online

sources. These were discussed in Chapter 3 and below are the key points from the

research output:

As to Site

The suitability of a site for a site for a residential healthcare facility should

consider many site characteristics that may be determined from a site inventory of

physical, biological and cultural factors. Environmental or geographic factors and

demographics. Below are the salient points to be considered in site planning:

Developed existing buildings or structures


Former uses
Known site conditions
Character and/or condition of existing roads
Points of access and egress (approximate site distances)
Expected road improvements
Visibility into and out of site
Security considerations
Neighboring property uses

As to Site Development

Among many goals, sustainable site development should consider:


Connection with the community
Protect the habitat
Control storm water
Promote flexible and adaptable uses of the site
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Stream buffers
Bioswales
Rain Gardens
Reduced Hard Surfaces
Low Impact Development
Network of Green Spaces
Prevent Flash Floods
Storage and Treatment of Stormwater Runoff
Minimize Impervious Surface and Direct Runoff Connections

Site planning should layout buildings along the east-west axis to minimize solar

heat gain. Buildings should be arranged and distanced (at least 8m) to facilitate

cross-ventilation, natural lighting and acoustical containment.

A planting plan would help in optimizing the use of trees and shrubs for wind

control, shading, or noise buffering.

Adequate open space large enough to contain the entire population for assembly

during emergencies.

As to Building Function

The center should have an environment that is most conducive and effective for

rehabilitation, counseling, training, learning, recreational, and other important aspects.

It must address to 5 dimensions of wellness, the spiritual, physical, emotional,

intellectual, and social wellness, which is the focal and salient points of rehabilitation.
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Building design should be done in accordance with its function and ideally conceived for

economy in conceived for economy in construction, utilization and maintenance. The

design should comply with the standards from the Accessibility Law (BP 344), National

Building Code (PD 1096), RA 9514 (Fire Code), DSWD Guidelines, DOH Guidelines and the

likes.

Sustainable design should provide the following benefits:

Improved behavior and performance


Health benefits
Pedagogical benefits
Sustainable characteristics include:

Ergonomic design based on anthropometry


Visual, thermal and acoustic comfort
Good indoor air quality
Connectivity with the community and the natural environment
Building materials with low carbon footprint and embodied energy

As to Building Aesthetics

Aesthetic elements should aim to coincide with other aspects such as building

function, strength and durability, and engineering and utility systems.

Aesthetic elements should strive to incorporate the use of indigenous and locally

available or produced materials in conjunction with the appropriate construction and

application methods.
LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE BACOLOD - ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 92

Arkitekturang Filipino shall not be only translated into aesthetic tangible forms of

design elements but also be reflected in the function of the respective structure.

Color, lighting, use of materials, promoting vistas and vegetation are vital elements in

achieving conducive aesthetic elements.

As to Building Strength and Durability

Various steps may be taken to help mitigate the hazardous effects of natural disasters

including:

Elevating building to protect against flooding


Strengthening buiding envelope to withstand lateral uplift during typhoons
Proper structural design and construction method holds the key to building
strength. Hybrind use of concrete, bamboo, wood and steel is accepted and
considered with some standards.
Materials and finishes contribute to the durability, both for interior as well as
exterior components of the building.
Engineering and Utility Systems

Engineering and utility systems is an attribute of sustainable and energy-efficient design.

Elements to consider in applying sustainable engineering and utilities include:

Buiding envelope and fenestration


Electrical and mechanical systems
Visual, thermal and acoustic requirements
Agricultural water systems
Rainwater harvesting offers opportunities to balance water supply in the cycle of
usage in the site, as well as to provide aesthetic and sustainable purposes for site
maintenance.
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Conclusion and Recommendation:

Observing the required standards and design principles is vital in propoer

planning of a Reformation and Rehabilitation Center. It is critical for the reasearcher to

carefully assess each of the factors involved and come up with a relevant and effective

solution. Due to the nature of the proposal, careful analysis of existing problems and

issues on existing likes of facilities were considered.

Based on library and online sources, the researcher retrieved valuable information

with regards to standards, criteria, and factors that needs to be considered in relation

to the site, site development, building function, building aesthetics, engineering and

utilities. The project needs a sutainable plan for development, in order to help support

the cumulative needs of the users.


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