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Learning Taxonomy Blooms Cognitive Domain

Cognitive learning is demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas,
analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating ideas or actions

Level and Definition Illustrative Verbs Example


Knowledge is defined as the remembering of arrange, define, describe, Memory of specific facts, terminology,
previously learned material. This may involve the duplicate, identify, label, list, rules, sequences, procedures,
recall of a wide range material, from specific facts to match, memorize, name, order, classifications, categories, criteria,
complete theories, but all that is required is for the outline, recognize, relate, methodology, principles, theories and
student to bring to mind the appropriate information. recall, repeat, reproduce, select, structure.
Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning state Recite a policy.
outcomes in the cognitive domain. Quote prices from memory to a customer.
Know the safety rules.
Describe the painting.
Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp classify, convert, defend, Stating problem in own words.
the meaning of material. This may be shown by describe, discuss, distinguish, Translating a chemical formula.
translating material from one form to another (words estimate, explain, express, Understanding a flow chart.
to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or extend, generalize, give Translating words and phrases from a
summarizing), and by estimating future trends examples, identify, indicate, infer, foreign language.
(predicting consequences or effects). These learning locate, paraphrase, predict, Explains in ones own words the steps for
outcomes go one step beyond the simple recognize, rewrite, report, performing a complex task.
remembering of material, and represent the lowest restate, review, select, What is the subject or theme?
level of understanding. summarize, translate
Application refers to the ability to use learned apply, change, choose, compute, Taking principles learned in math and
material in new and concrete situations. This may demonstrate, discover, applying them to figuring the volume of a
include the application of such things as rules, dramatize, employ, illustrate, cylinder in an internal combustion engine.
methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. interpret, manipulate, modify, Use a manual to calculate an employees
Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level operate, practice, predict, vacation time.
of understanding than those under comprehension. prepare, produce, relate, If you could interview the artist, what
schedule, show, sketch, solve, questions would you ask?
use, write
Analysis refers to the ability to break down material analyze, appraise, break down, Discussing how fluids and liquids differ.
into its component parts so that its organizational calculate, categorize, compare, Detecting logical fallacies in a student's
structure may be understood. This may include the contrast, criticize, diagram, explanation of Newton's 1st law of motion.
identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships differentiate, discriminate, Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning.
between parts, and recognition of the organizational distinguish, examine, experiment, Gathers information from a department and
principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent identify, illustrate, infer, model, selects the required tasks for training.
a higher intellectual level than comprehension and outline, point out, question, Explain what you think the artist is trying to
application because they require an understanding of relate, select, separate, say about the subject matter.
both the content and the structural form of the subdivide, test
material.
Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together arrange, assemble, categorize, Writing a comprehensive report on a
to form a new whole. This may involve the production collect, combine, comply, problem-solving exercise.
of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan compose, construct, create, Planning a program or panel discussion.
of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract design, develop, devise, design, Writing a comprehensive term paper.
relations (scheme for classifying information). explain, formulate, generate, Integrates training from several sources to
Learning outcomes in this area stress creative integrate, manage, modify, solve a problem.
behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of organize, plan, prepare, propose, What ways would you render the subject
new patterns of structures. Integrate. rearrange, reconstruct, relate, differently?
reorganize, revise, rewrite, set
up, summarize, synthesize, tell,
write
Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the appraise, argue, assess, attach, Making judgments based on internal
value of material (statement, novel, poem, research choose, compare, conclude, evidence or external criteria.
report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be contrast, defend, describe, Evaluating alternative solutions to a
based on definite criteria. These may be internal discriminate, estimate, evaluate, problem.
criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance explain, judge, justify, interpret, Detecting inconsistencies in the speech of a
to the purpose), and the student may determine the relate, predict, rate, select, student government representative.
criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this summarize, support, value Explain and justify a new budget.
area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because Hire the most qualified candidate.
they contain elements of all of the other categories, What is your opinion of the painting? Why?
plus conscious value judgments based on clearly
defined criteria.