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# Year 9 Science

## end of year revision

Chemistry

Name : _______________________________
What I need to know
atoms : how to work out numbers of Chromatography
protons, neutrons and electrons using the How does it work ? why do some the spots
periodic table box for an element separate on a chromatogram ?
How to draw an atom using this information Paper chromatography
(the Bohr model) like the one below Thin layer chromatography - what is it ?
How is it different to paper chromatography ?
The mobile phase and the stationary phase .
Rf values & how to calculate

## Isotopes Model of the atom

Same number of protons, different number - how it changed ?
of neutrons (so atomic number is the - why it changed over the years ? (new
same, but atomic mass is different.) evidence & ideas)
- The models devised by Dalton,
Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and
Geiger & Muller

## How to calculate the average mass of an

isotope
RFM calculating relative formula mass of a
molecule using the masses of individual
atoms in the periodic table
CaCO3 = Ca (40) + C (12) + O (3x16) = 100
Separating mixtures : ions
- distillation How atoms become like noble gases (with
- chromatography full outer shells of electrons). Why they are
Purity of chemicals charged ? How to work out the charge.
- what does it mean ? What a giant ionic lattice looks like ?
- how does purity affect melting point ?
Metals and alloys ionic precipitation
How is a pure metal element different to an What happens when ionic solids dissolve in
alloy (a mixture of different metals) and why water (free ions). Metals swap partners.
do we make alloys ? Solids suddenly appear in the solution.
Particles Electrolysis
How they are arranged in solids, liquids and why molten and dissolved ionic compounds
gases. How this affects properties ? conduct electricity ? What happens at the
What are the changes of state called ? anode & cathode ? Copper chloride solution
(some) Revision Questions:
1] Here is the periodic table box for the metal element Rubidium

## b) i) How protons, neutrons and electrons does an atom of Rubidium have ?

ii) why do the electrons in atoms of rubidium stay in orbit around the nucleus and not
just shoot off into space ?

c) There are 2 common isotopes of rubidium : Rb-85 (72.2%) and Rb-87 (27.8%).

## i) How many neutrons does the Rb-87 isotope have ?

ii) Re-calcuate the average atomic mass of Rubidium, given the information about the
2 isotopes in part c.

d) Rubidium is in the same group of the periodic table as lithium and sodium.
How many electrons does it have in its outer shell ?

## e) Rubidium reacts with sulphuric acid to form a compound RbSO4

What is the relative formula mass of this compound ? (you can use a periodic table here)

f) Rubidium is a soft metal element with a melting point of 39.4oc. Its electrical conductivity is
8.3. It does not dissolve in water. Rubidium forms alloys with metals like gold.
i) what is an alloy ?

ii) would the Rb-Au alloy have the same melting point as the element rubidium or a
different one ?

iii) Is the Rb-Au alloy likely to have a higher or lower electrical conductivity than the
element Rubidium ?

iv) The compound RbSO4 dissolves in water, but the element Rb doesnt. Why ?

g) What would the ionic lattice of solid rubidium sulphate look like ?
(a labelled diagram is a good idea here)

## h) Rubidium loses 1 electron when it forms a rubidium ion.

i) why does it lose 1 electron ?

2] Distillation

## a) what would the temperature be on the thermometer ?

b) What would be left behind in the round-bottomed flask after carrying out this experiment ?

## a) Which spot/chemical travelled furthest up the TLC plate A or B ?

b) Which chemical (A or B) was most attracted to the stationary phase (the TLC plate) ?

c) If the solvent front travels 10cm up the plate and spot A travels 8.5cm, calculate the Rf
value for spot A ?