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18/3/2017

UHAS 2142
Kepimpinan Dalam Organisasi

Transactional,
Transformational &
Charismatic Leadership

~ Dr. Halimah Mohd Yusof ~


imahmy@gmail.com
07-561 0128

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Transactional
Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership is defined as the


influence of a leader toward his subordinates
using reward and punishment as a form of
motivational medium.

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Transactional Leadership

Transactional Leadership, also known as


managerial leadership.

Transactional leadership is a style of leadership


in which the leader promotes compliance of
his/her followers through both rewards and
punishments.

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership is also called as true


leadership style.

Transactional leadership the leader has the right


to punish his or her subordinates if their
performance is not according to the
predetermined standard.

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Transactional Leadership

The term "transactional" refers to the fact that


this type of leader essentially motivates
subordinates by exchanging rewards for
performance.

Transactional leadership has more of a telling


style.

Qualities of Transactional
Leadership

Passive.
Contingent reward and management-by-
exception.
Reward and punishments

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Qualities of Transactional
Leadership
Directive and action-oriented.

Transactional leaders are willing to work within


existing systems and negotiate to attain goals of
the organization. They tend to think inside the
box when solving problems

Advantages of Transactional
Leadership

1. Rewards and Incentives


2. Structure is Clear
3. Short Term Goal
4. Control Rewards

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Disadvantages of a
Transactional Leadership

Transactional leaders tend to be more reactive


to changes in market conditions.
Transactional leadership also promotes a rigid
hierarchy.
Slow to respond to and take advantage.

Disadvantages of a
Transactional Leadership
This type of leadership is flawed since it
motivates people only on the base level.
This is poor when higher thinking skills level is
needed to utilize.
This also limits its follower that wishes to engage
with higher level of professional environment.

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TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP

A Definition
It is the form of leadership in which a leader
inspires his followers to go beyond their own self-
interests for the good of the organization.

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What do transformational leaders do?

Pay attention to the concerns and


developments of their followers.
Change followers awareness of issues by
helping them look at old problems in new
ways.
Able to excite, arouse and inspire followers to
put extra efforts to achieve group goals.

How does Transformational Leadership


work?
Transformational leaders often advise their
followers to be more bold and start taking more
risks.
Innovation is also encouraged.
Leaders who adopt this leadership strategy tend
to pursue more ambitious goals than other
leaders.
These leaders are more effective because they
are more creative and influence their followers to
be more creative as well.
Eg: Abraham Lincoln.

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Qualities of
Transformational Leadership
1. Idealized Influence
2. Inspirational Motivation
3. Intellectual Stimulation
4. Individualized Consideration

Transformational leadership
To conclude, studies have shown that
transformational leadership has proved to be
more effective than many other forms of
leadership with lower turnover rates, higher
productivity, lower employee stress and
higher employee satisfaction.

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Advantages of
Transformational Leadership
1. Vision
2. Inspiration (Motivation)
3. Lower Employee and Customer
Turnover Costs (Retention)
4. Superior Employee Performance
5. Corporate Learning

Disadvantages of
Transformational Leadership
1. Dependence on the Leader
2. Draining Personnel
3. Power and Manipulation
4. Lack of Check and Balance
5. Usage of Impression
Management

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Transactional vs Transformational
Transactional Transformational
Leadership Leadership
Leadership is responsive
Leadership is proactive
and its basic orientation
and forms new
is dealing with present
expectations in followers
issues
Works to change the
Works within the
organizational culture by
organizational culture
implementing new ideas

Transactional vs Transformational
Transactional Transformational
Leadership Leadership
Employees achieve
Employees achieve
objectives through
objectives through higher
rewards and punishments
ideals and moral values
set by leader
Motivates followers by Motivates followers by
appealing to their own encouraging them to put
self-interest group interests first

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Transactional vs Transformational
Transactional Transformational
Leadership Leadership
Management-by-exception:
Promote creative and
maintain the status quo;
innovative ideas to solve
stress correct options to
problems
improve performance
Leadership depends on the
Leaders create learning
leaders power to reinforce
opportunities for their
subordinates for their
followers and stimulate
successful completion of the
followers to solve problems
bargain

CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

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What is Charismatic Leadership?

Charisma:
The ability to attract people and make them admire you

The Charismatic Leadership theory states that


followers make attributions of heroic and
extraordinary leadership abilities when they
observe certain behaviours.

They are likely to be extroverted, self-confident and


achievement oriented.

Characteristics of Charismatic
Leadership
Vision and Articulation: Has a vision that proposes
a future better than a status quo.
Personal Risk: Willing to take on high personal risk,
incur high costs and engage in self-sacrifice
Sensitive to Followers Needs
Unconventional Behaviour: Regarded as exemplary,
novel and counter to norms.
Examples of charismatic leaders are:
Nelson Mandela, John F. Kennedy, Ghandi.

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How Charismatic Leaders Influence

Articulating a vision: A long-term strategy for


how to attain a goal. It gives a sense of
continuity.
For Example, Steve Jobs championed the iPod
noting Its as Apple as anything Apple has
ever done

How Charismatic Leaders Influence


Vision Statement: Formal articulation of an
organisations vision or a mission. They use vision
statements to leave a deep, long-lasting imprint on
followers.
Communicates high performance, expectations and
expresses his/her confidence that the followers can
attain them.
Conveys a new set of values by his/her exemplary
behaviour, sets an example for followers to imitate
Engages in emotion-inducing behaviour to
demonstrate convictions about the vision.

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So, whats the difference?


Transformative and Charismatic leadership are synonymous in
many respects.
In fact, Bernard Bass, one of the pioneers of the concept of transformative
leadership, considers charisma a subset of transformative leadership.
Those working for charismatic leaders are more motivated and
put in extra effort because of the high level of respect for their
charismatic leader.
The downside of charismatic leaders is that those who are larger
than life charismatic leaders dont always act in the best interest
of their organizations and can use their power to enhance their
own image within the company. They sometimes do not know
how to separate their personal interests from the organizations
interests.

Charismatic vs Transformational
Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their
own self-interests for the good of the organization and are
capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their
followers.
They pay attention to the concerns and needs of individual followers,
promote intelligence, provide vision and a sense of mission,
communicate high expectations, and can change followers awareness
of issues by helping them to look at older issues in new ways.
They are also able to excite, arouse, and encourage followers to put
extra effort into achieving group goals. They encourage their followers
to be more innovative and creative.
Tests indicate that leaders who score higher in
transformational leadership are also likely to score high in
charisma. So, in practice, measures of transformational and
charismatic leadership are more or less equal.

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