Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

Water flow modelling

Celine Duwig
Institut de Recherche pour le
Dveloppement
Celine.duwig@ird.fr
1
Plan
1. Definition
- Soil texture and structure
Solid Phase
Liquid Phase
Gaseous Phase
Some of important values
1. State of water in the soil
Water pressure
Water content
2. State of water in the soil: caracterstical relationships
3. Transfer equation and mass balance

2
3
4
Unsaturated flows

Extension of the law of Darcy:


* Proportionality between the volumetric flow of water and the hydraulic
load gradient

* Factor of proportionality is a function of soil moisture (and matrix potential)

q K grad H

q K grad h( ) z
5
Quasi-
saturated

Hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soil


K

Ks
Partially
saturated

unsaturated
o s

! K() = f(texture and structure) grains water air


6
Modles empiriques:
Empirical models

a
Gardner: K (h)
b (h) m

3 2 /
r
Brooks&Corey: K ( ) Ks
s r

2
l 1 / 11 / n 11 / n

r 1 1 r
Van Genuchten: K (h) Ks
s r s r

E
General equations of
flows in soils
The transfer equation determines the flux density at a point.
To describe the phenomenon completely, one must take into account the equation of
continuity which takes into account the conservation of the mass

qin
Vout qout S t
Vout Vin Ve q S t S
Vin qin S t z

Comme: Ve V S z qout

z
q S t S z

q
, soit en 3D: div q
t z t
8
General equations of
flows in soils

h( ) z
Transfer equation q K
z
ET
q

Mass balance
t z

SATURE
2 possibilities:
NON SATURE

9
Laplace equation (saturated)

Transfer equation q K s grad H


and

Mass balance ( = 0) div q 0

Laplace equation div K s grad H 0

With a homogeneous and isotropic medium div grad H 2 H 0

2
2
2
2 2 2 2
x y z 10
Richards equation
(unsaturated)

Transfer equation q K ( ) grad H


and

Mass balance div q
t


Richards equation div K ( ) grad H
t

h d
div K (h) grad H c(h) avec c ( h)
t dh

11
Richards equation in 1D

Needs to know K() and h()


12
13
Infiltration of Water Into a One-Dimensional Soil Profile
Project Manager Button New
Name: Infiltr1
Description: Infiltration of water into soil profile
Button OK
Main Processes Heading: Infiltration of water into soil profile
Button Next
Geometry Information Button Next
Time Information Final Time: 1
Initional Time Step: 0.0001
Minimum Time Step: 0.000001
Button Next
Print Information Number of Print Times: 12
Button Select Print Times
Button Next
Water Flow - Iteration Criteria Button Next
Water Flow - Soil Hydraulic Model Button Next
Water Flow - Soil Hydraulic Parameters Catalog of Soil Hydraulic Properties: Loam
Button Next
Water Flow - Boundary Conditions Upper Boundary Condition: Constant Pressure Head
Lower Boundary Condition:: Free Drainage
Button Next
Soil Profile - Graphical Editor
Menu: Conditions->Initial Conditions->Pressure Head or Toolbar: red arrow
Button "Edit condition", select with Mouse the first node and specify 1cm pressure head.
Menu: Conditions->Observation Points
Button "Insert", Insert nodes at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm
Menu: File->Save Data
Menu: File->Exit
14
Soil Profile - Summary Button Next