You are on page 1of 119

STANDARD|GROUP

Chapter: 1
Executive Summary
STANDARD|GROUP

1. Executive Summary

Actually industrial attachment is the practical experience for every Textile Engineer which is
needed to be familiar not only the industry but also all over the necessary job related to continue
in any industry. During student life a student cannot know about the practical condition so its
badly needed for every student for attain for the industrial attachment .Standard Group is truly an
excellent industry from my point of view. All types of modern technology are well arranged
here. Every section Specially Garment in here helps me so much by giving information during
my training period which was unbelievable. Standard Group is one of the largest Textile
industries in Bangladesh. It has the state of the machinery and follows modern mechanism for
production. It produces woven fabrics, so it is the leading Garments industry. Woven garments
are the latest addition in the list of commodities of Bangladesh. The foundation stone of the
Standard Group was laid on 1969. From the very beginning, it has maintained anon-
compromising position with its high quality. As a result, it has gained huge popularity in the
market. Due to increase of demand, company increases its capacity to provide the actual demand.
STANDARD|GROUP

Chapter: 2
Information about Factory
STANDARD|GROUP

2.1. Introduction:
Bangladesh is one of the leading readymade garments exporters of the world. Every year
Bangladesh exports more than one third of the total garments requirement of the RMG market of
the world. Every year Bangladesh earns more than 80% of its foreign currency from this sector
.That is why the study of garments technology does deserve well practical practice. So our
university provides 8 weeks industrial training in a RMG factory. As a student of garment
technology we have completed this industrial training in Standard Group Ltd. From garments
making to decorating garments. Standard Group Ltd. is a truly Exclusive fashion house that deals
with lots of stuff like fabric quality, garments quality, washing quality etc. The Garments
Division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the 100% export to UK & USA
market. The vision of the Garment Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high
quality value added garments from Bangladesh. With an urge to developing local human
resource, the Garments Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the
nations growing RMG export sector to make it more competitive.

2.2 History of the Factory:


In the year, 1969 Engr. Mosharraf Hussainand Engr. Atiqur Rahman made their first step into
business in the field of construction and started the company named The Civil Engineers
Limited. The company made remarkable foot-marks in Bangladeshs best civil construction
icons such as the Convocation hall, Indoor Stadium, 500-bed Hospital, Countrys biggest power
plant, Telecast Station, Open University, Biman Bhaban, Diabetic Hospital, etc.
In the year 1984, Company entered into 100% export woven RMG sector and started business in
the name Standard Garments Industries Ltd. The Garments manufacturing factories are located
at its own premises with luxuriant set up. Most modern machineries and Technologies are
applied in manufacturing of garments for designing, Grading, Marker making, Fabrics cutting,

Sewing and Finishing. Now days, Garments manufacturing part has become the largest
manpower utilizing industry in Standard Group.

In the year 2001, the group started their Hong Kong office as Standard Sourcing HK Ltd. To
have a better grip and control on quality level of materials.
STANDARD|GROUP

Standard group also made roaring step into Sweater manufacturing in the year 2004.

Standard group also established its Washing plant at Dhaka and Gazipur.

For backward linkage support, Standard Group established Garments Accessories, Printing,

Packaging, Embroidery, and poly manufacturing plant as well.

Standard Group in specialized for all kinds of woven and sweater products for mens, womens
boys girls and kids

All garments items are exported to Europe, America and Canada for following Buyers:

GAP,SEARS, GYMBOREE,AMERICAN EAGLE OUTFITTERS,KOHLS, THE


CHILDRENS PLACE, JC PENNEY, MARKS & SPENCER, H&M, C&A, ESPRIT, ZARA,
THE STADIUM, GEORGE CLOTHING, ABERCROMBIE, LANDS END, OBIESSE,
KENNETH COLE, TOMMY HILFIGER,ASDA, MWW, etc.

Besides these, Standard Group has its diversified business in the arenas of banking, Insurance
and Real Estate, etc.

Since the inception , Standard Group is opening its business smoothly and contributing in
National economy and development, hence for Business support and quality product Standard
Group achieved various National and Export Award at different times.

The corporate office was formerly located at New Elephant Road, Dhaka, has now been Shifted
to its own 20- storied building named Civil Engineers Bhaban at 69, Mohakhali Commercial
Area, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
STANDARD|GROUP

2.3 Executive Management:

Ser. no Name Designation

01 Engr. Atiqur Rahman Chairman

02 Engr. Mosharraf Hussain Manging Director

03 M. Tofazzal Ali Executive Director

04 Hasnat Mosarraf Director

05 H.T.M Quader Newaz Director

06 Hasib Mosharraf Director

07 Fahim Mosharraf Director

2.4 General Information about Factory:

Name: STANDARD GROUP

Type: READY MADE GARMENTS


(All kinds of Woven products for Men, Women, Boys, Girls & Kids and
All types of Casual Outerwear, Casual Bottoms and Casual Tops)
Printing
Quilting
Embroidery
Washing
Sand/ Laser Blasting

Years of Establishment: May, 1984


STANDARD|GROUP

Address:
Location of Garments: Civil Engineers Tower
Avenue Line, Sec: 12, Block: E, Kalshi,
Mirpur- 12, Dhala-1216

Corporate Office: Civil Engineers Bhaban


69, Commercial C/A,
Mohakhali, Dhaka-1212

Chittagong Office: International Trading Services Ltd


House No. 158, Road No. 29
C.D.A. Colony, Agrabad, Chittagong

Hong Kong Office: Standard Sourcing (HK) Ltd


Room 2512, Hong Kong Plaza,
186- 191 Connaught Road West,
Hong Kong.

Board of Directors: 1. Mosharraf Hussain (Managing Director)

2. Tofazzal Ali (Executive Director)


3. Hasnat Mosharraf (Director)

Shifts: General Shift: 08:30am - 7:30pm

Office Time: 09:00am 6:00pm


STANDARD|GROUP

2.5: Location Map of the Factory:

2.6 Different Departments:


Kalshi ( Mirpur)

Ground floor: Embroidery

1st floor: Kazipur Washing Plant(wet wash)

2nd floor: Laser section Dry wash.

3rd floor: Wear Mag. Ltd (store).

4th floor: Compliance, Administration, Clinic .

5th floor: Store, Fabric Inspection

6th floor: Tiptop Fashions Ltd

7th floor: Training Institute, Childcare, Prayer room,Canteen.


STANDARD|GROUP
8th floor: Adhunik Poshak Shilpo Ltd.(APSL)

9th floor: Tiptop Fashions Ltd

10th floor: Adhunik Poshak Shilpo Ltd.(APSL)

11th floor: packing and Finishing.

12th floor: Adhunik Poshak Shilpo Ltd.(APSL)

13th floor: Mechanical Store , Lean, Fusing.

14th floor: Adhunik Poshak Shilpa Ltd (APSL)

15th floor: Crezy Fashion.

16th floor: Crezy Fashion. Industrial Engineering.

17th floor: Wair Mag Ltd.

18th floor: Buyer Co-coordinator, Cad, Design studio, Sample.

19th floor: Conference Room, Lab Tex

20th floor: Kitchen

2.7 The Name of Factories under the Standard Group:

Sl No Name Location Total Remarks


01 Kazipur Fashion Ltd. (Poly)
02 Standard Stitches Ltd. (Carton)
03 Tulagaon Fashion Ltd.
04 Matexport (BD) Ltd.
05 Standard Group Ltd.
06 Amex Lyd.
07 Amotex Ltd. (Woven) CEC, Konabari 11
08 International Trading Services
Ltd. (Laundry)
09 International Trading Services
Ltd.
10 Standard Stitched Ltd.
STANDARD|GROUP
11 Kazipur Fashion Ltd.
12 Tip Top Fashion Ltd.
13 Adhunik Poshak Shilpo Ltd.
14 Wear Mag Ltd. CET, Kalshi 06
15 Lab TEX Services Current
16 Crazy Fashion Ltd.
17 Kazipur Fashion Ltd. (Laundry)
18 Civil Engineers Ltd. (Woven) CEL, Tejgaon 01
19 Standard Fashion Ltd. 01
20 Amotex Ltd. (Sweater) Tejgaon 01
21 Civil Engineers Ltd. (Sweater) Mouchak, Gazipur 01
22 Shams Styling Wears Ltd. Hemayetpur 01
23 Peak Fashion Ltd. Mazar Road, Mirpur 01
24 Sterling Design Ltd. Shofipur 01
25 Titco (BD) Ltd. CEB 01
26 Standard Sourcing HK Ltd. Hong Kong 01
27 Your Fashion Ltd. Maona, Gazipur 01
28 Trans World Sweater Limited Rajendrapur, Gazipur 01
29 Provatex Apparels Limited Savar 01
30 Fahami Industries Ltd. Baipail, Savar 01
31 F.F. Tower Konabari 01
Total Factory = 31
STANDARD|GROUP

2.8 Organogram:
Organogram of Management:
ADMISTRATION

DIRECTOR

ADMIN &EESTB TORE ACCOUNT COMPUTER COMPLINCE

DGM DGM SYSTEM DGM


MANEGER
UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT
AGM AGM INCHARGE INCHARGE INCHARGE INCHARGE

CLEANER & INTERNAL &


SANITERY EXTERNAL
TRANING MEDICAL TECHNICAL
INCHARGE ADMIN & DAY
INSTITUTE OFFICER
CARE DGM

PERSONAL PRINCIPAL
TIME SECURITY MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL
INCHARGE
AGM AGM

SECURITY
SUPERVISOR

Organogram of Production Unit:

PRODUCTION

DIRECTOR


PRODUCTION AGM AGM AGM WORK STUDY

CO-ORDINATOR Fl#3, 6,8,10 Fl#9, 12, 14 Fl#16, 17, 18



STANDARD|GROUP

Organogram of Quality Control Department:


QUALITY

DIRECTOR


MANAGER ASST MANAGER ASST MANAGER
QC QC QC

PM PM PM

2.9 Bank details:


STANDARD|GROUP

2.10 Different Section of The Factory:


a) HR Depertment

b) Garments Section
Fabric Inspection
BC section
Sample section
CAD section
Pattern and Marker section
Cutting section
Printing section
Embroidery section
QA Section
Sewing section
IE Dept.
Washing
Finishing section

c)Maintenance section
Electrical
Mechanical
d) Store section

e)Administration section

f) Security Section

g)Marketing Section

h)Production planning & control

g) Compliance
STANDARD|GROUP

2.11 Total Employee:

DESCRIPTION NO OF EMPLOYEES TOTAL EMPLOYEES


BUYER COORDINATOR STUFF 150
IT STUFF 45
SAMPLE MAN 250
Q.A-RAW MAT. INSPECTOR 80
Q.A-IN-LINE INSPECTOR 510
FLOOR Q.C 82
Q.A AUDITORS 75
CUTTING SECTION 560
SEWING SECTION 8,450
TRIMMING/ FINISHING 2,185 18600
PRESSING & PACKING 3,280
PACKING 614
ELECTRICIAN/MECHANICS 353
WASHING,SAND BLASTING & SAND 2,030
BRUSHING
PRINTING 77
PACKAGING 140
POLY 34
QUILTING 75
EMBROIDERY 77
OFFICE STUFF & OTHERS 850
STANDARD|GROUP

2.12 Machine Description:


Type of Machine Quantity(Sets) Sewing Capacity
A. General Sewing
Machine

Single Needle 4952


Double Needle 1120
Over lock 972
Kansai 301
Bar Tack 369
Button Stitch 180
Button Hole 125
Eyelet Button Hole 97
Bottom Hem 28
Flat Lock 70
Snap Button 356
Blind Stitch 27
Feed of the Arm 346
Approximately
Cutter m\c 127
1,000,000 pieces per day
Heat Cutter 23
Fusing m\c 23
Over lock Elastic Attaching 8
m\c
Arm Hole Sewing m\c 6
Total 9130
B. Specialized Sewing
Machine
Auto Patch Pocket Setting 3
Auto Welt Pocket Setting 20
Waist Belt Setting 34
Seam Sealing 24
Zigzag 24
Elastic Attaching 17
Pattern Sewing 27
Auto Loop Attaching 12
Snap Testing m\c 11
Pattern(Collar& Cuff) m\c 6
Pocket Facing 13
Pico ting 3
Velcro Cutter 19
Feather Filling 5
STANDARD|GROUP

2.13 Production Capacity:

Cutting Room No of m/c Cutting Capacity


Fabric Inspection m\c 5 100,0000 yards/day
Light Box 1
Gerber Cam 3
Gerber Auto Spreader 3
Manual Cutting Table 10
Manual Cutter 80
Finishing Room Finishing Capacity
Needle Detector 21 100,000 pieces per day
Hang Tagger Attaching m\c 20
Steam Iron 720
Thread Sucking m/c 25
CAD Room
Gerber CAD 03
Gerber Plotter 04
Gerber Digitizer 02
Support Capacity
Steam Boiler 18 5 MW
Generator 8
Other Projects
Poly Bag Making Project
Carton Making Project
Printing Project
Quilting
Embroidery 20 heads on each end and up to
15 colors
Pin Point Stitch m/c
Vacuum Iron Table
Lay End Cutting m/c
STANDARD|GROUP

2.14 Product Range:


Bottoms
Standard Group has one of the largest bottom production facilities in Bangladesh. We are able to
produce bottoms ranging from simple basic bottoms to complex/highly fashionable bottoms.
With our state of the art washing facilities, we are able to produce almost any type of bottom.

Types of woven bottom wears

Mens Pants
Ladies Pants
Kids Pants
Shorts
Basic pants
Long pants

Tops
The company is one of the pioneers in employing the latest technologies for top wear, including
shirts for men, women, and kids/children. The types of Woven Top Wears we manufacture
include:

Casual Shirt
Top Wear
Dress Shirt
Flannel Shirt

Outerwear
Standard Group started in 1984 making outer wear. As a result, the company has embedded in its
capability to produce various types of outer wear. Our production teams have become outer wear
experts with all the experience gained over the years.

The Types of Outer Wears

Basic Jacket
Basic Lined Jacket
Bomber Jacket
Down Jacket
Function Jacket
Padded Jacket
Woven Pullover
Sealed Jacket
STANDARD|GROUP
Sun dress
Woven vest
Denim outer wear

Active, Sports, and Work Wear


Sports and active woven wear clothing need extraordinary durability as well as comfort.
Standard Group has some of the most complex machineries and highly skilled manpower to
produce the most durable and comfortable sports and active wear possible.

Types of Work, Active, and Sports Wear

Sports Pants
Sports Jackets
Sports Jersey
Promotional Jersey
Nylon and Wool Award Jackets
Corduroy Jackets
Twill Poplin Jackets
Supplex Jackets
Satin Jackets
Action Fleece Jackets
Sports Sweats
Swim Parkas
Band Parkas
Warm-Up Suits

Inner wear
Inner wear is all about comfort and Standard Group uses the finest production techniques and
sources the most comfortable materials to ensure the products satisfy all needs. Standard Group
has been producing various types of inner wear for many years now.

Types of Woven Inner Wears

Woven Boxer Shorts


Woven Flannel Shorts
Woven Loungewear

Overall wear
Overall wear has been the major garment for kids and men at work. Standard Group uses a
variety of technologies to ensure that the production of overalls maintains top quality.
STANDARD|GROUP

Types of Overall Wears

Body
Full Body

Work wear

2.15 List of Buyers:


In USA

Brand Name Logo

Gap

Sears

American Eagle Outfitters

The Childrens Place

Khols

Fila

Kids Us

Mountain Gear
STANDARD|GROUP
Wrangler

Sean John

Gymboree

Jc Penney

Perry Ellis

In Canada

Brand Name Logo

Jacob

London Fog

Pacific Trails

Hudsons Bay Company

Marks Work Wearhouse


STANDARD|GROUP

In E.U

Brand Name Logo

Marks Spencer

H&M

Espirit

Rip Curl

Celio

Charles Vogele

Zara

Tom Tailor

Mexx

The Stadium

Georeg Clothing

Mackays

Dunnes Store
STANDARD|GROUP
Quebrama Oxbow

C&A

United Colors Of Benetton

2.16 Mission and Vision:


Mission
To provide the clothing retail market quality, price competitive and timely ready-made garments
(RMG) produced under both socially and environmentally responsible conditions.

Vision:
To satisfy buyer & customer expectation by developing & producing products which offer value
in terms of quality, price etc.
STANDARD|GROUP

Chapter: 3
Description of the Attachment
STANDARD|GROUP

3.1 Fabric Inspection:


Inspection in reference to the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review
of raw materials (like fabric, sewing threads, buttons, trims, etc), partially finished components
of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards. The main
objective of inspection is the detection of the defects as early as possible in the manufacturing
process so that time and money are not wasted later on in either correcting the defect or writing
off defective garments.

Figure: Fabric Inspection

3.1.1 Purpose of fabric inspection:


Fabric Inspection is an important aspect followed prior to garment manufacturing to avoid rejects
due to fabric quality and facing with unexpected loss in manufacturing. Fabric inspection is done
for fault/defect rate, fabric construction, end to end or edge to edge shading, colour, hand or feel,
length/width, print defect and appearance. Fabric inspection ensures to minimise the rejection of
cut panels or rejected garments due to fabric faults. Cutting inspected and approved fabric
ensures not only finished garment quality but also reduces rejects, improves efficiency and
timely deliveries.

3.1.2 Fabric Inspection Systems:


There are various fabric inspection systems:

10-Point System.
Graniteville "78" system.
Dallas system.
4- Point system.
STANDARD|GROUP

4-Point System:
The 4-Point System, also called the American Apparel Manufacturers (AAMA) point-grading
system for determining fabric quality, is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics and is
endorsed by the AAMA as well as the ASQC (American Society or Quality Control).

The 4-Point System assigns 1, 2, 3 and 4 penalty points according to the size and significance of
the defect. No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect. Defect can be in
either length or width direction, the system remains the same. Only major defects are considered.
No penalty points are assigned to minor defects.

In this system, one should inspect at least 10 per cent of the total rolls in the shipment and make
sure to select at least one roll of each colour way.

Fabric defects are assigned points based on the following:

Total defect points per 100 square yards of fabric are calculated and the acceptance criteria is
generally not more than 40 penalty points. Fabric rolls containing more than 40 points are
considered "seconds".

The formula to calculate penalty points per 100 square yards is given by:

The following are noteworthy points for this system:

No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect.
The fabric is graded regardless of the end-product.
This system makes no provision for the probability of minor defects.
4 point system is most widely used system in apparel industry as it is easy to teach and
learn.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2 Merchandising Section:


Merchandise means goods bought and sold; and trading of goods. Merchandising is an activity of
selling and promoting the goods.

Merchandiser is a person who interacts with the buyer and seller, and also puts efforts into
proper relation between buying offices/ buying agents/ agency and seller/ exporter in terms of
executing an order.

3.2.1 Objects of Merchandising:


Merchandising denotes all the planned activities to execute and dispatch the merchandise on
time, taking into consideration of the 4 Rs to replenish the customer.

Right Quantity: To dispatch right quantity of product what buyer ordered.


Right Quality: It should be with right quality as accepted both parties.
Right Cost: Everybody wants more from what they are paid.
Right Time: No one wants to wait idle even in a Restaurant. Keeping delivery schedule is
mandatory.

3.2.2Process Flow Chart of Merchandising:


Receive product package form buyer

Sample development

Price negotiation

Order confirmation and receive order sheet.

Sourcing low good quality right time

Material collection and receive it in factory

Check and listing

Swart card making and approval

Pre production meeting

Daily collect daily production report and daily quality report

Arrange final inspection

Shipment
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.3 Function of Merchandisers:


1. Developing new samples, execute sample orders
2. Costing
3. Programming
4. Raw materials / Accessories arrangement
5. Production scheduling (or) route card drafting
6. Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set
7. Pre production follow up
8. Meet Inspection Agencies
9. Production controlling
10. Identifying shortages and make arrangement for the shortages
11. Following quality assurance procedures, quality control procedures
12. Monitoring the in-house, sub-contractors and junior activities
13. Buyer communication
14. Communication with sub-contractors, processing units & other 3rd parties
15. Proper reporting
16. Highlighting to the management
17. Record maintenance
18. Developing samples
19. Placement of orders to suppliers
20. Taking measures for consistent production
21. Taking preventive action to maintain the targeted performance in all areas of activities
22. Attending meeting with superiors and furnishing the required details about merchandising

3.2.4 Letter of credit:


A letter of credit is a document issued by a financial institution, or a similar party, assuring
payment to a seller of goods or services provided certain documents have been presented to the
bank. "Letters of Credit" are documents that prove the seller has performed the duties specified
by an underlying contract (e.g., the sale of goods contract) and the goods/services have been
supplied as agreed. In return for these documents, the beneficiary receives payment from the
financial institution that issued the letter. The letter of credit serves as a guarantee to the seller
that it will be paid regardless of whether the buyer ultimately fails to pay. In this way, the risk
that the buyer will fail to pay is transferred from the seller to the letter's issuer. The letter can also
be used to ensure that all agreed standards are met by the supplier, provided that these
requirements are reflected in the documents described in the letter of credit.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.5 Fabric Consumption:


Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. It needs sound knowledge and good
practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Formula to make this calculation.

Woven fabric consumption formula-

Before calculate the woven fabric consumption, you must need the followings information as
mentioned below:

1) Measurement chart with technical spec.


2) Style Description.
3) Fabric Description.
4) Fabrics width/weight.
5) Washing shrinkage if any.

This formula is as under:


Formula = Length X Width / Fab width X Fab Unit

Here,
Length = length of the specific parts + allowance

Width = width of the specific parts + allowance

Fab width = Fabric width ( after considering the shrinkage


allowance).
Say, fabric width is 45" & the shrinkage
allowance is 1", Then the Fabric width will
be (45"-1") = 44" in the formula.

Fab unit = Fabric calculation unit, here it will be 36 because


we are going to calculate the consumption in
Yards.

Now we will calculate the consumption of a Shirt (front part)

Center front length = 32"+1" (Sewing allowance) = 33"


Width (Chest) = 24" + 1" (Sewing allowance) + 3"
Pleat.W (1.5X2) = 28"

= Length X Width / Fab width X Fab Unit


STANDARD|GROUP

= 33" X 28" / 44" X 36"


= 924" / 1584"
= 0.5833333

= 0.59 Yards. (for front part)

3.2.6 Sewing Thread Consumption:

Sewing thread is required for seam sewing/assembling, over locking, various types of stitching,
buttonholing, label attachment etc. Clear conception in sewing thread consumption calculation of
garments is essential for a merchandiser to estimate the total number of cones required for a
specific order and to purchase the sewing thread accordingly.

Sewing Thread consumption depends on some factor:


1. Thickness of Fabric
2. Plies of fabric to be sewn
3. Stitch Type
4. Stitch Density
5. Width of Seam
6. Garment Size
7. Design of the garments
8. Skillness
9. Quality of Thread
10. Thread Cutting System (Automatic/ Manual)

Different Stitch type show different consumption formula,


Stitch type 101 = 3 + 2TS
Stitch type 301 = 2 + 2TS
Stitch type 401 = 4 + 2TS
Stitch type 504 = 3 + 4WS + 4TS

3.2.7 Approximate Sewing Thread Consumption of Different Items:

SL.No Product Description Consumption of Sewing


Thread/ body
01 Basic Long Sleeve Woven Shirt 150 Meter
02 Basic Short Sleeve Woven Shirt 225 Meter
03 Classic Long Sleeve Woven Shirt 175 Meter
04 Classic Short Sleeve Woven Shirt 150 Meter
05 Basic Shorts 350 Meter
06 Classic Shorts 450 Meter
07 Basic Long Trousers/ Pants 350 Meter
STANDARD|GROUP
08 Classic Long Trousers/ Pants 450 Meter
09 Basic T-Shirt 125 Meter
10 Basic Polo Shirt 275 Meter
11 Micro Fiber Classic Jacket 400 550 Meter
12 Kids/ Girls Dresses 300 450 Meter

3.2.9 Stitch description in a denim long pant:


Waist Chain Stitch

Loop cover stitch

Hole flat lock

Pocket mouth 2N lock stitch

Coin pkt 2N lock stitch

Pkt facing O/L + lock stitch

Cord stitch S/N lock stitch

Side seam 5 thread O/L

Inseam Chain stitch

Bottom hemming lock stitch

3.2.10 Garments Trims and Accessories:

Garments trims and accessories means all the items used in the garment except the main raw
material (Fabric). There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments, which are used
as trims and accessories. A list of few important trims and accessories mentioned here.

Name of Use Sample of Accessories


Accessories
Sewing Used for sewing
thread
STANDARD|GROUP
Snap button

Ring button

Shank button

Eyelet button

Rivet button

Interlining It is used in
collar/ cuffs/
front placket and
waist band etc

Padding It is used in
padding jacket

Zipper Used to fasten


garments.
STANDARD|GROUP
Lace It is used at the
top or bottom of
any garments

Woven tape/ It is used at side


twill tape seam of pant

Hook It is used inside


of waist band

String Inside of waist


band of trouser

Velcro tap Inside of flaps


craves and pocket for
opening and
closing

Lining Inside of RMG /


fabric

Al- pin Folding pinup

Tag pin Used for


handing the
hangtag and
price tag
STANDARD|GROUP
Main label

Care Label

Size label

Gum tape For closing the


carton

Scotch tape For closing the


poly bag or
blister poly bag

Tissue Paper For inside of


folding use

P.P band For binding the


carton
STANDARD|GROUP
Poly bag

Hanger To hang
garments

Arrow sticker Identify the alter


or defect

Barcode Shows measure


sticker of garment

Price sticker
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.11 International care system:


STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.12 Spec sheet:


A specification sheet, commonly abbreviated to spec sheet, is a technical document that sets
out the details of how, exactly, a certain product is intended to perform or function. These sorts
of sheets are very common in the information industry, particularly as relates to computer and
software design, though they are used in any circumstance where something needs to be built or
constructed in a precise way. Construction projects, general manufacturing, and some
telecommunications work are all places where this sort of document can be found.
STANDARD|GROUP
STANDARD|GROUP
STANDARD|GROUP
STANDARD|GROUP
STANDARD|GROUP
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.13 Costing & Pricing:

To make the garment costing, we have to find out following things.


Fabric Consumption
Gross weight of other components of garment
Fabric cost per kg
Fabric cost per garment
Other charges (print, embroidery, etc)
Cost of trims (labels, tags, badges, twill tapes, button, bows, etc)
CMT (Cost of Making & Trimming Basis) charges
Cost of accessories (hangers, inner boards, poly bags, cartons, etc)
Coast of garment
Price of garment
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.14 Garments Costing Sheet (Shirt):

Style No. Description Season Size Date

50001 100% CTN long Spring12 S M L XL 12-4-12


Raw material sleeve mens
cost shirt

Name of Item Type of Item Quantity Unit Price/ Rate Total (Taka)

Fabric 100% CTN 2 yards TK. 50/yard TK. 100


(Stripe)
Sewing Thread 100% CTN 40/3 20 gm TK. 3
Interlining Puseabll .5 yard TK. 10
Button Plastic 20 Pcs TK. 5
Label Woven 3 Pcs TK. 6
Ploy Bag Polyethylene 1 Pcs TK. 0.50
Printed
Neck Board 250 gm paper 1 Pcs TK. 0.10
Back Board 400 gm paper 1 Pcs TK. 0.90
Pin, Clip Brass/Plasnc TK. 1
Carton Box Paper 3 Ply 1 Pcs Tk. 3
Miscellaneous Tk. 6
Total cost of TK. 136
raw material
STANDARD|GROUP

3.2.15 Process Cost (Cutting, making & trimming):


Production Timing (Min)/ Unit Rate (TK.)/ Unit Total (TK.)/ Unit

Spreading 3 min TK. 0.20 TK. 0.60


Cutting 4 min TK. 0.50 TK. 2.00
Sewing 8 min TK. 1.00 TK. 8.00
Finishing 3 min TK. 0.25 TK.0.75
Inspection 4 min TK. 0.25 TK. 1.00
Packing 4 min TK. 0.30 TK.1.20
Total process cost TK. 13.55

Fixed & Variable Cost = TK.20

Total Production Cost = (136 + 13.55) = TK. 169.55

Profit (20%) = TK. 34

Commission = TK. 6

Grand total/ Selling price of shirt = TK. 210

Custom & Vat (if external) = TK. 7

Caring cost of Freight charge = TK. 15

Total Cost = TK. 232/ Shirt


STANDARD|GROUP

3.3 Sample Section:


Sample garment is a small production of garments which represents the bulk production of
garments.

3.3.1 Process flow chart of Sample Making:

Garments Design or Sketch ( Manually or Computerized )



Basic Block ( Manually or Computerized )

Working Pattern ( By Machine )

Sample Garments ( Manually )

Problem of Production or Production Related Matter


Costing....................................................................Send to Buyer


Approved Sample

Production Pattern ( By Hand or Computer )

Design or Sketch:
It is nothing but one kind of engineering art including all measurement of particular style.

Basic Block:
It is an individual component of garments without any design or style.

Working Pattern:
To make pattern for a particular style with net dimension.

Sample Garments:
The garments which is needed for bulk production, is called sample garments.
STANDARD|GROUP

Problem of Production or Production Related Matter:


Production related problems should be eliminated in this step.

Approved Sample:
The sample which is approved by buyer is called approved sample.

Send to Buyer:
When all process are done, then the garments are sent to buyer.

Production Pattern:
To make pattern for a particular style with net dimension along with allowance.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.4 Pattern & Cad Section:


3.4.1 Pattern:
The individual part of apparel which is shaped by a hard paper like drawing sheet is called
pattern. It is classified into two types as follows-

Working Pattern: The pattern which is used to make sample garment that is called
working pattern.
Production Pattern: The pattern which is used for bulk production that is called
production pattern.

On pattern the following instruction must be marked:

Name of the pattern


Style
Size
Grain direction
CFL & CBL
Seal allowance
Balance mark

The following tools & equipments are used for pattern construction:

Working surface
Paper
Pencils
Marker pen
French curves
Compass
Set square
Scissors
Measuring tape
Rubber, scale, scotch tape

3.4.2 Pattern defects in garment:


Some parts of pattern are missing, probably because the marker did not include the correct
number of parts. Mixed parts, probably because the marker is not correctly labeled, resulting in a
marriage of wrong sized parts. Patterns not facing in correct direction on napped fabrics. Not all
patterns facing in same direction (either way) on a one-way fabric.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.4.3 CAD:

The full meaning of CAD is Computer Aided Design. The marking is done by helping of
computer. So it is names as Computer Aided Design (CAD).

3.4.4 Sequence of CAD for garments:

Receive Patterns

Taking the image of pattern in CPU by digitizer

Modernizing of all patterns part by the software (Modernizer)

Pattern grading by software

Aligning all size of patterns in the marker by software (Daimio)

Completing the marker

Taking approval from CAM

Print the marker by plotter

Printed marker is delivered to cutting section

3.4.5 Purpose of using CAD in garments unit:


To make marking on paper cutting fabric plies accordingly lay-wise.
To minimize the process loss (Sewing, Dyeing, Finishing and Washing losses)

3.4.6 Procedure of CAD Management:

Firstly required pattern are spread on a digital table.


There are two computers where one is connected with digital table and another is with
main marking printer.
The patterns are entered into 1st computer which connected with digital table. Here
grading is done by the connected computer.
After that, the graded sheet is transferred to 2nd computer. In 2nd compute, marking, dia,
wastage etc are maintained.
Finally a required length of marker paper is feed to final printer and printed out. Then the
printed marker paper is kept on to the plied fabric on cutting section.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.4.7 Pattern Grading:

After developing pattern, pattern master decreases or increases master pattern stepwise, it is
called pattern grading. Like this:

S M L XL

Before making a sample pattern making according to sketch and measurement or directly from
sample is a very important. The construction of pattern is done by two methods like:

Manual construction of pattern


Computer aided construction of pattern
In standard group they use computerized methods of construction of pattern grading.

3.4.8 Marker:

Marker is a large thin paper which contents the required pattern pieces of various sizes for a
particular style of apparel. This marker making is an important task because it determines the
efficiency of a marker. Marker making is the next step of pattern grading.

3.4.9 Objectives of Marker Making:

Various objectives are gained by maker making. Followings are the objectives of marker
making.

Similarities among the apparels are gained by the marker making.


Marker is essential for huge quantity cutting. It is used as the cutting guide of fabrics.
Fabric wastages are minimized by using marker.
It saves time and cost.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.4.10 Efficiency of Marker:

It is the ratio between the area covered by pattern pieces and the total area of marker paper. It is
expressed by %. Mathematically,

Marker Efficiency : (Area covered by pattern pieces / Total area of marker paper) X 100

The factors which influence the Marker Efficiency -

Manufacturers of the marker;


Size of pattern pieces;
Length of the marker;
Pattern Engineering;
Nature of the fabric;
Method of marker making;
Marker width;

3.4.11 Methods of Marker Making:


There are two methods of marker making:

Manual method
Computerized method
STANDARD|GROUP

3.5 Fabric Cutting Section:


Fabric cutting section is very important for next sewing section. Cut fabrics are sorted according
to the size of the fabrics. After sorting numbering is done and checking is performed 100% for
avoid any types of mistakes.

3.5.1Types of Cutting:

Fully manual:

Hand operated scissor

Manually operated power knife:

Straight knife
Band knife
Round knife
Die cutting
Notcher
Drill

Computerized methods of fabric cutting:

Computer controlled knife cutting


Cutting by Laser beam
Cutting by Water jet
Cutting by Plasma torch

3.5.2 Quality Department of cutting section:


A.Q.M/Q.M (Quality manager)

C.Q.C (Shade maintain)

C.Q.C (Spreading inspection)

C.Q.C (Cut part inspection with pattern)

Bundle card and numbering inspection

C.Q.I (Cut panel inspection 100%)

C.Q.I (Embroidery)

C.Q.I (Cut fabric fault change)


STANDARD|GROUP

3.5.3Process Sequence in Cutting Room:

Marker Making

Fabric Spreading

Placing Marker Paper on to the Lay

Fabric Cutting

Numbering

100% checking & Parts Replacing if needed.

Shorting & Bundling

Sewing/Assembling

3.5.4 Equipments need in cutting section:


Name of equipment Specification
Gerber auto cutter Blade length=10 inch
Straight knife cutting m/c Length=8-10 inch, width=2 inch
Spreading Table Length up to 100 metter
Globs
Mask
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Auto cutting Figure: Manually cutting

3.5.5 Fabric Spreading:


This is a preparatory operation for cutting and consists of laying plies of cloth one on top of the
other in a predetermined direction and relationship between the right and wrong sides of the
cloth.

Fig: Auto Spreading Fig: Manually Spreading


STANDARD|GROUP

3.5.6 Types of Fabric Spreading:


The spreads can be of two basic types:

1. Flat spreads- all plies are of the same length.

2. Stepped spreads- this as the name suggests, is built up in steps, with all the plies in one step
having the same length. A stepped spread is generally used when the quantities to be cut
precludes the use of a flat spread. The cut order plan details the colors and ply lengths for a
stepped spread, if it is needed.

3.5.7 Requirements of Spreading Process:

1. Alignment of plies in both length and width direction- length and width of fabric must be at
least equal to marker length and width.

2. Elimination of fabric defects/flaws- any faults identified on the incoming fabrics will be
tagged and will be avoided.

3. Correct ply direction (especially for asymmetrically printed fabrics)- all faces up, all faces
down, face to face etc.

4. Correct ply tension- ply tension must be uniform and as much less as possible.

5. Avoidance of distortion in the spread during cutting- polythene sheets are used under the
bottom ply to resist friction of the bottom ply with the base plate of the knife.

6. Fabrics must be flat and free from any crinkle & crease- these cause defect in garments
due to variation in dimension.

7. Checks and stripes should be matched.


STANDARD|GROUP

3.5.8 Spreading defects in garment:

Not enough plies to cover quantity of garments required. Plies misaligned, resulting in garment
parts getting cut with bits missing in some plies at the edge of the spread. Narrow fabric, causes
garment parts at the edge of the lay getting cut with bits missing. Incorrect tension of plies, i.e.
fabric spread too tight or too loose. This will result in parts not fitting in sewing, and finished
garments not meeting size tolerances.

3.5.9 Bulk cutting process:


First Fabric is received store in batch wise, Before issue fabric to cutting, QA department cross
check(As per buyer fabric approval shade ,G.S.M and other parameter of the buyer) every
supervisor must check before fabric received and give fabric dia by won measure the roll width .
Then Fabric relax about 6-8 hours according to fabric composition.

CAD section making marker as per given fabric roll measurement. Before plot the marker lay
length must be measured and checked by supervisor. As per marker requisition, plot marker
supply to the table supervisor. On the table marker length, width checked by consumption
checked supervisor. After lay cuter man checked the mini marker and lay marker like job, style,
buyer, then cutting. At the time of cutting cuter man must careful when cut critical shape, half
fold, notch, apart and others issue and signature on docket.

3.5.10 Sorting/Bundling:
The sorter sorts the patterns according to size and design and makes bundles of them. This step
requires much precision because making bundles of mismatched patterns can create severe
problems. On each bundle there are specifications of the style size and the marker too is attached
with it.

3.5.11 Sewing/Assembling:
The sorted bundles of fabrics are now ready to be stitched. Large garment manufacturers have their own
sewing units other use to give the fabrics on contract to other contractors. Stitching in-house is preferable
because one can maintain quality control during the processing.

3.5.12 Cutting defects in garment:


Failure to follow the marker lines resulting in distorted garment parts. Top and bottom plies can
be a different size if the straight knife is allowed to lean, or if a round knife is used on too high a
spread. Notches, which are misplaced, too deep, too shallow, angled, omitted, or wrong type to
suit fabric .Drill marks, which are misplaced, wrong drill to suit fabric, omitted, not
perpendicular through the spread.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.6 Embroidery Section:


Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or
yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills,
and sequins. Embroidery is most often used on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim,
stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color.

Figure: Embroidery

3.6.1 Barudan EMbroidey m/c:


Machine Name: Barudan
Made : Unitech Engineering ltd, Japan
Machine RPM: 1000Machine type: Automated m/
Amount of thread: 9 Thread
Head of the m/c : 20
Software use : Wilcom
Save Format : Tajima (DTS).

Figure: Barudan Embroidery M/C

3.6.2 Types of Stitch used in Embroidery:


1. Run Stitch
2. Tripple Run Stitch
STANDARD|GROUP
3. Tatamy Stitch
4. Zigzag Stitch
5. Satin Stitch
6. E- Stitch
7. Motif Stitch
8. Counter Stitch
9. Program Split Stitch
10. Coil Stitch
11. Island Coil Stitch

3.6.3 Some Figure of Embroidery Stitch:

Figure: Zigzag Stitch Figure: Satin Stitch

Figure: E-Stitch Figure: Motif Stitch


STANDARD|GROUP

3.7 Sewing Section:

After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined
and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement.
Sewing section is the most important department of a garment manufacturing industry. Sewing
machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of
types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations.

A list of sewing machines which is used in apparel manufacturing and their application area-

1. Lock stitch/Plain/Regular sewing machine: This type of machines is used for all types
of garments.
2. Two needle lock stitch machine: This type of machines are used for decorative purpose.
It is used specially for sew woven fabric.
3. Chain stitch machine: It is used for sew both knit and woven fabric.
4. Double chain stitch machine: It also used for both knit and woven fabric sewing.
5. Over lock machine: It is used for knit and woven fabric sewing. In shirt over lock is
used in side seam, arm hole and sleeve.
6. Safety stitch over lock machine: It is used for give safety sewing in side seam, arm hole
and sleeve of a shirt. Knit and woven fabric both can be sewing by this machine.
7. Flat lock machine: flat lock machine is used for covering chain stitch. Flat lock is must
for producing knit wear. Bottom hole is produced by this machine.
8. Feed off the arm or Flat seamer with cylinder bed: It is used specially for the sleeve
inseam joining and inside seam joining of the pant.
9. Button hole machine: this machine is used for make hole in the apparel.
10. Button sewing machine: this machine is used for sew the button with the apparel.
11. Bar tack machine: Bar tack machine is mainly used in pant for belt loop joining, pocket
corner and zipper fly.
12. Blind stitch machine: This machine is used for special purpose. It is used for sew
bottom hem of the pant.
13. Kansai special machine: For special purpose this machine is used. Front flacket and
waist band of pant is sewing by this type of machine. Also this is a two needle machine
but distance between two needles will be 0.5 to 2.50 inch.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.7.1 Organ gram of Sewing Section:

GM Production

Production manager

Floor In Charge

Line Chief

Supervisor

Operator

Helper

3.7.2 Some Figure of Sewing Machine:

Figure: Lock stitch m/c Figure: Chain stitch m/c


STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Over lock stitch m/c Figure: Flat lock m/c

Figure: Kansai m/c Figure: Feed of the arm

Figure: Button attaching m/c


STANDARD|GROUP

3.7.3 Sewing Problems:


There are various types of sewing problems found in sewing floor. Among these problems the following
are the main

1) Problem of formation: It has four types as follows _


o Supplied stitch
Causes:

Loop size of needle is small


Bent needle
Tension variation of lopper and needle thread
o Staggered stitch (Stitch line is not parallel with seam line)
Causes:

Bent needle
Wrong needle point
Improper needle adjust
o Unbalanced stitch (If bobbin thread dose not work, it produces hole & forms this stitch)
Causes:

Incorrect tension of sewing thread


Incorrect passage of thread through guide
Insufficient lubrication
o Frequent thread breakage
Causes:

Improper unwinding
Higher thread tension
Excess heating
Lower quality thread

2) Seam pucker : It is caused for five purposes as follows _
Unequal stitch on fabric due to limitation of feed m/c
Fabric dimensional stability due to unequal shrinkage of one ply then other for washing
Extension of sewing thread due to tension
Sewing thread shrinkage after washing or ironing
STANDARD|GROUP

3.7.4 Sewing Efficiency Formula:

Produced min = Produced garments SMV (Output)


Available min = Manpower Working hrs 60 (min)

Example:
Here,
SMV = 17
Produced garments = 920 pcs
Working hrs = 8 hrs
Manpower = 45 persons
Efficiency =?

Produced min = 920 17


= 15640

Available min = 45 8 60
= 21600
STANDARD|GROUP

3.8 Washing Section:


The technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfortable and fashion of the
garments is called garment washing. Or, It is a technology by which outlook, size, comfort &
fashion of garments / apparels are change of modified and given old garment effect is called
Garment Washing.

3.8.1 Manpower Management Of Washing Plant:

Technical Advisor

Washing Manager

Washing & Dyeing Manager

Asst Dyeing Manager

Asst Washing In-charge

Shift In-charge

Machine Operator

Helper

3.8.2 Process flow chart of washing plant:

Garments received from sewing

Input into washing

Shade segregation

Dyeing

Dryer

Inspection

Washing
STANDARD|GROUP
Dryer

Shade Inspection Hand feel

Grinding

Softening( wash/Dry)

Inspection

Delivery

3.8.3 Purpose of washing:


Washing process of garment is done to create wash look appearance. After washing the
garments create a new looks which seems the new touch of fashion.

By the washing technique, faded/old look, color or tinted affect is created in the garments
which also seem the best touch of garments.

Washing technique creates new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, Blasting,
whickering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, P. P spray, handcrapping, P.P
sponging etc. This also seems the best touch of garments.

The main and important function of washing is to reduce size materials as a result the
garment become size free and become soft hand feel.

When these soft garments are touched then it seems to best touch of garments.

To attraction the customers/Buyer by different types of Fashionable washing and market


developments.

Due to washing, shrinkage occurs in the garments. There is no possibility of further


shrinkage of the wash garments.

Any dirt, spot or germ if added in the garments during manufacturing is also removed due
to washing
STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.4 Types of Washing:


Dry process
Wet process

Different types of dry processes are-

Sand Blasting

Hand Scraping

Permanent wrinkle

Over all wrinkle

P.P Spray

P.P Sponging

Grinding & Destroy

Broken & Tagging.

Different types of wet processing are-

Normal wash/Garments wash/Rinse wash

Pigment wash

Caustic wash

Enzyme wash

Stone wash

Bleach wash (Ice wash& snow wash)

Stone Enzyme wash

Acid wash

Silicon wash

Dip Dyeing

Tie & Dye etc


STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.5 Machine which are used in washing plant:

Sample washing Machine (Horizontal / Vertical Type)

Washing Machine (Side loading)

Washing Machine (Front loading)

Hydro extractor Machine

Dryer Machine (Steam)

Dryer Machine (Gas)

Chemical Mixture Machine

Industrial Oven (Gas/Electric)

Boiler

Submersible Pump

Grinding Machine

Tagging Machine

Steam chamber for crinkle

E.T.P (Effluent Treatment Plant)

Generator

Sand Blasting Gun

Sand Blasting chamber

Spray gun and dummy

Screw compressor
STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.6 Some Chemical names which are used in washing plant:


Enzyme

Acetic Acid

Detergent

Antistain

Bleaching powder

Sodium hyposulfite

Caustic Soda

Soda Ash

Sodium Bicarbonate

Potassium permanganate

Cationic / nonionic Flax softener

Micro Emulsion Silicon

Salt (sodium chloride)

Buffer

Hydrogen peroxide

Stabilizer

Fixing agent

Catanizer

Optical Brightner

Resin

Sodium Metabisulphite

Desizing agent
STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.7 Procedure of Garment Washing:


1. Garments can be inverted to minimize unwanted abrasion streaks (especially useful when
preset creases are present).
2. Load machine with garments.
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent.
4. Drain.
5. Rinse.
6. Fill machine with water and heat to 60C. The liquor ratio can range from 10:1 to 20:1. A
number of synthetic detergents can be used. Also, alkaline products such as soda ash or caustic
soda can be added in amounts ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 grams/liter. Some chemical suppliers offer
special products that accelerate the wash down process, dependent upon the particular dyestuff
used.
7. Wash/tumble action for 20-60 minutes, depending upon desired effect.
8. Drain and rinse.
9. Apply softener.
10. Tumble dry.
11. Invert garments, if previously turned.
12. Press, if required.

3.8.8 Various types of dry process on the denim garments:


Sand Blasting
Sand blasting is recently a popular dry process & fashion. It is a mechanical process of creating
fading affect/old looking affect on heavy garments like denim, canvas, twill, sometimes corduroy
by the action of aluminum oxide which looks like sand. For this reason this process termed as
Sand blasting. Sand Blasting is generally doing which area that long time used/wear the
garment fading effect occurs. By sand blasting at new position old/fading affect on garment
comes before use/wear. Sand blasting is performed with combine the wash like, Normal/Rinse
wash, Enzyme wash, Stone enzyme wash, Bleach wash, Stone wash and tinting/dyeing etc.

Figure: Sand Blasting


STANDARD|GROUP
Hand Scrapping
To create the impression or visibility of pocketing fabric of any inside materials visibility to the
face side of the jeans pants with the help of emery paper scrapping is called hand scrapping.
It is sometimes used as alternatives to sand blasting in some cases.

Figure: Hand Scrapping

Whisker
To make whisker first, Buyers given design is plotted on a tracing paper. Then from the tracing
paper the design is transferred to the ply-wood or gas kit. The next step is to place foam rubber
according to the design on ply wood with the help of solution gum. Finally, the upper surface of
the rubber is grinded to a slope or spherical shape and the whisker pattern is prepared. Now this
pattern is entered through the front opening of the pant and rubbing is done by emery paper at
320 ppm to 500 ppm. Thus the effect produced on the pant is called whisker.

Figure: Whiskering

Wrinkle
The process is one kind of resin finishing process. In this process of applying resin on textile
materials, resin form cross-linking inside the amorphous region and block the free hydroxyl (-
OH) group and prevent hydrogen bond formation and thus improve wrinkle free finishing.
Mainly it is applied on twill fabric, single jersey and denim fabric.
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Wrinkle

3.8.9 Some wet process:

Normal Wash:
Process in which heavy or slight soiling is removed and transferred to the water in the form of a solution
or dispersion. Washing has the effect of cleaning surfaces. The resulting effect is several physical/
chemical processes (Washing process). Washing and cleaning constitute a complex process, during which
soiling is removed by means of physical separation, with or without substance conversion, from a
substrate

Enzyme Wash:
Enzyme Wash is usually done on the garments made of heavy fabric like denim. For Enzyme
Wash we must use cellulose enzyme. The cellulose enzyme hydrolyses the
projecting hairy cotton fabrics on the fabric surface and also removes colors.

Bleach Wash:
Bleach wash or light stone wash refers to light blue shades of denim. The additional step is
bleaching to stone wash. This bleaching is usually carried out by strong oxidizing agents. In
industry, most widely used chemicals are sodium hypo-chlorite, calcium hypo-chlorite, hydrogen
per oxide and potassium permangate.

Acid Wash:
During Acid wash, pumic stones are used. By the action of pumic stones, irregular fading affect
is developed on the heavy garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. The pumic
stones act a brushing action on the garment fabric surface. The area where more brushing action
takes place there more dicolour or fadding affect is developed and the area where less brushing
action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fadding affect will be developed. The
multi-layer fabric areas like collar, calf, pocket, placket, side seam etc area will be brushed
more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fadding affect will be developed on the
STANDARD|GROUP
garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid
wash technique.

Stone wash:

Stone washing is a textile manufacturing process used to give a newly manufactured cloth
garment a worn-in (or worn-out) appearance. Stone-washing also helps to increase the softness
and flexibility of otherwise stiff and rigid fabrics such as canvas and denim.

The process uses large stones to roughen up the fabric being processed. The garments are placed
in a large horizontal industrial clothes washer that is also filled with large stones. As the wash
cylinder rotates, the cloth fibers are repeatedly pounded and beaten as the tumbling stones ride
up the paddles inside the drum and fall back down onto the fabric.

Figure: Dryer Machine Figure: Pumic stone


STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.10 Process of Enzyme wash for twill skirt: Qty: 250 pcs
Process Chemicals Qty (gm) Temp Time(min) Water Rmks
1. Desizing
2. H. peroxide
Desizing 3. Caustic
4. Softener
5. Anti staining
Rinse Water By two times
1. Acetic acid 100 gm
2. Enzyme 1500 gm
Enzyme 3. Anti Stain 1000 gm 50 65 400 ltr
1st 4. Stone

Rinse Water By two times


1. Acetic acid
2. Enzyme
Enzyme 3. Anti stain
2nd 4. Stone

Rinse Water By two times


1. K.C.I
Bleach 2. Starcione (japan)
3. Stone
4. Potas
Rinse Water By two times
1.Hypo
Neutralize 2. Meta bisulphite
3. Oxalic acid
Rinse Water By two times
1. Caustic
2. H. Peroxide
Oxidation 3. Soda ash 1000 gm 70 10 400 ltr
4. Detergent 500 gm
Rinse Water By two times

Dyeing

Rinse Water By two times


1. Softener 1500 gm
2. Silicon 30 10 400 ltr
Softening 3. Acetic acid
4. Anti-ozn softener
STANDARD|GROUP

3.8.11 PP Spray (KMnO4: Potassium per Manganese Spray):

10 g KMnO4 in 1 liter
0r + Lubricant 1%
5 g KMnO4 in 1 liter

Here, pp spray done in two ways


1. Garments placing on a cabinet
2. Garments wearing in mannequin and hanging on booth machine and water flowing
behind this then KMnO4 solution is sprayed according to the requirement. After spraying
the garments look grayish brown. Then it is neutralized with Sodium metabisulphite.
Finally, faded (white) effect is produced.
KMnO4+ H3PO4 Rapid white effect
Caution:
-The worker must put on mask and hand gloves.
-There must have back glass fountain system to avoid spreading of KMnO4 in air.
-It is never done on grey garments. The garments must be resized before spraying.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.9 Finishing Section:


In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth
into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or
fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile or clothing. The
precise meaning depends on context.

Some finishing techniques such as bleaching and dyeing are applied to yarn before it is woven
while others are applied to the grey cloth directly after it is woven or knitted. Some finishing
techniques, such as fulling, have been in use with hand-weaving for centuries; others, such as
mercerization, are byproducts of the Industrial Revolution.

3.9.1 Organ gram of Finishing Section:

GM Production

Finishing Manager

Finishing In Charge

Finishing Supervisor

Finishing Helper
STANDARD|GROUP

3.9.2 Process Flow Chart of Garment Finishing:


Finishing machine


Finishing input (style, color & size wise)

Initial quality check

Spot Removing

Ironing/Pressing

Inspection

Hang tag

Get up change

Folding

Poly

Bar code (buyer wise sticker)

Metal check

Cartooning/Packaging

Final inspection by buyer
STANDARD|GROUP

3.9.3 List of Accessories Used in Finishing Section:


Main Level
Size Level
Care Level
Hang Tag
Bar code Sticker
Poly Bag
Tag Pin
Carton
Hang Tag String
Clip
Paper Gum Tape
Silica Jel
Tissue Paper

3.9.4 Garments Finishing:


Garments finishing means, mainly applies of pressing, folding & packing of garments.

Figure: Garments finishing m/c

Pressing
Pressing is a finishing process done by a cloth to heat and pressure with or without steam to
remove creases and to impart a flat appearance to the cloth or garments. In garment industries
pressing is also called ironing. After completing pressing the garments have to be folded.
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Pressing

Folding
After completing pressing, the garments are folded with a predetermine area. Garments are
folded according to the buyers direction, requirements in a standard area.

Figure: Folding

Folding classification depends on the fabric types. There are mainly four types of folding. They
are

Stand up: Collar is folded and situated at 90* angle.

Semi stand up: Collar is folded with body and situated at 45 degree angle.
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Semi stand up

Flat pack: Collar is separated as a hole on the body of shirt.

Figure: Flat pack

Hanger pack: shirt is packed and transported by hanging on the hanger.

Figure: Hanger pack


STANDARD|GROUP
At the end of the folding, garments are placed into a polythene packet.

Packing
After folding, garments are packing the size of polythene packet is permanent. Specially, it is
needed to ensure the placement of sticker in proper place.

Figure: Packing

Barcode
Barcode is a specially Buyer wise sticker.
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Barcode

Assortment:
After completing the packing of garments, it must be placed the garments in a predetermined
pack by sorting according to the size and color then garments are packed into inner box
according to the size and color. This process working in order is called assortment.

Figure: Assortment

Metal Check:
Checking the metal type component into the garments or with its accessories like button, zipper
etc. is called metal check.

Figure: Metal Check


STANDARD|GROUP

Cartooning:
At last cartooning or packing the garments according to Buyer comment. The process of packing
of inner boxes entered into the carton is called cartooning. The carton is properly warped by the
scotch tape. Some information like carton box no, size, shipping mark and the destination are
printed on the carton.

Figure: Cartooning

Final inspection:
Final inspection is made by buyer. He checks the garments according some rules like AQL.

Figure: Final inspection

Spot Removing:
Spot removing is one of the special inspections which are done after initial quality check.
STANDARD|GROUP

Figure: Spot removing


STANDARD|GROUP

3.10 IE Section:
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex
processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, implementation and
evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy,
materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences
together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate
the results to be obtained from such systems or processes.

3.10.1 Responsibilities of IE:


Though the time study and motion study are the most common function of Industrial engineer,
the some other responsibilities are

1. Planning layouts
2. Monitoring Production flow system
3. Deicide the machines and attachments for all style
4. Pay system
5. Monitoring and improve the operator performance
6. Operator training
7. Production control system
8. Quality control
9. Others

3.10.2 IE Department Working Procedure:

Merchandisers receive tack pack from buyer



Buyer co-ordinate

IE section

Pre-sampling meeting comments (style analysis)

Pattern section

Pattern check according to style analysis

Sample section

Attachments and folder direction from IE section

STANDARD|GROUP
Pre-sampling meeting comments check with the sample

Simplifying the operation

Costing productivity

Confirmed style machine requirement/ Style evaluation report

Operation bulletin making & SMV calculating

SMV & learning curve entry to 1st react for planning

Collect the next style details

Sample collect & folder attachment

Process break down collect

Primary layout & line fitting

Method study

After five days make the time study for line balance

After eight days target set according to five day analysis

Final report

3.10.3 Tools of Industrial Engineering:


The main aim of tools are to improve the productivity of the organization by optimum utilization
of organizations resources: men, materials, and machines. The major tools used in industrial
engineering are:

1. Production planning and control.


2. Inventory control.
3. Job evaluation.
4. Facilitates planning and material handling.
5. System analysis.
6. Linear programming.
7. Simulation.
8. Network analysis.
9. Queuing models.
10. Assignment.
11. Sequencing and transportation models.
STANDARD|GROUP
12. Games theory and dynamic programming.
13. Group technology.
14. Statistical techniques.
15. Quality control.
16. Decision making theory.
17. Replacement models.
18. Assembly line balancing.

3.10.4 Basics Techniques of Industrial Engineering:


There are some basic terms, which are important to know before learning IE. A short description
of these terms are highlighted below:

Capacity Study:
It is exactly the measure of the operator same as capability. It means the operator is capable of
achieving the performance measured by the study. The major Need for capacity study is to set
Quotas, to motivate operator, and to measure the productions section capacity. By measuring the
individual operator capacities, supervisor can determine the overall capacity of their section. It is
simply the some of individual capacity.

Benefits of Capacity Study:

1. Check targets
2. Motivate operators
3. Measure section production capability

Work Study:
It is a scientific method which ensures measurement of work content of a job & takes recourse to
better method of doing it & thus realizes the best utilization of human, machinery & other
resources of an organization.

Benefits of work- study:


1. It improves productivity at a cheap cost.
2. It can be easily & quickly implemented.
3. It provokes benefit as soon as it is applied and continues till it is sues.
4. It can reduce hazard by developing safer mode of work.
5. Production quota can be determined for daily or hourly works.
6. Production capacity of mill or machine may be determined.
7. Balanced number of machine & worker may be determined.
STANDARD|GROUP

Types of work study:


1. Work measurement
2. Method study

Work measurement:

Work measurement is the technique designed to set up time required by a qualified worker to
accomplish a task at a define rate of working. This technique is used to standard time.

Types of work measurement:


1. Time study
2. PMTS
3. Past record

Types of PMTS:
1. G.S.D
2. Sew easy

Advantage of work measurement:

1. Set the time/Target


2. Production planning & control
3. Manpower allocation
4. Determine the cost
5. Implement & maintain proper incentives Cheam
6. Calculated efficiency.

Method study:
Method study is the systematic recording & critical analysis of ways of doing a job so as to make
improvements it analyzes how a work is being done currently to find out ways to improve so that
productivity increases. Method study discovers suitable and easier method of work so that the
task can be completed quickly.

Types of method study:


1. Use of human body
2. Arrangement of work place
3. Design tools & equipment
4. Objective of method study:
STANDARD|GROUP
Objectives of method study:
1. To know about the procedure of industrial engineering (IE) section.
2. To know about the layout system.
3. To know about the work study.

Time study:
To determine the time it should take for a qualified worker to perform a specific task using a
specific method by directly observing an operator.

Flowchart of time study:

Time Study
Time study

SMV

BASIC TIME ALLOWANCE

Observed time Standard rating Relaxation Allowance Machine delay


Allowance

Observed rating Contingency Allowance

Skill Effort
STANDARD|GROUP

SMV:
One of the tasks done by the IE department is to calculate the time taken to make a specific
garment. This is usually called a SAM ( Standard Allowed Minute ), although some factories call
this the Standard Minute Value (SMV).
SAM (or SMV) means the time (in minutes) that it takes a worker to complete a specific
operation or produce a specific garment. The SAM is often calculated by using a stopwatch.
Sometimes its done by looking at a special table of times that have already been calculated, for
every task needed to make a garment.

Calculation of SMV:
SMV = basic time + (basic time * allowance)
Basic time = observed time * rating
Observed time = total cycle time / no of cycle

If time for sewing a side seam of a T-shirt is 20, 20, 18, 22 and 20 seconds

Observed time = (20+20+18+22+20)/5


= 20
If workers rating is 0.80
Basic Time = Observed Time* Rating
= 20 * 100/80
= 25
SMV= Basic Time + (Basic Time*Allowance)
= (25 +25*15%)/60
= (25 + 3.75)/60 = 28.75/60 = 0.48

3.10.5 Lean:
Lean is a Culture which ensures a beautiful and suitable environment of work. Under Lean
culture, working equipments must be well arranged, Working place must be clean, all the
workers and staffs must be disciplined and production of products is carried out following a
definite plan.

It is a comprehensive set of techniques which combined allows you to reduce and


eliminate the wastes.

Lean is the systematic approach to identify and eliminate waste through continuous
improvement by flowing the product or service.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.10.6 Lean Principles:


The major five principles of Lean are as follows:

Principle 1: Accurately specify value from customer perspective for both products and
services.

Principle 2: Identify the value stream for products and services and remove non-value
adding waste along the value stream.

Principle 3: Make the product and services flow without interruption across the value
stream.

Principle 4: Authorize production of products and services based on the pull by the
customer.

Principle 5: Strive for perfection by constantly removing layers of waste.

3.10.7 Lean Environment:


Lean Environment delivers right-sized operational and technical solutions to reduce waste and
comply with regulations.

Figure: Impact of Lean


STANDARD|GROUP
Before Lean

Larger Production Line


Long time needed to execute an operation
Production floor was randomly arranged
Lots of wastages
Lack of safety in Workplace

After Lean

Small production line


Decreased Production time
Production floor is well arranged.
Wastages are eliminated
Workplace is Safe

Special tasks of lean department


To do time study
To do method study
To do motion study
To do pre-determined motion study
Efficiency Study
To find out SMV
Find out production capacity
Target
To make lay out design

3.10.8 5s system:
5 S Is a systematic 5 step method of organizing a work place / home or a school.

Brief description of 5S elements are as follows:

1. Sort: The first step in making things cleaned up and organized.

2. Set In Order: Organize, identify and arrange everything in a work area.

3. Shine: Regular cleaning and maintenance.

4. Standardize: Make it easy to maintain, simplify and standardize.

5. Sustain: Maintain what has been achieved.


STANDARD|GROUP

Objectives of 5s:
To reduce wasted effort
To reduce wasted time
To reduce wasted money
To reduce accidents
To reduce stress
To improve customer services

5s can be applied
In Homes
In Schools
In Offices
In Factories
In Hospitals
In Work-sites
In Military Establishments
In Fact anywhere

Figure: Impact of 5s System


STANDARD|GROUP

3.11Quality Assurance:
Quality Assurance refers to administrative and procedural activities implemented in a quality
system so that requirements and goals for a product, service or activity will be fulfilled. It is the
systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of processes and an associated
feedback loop that confers error prevention. This can be contrasted with quality control, which is
focused on process output.

3.11.1 Benefits of Quality Systems:


The importance of properly established and managed quality control and quality assurance
systems with their integral well-written SOPs and other quality documents for the achievement
of Company business objectives cannot be ignored. They serve as a passport to success by
assisting the Company to achieve high-quality processes, procedures, systems, and people, with
eventual high-quality products and services and enhancement of the following:

Customer satisfaction, and therefore, customer loyalty and repeat business and referral;
Timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework;
Operational results such as revenue, profitability, market share and export opportunities;
Alignment of processes with achievement of better results;
Understanding and motivation of employees toward the Company quality policy and
business objectives, as well as participation in continual quality improvement initiatives;
and
Confidence of interested parties in the effectiveness and efficiency of the Company as
demonstrated by the financial and social gains from Company performance and
reputation.

3.11.2 Quality Assurance Procedure:


Based on the sequence of grey inspection, the inspector serially numbers each roll ensuring that
all rolls having the knit card with complete details of the roll.

1) After production of fabric rolls of 8 to 25 kg, m/c operators cut them from the cloth
or batch roller and they are carried to inspection section by the helpers.

2) Almost four inspection workers are for every shift to check the fabric rolls. For any
kind of fault they are checked thoroughly. Skilled inspectors find them and indicate them by the
scissors in some cases.

3) Quality is specified on the basis of 4-points system. Here is the point distribution for
different kinds fault in this system:-
STANDARD|GROUP

FOUR POINT GRADING SYSTEM


Size of defects Penalty
3 inches or less 1 point
Over three inch but not 6 inch 2 point
Over 6 inch but not 9 inch 3 point
Over 9 inch 4 point

THICK, THIN, DIRT, OIL SPOT, CONTAMINATION:

Up to 3 in length: 1 Pt
Up to 6 in length: 2
Up to 9 in length: 3
Up to 9 in length: 4
Quality Pts / per 100 square meter= (Total point * GSM)/ (Roll weight*10)
Quality inspectors seal on the fabric rolls as CHECK-1, OK & REJECT as according as
quality classification.

3.11.3 Different Fabric Fault:


Fault name of fabric View of fabric
Knot
Oil sport
Slub
Broken pattern
Hole


/ =

3.11.4 Quality Classification:

1 2 3
<20 20-30 30>
OK ASK REJECT
STANDARD|GROUP

Example:

For 100 square yds inspection.

Defects length Number of faults Number of points


3 inches or less 10 101 = 10
Over 3 inch but not 6 inch 5 52 = 10
Over 6 inch but not 9 inch 2 23 = 6
Over 9 inch 0 04 = 0
Total = 26

So the fabric is acceptable.


STANDARD|GROUP

3.11.5 Following table shows common body faults and response by grey
inspection section

Fabric inspection in Trims &


store (4-point Accessories Shade matching
system) inspection

Visual inspection
during spreading Bias check Shrinkage test

Cut parts inspection Size set check Shade checking

Design/ Visual inspection In line inspection


Measurement check of finished during sewing
garments (several times)

Visual inspection of every


garment after finishing on the Get up Shade and size set
basis of different Zone (Front, check check
back, hem etc)

Measurement
Final inspection before
Metal/ Needle check after
packing
check ironing
STANDARD|GROUP

3.11.6 Workflow chart of quality assurance department:

Final inspection Giving approval to


of Fabric & 20% random
issue fabric and Marker check inspection of
Accessories in accessories
store cut parts

Get up check Sewing final In process audit Line Process


check during sewing check

Random audit Final size set Final inspection


after get up check check using AQL 4.0
system

3.11.7 Important of Quality Control:


1. Buyer requirement such as, right product, right quality, right quantity, right packing etc.
2. To stop bad work from leaving the factory & reaching the customers.
3. To help people making things correct the first time.

3.11.8 AQL (Acceptable Quality Level):


In Standard Group they normally AQL 4.0 for final inspection. But sometime AQL 2.5 is also
used due to buyer recommendation.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.11.9 AQL Chart:

AQL 2.5 4
Lot size Units to be inspect Acceptable Units to be inspect Acceptable
26-90 3 0 4 1
91-280 13 0 13 1
281-500 20 1 20 2
501-1200 32 2 32 3
1201-3200 50 3 50 5
3201-10000 80 5 80 7
10001-35000 125 7 125 10
35001-150000 200 10 200 14
150001-500000 315 14 315 21
500001-Over 500 21 315 21
STANDARD|GROUP

3.12 Labtex:
LabTEX Services is the first 3rd party local textile testing company in Bangladesh to achieve
ISO/IEC 17025:2005 certification. LabTEX started its commercial operation in September, 2005
to give quick, premium, and reliable laboratory and testing support to the various needs of
apparel and textile exporting companies in Bangladesh. Main services are testing garments,
fabrics, and accessories in accordance with different international standards. It also provide
technical consultancy for improving product quality, Quality assurance training for garments,
fabrics and accessories, as well as organize technical seminars.
Its goal is to provide total satisfaction to our customers, through quality services and
maintaining complete security, confidentiality, and integrity of test results.

Its services include testing of garments, fabrics and accessories in accordance with different
international standards such as AATCC, ASTM, BSI, etc. We provide technical consultancy to
customers for improving product quality, as well as, conduct quality assurance training and
organize technical seminars.

Facilities:
ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 certified.
Over 6,000 Square Feet.
Frequent correlation program with ITS, Bureau Veritas, SGS, etc.
Lead in Substrate (XRF Screening Method), Munsell Hue & Ishihara test.
Yearly calibration and regular maintenance by certified technical persons.

3.12.1 Quality Policy


Maintaining quality and attaining customer reliability in work is the founding pillar of labTEX
Services. The company has adopted a quality policy, which is documented in all areas of the
business. All employees must be aware of the following company policies which labTEX has
inherited:

To maintain a management system which meets the requirements of ISO/IEC


17025:2005,
To render Laboratory testing services for textile/garment products as per national and
International standard methods,
To ensure customer requirements and quality for rendering services through good
professional practices,
To make all personnel familiarized with the quality documentation and implement the
policies and procedures in the laboratory, and
To continually improve the effectiveness of the management in compliance with this
standard.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.12.2 Master List of Chemical Test in Lab Tex:

Sl. Test Properties AATCC Method ISO Method Other


No. Method
1 pH Value AATCC 81:2006 ISO 3071 /
2 Color Fastness to Chlorine & / / In-House
Non-Chlorine Bleach
3 Formaldehyde Spot Test / / In-House
4 Nickel Spot Test / / In-House
5 Formaldehyde Content AATCC 112:2008 ISO 14184-1&2 JIS 1041
6 Color Fastness to AATCC 15:2007 ISO105 E04, BS DIN 54020
Perspiration 1006 E04
7 Color Fastness to Sea Water AATCC 106:2007 ISO 105 E02, BS /
1006 E02
8 Color Fastness to Washing AATCC 61:2007 ISO 105 C06, BS CAN/ CGSB-
1006 C01-C03, 4.2 No. 19.1
Test A-C/ ISO
105 C05
9 Color Fastness to Dry AATCC 132:2004 ISO 105 D01, BS /
Cleaning EN ISO 105 D01
10 Color Fastness to Saliva / / DIN 53160 &
35 LMBG
11 Fiber Content AATCC 20:2007 & ISO 1833 & BS /
AATCC 20A:2008 4407
12 Phenolic Yellowing / ISO 10518 Retailer
13 Dye Transfer in Storage AATCC 163:2007 / /
14 Color Fastness to Ozone AATCC 109:2005 ISO 105 G03, BS /
EN ISO 105G03
15 Chlorinated Pool Water AATCC 162:2002 ISO 105 E03 /
16 Color Fastness to Water AATCC 107:2007 ISO 105 E01, BS /
1006 E01
17 Ageing Test AATCC 26:2004 / /
18 Water Spotting AATCC 104:2004 ISO 105 E07, BS /
1606 Eo7
19 Lead in Substrate-XRF / / IEC 62321
Scanning (ED.1)
CHAPTER 6
STANDARD|GROUP

3.13 Design House:


Standard Groups design house focuses on design innovation and forward thinking. Our design
team has successfully provided theme, color, fabric, and trim inspiration to many of our
customers. Our design teams constantly develop new designs and our customers seek many of
these designs.

3.13.1 Areas of Excellence:


Trend Research/Forecasting
Fabric Direction
Tech Pack Specifications
Presentation Boards
Color Direction
Illustration/Artwork
Product Development
Garment Fit Evaluation
STANDARD|GROUP

3.14 Store Section:


A professionally managed Stores has a process and a space within, to receive the incoming
materials (Receiving Bay), keep them for as long as they are not required for use (Custody) and
then to move them out of stores for use (Issue).
In a manufacturing firm this process forms a cycle to maintain and run the activities of Stores.
The basic responsibilities of stores are to act as custodian and controlling agent for parts,
supplies, and materials, and to provide service to users of those goods.

Store has different sections, these are

1. Loading/ Unloading
2. Raw material stocks
3. Finished goods stocks.

3.14.1 Flow chart of store section:


Received the fabric

Pre inspection

Physical inventory

Inspection

Make the swatch card


STANDARD|GROUP

3.14.2 Accessories Store Inventory System for Raw Material:

Dyes & Chemicals Store

There is a different time for dyes & chemicals various types of dyes & chemicals are stored here
according to the dyes & chemical company.
Different types of dyes & chemicals are listed in a sheet. In the sheet the stored quantity of dyes
& chemicals are also included. Every day the sheet is updated & a copy of this sheet is supplied
to the AGM (production), Dye house & lab section.

Spares
In Standard Group required amount of spares of different machines are stored in the
mechanical store room. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical
& maintenance personnel. Spares are arranged in the store room according to there size, quantity
& requirements. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts.

Grey Fabric Store


All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store, near the batch section. Different types of fabrics
are listed in the sheet according to the fabric types, quantity & consumers requirement. Fabric
GSM, shrinkage, diameter & other properties are also taken into consideration. The batches are
prepared by taking the required fabrics from the grey store.

Finished goods
Standard Group supplies its finished dyed fabrics to its garments section. So, dyed finished fabrics
are stored for short time in the finishing section. All the delivered fabrics are noted on the tally
khata according to the lot no, quantity, fabrics diameter, buyers name, color & considering other
technical parameters.

Others
There is a central store at Standard Group In that store the various types of forms, papers; stationary &
other necessary goods are kept.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.15 Compliance Section:


Compliance is the state of being in accordance with the relevant Federal or regional authorities
and their requirements. In the context of financial services, the most important compliance rules
come from the Securities and exchange Commission. Most large financial services companies
have compliance terms whose rules is to take an independent stance in making sure that the
company is following all the necessary rules and regulations.

Standard Group is always welcoming in new international standards and compliances measures
set by International Agencies as well as our customers. Standard Group maintains a professional
culture that abides by an ethics, employee standards, industry standards, and legal compliances.
Our business growth is directly transformed into reality within these compliances.

Safety Compliance

Standard Group follows rigorous safety compliance for the safety of all our employees as well as
for the safeguard of company resources. Standard Group prioritizes safety as a major concern.
These safety regulations include fire safety, movement, worker health and safety and various
others

Legal Compliances

Standard Group strictly maintains the legal compliances set by the Government of Bangladesh as
well as the demanding compliances set by our customers throughout the world.
.

3.15.1 Activities of Compliance Department:


The success of garments industry pretty much depends on its public image. When a company
starts facing several court cases, the general public will lose their trust in the company and sales
in products and services will eventually drop. Compliance will ensure that a company can uphold
a positive image and build consumer trust. This also helps build consumer loyalty, since
customers are more likely going to return to a service or product from a company they identify as
trustworthy. For these reason this department plays vital role to build industries success so that
they can do their activities very carefully. All activities are following-
STANDARD|GROUP

Working environment
According to present world & demand of the buyer Standard Group has good environment policy
for their work. Following are the areas being gives to priority to ensure the provision of conduct
working environment.

Health and Hygiene


Cleanliness
Disposal of waste & effluents
Ventilation & Temperature
Dust & fumes
Lighting
Drinking water
Eye protection
Day care centre
Canteen facility to provide the hygienic food.

Safety condition

Garments industry is playing a pioneer role in a industrial fire of the country. In garments
industry most of the fire accidents take place due to electrical short circuit results from defective
electrical wiring design and system, inadequate fire protection & safety system, lack of
awareness of the worker and management.

Machine safety condition

All machines and equipments should be set very carefully. Use the machine guard.

Goods keeping

All goods should be kept systematically in the store so that anybody can walk without
any risk. There should be 3 to 4 distance from rack to rack.

Equipment & Plant

In the cutting machine there should be sufficient electricity and wearing should be good. No
machine should be set in the factory which is hazards for health.

Fire protection

There should be lot of fire protection equipment according to the instruction of fire service &
civil defense. Fire protection & exit layout of floor is posted at highly visible area of respective
floor. All emergency exit doors are able to be opened form the direction of exit travel without the
use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. Floor should have the fire alarm.
STANDARD|GROUP
Auto system

Factory has audio system so that any emergency announcement could be given in the audio
system. These are the policy this factory is applying for the safety condition. So we can say that
it is a well organized factory.

Facilities of stuff& Health service:


Cleanliness

Whenever darts & refuges are accumulated, these are seeped by the cleaner at once, from the
floor and passages.

Ventilation & Temperature

The factory profile is equipped with sufficient number of ceiling fans. South and east side of the
floor surrounded by the wider window which provides proper ventilation & circulation of the
fresh air.

Lighting & Drinking water

Glass fitted water windows are available which provide enough natural light as south side is
being obstructed.

Medical facilities

Company has their own medical section with doctor to serve the employee of the factory.

Day Care Facilities

Factory has a day care centre for his workers kids. The company is very much aware of and
maintaining the needs of buyer, worker management.

3.15.2 International Certificate achievement:


BSCI
ISO 9000
WRAP
OE
GOTS
FLA
SEDEX
STANDARD|GROUP

3.15.3 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)


Standard Group is one of the first garment manufacturing companies in Bangladesh. As a result,
we believe we have a responsibility to give back to society as much as possible. Standard Group
serves as a role model for many manufacturers and we believe that setting an example through
being socially responsible will benefit society exponentially. Some of the various CSR projects
completed at Standard include:

Brand new mosquito nets are provided to employees to protect employees from harmful
disease like Malaria and Dengue.
We help the community by providing free manufacturing skill training around various
parts of the nation.
Providing financial services to the community.
Educational loans and medical loans are provided to the community.

Providing poor villages with warm clothing during the winter.


STANDARD|GROUP

3.16 ETP Section:


Industries through waste liquor into rivers, canals etc. Before flowing this liquid to outwards, the
plant which treats this effluent to a harmless form for the environment is known as Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETP).

3.16.1 Nature of Effluent:


Waste generated in textile industry is essentially based on water- based effluent generated in the
various processes. Textile industry originates a complex huge volume of waste water containing
various chemical used in dyeing, printing and finishing processes. Many dyes which causes
intensive color in the waste water. The effluent generated in different step or processes is well
beyond the standard and thus it is highly polluted and dangerous.

3.16.2 Process Flow Chart of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP):

Collection Tank

Storage Tank

Mixing & Cooling

Neutralization

Chemical Coagulation

Biological Oxidation Tank

Sedimentation & Separation of Sludge

Sludge Thickener

Filtration

Discharge to Drain
STANDARD|GROUP

3.16.3 Main objects of ETP:


To remove coloring matter
To control pH
To maintain proper value of BOD, COD
To reduce TDS amount

Where,

BOD= Biological Oxygen Demand

COD= Chemical Oxygen Demand

TDS= Total Dissolved Solid

3.16.4 Types of Effluent Treatment Plant followed by Standard Group:


Now a days various types of ETP are available. But the physico- chemical treatment followed by
biological process is applied at Standard Group ETP.

3.16.5 Capacity of the ETP:


Daily treatment capacity = 120 m3/ hour

3.16.6 Maintenance procedure of ETP:


The workers of the ETP check the various valves, pipe line daily. The bearings are lubricated on
daily basis and weekly basis. If any kinds of parts are damaged, the ETP department notices to
the maintenance department for new one. In a short time the maintenance department manages
all problems because of running smoothly process of ETP.
STANDARD|GROUP

3.16.7 ETP plant Layout of Standard Group:

3.16.8 Flow diagram of the Standard Group ETP:

Equalization Tank pH Control Unit


Screening (Storage Tank) (Naturalization) Distribution Tank

Secondary Clarifier Decolonization Biological


Sludge Outlet (Sedimentation Tank) (Sedimentation Pocket) Oxidation
STANDARD|GROUP

3.17 Utility

3.17.1 Boiler:

Figure: Boiler

Boiler Specification

Boiler: 01
Types of boiler : Manufacturer
Capacity of the boiler : 10 ton/ hour
Source of the foul : Directly gas used
Gas consumption : 345 m3/shift
Rating : Min 8000 Max 8500 KW
Supply process : Min-15 Max-500 m bar
Control voltage : 230 V
Main volt : 400 V
Electric rating : 2389 KW
Type of burner : G70/ 2-A
Safety valve set : 10.5 kg
Manufacturer : LOSS INTERNATIONAL (GERMANY)

Boiler: 02
Types of boiler : Fire tube boiler
Capacity of the boiler : 8 ton/ hour
Source of the foul : Directly gas used
Gas consumption : 280 m3/shift
Rating : Min 8000 Max 8500 KW
STANDARD|GROUP
Supply process : Min-15 Max-500 m bar
Control voltage : 230 V
Main volt : 400 V
Electric rating : 2389 KW
Type of burner : G70/ 2-A
Safety valve set : 8.5 kg
Manufacturer : LOSS INTERNATIONAL (GERMANY)

3.17.2 Generator:

Figure: Generator

Generator Specification

Generator: 01
Type : Gas Generator
Brand Name : CATERPILLAR
Quantity : 2 Pieces
Origin :USA
Model No : G- 3516
Rated Power : 1287KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 400 Volts
Power Factor : 0.8
Water Temperature : 94 C
Mobile Pressure : 55 P S I
Gas Pressure : 10 P S I
STANDARD|GROUP

Generator: 02
Type : Gas Generator
Brand Name : Guascor
Quantity : 2 Pieces
Origin :USA
Model No : GU- 05246
Rated Power : 1190 KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 350 Volts
Power Factor : 0.8
Water Temperature : 87 C
Mobile Pressure : 55 P S I
Gas Pressure : 10 P S I

Generator: 03
Type : Diesel Generator
Brand Name : CATERPILLAR
Quantity : 3 Pieces
Origin :USA
Model No : 650-F
Rated Power : 591 KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 415/ 240 Volts
Power Factor : 0.8
Phase :3
Rated Current : 822.2 A
Water Temperature : 25 C

Generator: 04

Type : Diesel Generator


Brand Name : FG WILSON
Quantity : 1 Pieces
Origin :UK
Model No : P550E1
Rated Power : 550 KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 400/ 240 Volts
STANDARD|GROUP
Power Factor : 0.8
Phase :3
Rated Current : 794 A
Water Temperature : 27 C

Generator: 05

Type : Diesel Generator


Brand Name : FG WILSON
Quantity : 2 Pieces
Origin :UK
Model No : P600P1
Rated Power : 600 KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 400/ 240 Volts
Power Factor : 0.8
Phase :3
Rated Current : 866 A
Water Temperature : 27 C

Generator: 06

Type : Diesel Generator


Brand Name : FG WILSON
Quantity : 2 Pieces
Origin :UK
Model No : P660E5
Rated Power : 600 KVA
Frequency : 50 Hz
Engine R P M : 1500
Voltage : 400/ 240 Volts
Power Factor : 0.8
Phase :3
Rated Current : 953 A
Water Temperature : 27 C
STANDARD|GROUP

3.17.3 Air Compressor:

Figure: Air Compressor

Air Compressor Specification:

Machine No: 01
Model : E15-8, 5
Manufacturing Year : 2009
Motor : 15 KW
Capacity : 2, 27 M/ min
Rated Pr. : 8 kg/ cm
Quantity : 1 Piece

Machine No: 02
Model : E45-7, 5
Manufacturing Year : 2005
Motor : 45 kw
Capacity : 7, 561 M/ min
Rated Pr. : 7 kg/ cm
Quantity : 3 Pieces
STANDARD|GROUP

Machine No: 03
Model : E75-8
Manufacturing Year : 2008
Motor : 75 kw
Capacity : 13, 81 M/ min
Rated Pr. : 7 kg/ cm
Quantity : 5 Pieces
STANDARD|GROUP

Chapter: 4
Impact of Internship
STANDARD|GROUP

4. Impact of Internship
4.1 Garments Cutting Section:
I have acquainted Layout of Cutting Section.
I have learned Different types of marker.
I have acquainted of Fabric Spreading.
I have learned how to operate Cutting and numbering machine.
I have learned of Sewing thread consumption.

4.2 Garments Sewing Section:

I have acquainted Layout of Sewing Section.


I have learned with different types of sewing machine.
I have acquainted Layout of sewing machine (T- Shirt).
I have observed of sewing fault.
I have acquainted of Final Garments Checking.

4.3 Garments Finishing Section:

I have acquainted Layout of Finishing Section.


I have learned about Cartoon Consumption.
I have acquainted about Hanging.
I have acquainted of Sumbenig.
I have learned about Fabric alter.

4.4 Store:

I have learned of minimize losses from price declines.


I have acquainted with Functions of inventory control
I have observed of Procedure for inventory control
I have learned about Control of stores issue
STANDARD|GROUP

Chapter: 5
Conclusion
STANDARD|GROUP

5. Conclusion
Bangladesh is a developing nation. RMG Sector earns the Prime share of our foreign currency.
Development of this sector will definitely bring good fortune for our country. We being the
graduates of Textile Engineering must give our sincere effort to the future advancement of RMG
and related sector. Moreover from 1 January 2005, we will enter into the quota free world where
quality, less lead-time and low price will be the key to success. Standard Group being one of the
leading manufacturers of RMG gave us the opportunity to undergo two months of Industrial
training there which was extremely beneficial for us. Because no knowledge specially one like
Textile Engineering cannot be fulfilled without practical experience. It gives us the excellent
opportunity to combine our theoretical knowledge with the practical knowledge. Use of modern
equipments in manufacturing looking after the welfare of the workers, good management is the
key to success of a company which are well maintained in Standard Group. We sincerely hope
that this experience will give us the confidence required to apply our skill to boast this sector.