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thecurrentsin Fig.

terminal 22 Open-circuit

h19.19.

currents as output admittance

minal

A and D are dimensionless, can

40

be expressed in terms

B is in ohms, and of the

C isterminal

in siemen vo

apply a voltage source

the transmission

open as in Fig. 19.8(a). The procedure parameters

for calculatingprovidethe a direct relationship

h parameters betwee

is similar

0.625 S, y12 0.125 S, y21 0.375 S, y22 0.125 S.

ort NetworksV1 and z11 output

forI

Figure

1

the variables,

z

19.7 z12or

I 2

they are

y parameters. I 1 very

We y11

useful

apply

V 1 ayin cascaded

voltage

12 V 2

networks

or current

For Example 19.1.

Our last setport,

appropriate of parameters

short-circuit may(19.1) be ydefined byother

express

60

V2 z21I1 z22I2 I2 y21Vopen-circuit

or

1 V

22 2

the

Reminder: Only

por

tw

variables

arameters relates the variableson theat the output

parameterat the port

of in

interest,

input terms

port toand of the

perform

those variables

regular at the

circuit inp a

variables (V 1 , V 2 ,

t. Thus, We obtain

reciprocal I

1

networks,

20 30 2 I =0

h 12 h 21 . This can be proved

independent. in th

The

mHybrid

as or as

Parameters in we matrix

proved formthat as z + z . Figure 19.20 shows the hyb

12 21 be found using E

V + 40 V

a two-port network. y211 aV 1 V

c Id1 c closely drelated c d ch paramete

d

1 2

Ido

1 not V yexist. bI V1

earameters Vz111 AV

of

V2 to the output a

port

z122

two-port network always 12 11

So

c developing

d c d c setd of [z] c2 d IThis

V1 A IBI

1set2 of parameters to [y]

the

). Then,

for another (a)parameters.

I y221 cVy 1

(19.22)

(19.2)

third

22 V

setdIof21 V 2

V

(30 240)I2 Iz121 CV

z 22 2

parametersIDI

2 2 or I

inverse2 hybrid parameters. These are used

based on making

70 V1I y=and

ParametersThe termsI2 the aredependent

known asvariables. Thus, parameters (or,

the admittance

9.2 IImpedance

2 the 0terminal

1

20 30 currents

2 I

and

857 voltages as

ms are called the +impedance

parameters) and parameters,

have unitsorof simply siemens. z

oltages in terms of the V

have units of

s. Thus, the ideal trans-

ohms.1 The values + V

40 of the parameters

2 can be determined by settin

c d c d c 1port d short-circuited)

[T] c d 1

V1the

of

have AV1 B(input

hybridparameters

parameters, h 11 I 2

V

can 12V2 V2 by setting

be hevaluated orIV

2(19.23)

Ig1 11 01 g12port

0 V(output I2 short-circui

(19.14)

-circuited)

I1 CorI2ID I

0 (output

2 h21I12 h22V2 port

(b) I

open-circuited).

2 V2 g21V1 g22I2

Thus,

no dependent source in Figure 19.8

ig. 19.5(a). Comparing For Example 19.1: (a) finding z11 and z21,

` the ,trans-y12 `

2) and (19.23) relate the zinput

(b) finding and z .variables I(1V1 and I1) to I1

12 22

bles (VQUESTION:1

and I ). Notice that

Exampleiny11computing

19.1

` `

ig. 19.7. 2V 1 2 or V 1 V 1 V20 V 2 V10

ers,11I is used rather 12

z , z

20 I2, because

than the current is I1

z12 602I I2 30I10

1 Fig.` g19.31, `

1 I20 I I

c d c d c d c d

e z12leaving

70 the network, as shown y Iin 2 g12asy V

11 , (19.3) 1

2 V1

21 22 [g]

` ` V2

ing

e applythe V2 source as in Fig. 19.1(b).

network

a voltage V240 This Vis1 done

V 0 merely

g221 g22 I2 V 2 V 0I2

z21as

open in Fig. 19.8(a). , z22 1

Figure 19.7 V1 +

lintoFig.think

19.9. of I2 Since

QUESTION:2 as Forleaving

Practice the

Example 19.1.Problemtwo-port.19.1 It is also cus-

the y parameters are obtained by short-circuiting the in

60

wer industry toput consider

port, they I24 asare leaving

also calledthe two-port.

the short-circuit admittance pa

meters

rt parametersare obtained Eqs. by open-circuiting

inSpecifically, (19.22)

1 I and (19.23)

2 I the

= 0 input or out-

provide a

20 30

3

rea circuit

also called the open-circuit

transmits voltage andimpedance current from parameters.

a source

+

are useful in the yVanalysis 11+ Short-circuit

of transmission

40

inputV admittance

lines (such

1 2

er)Vbecause

2 to the outputthey Figure 19.9

port express Short-circuit

yFor12Practicesending-end

Prob. 19.1. variables

transfer (V1 and from Iport

admittance 1=0

2 to port 1

circuit

). Then, input impedance

he receiving-end variables (V(a) 2 and I 2). Foradmittance

this rea- from+port 1 to port 2V

(30 40)I2

y 21 Short-circuit transfer z12 =

circuit

led transfer

70 impedance

transmission parameters. fromThey portI 1are to also

port 2known as

I =0

rs.

I2

They are used y22in

1

the Short-circuit

20

design

30

2

of output admittance

telephone (19.4)

systems, V1

circuit transfer impedance + from port 2 to port 1 V

orks, and radars. V Following 40 Eq. (19.10), + V we obtain y

11 and y 21 by connec

z 22 =

circuit output impedance 1 2

ssion parameters are determined as

rent I1 to port 1 and short-circuiting port 2 as in Fig. 19.12(

2 1 2 1 2

860 Chapter 19 Two-Port Networks

QUESTION:3

100

100 j80I2 j20I2 1 I2 j

j100 For a two-port network that is linear and has

I1 I2

From Eq. (19.2.4), I1 j2(j) 2. Thus, the transfer admittances are equal (y12 y21). Th

+ z11 = 40 + same way as for the z parameters. A reciprocal netw

I1 2+l0 A, I 1l

z122 = j20 90 A modeled by the -equivalent circuit in Fig. 19.13(

100 0 V V1 V2 10

z21 = j30 reciprocal, a more general equivalent network is

z22 = 50

I1 I2 I1

.2 Figure

Calculate I1 and I2 in 19.10

the two-port of Fig. 19.11. y12

QUESTION:4 For Example 19.2. + + +

I1 I2 y12V2 y21V1

Solution: 2

This is not a reciprocal network.

+ Wez may use the equivalent

+ circuit in

11 = 6 (a) (b)

Fig. 19.5(b) but we can also use Eq.z12 =(19.1)

j4 directly. Substituting the

30 + V Figure 19.13 V2

2 V Eq. (19.1), z21 = j4

given z parameters into 1

(a) z-equivalent

=8 circuit (for reciprocal case only), (b) general equivalent circuit.

22

V1 40I1 j20I2 (19.2.1)

Since we areFor

QUESTION:5 Example

Practice

looking for I1 and19.3

Prob. 19.2.

I2, we substitute Obtain the y parameters for the network sho

V1 100l0,2 V2 10I2861 Solution:

Answer: 200l30 mA, 100l120 mA.

into Eqs. (19.2.1) and (19.2.2), which become

4 8 METHOD 1 To find y11 and y21, short-circ

wn in Fig. 19.16. 100 Problem

Practice 40I1 j20I19.3

2 (19.2.3)

connect a current source I1 to the input port as

3 Admittance Parameters 861

10I2 j30I21 50I2 6 1 I1 j2I2the 8- resistor is short-circuited, the 2- resi

(19.2.4)

mS, y22 136.36 mS. Figure 19.14 the 4- resistor. Hence,

Substituting Eq.For

wn in Fig.QUESTION:6

19.16. (19.2.4)

Practice

Exampleinto Eq. (19.2.3) gives

Problem

19.3. 19.3

V1 I1(4 7 2) I1,

4 I1

4 100 y11

3 V1

mS, y22 136.36 mS.100 j80I2 2j20I 2 16 I2

j100

j

By current division,

From Eq. (19.2.4), I1 j2(j) 24. Thus,

Figure 19.16

For Practice Prob. 19.3. 4 2 I2

I1 2 0 A, I2 1 90 A I 2 I1 I1, y21

l l 42 3 V1

Figure 19.16 To get y12 and y22, short-circuit the input port

hown in Fig. 19.17. For Practice Prob.Example

19.3. 19.4 source I2 to the output port as in Fig. 19.15(b

QUESTION:7

short-circuited so that the 2- and 8- resistor

19.2 Calculate I1 and I2 in theI1two-port of Fig.

2 2i I19.11.

2

V2 I2(8 7 2) I2,

8 I2 I2

us example.

own To get y11

in Fig. 19.17. + Example 19.4

+ y22 8

which port 2 is short- 5 V2 5I

I1 I2

I1 Vi1 2 84 8

4 V2 = 0

2i

t 1. At node 1, By current division,

z11 = 6

+ +

usexample.

0 To get y11 8 4 I1

which port 2 is short- z12 = j4

2 I1 I2 I2, y12

2 30 V i +

V1 V2 82

4

1. At node 1,

z = j4

8 (a) 4 21 5 V2

z22 = 8

0 I1

Figure 19.17 2 2

I2 METHOD 2 Alternatively, comparing Fig. 1

4 For Example

Figure 19.11

+

19.4. + 1

For Practice Prob. 19.2. y12 S y21

V1 = 0 4 8 V2 I2 2

I1

g22

I2 Thus, the inverse hybrid parameters are specific

ale80571_ch19_853-905.qxd

+ 11/30/11 3:20

+ PM Page 866 g11 Open-circuit input admitta

QUESTION:8

V1 g11 Practice Problem

g12I2 + g V19.4V2 g12 Short-circuit

Obtain the y parameters for the circuit in Fig.

reverse curre1

21 1

6 2

g21 Open-circuit forward volta

Answer: y11 0.625 S, y12 0.125 S, y21 0

g22 Short-circuit output imped

Figureio19.21

The g-parameter Figure 19.21 shows the inverse hybrid model

3 model of2iao two-port

866

network. The g 19

Chapter parameters

Two-Portare frequently used to model

Networks

At the output,

Figure 19.19 The z and y parameters of a two-port network d

For Practice Prob. 19.4. I2 0

19.4 QUESTION:9

Hybrid Parameters Example 19.5 865 there

Find is

thea hybrid

need forparameters

developingfor

another set of param

the two-port net

Substituting

parameters isEqs.

based(19.6.5) and (19.6.6)

on making V1 and Iinto

2 theEqs

dep

2 3 we obtain

obtain

Solution:

To find h11 and h21, we 60short-circuit

40I1 hthe output po

11I1 h12V

6 source I1 to the input portVas1 h11I1inFig.

shown h1219.23

V2

or

g. 19.24. Practice Problem 19.5 V I2 h21I137 h

I1(2 6)22

V24I

60 1 (h11 40)I1 h12V1

Figure 19.22 3 Hence,

and

400 mS.

22

Fig. 19.24.

QUESTION:10 Practice

For Problem

Example 19.5. 19.5 V1

0 h21I1 hh2211V2 4 I1

1

2 3 5 I1

h22 400 mS.

2 3 I2 Also, substituting

Now from Fig. 19.23(a) we obtain,

Eq. (19.6.8) by(19.6.7)

into Eq. current

Figure 19.242 5

60 cI

+ + 6 h22 2

For Practice Prob. 19.5. 2

(h 11 40) I1 h

I1

I1 V1 6 V2 = 0 6 3 h21 3 12

Figure 19.24 or

Hence,

QUESTION:11 For Practice Prob. 19.5.

t port of the circuit in Example 19.6 60 I2 2

(a) VTh V2 h

(h11 40)hh2221h21I

h 12 3 12

I1 = 0 402 3 I2

1

ut port of the circuit in Example 19.6 Substituting

To obtain h12theand

values

h22,ofwetheopen-circuit

h parameters,

the inp

h11 = 1 k

ure, keeping in mind the +

40 h12 = 2 voltage source V2 to the output

60 port

10 as in Fig

60 V + + V 29.69

h model. To obtain ZTh, V1 6 21 = 10

h V2 division, Th

h22

h11= =200 S

1 k 20.21

nd apply a 1-V voltage

dure, keeping in mind the h12 = 2 6 2

a). From Eq. (19.14),

h model. To obtain ZTh, 60 V + V1 V2 V2

h21 = 10

(b) h22 = 200 S

63 3

and apply a 1-V(19.6.1)

voltage Figure 19.25

QUESTION:12

6(a). From Eq. (19.14),

For Practice

Example

Figure 19.6.Problem 19.6

19.23 Find the impedance at the input port of the circ

Hence,

(19.6.2) For Example 19.5: (a) computing h11 and

(19.6.1) hFigure 19.25

21, (b) computing h12 and h22.

V1 2

into Eqs. (19.6.1) and For Example 19.6.

Answer: 1.6667 k. h12

h11 = 2 k V2 3

(19.6.2) h = 104 12

h21 = 100 50 k Also,

sehinto

12 Eqs. (19.6.1) and

(19.6.3) h22 = 105 S

0 h11 V2 (3 6)I2 9I2

h12 (19.6.4)

(19.6.3)

40 h11 Zin

I1 I2

Figure 19.27

(19.6.4) For Practice Prob. 19.6.

h12 h2240 +

s 40 40 V1

I1

[h]

I2

1V +

1h12 h2240 +

1)

mpedance

(19.29)

e

ain QUESTION:13 Example 19.7 Find the g parameters as functions of s for the c

in ohms and siemens, 1H 1F Solution:

1 In the s domain,

smission parameters, a

1

1H 1 sL s, 1F 1

1 (19.30) Figure 19.28 To get g11 and g21, we open-circuit the outpu

the g parameters in the

QUESTION:14 Practice

For Problem

Example 19.7. 19.7 voltage source V1 to the input port as in Fig. 19.2

as the transfer imped- 1H 1H V1

ly, we will be able to I1

s1

30) from the fact that

.

1 1

Figure 19.30

For Practice Prob. 19.7.

networkQUESTION:15

in Fig. 19.32. Example 19.8

I1 3I1 I2

10

open as in Fig. 19.33(a) +

ers

he input port. We have

l20I

voltages and currents 20

1 3I1 17I1

ould be dependent vari-

ny sets of parameters.

Figure 19.32

I1 For Example 19.8.

0.0588 S

17I1

port so that V2 0 as

ce V1 at the input port.

gives

(19.8.1)

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