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OTIS LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT) OF FIRST YEAR BSIT STUDENTS AND

THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN THE COLLEGE OF


INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

Ariel T. Sumagaysay, MSCS, MAEd

ABSTRACT
This descriptive study investigated the relationship between Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) and
the Academic Performance of 184 first year BSIT students of the CICT, STI WNU. The OLSAT findings
as a whole revealed that 1.1% of the students were Above Average; 42.4% were Average; 47.3% were
Below Average and 9.2% were Low. In the correlation between OLSAT and sex, the correlation is weak
with negative value of r which means that OLSAT increases in favor of the female group. In the academic
performance, the students were found to be Superior (3.3%), Above Average (16.3%), Average (60.9%),
Below Average (15.8%) and Low (3.8%). In the correlation between academic performance and sex, the
correlation is weak with a negative value of r which means academic performance increases in favor of the
female group. It however showed a positive and moderate correlation between OLSAT and academic
performance when taken as a whole. In the correlation between OLSAT and academic performance when
grouped according to sex, it is significant in the female group only. The study, therefore, recommends
opportunities for remedial and tutorials classes and enhancement training for teachers on dealing with low
scorers, underachievers, and slow learners especially for male students.
Keywords: Academic Performance, Otis Lennon School Ability Test, BSIT Students.

INTRODUCTION
A test is a series of questions, problems, or practical tasks to gauge somebody's knowledge, ability, or
experience. It is also a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the
understanding and prediction of behaviour (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013). Tests such as entrance tests are
administered to graduates of secondary education, transferees and foreign students who are interested to
enrol in a particular college or university. Examples of these tests include Scholastic Achievement Test or
Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) and Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT).
SAT and OLSAT are designed to objectively measure the academic aptitude of students from varying
social backgrounds and with different educational experience. OLSAT series in particular, formerly known
as Otis Group Intelligence Scale which were based on Dr. Arthur Otis graduate study at Stanford
University, in which he sought to develop a group administrable method of measuring the same general
ability as the StanfordBinet in 1918. These series of test was designed to provide an accurate and
efficient measure of the abilities needed to acquire the desired cognitive outcomes of formal education.
This complex of abilities, sometimes designated scholastic aptitude is what is intended by the term
school ability as it is used here. (Otis and Lennon, 1979). Most colleges and universities require these
tests as part of the application process for admission in tertiary education. The schools use the scores of
these tests to assess students performance in different areas in higher education.
STI West Negros University like most schools utilizes OLSAT as primary requirement for admission in
any undergraduate degree programs such as Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT) and
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science (BSCS) offered in the College of Information and
Communications Technology (CICT). With the aid of these tests, CICT will have a profile of the
applicants for admission in BSIT and BSCS degree programs. The tests will measure what they have
learned from previous academic level. The indicator for the effort of those pursuing the degree program
such as BSIT or BSCS is shown in their academic performance which is measured in Grade Weighted
Average (GWA) computed every end of the semester.
Research Problems
This study is a replication and aims to determine the relationship between the Otis Lennon School Ability
Test (OLSAT) and academic performance of First Year BSIT students of the College of Information and
Communications technology.
Specifically, it sought to:
1. Ascertain the profile of the First Year BSIT students on the Otis Lennon School Ability Test
(OLSAT).
2. Find the significant difference in the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) of First Year BSIT
students when grouped according to sex.
3. Ascertain the academic performance of the First Year BSIT students.
4. Find the significant difference in the academic performance of First Year BSIT students when
grouped according to sex.
5. Find the significant relationship between the entrance test and academic performance of First Year
BSIT students when taken as a whole and when grouped accord to sex?

Null Hypotheses

The following null hypothesis was formulated:

1. There is no significant difference in the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) of First Year
BSIT students when grouped according to sex.

2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of First Year BSIT students when
grouped according to sex.

3. There is no significant relationship between the entrance test and academic performance of First
Year BSIT students when taken as a whole and when group according to sex.

Delimitation of the Study

This study is about the relation between the entrance test and academic performance of first year BSIT
students of the College of Information and Communications Technology. This study focused on the use of
Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) only. Other degree programs offered in CICT such as BSCS is
excluded in the study.

Likewise, this study focused only on the first year BSIT students using the BSIT curriculum year 2015
2016. The grades of these first year BSIT students were taken from the first and second semester of the
curriculum year 20152016 and the study excluded the subjects that were marked dropped and left in
the students report cards and information from STI WNU Schoolautomate system.
Finally, the study was bounded by the descriptive research method with proportionate population size used
in gathering data and the statistical concepts like Frequency, Simple Mean, Point Biserial (rpb) Correlation
and Pearson Product Moment (PPM) Correlation.
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
In this study, the descriptive method of research is used. Descriptive statistics do what they say: they
describe, so that researchers can analyze and interpret what these descriptions mean (Cohen, 2011, p. 622).
The specific technique of descriptive method utilized in the study is the status survey since the researchers
aim to organize, analyze and interpret data on the relation between the entrance test and academic
performance of first year BSIT students of the College of Information and Communications Technology,
STI West Negros University.

The Respondents of the Study


The respondents of this study are the first year Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT)
students of the new curriculum year 20152016 based on CHED memorandum number 53 (CMO 53) series
of 2006.
The total number of first year BSIT students from the College of Information and Communications
Technology (CICT) is 340. Using Yamanis formula (i.e. Slovins) with 0.05 (5%) margin of error, the
sample size of one hundred eighty four (184) BSIT students were randomly selected. Table 2 shows the
summary of the CICT enrollment statistics of First Year Students in the Second Semester of School Year
20152016.

Table 1.
The Summary of CICT Statistics of First Year Students 2nd Semester, S.Y. 2015 2016.

TOTAL FIRST YEAR 360

BSCS Students 20

BSIT Students 340

Sample Size: BSIT Students 184

Data Gathering Procedure


The instrument used for the entrance test in this study was the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT)
administered by the STI WNU Testing Center.
The researcher obtained the entrance results of OLSAT from STI WNU Guidance Center and Testing
Center with a promise of confidentiality in the treatment of the data gathered. The online STI WNU
SchoolAutomate was also used to gather the data about Grade Weighted Average (GWA) of the students.
Then all the data gathered were organized, systematized and analyzed in accordance with the statistical
techniques appropriate to the problem and hypothesis.
Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment

The data gathered was tabulated, analyzed and treated for interpretation using the appropriate statistical
tools for the descriptive method. In this study, IBM SPSS release 20 and Microsoft Excel 2016 were used
to analyze the data gathered. The following statistical tools will be used:

Problem 1 To determine the profile of the First Year on the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT),
the frequency is used. IBM SPSS was also used to graphically describe the profile using a Histogram
together with its normal curve relation.

Problem 2 To determine the significant relationship in the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) of
First Year BSIT students when grouped according to sex, the Point Biserial (rpb) Correlation was used.
The significant difference between the variables was determined using IBM SPSS.

Problem 3 To determine the academic performance of the BSIT students, the grades were normalized
using Z scores and Percentiles.

Problem 4 To determine the significant relationship in the academic performance of First Year BSIT
students when grouped according to sex, the Point Biserial (rpb) Correlation was used. The significant
difference between the variables was determined using IBM SPSS.

Problem 5 To determine the significant relationship between the entrance test and academic performance
of First Year BSIT students when taken as a whole and when grouped according to sex, the Pearson
Product Moment (PPM) was used. The significant relationship between the variables was determined using
IBM SPSS.

RESULTS OF THE STUDY


The findings were as follows:

1. In describing the profile of the respondents based on the interpreted entrance test results, 1.1
percent were above average, 42.4 percent were average, 47.3 were below average, and only 9.2
were low.

Table 2.
The Summary of the Interpreted Entrance Test Results

VALID CUMMULATIVE
INTERPRETATION SCALE FREQUENCY PERCENT
PERCENT PERCENT

Low (L) 1 17 9.2 9.2 9.2

Below Average (BA) 2 87 47.3 47.3 56.5

Average (A) 3 78 42.4 42.4 98.9

Above Average (AA) 4 2 1.1 1.1 100.0

Superior (S) 5 0 0 0 100.0

TOTAL 184 100 100


2. There is a significant difference in OLSAT results when grouped according to sex. The relation
between OLSAT and sex is negative which means OLSAT increases in favor of the female group.

Table 3.
The Correlation Between OLSAT and Sex Results

SEX OLSAT
Pearson
SEX 1.000 - 0.140**
Correlation

Sig. (2 -tailed) . 0.007

N 184 184
Pearson
OLSAT - 0.198** 1.000
Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.007 .
N 184 184

Interpretation **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Strength of Correlation WEAK

3. In the academic performance, the students were found to be Superior (3.3%), Above Average
(16.3%), Average (60.9%), Below Average (15.8%) and Low (3.8%).

Table 4.
The Distribution of Percentiles of Grades

VALID CUMULATIVE
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT CLASSIFICATION
PERCENT PERCENT

1 7 3.8 3.8 3.8 Low

2 29 15.8 15.8 19.6 Below Average

3 112 60.9 60.9 80.4 Average

4 30 16.3 16.3 96.7 Above Average

5 6 3.3 3.3 100.0 Superior

Total 184 100.0 100.0


Figure 1 shows the normalized graph of grades converted to percentiles. The graph is plotted with the
ranges of percentiles on the xaxis against the frequency on the yaxis.

Figure 1. The Normalized Graph of Grades Using Percentiles

4. There is a significant difference in academic performance when grouped according to sex. The
relation between sex and grade is negative which means grade increases in favor of the female
group

Table 5.
The Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Between Sex and Grade

MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION N

SEX 1.45 0.498 184


GRADE 85.0976 4.49507 184

SEX GRADE
Pearson
SEX Correlation 1.000 - 0.146*

Sig. (2 -tailed) . 0.047


N 184 184
Pearson
GRADE Correlation - 0.146* 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.047 .
N 184 184

Interpretation *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Strength of Correlation WEAK


5A. There is a significant relationship between the entrance test and academic performance of First
Year BSIT students when taken as a whole. The correlation is positive which means OLSAT
increases as grade percentile increases

Table 6.
The Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Between OLSAT and
Grade Percentiles When Taken as a Whole.

STANDARD
MEAN N
DEVIATION
OLSAT 2.35 0.661 184
GRADE
PERCENTILES
51.6874 26.83438 184
GRADE
OLSAT PERCENTILES
Pearson
OLSAT 1.000 .194**
Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) . .008
N 184 184
GRADE Pearson
PERCENTILES
.194** 1.000
Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .008 .
N 184 184
Interpretation ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2tailed)
Strength of Correlation Weak

5B. There is no significant relationship between the entrance test and academic performance of First
Year BSIT students in the male group, but the relationship is significant in the female group.

Table 7.
The Correlation Between OLSAT and Grade Percentiles When Grouped According to Sex.
MALE FEMALE
Grade Grade
OLSAT OLSAT
Percentiles Percentiles

OLSAT 1.000 0.173 1.000 0.325**


Pearson
Correlation Grade
0.173 1.000 0.325** 1.000
Percentiles
OLSAT - 0.083 - 0.003
Sig. (2
tailed) Grade
0.083 - 0.003 -
Percentiles
** Correlation is significant at
Interpretation Not Significant
the 0.01 level (2tailed)
Strength of Correlation Moderate
CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Most of the students who took the OLSAT have results which were interpreted as Below Average and
followed by Average results. Only a small percentage of the students have either high or low
classification.

2. The OLSAT results of the First Year BSIT students are favorable on the female than the male.

3. Most of the students have an average academic performance level after two semesters. Only a small
percentage of the students have either high or low academic performance levels.

4. The academic performance of the First Year BSIT students is favorable on the female than the male.

5. There is a positive correlation between the entrance test and the academic performance when taken as a
whole, meaning the entrance test increases with the academic performance of the students. In the
correlation when grouped according to sex, it is significant in the female group only.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings of the study the researcher intends to present the following recommendations:

1. The school has to implement sectioning of enrollees according to their achievement results.
General average in high school should also be considered in classifying students by section.

2. The Guidance Center with the participation of the different colleges in WNU has to provide
opportunities such as remedial classes and tutorials for those students with low aptitude and slow
learners especially for the male students.

3. The Guidance Center with the standards set by the different colleges has to provide career
enlightenment and path for enrollees in guiding them to the appropriate degree to take based on
their entrance test results, general average in high school, and other important data.

4. The school with the help of the different colleges has to provide short term courses for those
enrollees who cannot tackle the challenges in a four year degree program.

5. The Human Resource Development Office (HRDO) will provide enhancement for teachers through
seminar training and workshop for dealing with the students with low aptitude and slow learners
especially for the male students.

6. The study can be replicated in the other colleges of West Negros University.
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