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Prof. Carla A.

Syntax

Read the text very carefully , underline and analyze the following structures:

Noun clauses, relative clauses, conjuncts, simple, complex, complex and compound
sentences, absolute constructions, adverbial complements, present participle
functioning as an adjective and adverb, gerundial and participle phrases.

The confident student

How to stay positive and manage anxiety during exam season

Many people get stressed before exams, but there are ways to increase your
confidence and minimise your nerves

Some students will feel a growing sense of dread as exam season approaches
while others may appear irritatingly unfazed. Shelly Asquith, vice president for
welfare at the National Union of Students(NUS), says that exam confidence
comes with good wellbeing in general.

I dont think its necessarily about feeling confident in yourself, but feeling that
youre able to do the work, she says. But thats easier said than done perhaps.
So how can students manage anxiety and stress during exam time and still get
the grades they need?

Know youre not alone

Its a good idea to talk to course mates and lecturers to share fears. You wont
be the only person who is nervous. Nadia Violets, 24, has recently completed a
masters at LSE in gender policy and inequality. She panicked during one of her
exams when she first opened the paper. My self doubt meant that as soon as I

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opened the page and looked down at the questions, I immediately thought I
didnt understand any of them, she says.

Its important to ask for help if you feel anxious or panicky

That cut off a lot of my time. But then when I calmly read the questions again
they started to make sense. Because she has been diagnosed with anxiety, Violets
was allowed extra time, sat the exam in a smaller room, and was able to go out for
breathers. She says she ended up doing that about five times.

Katrina Wigzell, 29, is in her last year studying nutrition at London Metropolitan
University. She says she likes the pressure of exams, even though that makes her
a bit of an odd one. I work better that way, she says. If I attend my
lectures and do a bit of revision there is no reason why I shouldnt feel confident
enough to sit an exam. Her tips are to learn your subject and remember you
arent the only person who is stressed.

Ask for help and let people know how you feel

Asquith says its important to ask for help if you feel anxious or panicky.
Confidence comes through having good networks and knowing that youve got
friends and support around you when you find it difficult to cope. Its also about
having access to certain services, she says.

There are routes available for you to get extenuating circumstances if you are
suffering from mental ill health and cant do the exam. If someone is having a
panic attack then let a staff member know, because thats not a state you should
go into the exam in.

Violets found the universitys counselling service very helpful. I would really
recommend using them, she says. And dont be ashamed if you have mental
health problems.

Stay focused on your work

Choosing topics that inspire you will help you to feel enthusiastic. It will also mean
that you are more inclined to focus on your work. I ended up focusing on

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feminist theory around environmental philosophy, Violets says. Because it
fascinated me, I managed to do really well.

Violets adds that prioritising and identifying what is important at that moment and
what isnt is helpful. She says meditation is useful for this. Like a lot of us, I get
caught up in social things. At that point in your life, your priority needs to be your
exams and your qualification.

Asquith agrees that mindfulness meditation can help avoid last minute panics,
because it teaches you how to acknowledge that when youre about to go into
an exam theres not much else you can do but just go through that experience.

A bit of stress can be good but not too much

A bit of stress can be good in exams, says Violets. When Im doing


performances and Im a bit blas about them and Im not stressed, I perform
really badly. A bit of stress is essential.

Professionals agree that a small amount of stress can be good. Normal levels of
stress can help you to work and think faster and more effectively, as well as
improve your performance, advises Catherine McPhailfrom the University of
Dundees counselling service. But she adds that, if you find your anxiety
overwhelming, your performance could be badly affected. Becoming aware of what
causes your anxiety will help to reduce the stress. Too much stress however, can
stop students from performing as well as they could in exams, all agree. Stress is
a massive barrier and its certainly something that a lot of our student unions are
tackling and supporting students with, says Asquith.

EXERCISE 10.1: TYPES OF ADJUNCTS.

Identify the type of the adverb(s) italicized in each of the sentences.

1. Serena even took a bath this month.

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Focusing Time

Adjunt

2. The huge stone eventually moved but somewhat slowly.

Time intensifier manner

3. In the morning, the rustlers reluctantly started moving east.

Time Manner Place

4. Sometimes the answer comes quite quickly; sometimes not.

frequency intensier manner

5. The old man walked extremely fast.

intensier manner

EXERCISE: TYPES OF ADJUNCTS.

Identify the type of the adverb(s) italicized in each of the sentences.

1. Serena usually washes reluctantly and infrequently.

frequency manner frequency

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2. By morning, the issues had slowly become somewhat clearer.

Time manner intensier

3. Right here was where the ght was going to be.

intensier Place

4. Quite often I am completely wrong.

intensier frequency intensier

5. The old man kicked the mugger fast, hard, and accurately.

manner manner manner

EXERCISE: TYPES OF ADVERBS.

Identify the type of adverb(s) italicized in each of the sentences as either a conjunct, a
disjunct, or an adjunct. If it is an adjunct, also identify the kind of adjunct.

1. According to Jim, Bob often solves the problems quickly.

disjunct adjunct adjunct

(frequency) (manner)

2. The huge stone, in my opinion, can be moved but only somewhat slowly.

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disjunct adjunct adjunct

(intensier) (manner)

3. As a consequence, the rustlers reluctantly started moving east.

conjunct adjunct adjunct

(manner) (place)

4. When the answer comes, it comes quite quickly.

conjunct adjunct adjunct

(intensier) (manner)

5. The danger, I think, is that the whole building may totally collapse at any time.

disjunct adjunct adjunct

(manner) (time)

EJERCICIO 1

Une las dos oraciones para formar una sola que empiece por un disjunct en cada
caso:

1.- Everybody will get to know it in the end. That's inevitable.


1.- .....................................................................................

2.- You were out when we called. That was very unfortunate.
2.- ....................................................................................

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3.- He didn't tell anybody that he had got married. That's rather odd.
3.- ............................................................................

4.- Nobody saw or heard anything strange. That's surprising.


4.- .......................................................................................

5.- Most of the immigrants living in this area have no residence permit. That's
obvious.
5.- .........................................................................................

6.- Unemployment is still our biggest problem. It has to be admitted.


6.- ........................................................

7.- The storm destroyed the entire tobacco crop. It's sad.
7.- .............................................................................

8.- She was extremely annoyed when she received the letter. It's is understandable.
8.- ...........................................................................................

EJERCICIO 2

Completa las oraciones con el conjunctadecuado de entre los


siguientes:alternatively, besides, first of all, finally, however, nevertheless, on the
contrary, still, then, therefore, though, Usa cada conjunctsolamente una vez:

1.- It was a day to forget. ........ a pipe burst, ......his car broke down and ......he lost
his job.
2.- It was snowing heavily; .........., they decided to set out for the summit.
3.- You could drive there in four days, or ..........., you could take the plane and be
there in a couple of hours.

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4.- He eats like a horse. He's not very fat, ...........
5.- She didn't win after all. ....... she did pretty well to finish in the first four.
6.- She's a fine teacher. And ........... she has written a successful novel.
7.- It wasn't a good decision; ............, it was a huge mistake.
8.- That bird is very rare; ...........it's protected by law.

Complete each adverb clause below with the correct word(s):

1. __________________ he always did well on his English tests, his


parents were not surprised that he got an A.
When
Since

2. You should keep the milk in the refrigerator, __________________ it


doesn't go bad.
since
so that

3. __________________ he thinks he's smart, he isn't.


Although
After

4. You should say goodbye to your brother ________________ you leave


for Europe.
before
since

5. ________________ my father has high blood pressure, he has to


watch what he eats.
Before
Since

6. ________________ I came to this country, I didn't speak a word of


English!
Before
Since

7. I'll let you know ________________ I come back.


because

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after

8. He doesn't understand ________________ he doesn't speak French


very well.
so that
because

9. He spoke slowly ________________ she would understand.


because
so that

10. ________________ you stop crying, I'll buy you an ice cream.
If
Since