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CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Student Performa

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CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Student Performance Galiher

Rodelito Aramay

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Rodelito Aramay

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CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Student Performance Galiher



between families and young childrens early childhood education programs. It may include

regular communication with teachers and efforts by the early childhood education programs to
discussion groups.

Responsibility for Learning Outcomes

speaks to how parents can support the language and literacy development of their children through
direct parent-teaching activities such as reading aloud and engaging in linguistically rich conversations
with their children.

Teachers I

nvolvement in the Academic of the Learner

Mary Chamberlain (2002) said that that great teacher make a difference. They have passion that seeps
through the skin-

a love of learning. Great progress (a revolution) was made

but a working hum and engagement is now not enough. What are now needed are quality learning
conversations between teachers and learners. It is about extending rather than

supervising, about linking to the childs world, about creating lines of desires, about not seeing

the curriculum as a straightjacket. The curriculum it seems is more a direction.

Appreciate that learning isnt always fun

a good teacher knows when to push


learning may be uncomfortable

really good teachers do this in skilled way. The

x factor is


an enthusiasm and zest for teaching is critical, John Langley (2002) emphasized. A danger is that
teachers are bogged down with curricula. The best teachers can assess the needs of their kids

- it is worrying in recent years that curricula have become the dominant


a conduit for shoveling information

- this is not what teach

ing is all about. A good

teacher for 9-year old in this international sense is usually a female teacher. She has many years of
teaching experiences. Outside of the school, the good teacher reads a lot, both professionally


about education and also literature. She has stayed in the class ever since the children took their first
step into school literacy, and has followed their progress carefully by informal as well as more formal
assessment methods. The good teacher gives the students many opportunities to do independent, silent
reading in the library, which is richly stocked, and she also often holds discussion with the students
about books they have read. The children of the good teacher are encouraged to read outside school
and to use the library often. During reading lessons, the children are guided to interact actively with the
text by relating their own experiences to what is read, by making predictions of upcoming events during
reading and by making generalizations and inferences. The good reading tea

cher also takes the students interest into account when

selecting reading material. The student oriented approach with a clear focus on strategies for
understanding does not prevent the good teacher from using phonics elements now and then in her

to meet particular students needs or when unknown long worlds, like names, are encountered.
(Lundberg and Linnakyla, 1993)

Dowling (2003) believed that human teachers characteristically perform a wide range of activities that
we subsume

under the general heading of teaching. Those include planning

and designing, demonstrating, guiding, telling, questioning, testing, recording, motivating, and

criticizing even learning. Many of these aspects of a teachers role require significant expert

ise and the making of finely tuned and sensitive judgments based on both breadth and depth of
experience. This is important, for instance, in relation to the provision of appropriate scaffolding to
learners. It can also be argued that the human teacher is in a strong position, in particular by virtue of
overall life experience and sophistication as a communicator, to both model and facilitate co-operative
learning behaviors.

According to the Ministerial Round Table Meeting (2003), the image of the teacher as a specialist in a
specific subject who stands alone in front of the class is still a reality today in many contexts, particularly
at the elementary level. However, this perception of the role of teachers no longer matches the
demands of teaching and the expectations that are made with regard to the education of young people.
Even if the teaching profession has preserved an element have changed and are continually changing
knowledge and ways to access it, the influence of the media, societal demands, the social environment,
the students themselves, etc.

The teacher is moving away from being a transmitter of knowledge and led more and more towards
becoming a mediator in the construction of knowledge a facilitator and even at times,

a social worker. He or She must also foster the development of social skills and create a learning
environment that will encourage young people to learn to live together and to become responsible
citizens. Faced with expanding access to secondary education, the growing heterogeneity of students,
the redefinition of objectives, learning content, working methods and Due to low performance of the
pupils, it has always been blamed on the low of efficiency of teachers. In response to this, in the article
written by Evasco

(2007), he quote, We have to look

for other factors to account for the deterioration of quality instruction. It is a firm belief that the

failure to address quality instruction has something to do with students socio

-economic status and our culture towa

rds education.

A common hypothesis with respect to

teachers attitude and student achievement is

that students taught using the right approach or attitude achieve at a higher level because their teachers
have displayed the right attitude and acquired classroom management skills to deal with different types
of classroom problems (Slavin, 1987, Evan, 1992, Gibbons et al., 1997). Furthermore, more experienced
teachers are considered to be more able to concentrate on the


most appropriate way to teach particular topics to students who differ in their abilities, prior knowledge
and background (Rauden bush and Williams, 1991). Stringfield and Teddlie 1991, Ejiogu, 1999 was of the
view that in order to improve on any aspect of education, it is therefore imperative to involve a well
articulated teacher education programme that will prepare the teacher for the leadership role they are
expected to play. The importance of teacher in the meaningful education at all level is reflected in the
national policy on education (2004) as it declares that no educational system may rise above the quality
of its teachers. This declaration in the policy document underscores the need for teacher effectiveness
in our schools. conceptualize

teachers effectiveness as the

managerial skills essential for enhanced classroom control and

discipline. It is the teachers competence, ability,

resourcefulness and ingenuity to efficiently utilize the appropriate language, methodology and available
instructional materials to bring out the best from learners in terms of academic achievement.

Students perceptions of teacher support have a direct effect on their interest and

motivation (Wentzel, 1998), and teachers expectations of student achievement(which has an

affective component) influence the way they behave toward their students and thus can affect

students motivation, self

-perceptions, and academic performance (Jussim & Harber, 2005). However, teacher support in the
form of

care for students well

-being and comfort may be necessary but insufficient to promote

mastery goal orientation: Care and concern for students


may also be required (Patrick, Anderman, Ryan, Edelin, & Midgley, 2001). Teachers are role models who
continuously induce and respond to the emotional reactions of their students. Pianta et al. (2003)
applied components of attachment theory (Ainsworth, Belehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Bowlby, 1982) in
understanding teacher

student relationships and the

teachers function as an important role mode


According to attachment theory, relationships with supportive caregivers, characterized by trust,

responsiveness, and involvement, promote social and emotional development through the development
of healthy internalized working models. Children with supportive internal working models feel a sense of
security that allows them to explore novel situations (Bretherton & Munholland, 1999). Therefore, when
teachers are warm and supportive, they provide students with a sense of connectedness with the school
environment and the sense of security to explore new ideas and take risks

both fundamental to learning (Mitchell-Copeland, Denham, & DeMulder, 1997; Murray & Greenberg,
2000; Watson, 2003). However, it is not always easy to be warm and supportive, especially when

provocative student behaviors thwart the teachers

efficacy to perform his or her primary instructional role and/or the school culture promotes punitive
control measures over more authoritative approaches (G. R. Mayer, 2001). Although the quality of

teacher relationship depends, in part, on how teachers express and process negative emotions (George
& Solomon, 1996), as we reviewed above, for many teachers, regulating negative emotions in the
classroom can be challenging and is a commonly reported stressor (Carson & Templin, 2007; Sutton,
2004). Although they regularly face situations that provoke anger, contempt, disgust, sadness, and
frustration, to develop and maintain healthy relationships with their students teachers must find
appropriate ways to express (or inhibit) their feelings in a classroom setting (Hargreaves, 2000).
Although teachers recognize the importance of regulating their emotions and think they are keeping
their feelings hidden from students, often they are less successful than they imagine (Carson & Templin,
2007; Sutton, 2004; Sutton & Wheatley, 2003). Teachers, who expect to be responsible for educating
students, soon find that their responsibilities go far beyond the curriculum. Children bring their outside
experiences with them


to school each day. These experiences have shaped who they are and foreshadow their futures (Ladson-
Billings, 2009). Teachers are expected to overcome all of these obstacles, yet have not been adequately
educated to understand how these life circumstances affect the families they serve. Working in low-
income, urban schools proves to be more challenging than many teachers expected and is often far
different from their own experiences with schooling. The teachers are a part of this system that they
often do not fully understand. As a result, educators are likely to engage in behaviors that contribute to
the achievement gap. This is particularly dangerous because research shows that the teacher is one of
the greatest factors in student success (McNeal, 2005). When teachers are unprepared to cope with the

es of their students lives and

unaware of how schooling contributes to this reality, success can be difficult to achieve. According to
Gallavan et al (2005) Teachers, especially at the novice level, are not aware of the vastly different worlds
their students live in. Instead, they assume that their students are just like them. This assumption allows
for many teachers to utilize educational approaches that they witnessed growing up. As a result, when
their own students struggle to succeed, they blame the child because the methodology had been
effective in their own schooling.

A teachers skill,

expertise and willingness can help student to learn. In the art of teaching, anything a teacher does is
going to be scrutinized by the students. If the teacher serves as an ideal role model, demonstrates
competence, as well as confidence, in the subject he or she is teaching, the students will respond
positively. This rule applies to administrators as well. In the contrary, the favoritism of the teacher can
also affect the learning process of the students. The way their teachers deal with them is one thing.
Though teachers have different strategy on imparting knowledge, students do not understand it easily.
They will be confused on things regarding on how and why the teacher has their favorite students
(Gaudencio V. Aquino 1975)


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