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Compendium on

Meteorology
The compendium introduces the important matters in Maritime
Meteorology for prospective Officers of the 2nd and 3rd Block
Training.

3rd revised Edition


2012

Capt. Peter Grunau


Dipl.Wirtschaftsing. fr Seeverkehr
Table of Contends
Chapter 1 The Atmosphere ................................................................................................................ 9

1.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 9

1.2 The single Layer of the Atmosphere ....................................................................................... 9

Chapter 2 The Air Pressure ........................................................................................................ 16

2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 16

2.2 The air pressure ..................................................................................................................... 16

2.3 The Barometer and the Barograph ........................................................................................ 19

2.3.1 The Barograph .............................................................................................................. 20

2.3.2 The working Principle of the Barograph............................................................................ 21

2.4 Observation and Rules of Pressure Changes ......................................................................... 21

2.5 Geopotential height in regards to the pressure .............................................................. 23

2.5.1 Geopotential Meter .................................................................................................................. 23

Chapter 3 Temperature and Humidity ....................................................................................... 26

3.1 Temperature in general ......................................................................................................... 26

3.2 The Temperature measuring instruments .............................................................................. 30

3.4 Humidity ............................................................................................................................... 33

3.4.1 The Dew Point .............................................................................................................. 36

3.4.2 Hygrometer and Psychrometer ..................................................................................... 36

Chapter 4 Wind ............................................................................................................................. 40

4.1 General. .............................................................................................................................. 40

4.2 The different parameters causing Wind ................................................................................ 42

4.2.1 The Coriolis Force ............................................................................................................ 42

4.2.2 The Gradient Force ........................................................................................................... 44

4.2.3 The centrifugal force .......................................................................................................... 45

4.3 The different Winds .............................................................................................................. 46

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4.3.1 The geostrophic wind .................................................................................................... 46

4.3.2 The Gradient Wind........................................................................................................ 52

4.3.3 Friction ............................................................................................................................... 54

4.3.4 Other wind flows................................................................................................................ 54

4.3.6 True and apparent wind...................................................................................................... 57

4.3.7 Wind measuring and Wind measuring Instruments ............................................................ 57

4.3.7.1 Rudolfs Wind Nomogramm: ............................................................................................. 58

4.3.7.2 The 300 NM Rule for getting the wind speed ............................................................... 59

4.3.8 Local Winds .................................................................................................................. 63

4.4 Apparent Wind ...................................................................................................................... 64

4.5 Wind Rules............................................................................................................................ 65

Chapter 5 Air Masses and Fronts ................................................................................................ 66

5.1 Air Masses ................................................................................................................................ 66

5.2 Pressure systems ........................................................................................................................ 67

5.2.1 Low Pressure systems .......................................................................................................... 67

5.2.2 Developing of a Low Pressure System ......................................................................... 68

5.2.3 The Baric Wind Law .......................................................................................................... 71

5.2.4 Rules for Low Pressure Systems .......................................................................................... 71

5.3 High Pressure System ................................................................................................................ 73

5.3.1 Rules for High pressure systems .......................................................................................... 74

5.4 Fronts and Frontal systems ....................................................................................................... 74

5.4.1 The Cold Front ................................................................................................................... 75

5.4.2 Warm Front ....................................................................................................................... 75

5.4.3 Occluded Front.................................................................................................................... 77

5.4.4 Movement of Frontal Systems ........................................................................................... 79

5.4.4.1 Calculation of shifting of Cold Fronts ............................................................................ 80

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Chapter 6 Clouds........................................................................................................................... 81

6.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 81

6.1.1 Characteristics of the clouds ............................................................................................... 82

6.2 How will clouds form ........................................................................................................... 83

6.3 Calculation of base of clouds ...................................................................................................... 84

6.4 Basic Rules for clouds ............................................................................................................... 86

Chapter 7 - Wind Sea and Swell ...................................................................................................... 88

7.1 Wind and Waves ......................................................................................................................... 88

7.1.1 Wave height : ....................................................................................................................... 89

7.1.2 Wave Length: ....................................................................................................................... 90

7.2 Swell .......................................................................................................................................... 91

7.3 Rules for wind sea ....................................................................................................................... 92

Chapter 8 Fog ..................................................................................................................................... 93

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 93

8.2 The different types of Fog .......................................................................................................... 93

8.3 The different types of fog and their development ................................................................. 94

8.3.1 The Advection Fog : ............................................................................................................ 94

8.3.2 Sea Smoke ........................................................................................................................... 94

8.3.3 Radiation Fog ...................................................................................................................... 94

8.3.4 Warm water Fog............................................................................................................ 95

8.3.5 Frontal Fog ......................................................................................................................... 95

8.3.6 Other atmospheric phenomena which will restrict the visibility........................................ 95

Chapter 9 Tropical revolving Storm ............................................................................................... 96

9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 96

9.2 Formation and Life Cycle of Tropical Cyclones........................................................................ 96

9.3 Definition of the Tropical Cyclone and Structure ...................................................................... 98

9.3.1 Structure of a Tropical Cyclone .................................................................................... 98


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9.4 Track of a Tropical Cyclone ..................................................................................................... 99

9.5 How to avoid a Tropical Cyclone ........................................................................................... 100

9.6 Measurements to avoid the Tropical Cyclone......................................................................... 102

9.6.1 The 1-2-3 Rule ............................................................................................................... 102

9.6.2 The Tropical Storm Plot................................................................................................... 104

9.7 The Fujiwhara Effect ............................................................................................................... 110

9.7.1 Calculation of the maximum winds of a tropical cyclone................................................. 111

9.8 Rules for the path of a tropical storm ....................................................................................... 112

Chapter 10 Weather Charts and Forecasting Rules ................................................................... 115

10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 115

10.2 The different weather maps used by the seafarer .................................................................... 115

10.2.1 The surface analysis weather chart .................................................................................. 115

10.2.2 The 500 hPa Topography ................................................................................................. 117

10.3 Weather Chart Interpretation .................................................................................................. 118

10.3.1 Weather Chart Symbols ................................................................................................... 120

10.3.2 Weather forecast for the next 24 hours ........................................................................... 121

Chapter 11 Meteorological Navigation ....................................................................................... 124

11.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 124

11.2 Route optimization by means of meteorological voyage planning ....................................... 125

11.3 Voyage Planning including the climatic and meteorological Aspects .................................... 127

11.4 Navigation in severe weather condition .................................................................................. 138

Appendix 1 Calculation of EEDI and EEOI ............................................................................... 141

APPENDIX 2 Dew Point Table ....................................................................................................... 147

Appendix No 3 Example of Meteorological Voyage Planning .................................................. 148

Table of Illustration : ........................................................................................................................ 149

Bibliography 152

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7
INTRODUCTION
This script is for prospective Officers of the 2nd and 3rd Block training program. It is part
of the lesson Meteorology. The Chapters described in this workbook are only
additional information. The script is the standard workbook for the cadets and should
be seen as a guideline for the preparation of the written examination. Beside this script
all other parts of the lessons are also part of the examinations.

8
Chapter 1 The Atmosphere

1.1 General

The earth is surrounded by air. This air is like a blanket which covers the earth and
extends about 1000 km above the surface.
Meteorology is the scientific study of the physics of the atmosphere. This atmosphere
has distinctive layers. These layers are defined by their temperature, which increases
with the height. These temperature changes will occur at each layer. In our
atmosphere there are several gases, a composition out of several gases, present.

Nitrogen 79%
Oxygen 20%
Argon Gases 0,93%
Carbon dioxide 0,03%
Water vapor

The distinctive layers of our atmosphere are :

Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Ionosphere

For us the most important layer is the troposphere. All organism needs oxygen, to
release the energy from food. This process is known as respiration. Plants need
Carbon dioxide to survive. The process is known as photosynthesis. The
photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and
storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae . Plants
need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar.
The overall chemical reaction involved in photosynthesis is:

6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2.

1.2 The single Layer of the Atmosphere

The Troposphere :

The troposphere is the layer we are living. In the troposphere the weather takes place.
With an increase of the height of the troposphere the temperature is decreasing. In

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general the temperature is decreasing by 1/100m . The suns rays are not directly
heating the air, they are heating the earth surface 1.
Air which is closer to the surface is also warmer. The thickness of the troposphere
varies between 17,6 km at the equator and 6-8km at the poles. The average thickness
is 10 - 12 km. The limit between the troposphere and the stratosphere is called
tropopause. The thickness of the tropopause is about 2-4 km. The atmospheric
pressure at the surface is in the average 1013,25hPa at a temperature of 15

Why do we have this average temperature of 15C and a pressure of 1013,25hPa. This
can be proofed :

The earth is a solar power system which is radiating energy of 1367 Watt in form of
electromagnetic radiation from the sun. The radiation is not a direct radiation.
30% of the energy will be reflected and 70% of the energy will be absorbed ( see also
P.Grunau Climatology Heat Budget of the Earth ). The 30% which will be
reflected will be again divided in :

6% Reflection from the atmosphere


20% Reflection from the clouds
4% Albedo

The remaining 70% will be divided in :

51% Absorption through land and water masses


19% Absorption through clouds

To balance the energy budget of the earth , absorbed abd radiated energymust be in
balance.
This can be proofed using the Stefan Boltzmann Law, also known as Stefans law. 2

I = T 4 ; where I = energy flow w/m

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant =5,6696*10-8 w/m/k4

T = 6000 K photospheric temp.of the sun

Substituting the parameter into the equation we will get :

1. I = 5,6696*10-8 w/m/K4*(6000K)4 = 74,5*106 w/m

The total energyradiated by the phtosphere of the sun :

w = Energy of area[m]*area of photosphere

1
See also P. Grunau - Climatology
222
Jozef Stefan(1835-1893) deducted the law in 1879 on the basis of experimental measurements made by
John Tyndall. The law was derived from the theoretical consideration - thermodynamics, by Ludwig Boltzmann
(1844-1906)1884
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2. w = 74,5*106 w/m * (4r) ; where r = 624*106 m

w = 3,865*1026 w

The surface of the sphere will be calculated as :

3. A = 4r; where r = distance Sun Earth = 150*106m

A = 2,83 * 1022 m

Using Equation 2 and 3 we will get the solar constant = 1367 w/m

But how do we get now our average temperature of 15V ?

We assume that the earth is physical wise a black body, means radiated and absorbed energy
are equal. Therefore the emmissitivity factor = 1. The emmissitivity factor is representing the
relation between a gray and a black body. The Albedo ( refraction of the light which will be
radiated from the earth surface in the atmosphere) of the earth = 0,3 ( equals to 30%). The
solar constant = 1367 w/m. Using now the Stefan Boltzmann Law and include the solar
constant and the refraction :

I = T 4 ; where I = S(1-A) S = solar constant and A = Albedo

S (1 A) = T 4
P = AT 4

where P is total power radiated form the body and = emmissitivity


and A = surface Area

Substituting in the Stefan Boltzmann formula we will get :

S (1 A) = AT 4
S (1 A)
T4 =
4
1367(1 0,3)
T4 =
4(5,6696 * 108 ) * 1
T = 254,87 K = 18,13C

But 15C = 288 K . By using the equation of state of the earth :

(1 A) S * 4r = 4r T 4
simplyfying :
(1 A) S = 4T 4

where 4r T 4 = radiated energy from earth

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(1 A) S 4r = incoming energy from the sun

Because the earth is not a perfect black body, means the factor is not = 1, the
emmissitivity factor of the earth = 0,612. Mow it is possible , if all parameter
remaining constant to substitute the parameter in the formula

(1 A) S = 4T 4
Re arranging for T
(1 A) S
T =4
4
1
4 (1 0,3) * 1367
T=
4(0,612) * (5,6696 * 108 )
T = 288 K = 15V

Conclusion :

The average temperature on the earth at an average atmospheric pressure of 1013,25


hPa will be influences by :

a. Solar Constant
b. Albedo of the earth

Therefore we cannot conclude that the influence of the natural Greenhouse gases by
influencing of the primarily gases:

a. Carbon dioxide
b. Water vapor
c. Ozone
d. Methane

The average temperature of the earth will change. An increase of the Albedo of the earth will
result in an increase or decrease of the temperature, because the earth is mainly influenced by
the stated gases.

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Illustration 1: The Heat budget of the earth

The Stratosphere :

The Stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere. The air in the Stratosphere is thinner than
in the Troposphere. The stratosphere contains less moisture and dust, therefore in the
stratosphere no weather phenomena is existing. The Ozone layer is part of the stratosphere,
about 15 km 50 km. The Ozone is a gas which absorbs the harmful ultraviolet rays from the
sun. This ozone layer is very important for us, because if our atmosphere will not have a
ozone layer, life on earth will be not possible. I significant reduction of the ozone layer will
cause an increase of radiation. In the stratosphere also the jet stream is located. Jet streams
are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets, including
Earth. The main jet streams are located near the tropopause, the transition between the
troposphere (where temperature decreases with altitude) and the stratosphere. These jet
streams are circulating around the earth. The transition zone between the stratosphere and the
mesosphere is called stratopause.

The Mesosphere:

The temperature in the mesosphere is reaching about negative 75C. The mesosphere will
reach a height of 80 km above the earth surface. Above 80 km the temperature will start to
rise again. Until 80 km the temperature is continuously decreasing. The transition zone
between the Mesosphere and Thermosphere is called Mesopause.

The Thermosphere :
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The gases in the thermosphere continue to thin out until 600 km. Temperatures will reach
about 2000C caused by the solar radiation absorption of the gases. Many gas molecules
( from altitude 80 km to 400 km ) in the mesosphere and thermosphere have electrical
charged particles. This part of the atmosphere is called Ionosphere.

The Ionosphere :

The Ionosphere is the last layer of our atmosphere and fulfills a very important role. In the
ionosphere many different types of radio waves will be reflected. These radio waves are
important for our communication. The radio waves are affected by the ionized gases, by solar
radiation.

The Albedo

The term Albedo (Latin for white) is commonly used to applied to the overall average
reflection coefficient of an object. For example, the Albedo of the Earth is 0.39 (Kaufmann)
and this affects the equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The greenhouse effect, by trapping
infrared radiation, can lower the Albedo of the earth and cause global warming.

The Albedo of an object will determine its visual brightness when viewed with reflected
light. For example, the planets are viewed by reflected sunlight and their brightness depends
upon the amount of light received from the sun and their Albedo.

The following is a similar list of values for a range of vegetation type and soil type (Davies
and Idso, 1979; Oke, 1987; Campbell and Norman, 1998).

Illustration 2: Albedo values ( Source P.Grunau )

Surface Albedo
grass 0.17 - 0.28
wheat 0.16 - 0.26
maize 0.18 - 0.22
beets 0.18
potato 0.19
rain forest 0.12
deciduous forest 0.10 - 0.20
coniferous forest 0.05 - 0.15

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sub-arctic 0.09 - 0.20
savanna 0.16 - 0.21
steppe 0.20
fresh snow 0.75 - 0.95
old snow 0.40 - 0.70
wet dark soil 0.08
dry dark soil 0.13
dry sand 0.35
boreal forest with snow 0.12 - 0.30

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Chapter 2 The Air Pressure

2.1 General
The atmospheric pressure is defined as the force per unit area exerted against a surface by the
weight of the air above this surface. A pressure point X is increasing as the weight of the
air above this point is increasing as well and vise versa.

Thinking in terms of air molecules if the number of air molecules above the surface are
increasing there are no more molecules to exert a force on that particular surface and
consequently the pressure increases. A reduction in the number of air molecules above the
surface will result in a decrease of the pressure. The atmospheric pressure will be measured
using a barometer or barograph. Therefore the atmospheric pressure is also called the
barometric pressure.

Several factors affecting the amount of the radiation that is absorbed by the earth at different
places. The earth is a sphere, which means that the suns rays will strike different places at a
different angle. For example: near the equator and at the equator the sun passes almost
directly over the equator. North and South of the equator the surface of the sphere it will
curve away from the sun. This results in less solar energy at this location. As radiated energy
from the sun arrives at the earth, about 29% are reflected back to the space by the earth and
its atmosphere, 19% are absorbed by the atmosphere and the remaining 51% are absorbed by
the surface of the earth.

Another factor is the tilt-off of the earths axis ( 23,5), the day and night periods and last but
not least the path around the sun. ( Winter and Summer periods ). This caused and unequal
radiation and this again is causing an unequal heating of the earths surface. Near the equator
the air is much more heated compared to the poles. ( see also P.Grunau. Climatology-
Climate Zones ). The heated air at the equator is less dense than the cold air near the poles.
The density of the air determines the forces, pressing on the surface of the earth. This force is
measured as air pressure.

2.2 The air pressure


The formula which defines the pressure is : P = pgh ; where p = pressure the mean density
of air in this column, g = the value of gravity and h = the height of the air column.

The unit of the air pressure is Hectopascal (hPa). The meteorological definition of the air
pressure is : Air pressure is a weight which an air column is pressing on the earth surface.

The atmospheric pressure may change over a period and this is known as pressure tendency.
The standard sea level pressure is 1013,25 hPa at 15C temperature.

The change of the pressure will decrease with the height. The air pressure can be recognized
in the surface weather chart as Isobars. ( lines of equal atmospheric pressure )

The change of the air pressure , the pressure tendency can have several characteristics.
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Falling

Rising

Steady

or also a combination of these terms. Also the amount of changes can be noted, because it is
the difference between the reading at the beginning of a period and the end of the period.

The Air pressure can be calculated for any height, using the barometric formula or the
international barometric formula.

Barometric
Formula

gz p = to be calculated
p = p 0 exp P0=Actual pressure
R L T g = 9,81 m/s
z= height over ground
RL=287J
T=K+Temp

p[hPa] p0 [hPa ] g [m/s ] z[m] RL T[C] T [K]


309,2 1013,25 9,81 10000 287 15 288

International Barometric
Formula
5, 255
0.0065 * h
p (h) = 1013,25 * 1 (hPa)
288,15

Adiabatic
p Constant P Constant T Factor height
264,4 1013,25 288,15 0,0065 10000

17
For measuring the air pressure in a certain height also the 8 m Rule can be used. Every 8m
the air pressure is decreasing by 1 hPa.

8 Metre Rule
every 8 metre increasing of height = 1hPa decreasing of
Pressure

p height Pressure at
surfacec
232 10000 1013

Comparing these formulas we can see that there are differences in the pressure if comparing
it with the same height 10000 m . Therefore the 8 m Rules is only a rough estimation of the
pressure change. The table below represents the difference between the formulas. Here the
results, using the barometric formula , compared to the international barometric formula and
the 8 m rule, were compared.

Difference
Height[m] Barometric Intern.Baro. Difference Barometric 8m Rule Difference Barometric
Formula Formula Formula Internatinal[%]
100 1001,3 1001,3 0,0 1001,3 1005,5 -4,2 0,00
200 989,5 989,5 0,0 989,5 993,0 -3,5 0,00
300 977,8 977,7 0,1 977,8 980,5 -2,7 0,01
400 966,3 966,1 0,2 966,3 968,0 -1,7 0,02
500 954,9 954,6 0,3 954,9 955,5 -0,6 0,03
600 943,6 943,6 0,0 943,6 943,0 0,6 0,00
700 932,5 931,9 0,6 932,5 930,5 2,0 0,06
800 921,5 920,8 0,7 921,5 918,0 3,5 0,08
900 910,6 909,7 0,9 910,6 905,5 5,1 0,10
1000 899,9 898,8 1,1 899,9 893,0 6,9 0,12
Illustration 3: Comparing the different Formulas( Source P.Grunau )

The most common formula for calculating the air pressure is the barometric formula, because
the international barometric formula is using the adiabatic temperature factor (decreasing of
the temperature with the height and uses the average pressure of 1013,25 hPa at a temperature
of 288,15K ) The only variable in this formula is the height. The 8m-rule is also only using
the height as a variable parameter.

The barometric formula is using the actual pressure at the surface and the actual temperature
at the surface for the calculation of the pressure in the height, which is more exact.

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2.3 The Barometer and the Barograph
To indicate the air pressure instruments will be used. These instruments which will be also on
board are the

Barometer

Barograph

Illustration 4: Barometer Illustration 5: Barograph 3

The principle of measuring the air pressure is based on a balance of the reset force of the
deformating tin and the air pressure. The barometer tin is gas tight sealed. The air pressure is
now acting from the outside on the tin. By means of a rotating phasor the pressure can be
read at the pressure indication of the barometer. This pressure indication must be always
calibrated.

The barometer reading must be corrected for :

Height above the sea level

Index error

Gravity error ( Only for mercury barometer )

Temperature error ( Only for mercury barometer )

The height can be obtained from tables and the index error will be supplied by the
manufacturer. ( Relates to errors inherent in the instrument )

Example :

The ships barometer is locate on the bridge, height against sea level = 30m .The mean draft of
the ship us 10,5 m. The air temperature ( dry bulb ) is 20C. The ships barometer reading is
1011 hPa. The index error is -0,5 hPa. What is the actual pressure at sea level.

3
Illustration 4&5: P.Grunau Meteorologie fr Nautiker
19
Solution :

30 height of barometer from Keel

10,5 m Mean draft

19,50 m Actual Height of barometer from the keel

Correction for the height using the tables

For this height the correction is 2,3hPa. As we already mentioned the


pressure us decreasing with the height, therefore to get the factor must
be added, because the barometer is higher located than the sea level .

1011 hPa Barometer reading

2,3 hPa correction

1013,3 hPa Corrected pressure

-0,5 hPa Index error

1012,8 hPa Correct barometer reading

2.3.1 The Barograph


The principle of the barograph is based on the elastic properties of the metal to monitor
changes in the atmosphere. The metal ( corrugated capsule ) is compressed when the
atmospheric pressure increases and expands if the atmospheric pressure decreases. The metal
will be affected by the air temperature which results in an incorrect reading. Also the elastic
properties of the metal capsule changes with the time and therefore the instrument must be
checked frequently. The check is necessary to find out if the barometer index error is
increasing or decreasing.

With the aneroid barometer not only the present air pressure can be indicated, also the
pressure tendency over a period of seven days can be indicated. This pressure tendency is
from utmost importance for the seafarer, because the actual weather is in accordance to the
reduce and minimize the vibration. The working principle is nearly the same then the aneroid
barometer. The difference is that the pointer carries a pen at its outer end and the scale is
replaced by slow rotating cylinder. Around this cylinder a recording chart is wrapped.
Continuous lines will now traced on the record paper, indicating the pressure at the present
time. The cylinder has to be re-winded every seven days and also the record paper must be
replaced every week. The pen should be checked frequently and the inkwell have to be
refilled.

20
Onboard ships also the microbarograph will be used. The principle is the same than the
barograph but its precision is much more accurate, due to the fact that two siphon cells will
be used. They are mounted on over the other in tandem. Ships motions are compensated by
damping and spring loading which makes it possible to tilted up to 22 . The accuracy is
about 0,3 hPa from the true reading

changes of the air pressure. The tendency will be indicated on a indicator paper of the
barograph.

2.3.2 The working Principle of the Barograph


A barograph is a recording barometer. The barograph is normally mounted on a shelf or desk
on the bridge. If the barograph is mounted on the bridge, than it should be mounted in a
location which minimized the effect of the ships vibration and resonances. ( this is very
important for fast moving ships, like Reefer ships or Container ships, because here the
vibrations and resonances are higher than on slow moving ships. ) To reduce this vibrations,
shock absorbing mats , like rubber mats, will be placed underneath the barograph. This will
minimize the vibration.

The barograph has pointer which carries a pen at its outer end and the scale is replaced by a
slow rotting cylinder. Around this cylinder a recording chart is wrapped. Inside the cylinder is
a clock mechanism which rotates the cylinder. Continuous lines will be now traced on the
record paper, indicating the pressure at the time. The cylinder must be re-winded every seven
days as well as the record paper must be exchanged every seven days. The pen should be
checked frequently and the inkwell has to be refilled.

Onboard of ships also microbarographs will be used. The principle is the same as the working
principle of the barograph but its precision is much more accurate, due to the fact that two
siphon cells will be used. These cells are mounted on over the other in tandem. Ships motions
will be compensated by damping and spring loading which makes it possible to be tilt up to
22 and a accuracy of 0,3 hPa from the true reading.

2.4 Observation and Rules of Pressure Changes


There are seven rules which must be observed if forecasting weather conditions and
discussing a weather condition, using the pressure as an indicator.

Rule No 1

A steady air pressure indicates also a steady weather condition

Rule No 2

Air pressure which is slowly but continuously increasing(rising),


indicates a longer good weather period

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Rule No 3

Fast increasing of air pressure indicates a short period of good weather


condition

Rule No 4

Is the air pressure slowly falling but continuously, bad weather is


indicated.

Rule No 5

Extreme falling of the air pressure indicates a fast weather change,


either a front or low pressure center is approaching

Rule No 6

Pressure change of more than 4 hPa in one hour, could be an increase


of the wind force from 6Bft to 8Bft

Rule No 7

Pressure changes of more than 10 hPa in three hours mostly indicating


a very strong wind force

The indication of the air pressure and the knowledge of the pressure tendency will be used for
the weather forecast. A simple rule is:

An decreasing barometer reading indicates the approach of a Low pressure , probably


accompanied by stormy weather.

The air pressure and pressure tendency is also important to interpret a tropical storm and his
track and the intensity of a low pressure area as well as the high pressure area and the wind
which is accompany both pressure systems.

A change in pressure with a horizontal distance is called a pressure gradient. The force which
is resulting from the pressure gradient is called the pressure gradient force The pressure
gradient force is always pointed to the lower pressure. The wind speed is approximately
proportional to the pressure gradient. As smaller the pressure gradient as higher the wind
force.

22
2.5 Geopotential height in regards to the pressure

2.5.1 Geopotential Meter


The definition of geopotential is the potential energy due to gravity of a unit mass of air at
some point above a standard position (i.e. zero energy), usually mean sea-level, and is
measured in a positive sense vertically upward. Geopotential is:
z
= gdZ
0

A geopotential meter in the gravitational field of the Earth is the vertical distance over
which one must lift one kilogram of mass to increase its potential energy by 9.80665 joule.
On those places on Earth where the gravitational acceleration g happens to be equal to
9.80665 m/s2, the geopotential meter is exactly equal to the SI meter (in this context referred
to as geometric meter). The geopotential meter (gpm) is defined as a rescaled geopotential,
and is given by:

1 n
hn =
9,80665 0
g ( z )dz

Since g depends on altitude, the geopotential meter does too. For increasing altitudes the
geopotential meter becomes increasingly larger than the geometric meter, because the
gravitational force weakens with altitude, with the consequence that the same amount of
energy can move a kilogram over larger distances.

Geopotential Height ( for a given pressure )

Geopotential height approximates the actual height of a pressure surface above mean sea-
level. Therefore, a geopotential height observation represents the height of the pressure
surface on which the observation was taken. A line drawn on a weather map connecting
points of equal height (in meters) is called a height contour. That means, at every point along
a given contour, the values of geopotential height are the same. An image depicting the
geopotential height field is given below.

23
Illustration 6: 500 mb geopotential height

Height contours are represented by the solid lines. The small numbers along the contours are
labels which identify the value of a particular height contour (for example 5640 meters, 5580
meters, etc.). This example depicts the 500 mb geopotential height field and temperatures
(color filled regions). The height field is given in meters with an interval of 60 meters.
Geopotential height is valuable for locating troughs and ridges which are the upper level
counterparts of surface cyclones and anticyclones.

Occasionally it is necessary to convert from geopotential meter to geometric height. The


conversion algorithm is :

hn Re
zn =
Gr hn

Where: Gr = the gravitation ration [ gRe/9,80665]

Re = radius of the earth at latitude

Re is the radius of the earth at latitude ,

cos sin
Re ( + ) =1
R max R min

24
where Rmax is the earth's equatorial radius (= 6378.137
kilometers) and Rmin is the earth's polar radius ( = 6356.752
kilometers).

hn = geopotential Height

g..() =

gravity at Lat() = 9,80616[1-0,002637(cos(2))+0,0000059(cos(2))]

For constructing the Standard atmospheric pressure-altitude ( pressure- height ) relationship,


following parameters are defined:

1. The pressure at zero altitude = 1013,250 hPa

2. The temperature at zero pressure altitude = 288,16K

3. The lapse rate of temperature from 11 km = -6,5C/km

4. The lapse rate of temperature form 11,o to 25 km = 0,0C / km

5. The lapse rate of temperature from 25 km to 47 km = +3,0C/km

Geopotential height is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level - an


adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of
gravity with latitude and elevation.

Geopotential height contours can be used to calculate the geostrophic wind (additional info
and facts about geostrophic wind), which blows stronger where the contours are more closely
spaced and tangential to the isolines.

The Geopotential meter is related to the Dynamic meter by the expression one geopotential
meter=0.98 dynamic meter

25
Chapter 3 Temperature and Humidity

3.1 Temperature in general


Temperature may be monitored at various heights above the surface. The surface air
temperature will be monitored at a height of about 2 m. The temperature is a measure of heat
energy and will be measured in degree. The intensity of heat should not be confused with the
amount of heat. If a temperature of a substance will be increased the amount of heat that must
be added is depending upon the amount of the substance to be heated. Unequal amounts of
substances require the addition of unequal amounts of heat to affect an equal increase in
temperature. The reason is the specific heat of each substance.

The units for measuring the amounts of heat need are the BTU ( British thermal unit ). This
unit indicated the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water 1/
Fahrenheit. The other unit is the calorie, this indicates the amount of heat needed to increase
the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 / Celsius

There are different temperature scales used :

Fahrenheit ( F )
Celsius ( C )
Kelvin ( K )
Rankine ( R )

These temperature scales have different properties. On the Fahrenheit scale, pure water will
freeze at 32/ F and boils at 212/ F
On the Celsius scale , pure water will freeze at 0/ C and boils at 100/ C. the Celsius scale
commonly will be used in the metric system.
Both system , Fahrenheit and Celsius will be used onboard ships. Common for temperature
reading is now a days the Celsius scale. But on reefer ships and for Reefer products the
Fahrenheit temperature is also common. In the United Stated of America and also in Britain,
the Fahrenheit scale will be used.
Sometimes it is convenient to express temperature by a scale at which 0/ is absolute zero.
( Absolute temperature ) If Fahrenheit degrees are used, this scale is called Rankine ( R )
temperature. If Celsius degrees are used this is called Kelvin ( K ). Rankine and Kelvin will
be normally not used onboard ships.
These scales will be used for scientific calculations and ashore by the meteorologist.
The seafarer must be able to convert the different temperature readings.
This is very easy because there is a linear mathematical relationship between them.

26
The conversion from Fahrenheit to Celsius

C = 5/8( F - 32 ) or
C = ( F-32 )/ 1,8

The conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit

F = 9/5 C+32 or
F = 1,8 C +32

The conversion from Celsius to Kelvin

K = C + 271,16

The conversion from Fahrenheit to Rankine

R = F + 459,69

Be reminded that the temperature of 40 is the same in Celsius or Fahrenheit scale

Besides this common forms of temperature there are some other temperatures which will be
used in meteorology, but not used on board. But if we are talking about temperatures we must
shortly also discuss these temperatures.

Virtual Temperature

Fact is that dry air is heavier then water vapor. The water vapor capacity in warm air is bigger
than in cold air. In the troposphere the temperature is decreasing with the height until a height
of 8 15 km. The atmospheric temperature gradient is depending on the water vapor of the
air. As more water vapor in the air as more heat radiation at the earth by means of
condensation energy of the water (this is the energy which will be released if a gas will
condensate) will be balanced. If there would be no water vapor in the atmosphere, the
temperature would decrease (due to a very high dry adiabatic temperature gradient) and
would be identically with the virtual temperature. But in reality there is always water vapor in
the atmosphere and therefore we consider a lesser wet adiabatic temperature gradient. As
lower the portion of water vapor of the air, as less is the difference between the dry and wet
adiabatic temperature gradient and as closer real and virtual temperature lies together.

In regards to the virtual temperature, the wet or humid air and the fictive dry air (without any
water vapor) must have the same density. This can only happen if the dry air will be heated or
will be decreased along the temperature gradient which is equal to a height reduction.

We can now construct a situation where the dry air parcel will be slowly decreased
(temperature will be slowly decreased), then there will be a height or a temperature, were the

27
density of the dry air equals the density of the humid/wet air. This height or recalculated in
temperature will be defined as virtual temperature. Therefore we can conclude if this is would
be the case that the humid air will conduct like the dry air of the virtual temperature.

The virtual temperature will be used in the theoretical meteorology, because the virtual
temperature is already considering the humidity in the air.

The virtual temperature will be used for calculating temperatures. The calculated values of
the virtual temperature are always higher than the actual temperatures. This will be corrected
for the actual temperature of an air parcel by using the relation between the real density and
pressure

Using the virtual temperature, the equation is expressed for cloudless (only water vapor is
present) and overcast sky.

For cloudless condition (only water vapor present)

1
1. TV = T * (1 + ( 1) * s ) ; where = specific Gas constant of water vapor and dry

Air(Mwatervapor/Mdry air 0,6220) ; s = specific humidity [kg/kg] (Mwatervapor/Mwet air)

Where M water vapor = 18,01528 [g/mol]

M dry air = 28,9644 [g/mol]

M watervapor 18.01528[ g / mol ]


= = 0,62198 0,6220
M dryair 28,9644[ g / mol ]

and T = Temperature [ K ]

1
2. Simplifying : TV = T * (1 + ( 1)) * s = T * (1 + 0,6078 * s ) ,
0,6220
1
because 1 = 0,6078
0,6220
rv
1+
3. TV = T * T * (1 + 0,6078 * r ) ; where rv = water vapor mixing ratio (Mwater
1 + rv
v

vapor/Mdry air) ; re = liquid water mixing ratio (MLiquid water/Mdry air )

28
1 e
4. TV = T * T * (1 + 0,3780 * ) ; where 0,3780 = 1-=1-0,6220=0,3780 ; p
e p
1 (1 ) *
p
= atmospheric pressure [ Pa ] and e = vapor pressure [ Pa ]

e
5. the formula for TVCcloudless condition ) = T * (1 + 0,3780 * )
p

6. For overcast condition TV ( besides the water vapor also liquid water and ice was
r
1+ v
considered ) will be TV = T * ( e ) T * (1 + 0,6078 * r r )
1 + rv + re
v e

Potential Temperature

The potential temperature [ ] is useful in checking the characterizing super adiabatic lapse
rates. It is defined as a reference temperature obtained by changing an air parcels
temperature adiabatically to a pressure of 1000 hPa. The potential temperature will be
calculated using :

R
1000 C p R
= T( ) , where = Gas constant for air over the specific heat of air at a constant
p Cp
pressure,

R = 287,053 Jkg-1K-1

Cp = 1004,67 Jkg-1K-1 , specific heat for dry air at constant pressure

R 287,053
= = 0,2857 0,286
C p 1004,67

which is equal to 2/7 = 0,286

29
3.2 The Temperature measuring instruments

Temperatures are measured with a thermometer. The principle of these thermometers is that
materials are expand with an increase of temperature and contract with the decrease of
temperature. The standard instrument to monitor temperature is the mercury thermometer
, usually also known as dry - bulb - thermometer. The thermometer consist of a bulb, filled
with mercury and connected to a tube of a very small cross - sectional area. The bulb is only
partly filled with mercury, the rest is a vacuum. If now the mercury expands or contracts with
changing temperatures, the length of the mercury column in the tube changes as well and
indicates the actual temperature. The length of the mercury column can be read on a
temperature scale besides the tube, either in Fahrenheit or in Celsius. The disadvantage is that
the mercury( Hg ) has a temperature range between -38,9C ( at this Temperature mercury
becomes solid ) and 356,7C ( boiling point of mercury ). Therefore the thermometer have
normally a range between -37 and 50 or 100 C

We know four different types of temperature measuring :

A change in temperature caused by a change in Volume or length


Electrical voltage difference
Electrical Change of resistance
Accustic or radiometric temperature measuring

The Thermometer which will change the length are Bi-metalic thermometers. They are
composed out of two different metals metal strips. Both metals have different expansion
coefficients. At temperature changes the expansion of the metals is different which causes an
increase of the curvature of the two metal strips.

Electrical Thermometer:
The thermometers are based on the principle of thermo electrical voltage. Two different
voltages will occur at the tow different metals, mostly copper.
Two copper wires will be used. There is a voltage on both ends of the wires. The circuit will
be closed by voltmeter at each end, which are indicating the voltage. If there is no
temperature change the voltage of each wire is the same but in opposite direction, therefore
the voltage is zero. If there are differences at each wires, a voltage difference will be
measured and indicated as temperature.
Temperature readings and information are very important for the cargo hold meteorology and
for calculation the rel. Humidity and in comparison with the dew point for the amount of
moisture in the air, the sea water.

30
Illustration 7: Thermometer

Thermometer with electrical resistance :

These thermometers are using the principle of electrical resistance with the change of
temperature. We differ between positive and negative temperature coefficient. (PTC and
NTC - Resistance ) At a PTC Resistance the resistance is linear increasing with the
temperature. On reefer ships mostly PT- 100 resistance elements will be used. At a NTC
resistance the resistance is exponential decreasing with an increase of temperature.

Illustration 8: Sling Psychrometer

Not only air temperatures are important for seafarers, also the water temperature gives a lot of
useful information to the seafarer. The Chart below shows the water temperatures on a
voyage from West coast United States to South East Asia and the air temperature on a voyage
from North Continent to the east coast of the United States. The red marked fields are areas
with high temperatures and the darker colored areas are colder temperatures.

Illustration 9: Water temperatures : Voyage North Continent - East Coast USA

31
Illustration 10 : Atmospheric Temperatures for the Voyage North Continent - East Coast USA 4

The light red marked areas are the areas with warmer the dark marked areas with less warm
air and the blue marked areas with cold air .The same for the map of the water temperatures
The water temperature is generally more difficult to monitor than the air temperature. There
are several methods to read the seawater temperature.

Engine room readings


Condenser intake reading
Thermistor probes attached to the hull
reading from buckets recovered from over the side

The last reading method is mostly together with the engine room reading, the most common
form of reading method onboard ships. It is advisable to prefer the bucket reading method,
because the temperature can be taken from any location of the ship. To avoid the error by the
cooling water to location should be near amidships and well clear of any discharge line which
can affect the correct reading of the temperature. The sample should be taken immediately to
a place where it is sheltered against the sun and the wind. The water should be than stirred
with the thermometer, keeping the bulb submerged until a constant reading is obtained . The
seawater temperature can be influenced by the ocean currents. We knowing warm and cold
ocean currents such like the Gulf current, the Kuroshio current, which are warm
currents and the Humboldt current which is cold current. Also other climate phenomena such
like the El Nino can influence that the water temperature of a certain area is drastically

4
Illustration 9&10 : P.Grunau Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlad Norderstedt
32
increasing. Significant variations also occur where large amounts of freshwater will be
discharged from rivers.

The diagram below shows the average water temperatures on the northern Route ( via
Unimak Passage ) from the west coast USA to south east Asia, at several Key-points during
the year.

Illustration 11: Average Water temperatures for a voyage from Seattle to Hong Kong

Having the water temperatures during this voyages, the developing of a tropical storm can be
much more accurate forecasted and recognized.

Also areas of ice can be recognized early in time due to rapidly falling water
temperatures, if trading in such areas.

3.4 Humidity
What is Humidity ? Humidity is a measure of atmospheres water vapor content.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio, in percentage (%), of the pressure of water vapor present
in the atmosphere to the saturation vapor pressure at the same time. Saturation takes place if
the relative humidity equals 100%. If the air equals 40% relative humidity we are talking

5
Source : P.Grunau
33
about a dry air. A human being is feeling comfortable at a temperature of 20/ C and a RH of
60%.

Relative humidity is water vapor, so water which is evaporated. Evaporation is the change of
a substance from its liquid to his vapor state.

In the atmosphere water is the only substance which will change his state. All other gases will
not change their state. The states of water are :

Vapor - Water vapor


Liquid - Water droplets
Solid - Ice crystals

Water vapor is invisible whilst the other two states are visible. The actual water vapor content
of a sample of air may be expressed by a number of terms.

Humidity Mixing Ratio : The ratio of mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air. The
unit is grams per kilogram ( g kg -)

Absolute Humidity : Ratio of mass of water vapor to the volume occupied by the
mixture of water vapor and air. It is also known as vapor concentration. The unit is
grams per cubic meter ( g/m)

Vapor Pressure : The pressure exerted by the water vapor in the atmosphere, which
forms part of the total atmosphere pressure. The unit is Hectopascal ( hPa ). As air
temperature is decreasing the relative humidity is increasing. At a certain point the
saturation takes place and any further cooling results in condensation. The
temperature when this occurs is called dew point and the moisture upon the object is
called dew. ( In a form of liquid or frost if it is in a form of frozen state

The absolute Humidity can be calculated using the formula

e mwatervapor
Pw = =
Rw * T VolumeTotal

Where :

e vapor pressure
Rw Gas constant of water = 461,52 J/(kg K)
T abs. Temperature

34
Mwater vapor Mass of water vapor inside the air parcel
Volumetotal Total volume of the wet air

The relative humidity

The relative humidity ( f, RH) is the ratio of the actual water vapor pressure and the saturated
water vapor pressure above a clean and even water surface, given in percentage.

The relative humidity will indicate in which grade the water vapor is saturated.

At a relative humidity of 50% the air contains only half of the amount
of water vapor which might be maximal present at this temperature
At 100% relative humidity the air is completely saturated
If the saturation of 100% will be exceeded, the excessive humidity will
be condensed as condensate or fog

Using the relative humidity an immediate estimation of evaporation processes can be done
further the feasibility of dew water development can be recognized.

By using the following formula the relative humidity can be calculated:

Where:

e vapor pressure
E Saturation vapor pressure
w absolute humidity
w,max maximal absolute humidity
s specific humidity
S saturation humidity
Mixing ratio

Calculation oft he relative humidity

Example :

We have a air temperature of 0C, at an absolute humidity of 17 g/m. Calculate the relative
humidity?

35
LFabs = 17 g / m
Given :
T = 0C

Maximal humidity out of dew point curve at 0C =4,8g/m

To be calculated : LFrel

Formula for the calculation of the relative Humidity :

LFabs * 100 17 g / m * 100


LFrel (%) = = = 354,16%
LFmax 4,8 g / m

This example shows us that there is a very strong saturation of the air. The air will be, by
means of condensation, reduced to a saturation degree below 100%

For the formation of clouds this is an important factor, because this is why clouds are
developing. If we are facing a super saturation, we can conclude that there is no humidity any
more, condensation will occur, clouds will be formed.

3.4.1 The Dew Point


The dew point temperature to which a sample of air must be lowered in order to saturate in
respect to a plane liquid water surface, assuming constant pressure and water vapor content.
Further cooling will result in condensation. Dew can only occur if the air is already saturated.
As long as the air is unsaturated, she is able to absorb more moisture, evaporation can take
place. If the air immediately above the surface is saturated, the evaporation rate will be zero,
because no more water vapor can be absorbed.

The dew point and its relation to the air temperature is from utmost importance if we are
transporting cargo and here especially hygroscopic cargo. Hygroscopic cargo has the ability
to absorb water. So the relative humidity in a cargo hold can be easily increased, especially
on voyages from warm to cold areas, and the air will be saturated. If than the cargo will be
cooled down below the dew point of the cargo or the air which is above the cargo surface,
condensation will take place - called cargo sweat. Another form of sweat is the ships sweat.3
The air is called supersaturated, if the air is completely free of any solid particles, like dust
and salt etc, on which water vapor may be condense.

3.4.2 Hygrometer and Psychrometer

Re l a t i v e humidity and also dew point are measured with a hygrometer. The dew point
and also the relative humidity will be not actually measured, it will be calculated out of two
temperatures, the dry bulb and the wet bulb temperature. Only with a hygrometer the relative

36
humidity can be read immediately. On board the most common one for measuring the relative
humidity and the dew point is the psychrometer.

The psychrometer consists out of two thermometers mounted together on a single strip of
Material. One of these thermometers is lower than the other and its bulb is covered with a
muslin. When the muslin is covered with moisture and the thermometer is well ventilated, the
evaporation which occurs now will cool the bulb of the thermometer. This caused a lower
reading than the other thermometer, which is not covered with a muslin. The result is the dry
bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature. A sling psychrometer is ventilated, by
whirling the thermometer. The structure of this psychrometer is the same than the
psychrometer. The difference between the dry - and the wet bulb temperature will be used
to enter the psychrometer tables. With the psychrometer tables the relative humidity and the
dew point can be found.

Amann Psychrometer

Aspiration psychrometers determine the air temperature and humidity of the ambient air.
They consist of two thermometers, each inside a double tube for minimizing radioactive
heating both by the direct sun and long-wave radiation exchange between thermometer and
surrounding tube. In addition the instrument is ventilated during measurement by a manually
winded fan. One of the thermometers is covered by a cotton gaze that has to be wetted before
the measurement. Depending on the ambient humidity, water is evaporating from the wet
gaze and cooling down the wet thermometer that reaches the so called wet-bulb temperature
after a few minutes. From the wet bulb temperature, the air temperature measured
simultaneously by the dry thermometer and the air pressure, the humidity of the air can be
calculated

Illustration 12: Sling Psychrometer ( Source P.Grunau )

37
Illustration 13: Amann Psychrometer ( Source P.Grunau )

Illustration 14: Hygrometer ( Source P.Grunau )

Calculation of Dew Point and absolute Humidity using the Psychrometer Table

Example :

How to use the Psychrometer table

A cargo hold has a dry bulb temperature of 20/ C and a wet bulb temperature
of 17/ C.

1. Calculate T

20 C 17 C = T = +3 C

2. Look to the vertical scale dry bulb - temperature at 20 C

3. Look to the vertical scale T - temperature - scale at 3 C

4. You will find the relative humidity of 74% in the horizontal line

5. Look to the second vertical row with absolute humidity and you will
find the value 17,3

6.Calculate the absolute humidity using the formula

Abs.humidity [ g/m ] = 17,3 x ( 74/100 )= 12,8g/m

For finding the dew point the dew point table can be used

38
Example:

The dry temperature is 15 C and the relative humidity is 85%

1. Enter the table with the dry temperature 15/ C and you will find in the
right row the value 12,9 g/cu.m ( absolute humidity )

2. Multiply the absolute humidity by the relative humidity


12,9 g/cu.m x 85% = 11,0 g/cu.m

3. Enter the table now with the value 11,0 cu.m in the row [g/cu.m]
The dew point is between 12/ C and 13/ C. By interpolation you will get the correct
value of 12,4/ C as the dew point

The dew point is import in meteorology, because it is a measurement of the humidity in the
air. The dew point is in relation to the temperature and relative humidity the spread. We can
conclude now: As less spread as more humid the air and as higher the spread as more dry is
the air.

39
Chapter 4 Wind

4.1 General

Wind is defined as the horizontal movement of air across the surface of the earth. Wind is
developing due to atmospheric pressure differences, which are mainly based on temperature
differences. Temperature and pressure differences will be caused because the sun is radiating
the earth surface not with the same energy and the second reason are the thermal differences
between land and Ocean. These differences are causing global wind systems, effected by the
earth rotation.

On the northern hemisphere the wind will be deflected by the rotation of the earth to the right.
The reason is that the atmospheric pressure will decrease, if coming closer to the poles. The
Low pressure zones will develop The wind force is in accordance with and will be influenced
by :

the curving of the isobars. In a High pressure area ( anticyclone


curving) the wind is blowing much stronger ( with the same distance
between the isobars ) than in a low pressure area ( cyclone curving of
the isobars ). This wind, blowing parallel to the isobars is called
gradient wind.
Also the distance between the isobars is an indicator of the find force. As
closer the isobars together, as stronger the wind. ( Pressure Gradient )

The latitude. At the same distance between the isobars the wind is
stronger at the equator than at the poles

Surface friction. The surface friction results in a decrease of the wind


speed. At sea this friction is not as strong on land. The true surface wind
is here 10% less than the gradient wind. A shore the surface friction is
much more stronger which results in a decrease of the surface wind by
20% - 30% of the gradient wind

In warm air masses the wind force is about 20% less than in a cold air
mass of the same condition.

Wind direction :

The wind direction is indicating out of what direction the wind is blowing. The wind
direction will be divided in Main wind directions, where a full circle is divided in 16 sectors,
Main and sub directions. This will be indicated on the wind rose or also called compass rose.

40
The wind force :

The wind force is given in knots or m/s. The measurement will be done in Beaufort 6[Bft].
The Beaufort scale is named after Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort and his scale will be still used
on board of ships. Beaufort developed his scale 1805.

The division of this scale is very simply:

Bft 0 = No wind

Bft 12 = Hurricane

1956 the scale was reviewed and is no presenting also Bft 17. But still, all forces above 12
Bft will remain as Hurricane force. The difference is the wind speed.

Example : Bft 12 = 32,7 36,9 m/s

Bft 17 = > 56,4 m/s

The force of the wind is increasing as shown below

Bft 2 = average 2,5 m/s

Bft 4 = average 6 m/s

Bft 6 = average11 m/s

If doubling the wind speed I will at the same time have nearly double of the wind force.

The six factors in the so called Impulse equation for isobar and normal coordinates, which
will be used in weather chart calculation now-a-days and which will explain the different
wind flows are:

dV
1. = Tangential acceleration
dt

z
2. g = Pressure gradient in the s- equation of a motion
s

3. K sV = Friction

V
4. = Centrifugal acceleration
rT

6
Beaufort: Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort ( 1774 1857 ).
41
5. fV = Coriolis parameter

z
6. g = Pressure gradient in the n equation of motion
n

4.2 The different parameters causing Wind

4.2.1 The Coriolis Force


If we are talking about the wind we also have to review the Coriolis Force. Once air has been
set in motion by the pressure gradient force, it undergoes an apparent deflection from its path,
as seen by an observer on the earth. This apparent deflection is called the "Coriolis force" and
is a result of the earth's rotation

As air moves from high to low pressure in the northern hemisphere, it is deflected to the right
by the Coriolis force. In the southern hemisphere, air moving from high to low pressure is
deflected to the left by the Coriolis force.

The amount of deflection the air makes is directly related to both the speed at which the air is
moving and its latitude. Therefore, slowly blowing winds will be deflected only a small
amount, while stronger winds will be deflected more. Likewise, winds blowing closer to the
poles will be deflected more than winds at the same speed closer to the equator. The Coriolis
force is zero right at the equator.

The Coriolis Force can be derived as:

2
1. = = Angular velocity
T

Where: T = Time period [ s ]

2. Calculation of the effective Velocity :


c [m / s ] = * r , where r = Distance from the axis of rotation [ m ]

3. In regards to the earth we use for T ( Time Period ) the sidereal day
T = 86168 s.

4. For the calculation of r, axis of the earth, following formula will be used :

r = R cos

where: = geographic Latitude and R = Earths Radius = 6,371 * 10 6 m

42
5. Calculation of the vector product:

_
2m v
_
Therefore: Fc horizontal = 2m v

or : Coriolis Force

Fc = 2mV sin in Scalar notation)

We can conclude:

At a constant mass and constant velocity the Coriolis Force at the equator = 0,
because sin of 0 = zero. At the poles, sin90 = 1. Substituting sin0 and
sin90 in the formula for the Coriolis Force the result is zero at the equator
and is increasing with the latitude until the Poles where we face the largest
Coriolis force.

Often time the Coriolis acceleration will be used instead of the Coriolis Force :

a c = 2v sin

Illustration 15: Coriolis second theorem 7

Coriolis second theorem is most easily understood when the rotating system is viewed first
from a fixed frame of reference ( a ), then in the rotating frame of reference (b).

7
Anders Persson : How Do we understood the Coriolis Force
43
The total centrifugal force acting on the body m moving with a velocity V is directed
perpendicular to the tangent of the movement, along the radius of curvature. It can be
decomposed into two centrifugal forces: one m r , directed from the center of the rotation
and a second centrifugal force 2mV , the Coriolis Force, perpendicular to the relative
motion Vr

Coriolis analyze the relative motion associated with the system, in particular the centrifugal
force. It is directed perpendicular to the moving bodys trajectory. For a stationary body this
is radial out from the center of rotation. For a moving body this is not the case. It will point
off from the center of rotation

Therefore the centrifugal force can be decomposed in a radial centrifugal force m r and the
Coriolis force 2mV . Using the radial centrifugal force and the Coriolis force I will get
the total centrifugal force.

4.2.2 The Gradient Force


The gradient force , FP, describes the pressure difference between a Low and high pressure
area. The pressure gradient from the higher to a lower pressure from the height to the
surface will be caused by the gravitation. Is there no vertical movement of air, pressure
gradient force and gravitation are exact in balance. This is known as hydrostatic equilibrium.
Mathematical vise the gradient force can be expressed as:

1 ( p 2 p1 )
Fp = x
p I

where : p = Density

p1 / 2 = Pressure at location 1 and 2

I = Distance between the two locations

The gradient force can be also described, if the horizontal pressure gradient is n and the
horizontal pressure gradient will be defined as p / n , the accompanied acceleration states :

The acceleration at a pressure gradient in y direction equals

1 p
a p( y) = x
p y

Substituting for y , n , we will get the following result in regards to the horizontal
acceleration:

1 p
a p(h) = x
p n

44
Multiplying the acceleration with the mass of the air parcel using m=pv we will get :

m p
F ph = x
p n

The gradient force can be induced by following factors:

Density difference ( induced by temperature differences )

Pressure differences

Recapitulating : The reason of movement of air is the pressure gradient. We can conclude : as
more movement of air as stronger the pressure gradient in the specific area. ( in hPa/100km )

4.2.3 The centrifugal force


The last parameter to be discussed is the centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is , like the
Coriolis force , is a force of inertia with regards to rotational systems. The mathematical sign
is FZ.

The centrifugal force is :

c
a) Fz = m where c is the effective velocity and r is the distance from the axis of
r
gyration. If we observe a body in rest at a certain latitude, we would discover :
The body is rotating with the earth about the axis of the earth, with a distance of r. Therefore
the effective velocity , because he is just rotating with the earth is :

2
b) c = r , wobei = ,bei T=24h = 7,29 * 10 5 s 1
T

The centrifugal force will be calculated

c (r ) 2
c) Fz = m =m = m r
r r

If the body or air/ air parcel is now moving with a speed of v von west to east, the effective
velocity and the bodys own velocity will be added resulting in the total velocity ( c+v )

45
Therefore we can conclude :

(c + v)
Fz (total ) = m
r
c + 2cv + v
d) Fz (total ) =m ; substituting of equation a in equation d results in:
r

(r ) + 2rv + v
Fz (total ) = m
r

In a different form :

v
Fz (total ) = m r + 2mv + m
r

We can now conclude that the total centrifugal force is the sum of centrifugal force and
Coriolis force.

4.3 The different Winds

4.3.1 The geostrophic wind


The winds balanced by the Coriolis and Pressure Gradient forces. An air parcel initially at
rest will move from high pressure to low pressure because of the pressure gradient force. If
this air starts to move, it is deflected by the Coriolis force to the right ( Northern Hemisphere
) and to the left (Southern Hemisphere ). If the wind gains speed, the deflection increases
until the Coriolis forces is equal to the gradient force. If this point is reached, the wind is
blowing parallel to the isobars. This is called geostrophic
When the isobars are straight lines parallel to each other, the resultant horizontal motion, due
to action of the pressure gradient and the geostrophic force, is termed the geostrophic wind.
Its direction is parallel to the isobars and its speed is constant The geostrophic wind is only
used by the meteorologist s, but is of limited practical value for the seafarer.
At the geostrophic wind, following forces are in balance : Coriolis force and Gradient force

z
fV = g ( Coriolis force = pressure gradient - n equation of motion)
n

The illustration below demonstrates the balance between Coriolis force and gradient force

46
Illustration 16: Geostrophic wind at a geopotential height of 5360 m 8

z
g
n

_____________________________ 5300 m

_____________________________ 5360 m

fV

This causes that the wind is blowing parallel to the isobars .The geostrophic wind will be
discovered at a height of 1500 m and more, because here is no surface friction affecting the
wind.

The velocity of the geostrophic wind can be calculated using the equation

m p
* = 2mV g sin
p n

And reconvert to the velocity :

1 p
Vg =
p 2 sin n

The velocity can be also represented by using the Coriolis parameter instead of the Coriolis
force:

1 p
Vg = ; where f = 2 sin = Coriolis Parameter
pf n

A more simple formula to get the geostrophic wind :

Vgeo = 100/sinLat/G [ kt ] G= Isobar differences in / Lat

The real wind at sea will reach 75% of the geostrophic wind

V = 0,75*Vgeo

8
P.Grunau : Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
47
To simplify the formula it is allowed to interpolate between 5/ to 5/ Latitude

q = ( 100/sin Lat ) for 5/ interpolation of Lat.

To get v = q/G

The factor q can be calculated and used for a table

Latitude 30-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65


q - factor 18610 16430 14800 13560 12600 11860 11270

Example :
Calculate the real wind at a latitude of 40/ and a isobar difference of 2
v = q/G
Isobar difference = G = 2
Latitude = 40
q-Factor = 164,30 ( out of table Lat.35-40)
Substituting in V geo =q/G = 164,30/2 = 82,15 kt = V geo

Vreal = 0,75 * Vgeo = 0,75*82,15 kt = 61,61 kt ~ 62 kt

The question remains open if we can use this formula for the day-to-day operation on board
to get the real wind.

The question is not as easy to answer as it looks like. We can consider following approach for
solving it.

For the acceleration which will occur at the pressure gradient we can consider:

For a acceleration in the y direction:

1 p
a p( y) = *
p y

1 p
Substituting for y, n we will get : a p ( h ) = *
p n

If we now multiplying the acceleration with the mass of this air parcel, m=pv, we will get:

m p
Fp (h) = *
p n

48
To get the geostrophic wind speed the equitation for the Coriolis Force and gradient forces :
m p
* = 2mV g sin , must be re-arranged to get the velocity :
p n

1 p
Vg =
p 2 sin n

Instead of the Coriolis force the Coriolis parameter f can be also used:

f = 2 sin

Using the Coriolis Parameter the formula for getting the geostrophic wind will be:

1 p
Vg =
pf n

This proofs that the values of the results, using the simplified geostrophic wind speed
formula:

100
sin
V geo =
g

has nearly no sense for the navigator, because the factors influencing the geostrophic wind
are only for straight isobars and only in the height where the

Illustration 17: Geostrophic and Gradient Wind

surface friction is not given. But the formula for the geostrophic wind speed

1 p
Vg =
pf n

49
Can be used to calculate the pressure gradient, based on 100 km distance. By Knowing the
pressure gradient I also can estimate the wind speed stronger or weaker.

Example :

Lat. 53 N

Average wind speed: Vgeo = 108 kmh-1

Air density p = 1,2828 kgm-3

p
What is the pressure gradient? in hPa / 100km
n

p
Given : Vgeo = 108 kmh = 30 m/s unknown : in hPa / 100km
n

p = 1,2828 kgm-3

= 53

2 2
= = = 7,29 * 10 5 s 1
T 86168s

Solution:

1 p
Formula: V g =
p 2 sin n

p
Re-arranging to pressure gradient: = pV g 2 sin
n

Substituting the given parameter:

p
= 1,2828kgm 3 30ms 1 2 * 7,29 * 10 5 s 1 sin 53
n
p
= 0,0045kgm 2 s 2 = 0,0045Pa m 1
n

The pressure gradient p / n = 4,5hPa / 100km

The gradient wind is mathematically defined as:

z V
g = fV + ; therefore the wind is now blowing isobar parallel also at curved isobars.
s rT

50
Illustration 18: PG and Fc in balance - wind parallel to the isobars

We can conclude: Vgrad=0,75*Vgeo is only usable in mid latitudes and only for low pressure
areas, because in low pressures the gradient wind is less than the geostrophic wind.

In high pressure systems this is not the case, because the gradient flow is faster than the
geostropic flow always under the consideration that the gradient force is constant.

Comparing the two wind flows we can conclude:

V geo V grad
= 1+ ; follows : Is the relation greater than 1 we will find a cyclonic flow,
V grad frT
is the relation less than 1 it is a anti-cyclonic flow.

100
sin
Using our formula to be proofed: V geo = we can see that in this formula the main
g
influence of the Coriolis force is not included. Therefore the wind speed is just a rough
approximation. If using the geostrophic wind formula, the correct mathematically formula
1 p
must be used : V g =
p 2 sin n

51
We can conclude:

100
sin
The formula V geo = for getting the geostrophic wind can be only used for a rough
g
approximation and only for mid latitudes. For the exact wind speed the gradient wind speed
z V
formula should be used: g = fV +
s rT

For solving the formula the quadratic equation can be used:

1
1 1 4r dp 2
v = rf + r f +
2 2 p dr

where: r = distance to the center ; f = Coriolis Parameter; dp = pressure gradient and dr =


gradient / 100 km

A more convenient method is the 300 nm Rule. The rule can be used also for other latitudes,
but also this method is not absolute exact, because the influence of air density, Coriolis force
is missing.

4.3.2 The Gradient Wind


Gradient winds are non-geostrophic winds which blow parallel to isobars. They still blowing
parallel to the isobars but are no longer balanced by only the pressure gradient and Coriolis
forces, and do not have the same velocity as the geostrophic wind. Since the pressure gradient
force does not change and all the forces must balance, the Coriolis force becomes weaker.
This will decrease the wind speed. Here the gradient wind differs from the geostrophic wind.
In this case of a low pressure system or trough, the gradient wind blows parallel to the
isobars, with less speed than the geostrophic wind.
The forces which are balancing the gradient wind are :

o Coriolis force
o Gradient force
o Centrifugal force

Mathematical vise the gradient wind is defined as :

z V
g = fV +
s rT

The gradient wind is also parallel at curved isobars

52
Illustration 19: Force for Gradient wind 9

PGF FC
Low
FZ

We can conclude : PGF =Fz Fc

Comparing gradient wind speeds with geostrophic wind speeds for the same pressure gradient
force, there are some differences. The Gradient flow around a high pressure system will be
faster than the geostrophic flow if the pressure gradient force is constant.

The opposite is true when considering low pressure systems. In this case, the gradient wind
around the low pressure system is less than the geostrophic wind if the pressure gradient
force is constant. The ratio of geostrophic flow to gradient flow can be defined as :

V geo V grad
= 1+
V grad frT

where: Vg = Geostrophic wind speed VG = Gradient wind speed

Thus, if the value of the ratio is greater than one, then the flow is cyclonic. If the value is less
than one, the flow is anti-cyclonic.

Gradient wind in Low and High Pressure System

Wind in Low Pressure systems

The winds about the low are weaker than in straight isobar / contour flow.
In straight flow, the wind speed must be strong enough for the Coriolis force to
balance the Pressure Gradient force.

9
Source : P Grunau own drawing
53
In curved flow about a low, the Coriolis Force is weaker than the Pressure Gradient
force, so the winds are weaker.
The winds are sub-geostrophic.

Wind in High Pressure systems

The contours / isobars about a low will be close together, signifying a strong Pressure
About a high pressure / height region, the Coriolis force must be greater than the
Pressure Gradient force.
The wind speed is greater than it would be in a straight isobar / contour flow. The
winds are Supergeostrophic.
The center of a high will be broad and flat, signifying a weak PGF

4.3.3 Friction
There is more of friction's impact on low level winds
Friction's effects on air motion decrease as the altitude increases - to a point
(usually 1-2 km) where it has no effect at all. The depth of the atmosphere where the friction
plays a role in atmospheric motion is referred to as the boundary layer. Within the boundary
layer, this friction plays a role in keeping the wind from being geostrophic. If we look at low
and high-pressure systems, we can see this mechanism at work. For example if the winds
would blow without friction effects, the wind would flow counter-clockwise around the
center of the low in the northern hemisphere. However, when the surface friction is
accounted, the wind slows down, and therefore the Coriolis force weakens and the pressure
gradient force becomes dominant, resulting in the spiraling of air into the center of a low
pressure system and away from the center of the high pressure system. This causes
convergence in the center of the low pressure system at the surface. It is this surface
convergence which leads to rising air which can create clouds and even cause rain and storms
to form. At the same time, wind flows around a northern hemisphere high-pressure system is
a clockwise manner. But when frictional effects are introduced the wind again slows down
which caused that the Coriolis force reduces and the pressure gradient force dominant.

4.3.4 Other wind flows

Besides the geostrophic and gradient wind there are some other winds which should be
discussed in short terms.

54
a. The Antitripic wind flow

The antitripic wind flow is a flow in the atmosphere, which can be only defined by
the S equation, because there is no tangential movement present at this wind flow.
The antitripic wind will be balanced by the pressure gradient and friction force.
Mathematical vise :

z
g = K sV
s

The antitripic wind flow is a wind flow which is rare near the surface, because as we
can see there should be no Coriolis force present or the Coriolis force is very week.
Further there should be no centrifugal force present.

In the atmosphere this type of wind flow is rare. Where we can have such a wind flow
is near the equator, because here the Coriolis force is nearly zero and also the
centrifugal force is not acting.

b. Inertial Wind flow

As well as the antitripic wind flow also the inertial wind flow is rare. This wind flow
will be balanced by the Centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.

V
= fV
rT

The reason why this wind flow is very seldom is because the pressure gradient force is
nearly zero or zero. This type of wind flow can be observed in a the center of a large
Pressure system, because in the center of a Low or High pressure system the pressure
gradient is very week.

c. Cyclostrophic wind flow

In a cyclostrophic flow, the centrifugal forces ( with the assistance of the Coriolis
force ) and the gradient force are in balance. At a cyclonal flow the Coriolis force is
zero. We can assume if the centrifugal force is larger than the Coriolis force the flow
is a cyclonal flow. This ratio centrifugal force to Coriolis force is expressed by the
Rossby Number:

V
Ro =
frT

55
In larger systems the Coriolis force cannot be ignored. In smaller systems the Coriolis
force can be ignored, like in Tornados, wind hoses or dust devils. These system are so
small that the Coriolis force is nearly zero.

To calculate the wind speed of cyclostrophic wind we must differ between a cyclonal
and anti- cyclonal flow.

The cyclonal flow is defined as :

r p
V zyklonal = r sin r sin +
p n

An Anti-cyclonal flow is defined as :

r p
Vantizyklonal = r sin r sin
p n

Is the result positive we have a cyclonal flow ( large Low pressure systems like the
Island low pressure system) Is the result negative the we are facing smaller systems.

Finally, with regards to the wind speed we can conclude :

The wind speed will be affected by following factors :

a. Curving of the Isobars

b. Distance between the Isobars As more narrow the isobars as more wind speed,
because of the pressure gradient

c. The geographical Latitude. With the same distance between the Isobars, the wind
is stronger near the equator than at the poles

d. The surface friction. The wind speed will be reduced by the surface friction.

e. The air masses. In warmer air masses is 20% less wind speed than in colder air
masses.

4.3.5 Land Sea Breeze Circulation

Compared to a large atmospheric circulation, the land sea wind circulation is a local wind
system. The system can only exist if the large pressure differences are week. This circulation
can only take place near the coasts. This circulation can develop if :

Different horizontal heating are present

56
Over land the surface will faster cool down than over the oceans. This will result in
temperature differences cool air from shore and relative warm air over the oceans or sea.
Over the shore nearly the complete absorbed energy will be incident again. The effect is that
during night time, because of missing radiation, a horizontal temperature difference will
occur between land and sea. This is less during night time and more during day time, which
also explains that the offshore wind is less as the sea breeze.

The maximum sea wind will occur 2-3 hours after the culmination of the sun and gets weaker
after sun set.

The radiation process causes now that the surface temperature over the shore will be
increased during daytime and the surface temperature over the ocean is nearly constant,
because the sun cannot heat in such a short period such a tremendous amount of water. This
causes that the air masses above the surface will be warmed up, which leads to a pressure
increase in the height. This increase is over the oceans less than over shore. A pressure
compensation between land and ocean will be developed. Over the ocean the atmospheric
pressure is higher than over land which leads to a higher pressure of the oceans. To equalize
the pressure the sea wind will develop, which blows from the sea towards the shore. A
circulation will be now created, where the air masse near the surface will flow from sea to
shore and in the height they air masses will flow from land towards the sea.

4.3.6 True and apparent wind


If we are navigating the true wind is always on the same side and aft of the direction of the
apparent wind. On board of ships you will find tables where you can convert true in apparent
wind and apparent wind in true wind .
The apparent wind is a vector sum of the true wind and the reciprocal of the vessels speed
and course vector. ( see drawing below )

Illustration 20: Vector representation for True wind

4.3.7 Wind measuring and Wind measuring Instruments


Wind measurement instruments are measuring the wind direction and the wind speed.
The direction is measured by a wind vane and the speed by an anemometer.
The type of wind and speed sensors used for measuring varies. For wind direction
measurement vanes will be used and for the speed the indicators are rotating cups or
propellers.
57
Illustration 21: Cup anemometer 10

For calculating and or estimating the wind speed the use of the 300 nm Rule or The Rudolfs
Windnomogram can be used.

4.3.7.1 Rudolfs Wind Nomogramm:


The wind nomogram can be used for curved and straight isobars. By means of this Wind -
Nomogram it is possible to calculate the wind, respectively the wind forces, never mind what
chart datum I will face

11
Illustration 22: Rudolfs Wind Nomogram

Explanation for the Rudolfs Wind- Nomogram

Example : Given is a Low pressure with straight Isobars, lat. 50N.Distance between the
isobars = 5 hPa. Distance between the isobars = 60 nm.

10
P.Grunau : Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
11
P. Grunau - Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
58
First we have to calculate the factor : Distance between isobars / 60 . Here: 60/60 = 1,0.

Enter the upper diagram ( straight isobars with r = at 50 Lat. ) Take the perpendicular from
the factor scale 5 hPa, Factor = 1,0 , Where the line intersect with the Latitude, this is the
wind speed in knt.

2nd Nomogram : Low pressure with real curved Isobars. Given is the Latitude = 52N, the
distance between the isobars = 100 nm. The curving radius = 9 .

Calculation :

Find the factor = 100 nm / 60 = 1,66. Draw a line ( perpendicular ) from the Factor 1,66 until
the Latitude of 52 N. The curving = 10. There are other Nomograms for more curving rates
as well. This Nomogram contents only a curving radius of 10 max. The result is ~ 30 knt
wind speed.

4.3.7.2 The 300 NM Rule for getting the wind speed

Illustration 23: 300 nm - Rule

1. In accordance with the chart scale, take a distance of 300 nm ( 5 Latitudes ) in your
divider. ( See No 1 in the chart )

2. Position the divider now in this way, that the location you want to calculate the wind
is about in the centre of the divider and the isobars will be perpendicular intersect
( see No 2 in the chart )

59
3. Take now the pressure difference of this 300 nm and multiply it with the factor of the
/x table. Multiplying the pressure difference by the factor will result in the real wind

Example :

In the above chart the pressure difference = 12 hPa over 300 nm . The Latitude = 60 N

Enter the table with the latitude I will get the factor : 1,8

The pressure difference = 12 hPa

Real Wind speed in[ Knt ] : 12hPa * 1,8 = 21 knt

The wind speed is also depending in the atmospheric layer. If the layer is instable or stable
will influence also the wind speed. The following two diagrams will emphasize this.

Illustration 24: Character of Low Pressure - instable for Mid.latitudes ( Source P. Grunau )

60
Illustration 25: Character low pressure - stable condition for Mid. latitudes

We can conclude that if the atmosphere is instable, the wind speed is higher at a constant
latitude and a constant isobar difference. The wind speed at 50N at a isobar difference of 2
in a height of 10 m above the surface is 24,30 knots. At the same latitude, and the other
parameter remaining constant, the wind speed of a stable atmosphere is 19,50 knots. The two
diagrams are representing the wind speed in regards to its atmospheric layer for Mid latitudes
and higher latitudes from 60N to 40N.

Another approach for calculating the gradient wind is to use the wind equation which is a
quadratic equation.

1
1 1 4r dp 2
v = rf + r f +
2 2 p dr

Where : r = distance to the center of the low pressure

f = Coriolis parameter =7,28809*10-5

p = air density ( normal air density = 1,29 kg/m);

air density at average sea level at average Tem. of 15C can be calculated :

101325Pa
p= = 1,288 ~ 1,29kg / m
288 Jkg 1 273,25K
61
dp = pressure gradient [ hP]

dr = gradient / 100 km

Example :

The distance from your position to the center of the low pressure = 350 nm ~ 639 km. The
pressure gradient = 3 hPa and the gradient / 100 km = 100 km. The air density will b e
assumed as 1,29 kg/m. Calculate the gradient wind ?
0,5
1 1 4 * 639km 3hPa
v = 639km * 7,28809 *10 5 + 639 + 7,28809 *10 5 +
2
*
2 2 1,29 100
= ~4km/h~1,2m/s

If we use the gradient equation for the calculation of the wind speed of a hurricane, who is
50 km off of the center with a pressure gradient of 50 hPa / 100 km, an existing air density of
1,25 kg/m at a latitude of 20, the result for the gradient wind speed will ~ 45m/s. This
proofs that the pressure gradient / 100 km is crucial for the increasing or decreasing of the
gradient wind speed and secondarily the distance from the center will influence the wind
speed.

Further if we are calculating the geostrophic wind speed for this hurricane we come to the
conclusion that the geostrophic wind is exorbitant higher, because the geostrophic wind is
parallel to the straight isobars and not to the curved isobars and will be not reduced by
friction near the surface.

1 p
fV g = *
p r
p
Vg =
p * f * sin * r
50 *10 kg * m 1 s 1
Vg = 3 5 1
= 802m 1 s 1
1,25kg * m 2(7,29 *10 ) s sin 20 *10 m
5

This proof that the wind speed will be influenced by the

a. Curving of the Isobars

b. Distance between the Isobars As more narrow the isobars as more wind speed,
because of the pressure gradient

c. The geographical Latitude. With the same distance between the Isobars, the wind
is stronger near the equator than at the poles

62
Further we can conclude that the calculation method, using Rudolfs Nomogram or the
300 nm rule is much faster and more easy, because mathematical mistakes will be
nearly avoided compared to the gradient equation.

Conversion factors to get m/s km/h / knots / Bft

Wind m/s = 0,51479 * wind knots

Wind knots = 1,94254 * wind m/s

Wind km/h = 1,85325 * wind knots

Wind m/s = 0,836*Bft1,5


2
wind [m / s ] 3
Wind Bft = ( )
0.836

4.3.8 Local Winds


These are only a few local winds which might be from interest by the seafarer

Alize - northeasterly central Africa and the Caribbean


Amihan - Is a northeasterly wind which across the Philippines
Bayamo - wind on Cuba's southern coast- Is very violent
Bora - Is a northeasterly wind coming from eastern Europe and blows to
northeastern Italy
Diablo - Is hot, dry, offshore wind from the northeast in the San Francisco bay
Carpinteiro - strong southeasterly wind. Blows along the southern Atlantic coast if
Brazil
Caju It is actually not a wind but a stormy gale-force north-westerly in the Atlantic
coast of Brazil
Habagat - Is southwesterly wind flow across the Philippines)
Karaburan - Is a Katabatic wind which occurs in Spring and Summer in central
Asia. Is also called Black Storm
Khamsin - southeasterly wind which comes from north Africa and flows to the
eastern Mediterranean
Viento de Levante - easterly wind through Strait of Gibraltar
Lodos - southwesterly winds towards Turkey. The strength varies. Strong Lodos will
occur about 6 times per year. Strong Lodos can have a wind speed of 35 knts The
winds are funnelled SE from the Mediterranean and through the Dardanelles Strait.
Maestro - cold to very cold northerly winds in the Adriatic sea
Mistral - very famous cold northerly wind from central France and the Alps to
Mediterranean sea

63
Monsoon - south-westerly and north easterly winds , depends on the season,
combined with heavy rain in various areas close to the equator
Nor'easter - strong storm with winds from the northeast on the north eastern coast of
the United States : New England states , the east coast of Canada (Atlantic side )
Nor'wester - wind that brings rain to the West Coast, and warm dry winds to the
East Coast of New Zealand's South Island
Pampero - very strong wind in Argentina which blows in the Pampa
Passat - medium strong, constant blowing wind at sea in tropical areas
Santa Ana winds - wind blowing in southern California
Sirocco - the wind blows southerly from north Africa to southern Europe, very
famous wind
Sudestada - very strong offshore southeasterly wind in Uruguay ( Rid de la Plata
coast )
Tramontane - Is a cold northwesterly from the Pyrenees or northeasterly from the
Alps to the Mediterranean, similar to Mistral

4.4 Apparent Wind

If a ship is in motion, the direction of the wind will be distorted by the ships proper motion.
The anemometer is only indicating the apparent wind. The apparent wind is the vector
addition of true wind and head wind. Therefore the apparent wind will be also called relative
wind. This is in contrast to the true wind, where the wind speed and the wind direction of the
meteorological wind will be indicated. This is the case for a ship which is not in motion,
because here the proper motion is zero.

The head wind is therefore a wind which is in proportion to the direction of motion of the
ship, mostly the wind is by head. If there is no wind, calm condition, the apparent wind and
the head wind are directly above of each other.

Mathematical vise the apparent wind can be defined as :

Vapparent = Vtrue wind + Vhead wind

The graphic below will demonstrate this

64
Illustration 26: Apparent Wind ( Soure P.Grunau )

Ahead

True Wind

apparent Wind
Head. Wind

4.5 Wind Rules


The most important wind rules should be discussed. Among this there are other, but these
once are the rules which must be known by an Officer.

Rule No 1 : If the Wind will change his direction after blowing already
for a longer time out of the same direction , it will indicate a
weather change.

Rule No 2 : Land - Sea breeze are indicating a constant nice and fair
weather.

Rule No 3 : Is the distance between a High and Low pressure system


increasing, the wind speed is decreasing.

Rule No 4 : Is the distance between a High and Low pressure system


decreasing the wind speed is increasing.

Rule No 5 : Is the wind not back veering if a front will approach, it will
indicate that a isobar parallel front is passing.

65
Chapter 5 Air Masses and Fronts

5.1 Air Masses

Air masses are named according to their source region. We can recognize four regions

Equatorial region ( doldrums area between the North and the


South trades
Tropical region ( The trade wind and lower temperate region)
Polar region ( The higher temperate regions )
Arctic Region ( The north and south polar region )

Further to their regions the air masses will be also specified according to their properties, that
means if they are warm, moistures, cold , arctic cold etc.

Maritime air ( m )
Continental ( c )
Maritime tropical ( mT )
Continental tropical ( cT )
Maritime polar ( mP )
Continental polar ( cP )
Maritime arctic ( MA )

The classification maritime and continental depends upon whether the air is from land or over
water, which will influence their characteristics. ( humid or dry )
Air masses are moving within the general circulation. Normally air is moving from areas of
higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.

Illustration 27 General Circulation of the Atmosphere ( Source P.Grunau own drawing )

66
In the lower latitudes , near the equator, the air is moving very fast in easterly direction. The
reason is the rotation of the earth. Is air now moving to the north, the air will keep the high
speed in direction east due to the Coriolis force. In total the air is now deflected to the right.

The result is

Air which is moving out of a high pressure system is deflected to the right
Air which is streaming into a low pressure is also deflected to the right

5.2 Pressure systems

5.2.1 Low Pressure systems

Most frontal depression will develop near the frontal zone. We know two different kind of
pressure systems : the low pressure system and the high pressure. system

What is a low pressure systems ?

A low pressure systems is an area of low air pressure. Warm air is expanding and due to this
fact the air will be also lighter.
The air will rise. If the warm air rises, the pressure at the surface is decreasing. A low pressure
will be also called a cyclone.
A cyclone is a low pressure area around which the wind flows counterclockwise in the
northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. A developing cyclone is
typically accompanied by a warm front and a cold front.
The warm front is pushing northwards, the cold front southwards.
The result is that at the east side of a high pressure and on the west side of a low pressure
area cold air is floating to the south and at the east side of a low pressure area
and the west side of a high pressure area , warm air is floating to the north..
See also illustration below.

Illustration 28: Low Pressure with Cold and Warm front(Source : WW2010 - University of Illinois)

67
At a low pressure area we have a convergence at the surface and a divergence in the height.
H
Divergence
600

700

800
Convergence
900
L
1000
Heating

Illustration 29: Convergence and Divergence - Low Pressure system (Source P.Grunau )

5.2.2 Developing of a Low Pressure System


A low pressure systems has generally two air masses, a warm and a cold air mass. The
developing of a cyclone ( low pressure systems ) is cold Cyclogenesis and Frontogenesis. We
are differ two kinds of frontogenesis :

- The Polarfront theory


- The Field Theory

The polarfront theory was first developed by Bjerkens, Bergerson and Soberg in 1922. The
theory of 1922 is now - a - days already updated and in its old form no longer valid.
In 1921 Mr. Bjerkens was the opinion that a subtropical cyclone will be developed at the
border of polar and tropical air masses, at the polarfront.

The result is that there must be always two different air masses to develop a low pressure
area. Now a days we know that there are many other processes in the atmosphere, which are
leading to the developing of a low pressure system, but the polarfront cyclone is still the most
typical one in the middle and high latitudes.

There a several stage during the development of a low pressure system

A. At the beginning the border ( Polarfront) between cold and warm air is nearly undisturbed
at the front side of a trough( trough in the height) The polarfront is indicated by a thin and
small band of clouds. The angle of the stationary front, which divides the cold air in the west

68
and the warm air in the east, is equal to the temperature and wind conditions of both sides of
the front.

Illustration 30: Frontal zone

B. Now the air pressure in the area of the polarfront is decreasing. The air at the surface start
to move in to the area of lower pressure and is deforming the polarfront, also known as wave
disturbance.
Illustration 31: Disturbance

Warm air masses

A frontal system is rise over cold air


masses
developing

C. In most of the cases the air pressure decrease will be more intensive now. Out of this wave
a surface pressure area, with closed isobars and cyclonal circulation is developed. At the back
side of this low pressure area ( west side ), the cold air is floating in and at the front side ( east
side ) the warm air is floating in . Two front - systems are developing. This process is called
Frontogenesis. Behind the warm - front warm air is continuously floating in, and at the cold -
front cold air is continuously floating in. At this stage of developing the warm sector ( area
between cold and warm - front ) is still very large. The intensity of the Coriolis force is now
less and the wind is sheering towards the centre. In the centre of the low pressure the air is
rising, and this rising air is the reason for the decrease of the central pressure values.

Isobars in the warm Isobars are


closed
sector are straight

Illustration 32: Deveolping of Low Pressure 12

12
Illustration 30 32 : P.Grunau Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
69
D. During the next stages of the development of the low, the warm sector will be continuously
decrease. The reason is very simple, because the cold front moves faster than the warm front
and will reach earlier or later the warm front. At the limits of the cold and warm front, the
warm air is rising, because the cold air will be pushed underneath the warm air. If the cold
front has reached the warm front, a occluded front is developed.

Front system starts


L to

occlude

Cold front is faster than

warm front and warm sector gets

less and smaller

Illustration 33 : Fully developed Low pressure system

E. Now the occlusion is faster and faster. The centre of the low pressure in the height ( 500
hPa ) comes closer to the surface low pressure. If the low pressure system in the height has
nearly covered the low pressure system at the surface, the low pressure at the surface will
disappear out of the surface analysis. The polar front is now moved more to the east, a new
low pressure system can be developed.

Front system
completely
L
occluded

Isobars getting straight

again

Illustration 34: Occlusion ( Source P.Grunau )

Finally we can state for a Low pressure system

a. Pumps air to the left


b. Air is rising
c. Cooling down of the air
d. Increasing of the relative humidity
e. Formation of clouds
f. The rising air will get instable due to rising air masses
g. Possible high wind speeds

70
5.2.3 The Baric Wind Law

The Baric Wind Law was introduced by the Dutch Professor Christoph Buys Ballot in 1957.
Therefore it is actually called the Buys Ballot Law. It is the atmospheric relationship between
air pressure and wind direction.

The Postulate of Buys Ballots Law


If you stand with your back to the wind in the Northern Hemisphere, air pressure will be
lower to your left. If you stand facing the wind in the Northern Hemisphere, air pressure will
be lower to your right.

5.2.4 Rules for Low Pressure Systems

There are several rules to observe and to recognize a low pressure systems , the approach of a
system and the navigation if catching a low pressure system. But more important is to know
the rules of low pressures system to navigate the vessel safely and to avoid any damages to
the ship and the cargo. The interest must be on the main rules of low pressure systems.

Rule No 1 :
Generally all low pressure systems are moving to the north east. As more as they are coming
to the north, as more they change their path to the north.

Rule No 2 :
A young cyclone ( in the first stage of development ) moves more in direction of the isobars
of the warm sector.

Rule No 3 :
Low pressure areas with a strong pressure gradient ( Isobars are very close together ) at all
sides of the low pressure area, are moving very slow .

Rule No 4 :
Low pressure areas with a weak pressure gradient ( wide distance between the isobars) are
moving in generally very fast.

Rule No 5 :
Path speed of Low pressures :
Young low pressure systems : 25 knt - 30 knt / hour = 10-12 latitudes / day
Old ( occluded ) low pressure systems : 10 knt - 15 knt = 4 - 6 latitudes /day
( in summer time in general : 5 - 10 knt less = 2 - 4 latitudes / day

71
Rule No 6 :
A low pressure which is deepening, is fast than others

Rule No 7 :
In summer, a low pressure is more intensive if it moves from sea to land, in winter time this is
vise versa .

Rule No 8 :
Are the isobars of an occluded low pressure are bended at the occlusion point, a part low
pressure is developing. It is not circulating around the low pressure system, it moves in
direction of the isobars of the warm sector or will sheer more to the right.

Rule No 9 :
A low pressure with strong wind on his front side, will be soon stationary or starts to weaken.

Rule No 10 :
Are two or more low pressure centers connected by their own isobars, they will rotate over
common centre.

Rule No 11 :
Low pressure areas with a strong curving of the isobars will move very slow or getting
stationary.

Rule No 12 :
Fully developed low pressure systems are moving very often in direction of their strongest
wind.

Rule No 13 :
Large and stationary low pressures can be alive for a long time, if they are at the border of
warmer and colder surface ( at the coast ).

There are many other rules for low pressure systems but these are the most important ones for
a seafarer.

72
5.3 High Pressure System

The high pressure systems are rotating clockwise on the northern hemisphere which results
that the air masses are moving anticlockwise out of the centre of a high pressure system. The
air masses are sinking to the earth surface.

The sinking air masses are warmed up and the relative humidity is increasing. This is the
reason why we have no clouds, facing a high pressure system.
The temperature decrease with in increasing height is less against low pressure systems. The
reason is that in general high pressure systems containing warm air.
In the subtropical areas of our earth the stable high pressure systems can be developed, due to
the circulation forces, which are dominating this areas .

High pressure systems also occur in cold areas, where cold air, which is denser than warm air
sinks to the ground. This increases the pressure. This often occurs in winter time, when less
heat is reaching the surface of the earth and a dramatically cooling occurs at night. This type
of high pressure is known as cold high pressure .

High pressure systems are meteorological wise not as interesting than low pressure systems.
In low pressure systems there are much more weather variations than in high pressure areas.

High pressure systems are indicated with a divergence on the surface and a convergences in
the height. The pressure gradient force is outbound directed and the Coriolis force is directed
to the center of the high pressure system. The Coriolis force will be balanced by the pressure
gradient force and the centrifugal force : Fc = PGF + FZ

The temperature deficit with increasing of height is less than compared to a low pressure
system. The reason is that in a high pressure system normally warmer temperatures are
present.

In general we differ three different types of high pressure systems :

a. Subtropical High Pressure system :


Properties : Warm, large vertical extension and very stable.

b. Polar Continental High pressure system :


Properties : Will only develop in winter over the continents. They are very
cold. Vertical extension : Mostly 2 km.

c. Moving Anticyclones :
Properties : Will be developed by interims high pressure systems. They
develop on the cold side of the polar front. They are wedge shaped.

73
5.3.1 Rules for High pressure systems

There are also rules for high pressure systems as well as for low pressure systems. There are
not so much rules to be remember

Rule No 1 :
Small or cold High pressure areas are moving faster than larger and warm high pressure areas.

Rule No 2 :
High pressure systems are very complicated and path, moving speed can be nearly calculated
by a computer.

Rule No 3 :
Each cold front which are approaching a high pressures area, will weaken the high pressure
area and the high pressure system will be pushed back more. If there is one cold front after the
other, approaching the high pressure system, it will be the end of the High pressure system.

Rule No 4 :
A stationary high pressure area will be circled clockwise by a low pressure system.

Rule No 5 :
A stationary high pressure system will block a approaching low pressure system so that the
low pressure system have to move more to the north.

Rule No 6 :
An interims anticyclone moves in the same direction and with the same speed than the low
pressure system nearby.

5.4 Fronts and Frontal systems

The developing of a front is called frontogenesis and is part of the cyclogenesis. We differ
three main types of frontal systems.

The cold front


The warm front
The occluded front

The formation , development and decay of a frontal depression varies between three to seven
days.
A front is meteorological vise the transition zone between tow air masses, combined with a
volatile change of atmospheric pressure and temperature as well as the wind direction. Is the
front regional oblige, is not displaced, it is called a stationary front. The area where fronts will
appear will be identified as Frontal zone.

74
Each front type has also his own characteristic, which have to be well known by the seafarer.

5.4.1 The Cold Front


The cold front is accompanying a low pressure system as well as the warm front. >The cold
air is moving in direction of the warm air. Because of the cold front there is a cooling down in
all layers of the atmosphere. But there are also fronts where the cooling down takes place only
in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This front is called a cold front in the height. Cold front
are moving with the strength of the gradient winds.
Cold fronts generally move from north west to southeast. The air behind a cold front is
noticeably colder and drier than the air ahead of it. When a cold front passes through,
temperatures can drop more than 15 degrees within the first hour.

The Symbol for the cold front is :

Illustration 35: Cold front symbol ( Source: P.Grunau own drawing )

Cold fronts are identifying strong vertical air movement. The convective clouds, which will appear, will
lead to rain showers and thunderstorms. The approaching of a cold front can be clearly identified and
observed. There is strong and cool wind . The temperature is decreasing if the front is passing. The
decrease in temperature can be several degrees. At the backside of the cold front is atmosphere is
normally instable causing Cumulus Clouds and showers. The atmospheric pressure is increasing as
soon as the front passes and the visibility gets better. The air has less relative and absolute humidity.

Ci

Ci
Cold front
Ns
Ac
Cb Ac

Sc

Cu Sc Cu

Illustration 36: Cold Front system (Source: P.Grunau own drawing )

5.4.2 Warm Front


The warm front is like the cold front a part of the low pressure system. Warm and light air
masses are gliding on top of the more heavy and cold air in front of the warm air. Compared
75
to the cold front the weather is not as drastic as with the cold front. At first Cirrus clouds will
be formed which will form in the area auf the gliding warm air. Thereafter Cirrusstratus and
Altostratus clouds will be formed and afterwards Nimbostratus clouds. These are clouds with
a large vertical extension. In the area of the Altostratus clouds slight but continuous rain fall
can be observed. Near the Nimbostratus clouds strong rain will be observed. The atmospheric
pressure is lowly decreasing in front of the warm front in the rear of the warm front the
atmospheric pressure will continuous decreasing. The temperature is increasing as soon as the
warm front approaches. The wind is mostly back-veering. After the front passes there is a
visible change in the wind direction and due to the Coriolis force this change is clockwise.

The warm front is always in front of the cold front and will be caught up be the cold front due
to the higher speed of the cold front, therefore the speed of he warm front is less than
compared with the cold front because the warm air will lose energy during the gliding
process. This causes a loss in kinetic energy.

In between the cold and the warm front is the warm sector. Warm front will dislocate with
about 70% of the gradient wind if over the oceans and with 50% if over land.

The warm front will be indicated by : :

Illustration 37: Warm Front symbol ( Source: P.Grunau own drawing )

If both fronts are merged we call it Occluded front

Warm air
Ci Ci

Ns
As

Illustration 38: Warm Front System 13

13
P.Grunau Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
76
5.4.3 Occluded Front
Meteorological vise the occlusion is defined as:

In a dynamic low pressure system the warm sector will be lifted by merging of the cold front
with the warm front. The precipitation patterns for an occluded front typically follow the same
patterns as a cold front. Temperature will vary after the occluded front passes depending on
the different air masses that are interacting with the occlusion.

We will differ two types of Occlusions:

Cold front occlusion

Warm front occlusion

Cold front Occlusion:

At a cold front occlusion the warm sector will be lifted on top of the cold air masses. The cold
front is catching up to the warm front and both will merge to an Occluded front. There is cold
air behind cool air.

Warm front Occlusion:

The cold front will catch up to the warm front. After the occlusion there is cool air behind
cold air.

To know which type of occlusion it is, are temperature profile will be needed

Ci
Cc warm

Ns
As

Cb
Sc
cold
Cu
cool
Cu

Illustration 39: Cold Front Occlusion 14

14
P. Grunau Meterorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstdt
77
Weather sequence of a frontal depression in the northern
hemisphere ( north of the observer )

Weather sequence of cold and warm occlusion in the northern


hemisphere

78
5.4.4 Movement of Frontal Systems
In general a front is moving with the front vertical component of the geostrophic wind. Cold
fronts are moving with about 80% - 100% of the front vertical components of the geostrophic
wind and warm fronts only with 50%-70%.

Due to the fact that the wind near the surface is sometimes not correctly known, the
geostrophic wind will be used to get the direction of the movement of the front.

The geostrophical wind can be divided in :

The front vertical component

The front parallel component

Illustration 40: Frontal components ( Source : P.Grunau )

Vt = Front parallel Component

Vn = Front vertical Component

Vgeo = Geostrophic wind

Illustration 41: Getting the shift of the front ( Source : P.Grunau )

79
5.4.4.1 Calculation of shifting of Cold Fronts
V = D p = P (max) P (min)

where : D P = pressure difference in 3 hrs in hPa

p (max) p (min) = The extreme pressure difference in 3 hrs advance and at the
rear of the cold front in a distance of 200 300 km at both sides of the front

If the pressure difference DP is the same in different latitudes, the shifting velocity
will decrease with increasing latitudes as from Latitude 45 to 55 N in mid Europe.
A more simplified formula can be used :

1 1
V = D P = ( P (max) P (min))
2 2

Table of shifting Cold Fronts and Cold Front Occlusions

Dp Latitude Max.Gust
[knots]
40 45 50 55 60
10 9 8 8 8 7 15
20 15 14 14 14 13 20
30 19 19 19 18 17 30
40 23 22 22 21 21 35
50 27 26 25 24 24 40
60 31 30 27 28 27 45
70 35 34 33 32 31 48
80 39 38 37 36 35 50
90 44 42 41 40 38 55
100 48 46 44 43 41 58
110 50 46 44 60
120 54 52 50 48 65
140 59 57 55 53 73
160 61 59 57 80
180 62 60 85
Shifting of Cold front in knots. The values in bracket are very rare

80
Chapter 6 Clouds

6.1 General
Water is covering about 70% of the earth surface. At a certain temperature air contains a
certain amount on water. Is the amount of water vapor reaching the saturation point, we are
facing condensation ( Water or sublimation ( ice ). Condensation is necessary for the different
forms of clouds and for rain. We are differ three kinds of condensation :

Condensation at the earth surface


near the surface ( fog )
in the atmosphere ( clouds )

A cloud forms when the invisible water vapor in the air becomes visible (in form of water
droplets or ice crystals ). For most of the climatic regions there are also characteristic clouds.

Clouds are classified. This classification was done by Admiral Luke Howard in 1803.
A cloud is compressed of tiny water droplets and or ice crystals, a snowflake is an aggregate
of many ice crystals , and rain is just liquid water. Water existing as a gas is called water
vapor. When referring to the amount of moisture in the air, we are actually referring to the
amount of water vapor.

Clouds can have many different shapes. There are four major types of clouds, called families

Cumulus cloud
Cumulonimbus clouds
Stratus clouds
Cirrus Clouds

These types of clouds have also different heights :

81
Meteorological Short Forms of clouds

6.1.1 Characteristics of the clouds

Cumulus clouds :
Are white and puffy. Cumulus clouds will be formed when air, heated by the sun, rises
and cools down. They are also called fair weather clouds, common on warm summer
afternoons.

Cumulonimbus clouds :
Cumulus clouds can grow in to cumulonimbus clouds. Cumulonimbus clouds
are massive clouds with a vertical development. They are rising in mountainous towers to
great heights.. These clouds are producing showers of rain, snow or hail, frequently
accompanied by thunder. For this reason they are also known as thunder clouds.

Stratus clouds:
Are grey sheet like cloud layer that blanket the sky. Here we know two types, the
Altocumulus and the alto stratus.

Cirrus clouds :
Thin feather - like clouds made of ice crystals high in the cold atmosphere. Sunlight
reflecting through cirrus ice crystals can form what we see as a ring around the sun or
moon.

82
6.2 How will clouds form

Clouds can only form where we have enough humidity and water ( see Passat circulation near
the equator )

In general clouds will be formed by :

Advection ( horizontal gliding of warm air over cold air )

Convection ( evaporating of water vapor )

By radiation of the earth surface, water will evaporate ( Oceans, sea ). The water particle will
now rise with the warm air ( warm air is lighter and therefore will rise ). With increasing
height the air will be cooled down . The cooling process will be 1C/100m until the
Condensation level is reached. This process is also called a dry adiabatic rising. If the water
vapor is completely saturated, 100% R.H, the condensation level is reached. At the
condensation level condensation will take place. The temperature where is will happen is
called dew point.. Here the state will change from gas to a liquid. The condensate water
particles will now accumulate with dust and dirt, which is in the atmosphere and clouds will
be formed. ( Cumulus clouds ) . The water particles are now still rising and will be cooled
down more, but now only 0,5/100m. This process is called wet adiabatic rising. After a while
the cloud will get more heavy and the result is precipitation in form of rain, hale or snow.

Illustration 42; Forming of Clouds by means of convection 15

Precipitation

Warm air

Cold air

The adiabatic equation can be defined as :

Adiabatic processes are processes in the atmosphere where the property of the air will change.
Here an interchange between the rising air parcel and the surrounding heat and energy will
not take place. Here the temperature, pressure or density can change like in vertical air
movements Gliding at fronts by means of a thermal vertical movement.

15
P.Grunau Meteorologie fr Nautiker BOD Verlag Norderstedt
83
P1V 1 P2V2
1. = ( is for isothermal and adiabatic change of state )
T1 T2

2. T1=T2 f is only for isothermal cases, therefore Boyles law will be revised :

3. P1=V1=P2V2

4. For adiabatic processes pressure and volume will not follow the Boyles Law, they
are only reclined to the law and therefore :


5. P1V1 = P2V2 , where is a constant. A typical value for a gas is =1,4

6.3 Calculation of base of clouds

The formula for calculating the approximate base of the formed clouds is Cloud Base Altitude
(((Temp. DewPo int) / 4,5) *1000) + measured station altitude))) . As a mass of air rises,
particularly on warm and humid days, it expands in the lowering air pressure, causing the air
mass to cool and greatly reducing the air's ability to hold moisture. At some point, the
moisture in the air exceeds the value which that air mass can hold, forcing the water vapor to
condense, forming clouds. The point at which when air is cooled to the temperature that it can
no longer hold its moisture is called the dew point. The rate at which air cools as it rises is
averaged at 5.5F per 1000 feet; the variable is the speed of the rising air mass. The dew point
also decreases at about 1.0F over the same distance. Thus the spread between the air
temperature and dew point decreases by 4.5F per 1000 feet.

Cloud Base = ( ( Temperature - Dew point ) / 4.4 ) * 1000 )


This can be simplified : Temp. Dew Point is called the spread. If we divide 1000/4,4 or 4,24
which is more exact we will get the factor 236. This factor can be used if the spread is given
in F = spread * 236 = base of the clouds

84
The cloud base in feet can be calculated as follows:

1. Find the difference between the surface temperature and the dew point. This value is
known as the "spread".
2. Divide the spread by 4.4 (if temperatures are in F) or 2.5 (if temperatures are in C),
then multiply by 1000. This will give you cloud base in feet AGL (Above Ground
Level). A shortcut to the above method when temperatures is measured in C is to
simply multiply the spread by 400.

Cloud Base = ( ( Temperature - Dew point ) / 4.4 ) * 1000 )


This can be simplified : Temp. Dew Point is called the spread. If we divide 1000/4,4
or 4,24 which is more exact we will get the factor 236. This factor can be used if the
spread is given in F = spread * 236 = base of the clouds

Using the value 2,5 instead of 4,4 or 4,24 the result will be : 1000/2,5 = 400,
therefore the simplified formula, if the spread is given in C = spread * 400 = base of
clouds.

Another formula is the Hennigsche Formula. The formula is based on a divergence


between the temperature and the dew point below the Lifting Condensation Level
The divergence is 8K/1000 or 8,13K/1000 m. Therefore we can conclude : 1000 / 8K
= 125 and 1000/8,13k = 123.

This is the simplified formula according to Henning : Spread[C]*123 or 125 = base


of the clouds.

Example : The actual atmospheric Temperature = 25 and the corresponding dew


point = 21,5. Calculate the base of the clouds.?

The parameter are given in C, therefore the Hennigsche Formula will be used.

a. Calculation of spread :

spread = T [C ] [C ] = 25C 21,5C = 3,5C

b. Calculate the base of the clouds

base = spread *125 = 3,5C *125 = 437,5m

The condensation Level or also called Lifting condensation level [ LCL ] is at


437,5 m. At this height condensation will occur.

85
Is the formula of Henning also valid if we have no convection?

Yes, the formula can be used if there are sufficient turbulences and the convection is
missing.

Mixing ratio
LCL
through the dew
Dry temp.

Dew Point[]
surface

Wet temp.

1000 hPa
Illustration 43: Getting the base of Clouds at the LCL ( Source : P.Grunau own drawing )

6.4 Basic Rules for clouds


Here are some important rules for clouds. There are also other rules, but these rules below
are the important rules for the seafarer

Rule No 1 :
The missing of the daily change of clouds indicates a weather change or a continuing of
the weather.

Rule No 2 :
A fast coming of clouds, out of one direction, which is strongly differ from the direction
of the earth surface wind, indicates a decreasing of the weather
condition:

Rule No 3 :
Fast coming of clouds, with at the same time sinking lower limit of the clouds and falling
air pressure and backing and increasing winds, indicates the approach of a warm front.

Rule No 4 :
Altocumulus clouds in the morning, which are towering,( castellanus or floccus type )
indicating the approach of a thunder front in the second half of the day.

Rule No 5 :
If , after the passing of a cold front, the clouds get more dense, and the air pressure is
decreasing and afterwards it will rain, a wave is developed at this front.

86
Rule No 6 :
The maritime standard cloud is the stratocumulus cloud. As long as this type
of cloud will be visible at the sky, the weather will be unchanged stable.

87
Chapter 7 - Wind Sea and Swell

7.1 Wind and Waves

There is a direct relationship between wind and sea. For developing of waves, the force of the
wind is important. The most common method to measure the height of the sea is the
appearance of the sea surface. The state of disturbance, the dimension of the waves etc
depends principally on three factors:

The wind speed.


The higher the wind speed the greater the sea disturbance

The winds duration


At any point on the sea, the disturbance will increase the
longer the wind blows at a given speed, until a maximum state
of disturbance is reached.

The fetch
This is the length of the stretch of water over which the wind
acts on the sea surface from the same direction.
For a given wind speed and duration, the longer the fetch, the greater the
disturbance. Is the fetch short, is also the disturbance very small.
There are also other factors which can modify the appearance of the sea
surface. These other factors are :

- Strong currents
- shallow waters

Characteristic for forecasting of waves and wave heights are :

1. Significant wave-height : Hs = H 1/3

2. Significant wave period : Ts = T 1/3

88
Abb.89: Orbitalbewegung der Welle ( Quelle: Eigene Zeichnung )

Wave length L = LT+LB

C = L/T

LB LT LB
Illustration 44: Development of waves

7.1.1 Wave height :


The wave height is the sum of all amounts of the adjacent maximal deflections

HO

HU

Illustration 45: Max. deflection of a wave 16

The maximal deflection in the upper direction is known as wave crest this defection is
positive - and the maximal deflection in the downwards direction is the trough this
defection is negative.

H = HO + HU

The positive deflection will increase with decreasing water depth and the negative deflection
will decrease at the same time.

16
Illustration 44&45 : Source: P.Grunau
89
7.1.2 Wave Length:
The wave lenght L ist he sum of all part length of crest and trough.

L = LT + LB

Wave length = LT+LB

C = L/T

LB LT LB

Illustration 46: Wave length ( Source P. Grunau )

The quotient of wave height and wave length is an import factor to evaluate the stability of a
wave. It will be denoted as wave steepness.

S=H/L.
Illustration 47: measuring of wave length ( Source: P. Grunau )

Wave length measured

The wave speed can be calculated using the measurement between two wave crests. This
equals one wave period = T . The wave speed is directly proportional to the length.

L
c=
T

90
The wave length can be not exactly measured if on board of ships ( distance between wave
crest and wave crest ) But what can be measured is the wave period. We can now calculate the
wave length using a constant of 1,56ms as a wave speed . The factor 1,56ms is for swell , for
fully developed wind sea the factor is 1,04ms. It is advisable and also common practice to
use the arithmetic value of 1,3 ms if we are not sure if it is a fully developed wind sea or only
swell.

L = 1,56ms * T

The speed of water waves is increasing with the wave length. A wave which has a length of
100 m is moving with a speed of 45 km and a wave of 200 m with a speed of 63 km. The
same for the wave length. As larger the wave period, as longer the wave length, as shorter the
wave period as shorter the wave length.

Example :

During a storm you are observing the wave period with Tm= 8 sec. If we are now calculating
the phase speed and the wave length we are coming to following result:

= 1,3 * 64 = 83,20 .83 m


c = 1,3 * 8 = 10,4 m/s ( about 20 knt )

The duration of wind and the length of the fetch is required for various wind forces to build
up seas to 50%, 75% and 90% of their theoretical maximum heights.

On the open sea, the fetches associated with the most storms and other weather systems are
usually long enough so that even wind to force 9 can build seas up to 90 % of their maximum
height ( providing that the wind blows from the same direction long enough.

7.2 Swell
Swell are waves which are not caused by wind. Actually this is old wind sea where the wind
is not anymore acting as energy source. The swell is sometimes coming from areas and ocean
regions which are far away. Sea state is here nothing else then the umbrella term of swell and
windsea. Feathering of the swell the wave length is increasing and the wave height is
decreasing.

The force of the swell is not only depending on the force of the wind but also depends on the
fetch . The fetch is the distance of wind direction to the actual position of the ship

We can conclude :

As longer the fetch as higher the swell.

The sea state will be indicated according to the Douglas Swell Scale ( 1921 )

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The complete description for the indication of the motion of the waves, according to Douglas
are : The sea state ( scale from 0-9 ) the wind direction and the value of the swell ( scale from
0 9 ) and the direction of the swell.

Now-a-days the Petersen Scale ( developed by Capt. Petersen ) will be used. The scale is
similar to the Douglas scale is only using different parameters for the measurement, but the
scale remains, from 0 9

7.3 Rules for wind sea

High seas can affect the vessels voyage, especially small ships are endanger if facing high
seas. High and rough seas and wrong navigation in high seas can damage the ships structure
and also the cargo. To avoid this, here are some rule regarding wind seas

Rule No 1 :
At a wind force of 6 Bft, the wind seas has fully developed after 4 -6 hours

Rule No 2 :
Waves which reaches a height of 5 meter, are developing on a distance of 20 nm.

Rule No 3 :
Waves which reaches a height of 10 m, are developing on a distance of 100 nm in between of
eight hours.

Rule No 4 :
Waves which a running in shallow water are increasing

Rule No 5 :
A wave start to break, if she comes in shallow waters, which are 10 times as deep as the
height of the wave
.
Rule No 6 :
If the wind and also the wind sea have the same direction than an ocean current, the wind sea
will decrease

Rule No 7 :
If the wind is blowing against an ocean current the wind sea is increasing

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Chapter 8 Fog

8.1 General
Fog will develop if a stable atmospheric condition is present which means that water saturated
air will reach the dew point. This can have several reasons.

The saturation of air depends on a lot of factors. Increasing or decreasing of atmospheric


temperature or increasing of the absolute water amount above the saturation concentrate will
lead mostly to a direct condensation. A main point to be considered is the condensation
particles. At this particles water vapor can mount and will therefore much more easy change
the gaseous state as without these condensation particles. Therefore the development of Fog
droplets will be also called Nucleation (Nucleation is the process of forming a nucleus. It is
the initial process in crystallization. It is the process in which ions, atoms, or molecules
arrange themselves in a pattern characteristic of a crystalline solid, forming a site in which
additional particles deposit as the crystal grows. Creation of liquid droplets in saturated vapor
is also characterized by nucleation -see Cloud condensation nuclei- )

Factors which will play an important role if fog is develop

Sufficient water vapor

Aerosol particle concentration

Temperature distribution

Orography

Thermical surface properties of the area

A fog droplet which has a diameter of 20m can sink with a velocity of 10 m/s

Fog can appear nearly in all climate zone

8.2 The different types of Fog

Types of Fog

We are knowing different types of fog

- Advection Fog
- Sea smoke
- Radiation Fog
- Frontal Fog

Fog is a cloud whose base is at the surface of the earth. Fog is composed out of water
droplets, or water , or ice crystals, which is formed by condensation or crystallization of water
vapor.
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Fog is clearly defined : If the visibility is reduced below 1 nm, we are facing fog.
The rest is reduced visibility, which is for sure as dangerous as fog.

8.3 The different types of fog and their development

8.3.1 The Advection Fog :

Advection fog is developing if high, relative humidity air is moving horizontally over a cooler
surface of water, and will be cooled down below its dew point. This type of fog is commonly
encountered at sea.
It is quite dense and often persist over a long period. Further we find advection fog over cold
ocean currents. A strong wind thoroughly mix the air and condensation takes place at some
distance above the surface. ( Passing Atu Island in the Pacific - Aleutes Islands in Summer
time - Ocean current : Ohishio current )

This type of fog can occur in any season of the year, but the best conditions for this kind of
fog are in spring - and summer time. We will find this kind of fog in :

North Atlantic
North West Pacific
South Africa
British Isles

8.3.2 Sea Smoke


Sea smoke will be caused by the movement of cold air over a warmer surface. The
temperature difference between water surface and air must be 10C
Also with a given favorable wind it may occur with smaller differences. The fog can reach 25
40 m. Near the surface you will face a portion of dense fog which obscures the horizon and
the surface but leaves the sky clear. The smoke above the surface is smoky or steaming
in appearance.
Sea smoke is common in higher latitudes like :

- Baltic sea
- East coast of North America

8.3.3 Radiation Fog


Radiation fog forms over low - laying land on a clear , calm night. The air over land will be
cooled below its dew point.
It also forms after sunset. At about sunrise this kind of fog, if it forms is usually thick.
The air will be cooled immediately above the surface due to land radiates heat and becomes
cooler.

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Radiation fog is often quite shallow and densest at the surface. At sea there are little
temperature changes between day and night, and so radiation fog seldom encountered more
than10 miles from shore.
The fog will clear quickly if the sun has begun to warm the lower layer of the atmosphere. In
winter time it can persist trough out the day.

8.3.4 Warm water Fog

Relative cold air is blowing over warm water. This will cause an evaporation at the water
surface the air will be saturated - . If the air is completely saturated, condensation will
occur. Very often found in autumn or early winter days in the Baltic Sea

8.3.5 Frontal Fog


At the transition zones of the air the cold air is cuneiform underneath the warm air. If it is now
raining out of the gliding warm air in the lower cold air, which not jet saturated, an
evaporation will occur. Under the base of the clouds shreds of clouds will be formed which
will reach to the surface. Frontal fog is formed.

8.3.6 Other atmospheric phenomena which will restrict the visibility

Haze :
The term haze is used to refer to a condition of atmospheric obscurity
caused by dust and smoke. Haze consists out of fine dust or salt particles in the air. It is
making the objects appear indistinct. The color is bluish or yellowish veil.. This form of haze
is also sometimes called dry haze. Another form is damp haze, which consists out of water
droplets or moist particles in the air.

Mist :
Mist is an intermediate between haze and fog in its properties. Heavy mist can reduce the
visibility to a mile or more.

Smog :
Smog is a mixture between fog and smoke. Smog will be normally not
encountered at sea. Smog can reduce the visibility to 2 - 4 miles. Now a days there will be
a smog alarm given by the meteorologist. We are facing smog in big cities.

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Chapter 9 Tropical revolving Storm

9.1 Introduction
Tropical storms are originating in the tropics or subtropics A tropical storm or cyclone is
defined by the Meteorological Organization as an area of low pressure where the associated
maximum speed is at least Bft 12.
Tropical cyclones are warm core, non-frontal low pressure systems that develop over tropical
or subtropical waters and have a definite organized surface circulation. Tropical depressions,
tropical storms, and hurricanes or Typhoons are all forms of tropical cyclones, differentiated
only by the intensity of the winds associated with them.

Areas where tropical storms can be found are :

- North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific - Hurricane


- Western North Pacific - Typhoon
- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal South Indian and South Pacific Ocean
Cyclones / Willy-Willy

The tropical cyclones are classified by form and intensity as they increase size

9.2 Formation and Life Cycle of Tropical Cyclones

The ingredients for development of a tropical cyclone include:

a preexisting weather disturbance,


warm ocean water,
atmospheric moisture,
relatively light winds aloft,
formation north of approximately 5 North latitude
A pre-existing surface weather disturbance
As warm core systems, tropical cyclones rely on a build up of heat energy within the
atmospheric column above them in order to develop and to exist. A thunderstorm complex
acts as a vertical transport mechanism for heat, moisture, and the cyclonic turning of winds
into the upper levels of the atmosphere. The vertical transport into higher levels of the
atmosphere will grow and develop the Tropical storm

Warm ocean water


The water temperature must be at least 26C .This ocean temperatures must occur with a
mixed layer depth of about 50 m
This mixed ocean layer allows warm water to remain available to a developing system even
after the wind has begun to increase in speed and the sea surface begins to get churned up by
the developing cyclone.

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Relatively moist atmospheric
The relatively moist atmosphere will be found in layers in the middle troposphere,
approximately 4000 m to 7000m above the earths surface. Dry air will not continue the
development of the tropical storm. A disturbance cannot develop.

Relatively light winds aloft


This winds that do not change much in direction and speed throughout the depth of the
atmosphere , because they have a low vertical wind shear.. Tropical cyclones rely on a
vertically stacked structure in order to grow or maintain in intensity. In other words, the ideal
tropical cyclone will have its cyclonic circulation in the middle & upper levels of the
atmosphere located directly above the cyclonic circulation of the surface & low levels of the
atmosphere. Increases in wind speed with the height will not continue the development and
remaining of the tropical storm.

Formation north of approximately 5 North latitude


Must be pole ward of about 5 degrees north latitude in order to meet for the Coriolis Force.

If this conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds,
incredible waves, torrential rains, and massive floods that we associate with hurricanes.
Tropical cyclones form over warm waters from pre-existing weather systems. Over 75 % of
the tropical cyclones that forms originate from tropical easterly waves that typically
emerge every three to four days from the coast of Africa.

Tropical Storm Life Cycle

Hurricanes can last for two weeks or more over the open ocean . A tropical storm can
generate wave heights up to 20 - 25 m with rather substantial swell trains that can extend
outward from these systems for thousands of miles. As these cyclones are moving they can
cause serious harm for the vessel, navigating in these areas and causing serious harm ashore,
if they do the landfall. ( Typhoon Haiyan Yolanda on the Philippines )

The whole system can be re-intensify if it moves :

- into favorable regions


- interacts with mid-latitude frontal systems

The Tropical cyclone will decay if :

- Wind shear can terar the tropical storm apart


- Moving over colder water or drier land can weakening the storm
( no energy is available )
- When passing over land the circulation will be reduced by friction

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9.3 Definition of the Tropical Cyclone and Structure
Tropical Disturbance :
Diameter : 100 to 300 miles. Having a non frontal migratory character. Is a system of
apparently organized convection. Must maintained its identity for more than 24 hours. It has
no strong wind and no closed isobars, which means isobars that completely enclose the low

Tropical Depression :
Has one or more closed isobars and already some rotary circulation at the surface. The highest
surface wind is 33 knots

Tropical Storm :
Has closed isobars and a distinct rotary circulation. Highest surface wind speed is 34 to 64
knots. If the storm is fully developed, it shows closed isobars, very strong rotary circulation of
64 knots to over 120 knots.

9.3.1 Structure of a Tropical Cyclone

The structure of a tropical storm is:

- The eye
- The eye-wall
- The spiral Rain bands

The eye :
In the centre of a tropical storm it is relatively calm. There is a clear area of usually 20 - 40
miles across. In the eye the air sinks, which forms this cloudless eye.
The eye can grow or shrink in size

The eye-wall :
The eye-wall has the strongest winds within the storm. It is a dense wall of thunderstorms
surrounding the eye. If there are changes in the structure of the eye or the eye-wall, this
caused also changes in the wind speed.

The Spiral Rain bands


The tropical storms outer rain bands can extend a few hundred miles. These bands are dense
bands of thunderstorms. They are spiral slowly counterclockwise They are ranging from a few
miles tens of miles and are 50 - 300 miles long.

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9.4 Track of a Tropical Cyclone

The track of a tropical cyclone can vary. But the normal track of a tropical cyclone is a
parable which has the vertex in the west. The vertex is different from tropical storm to tropical
storm and is located north of the equator higher than south of the equator.

Illustration 48: Normal track of a tropical cyclone ( Source P. Grunau )

But also the tropical cyclone can also depart from their normal track. They can loop or the
tropical cyclone remains on a westerly track. It also can happen that a tropical cyclone, after
being already on the north-westerly track, will move again westerly, than following a
southeasterly track and afterwards will follow the northern track.

Illustration 49: Looping of a TS ( Source : P.Grunau )

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9.5 How to avoid a Tropical Cyclone

A very simple way of maneuvering is to avoid a close to the tropical storm situation. This
avoidance has to be done in advance. The ship command must set the course of the vessel in
this way, to pass easily the storm, on its navigable side.
To reach this result, a continuous plotting of the tropical storm is necessary.
To lay down an exact plotting, all information available have to put into account.
We differ two semicircles of the tropical storm :

The dangerous semicircle


The navigable semicircle ( less dangerous semicircle )

The dangerous semicircle, is the part to the right of the storm - in direction towards the storm
is moving. This part is dangerous, because the wind speed is greater than that due to the
pressure gradient alone. Second of all the direction of the wind and sea is greater and will
carry a ship into the path of the storm.
As a rule of thumb, the tropical storms right side is the most dangerous part of the storm.
( wind speed and large atmospheric flow ) The increasing winds on the right side increases the
storm surge.

Changes in wind direction and speed along with changes to shipboard barometric pressure are
the fundamental guides to locating a vessel within the tropical cyclone circulation. Winds
veering over time indicate that the ship is in the right semi-circle (with respect to tropical
cyclone motion) of the system. Conversely, backing winds over time indicate that a vessel is
in the left semi-circle of a 56 system.
If wind direction remains steady but continues increasing in speed, a vessel is likely located
ahead of the tropical cyclone. Additionally, in those instances where a vessel is caught ahead
of a tropical cyclone, the barometric pressure will also continue to fall, in some cases quite
rapidly as the system center moves closer. Alternatively, winds that remain steady in direction
but decrease in speed are a good indication that the vessel is located to the rear of the tropical
cyclone along its track.
Another indication of this is a steady rise in barometric pressure. Once the location of the
vessel with respect to the center of the tropical cyclone is known, the mariner can begin to
make course adjustments to clear.
If the vessel is found to be located in the right semi-circle of the tropical cyclone, put the wind
at 045 on the starboard side while attempting to make best speed to clear the tropical
cyclone. Vessels caught ahead of a tropical cyclone should steer best course and speed
attempting to place the wind at 160 on the starboard quarter of the vessel until the ship is
well into the left semicircle of the system. For ships located in the left semi-circle of the
system, place the wind at 135 on the starboard quarter, making best speed to clear the
tropical cyclone. Finally, for ships found to the rear of a tropical cyclone, choose best course
and speed that will increase distance from the vessel to the tropical cyclone. It is important to
emphasize at this point that the wave action accompanying a tropical cyclone is often fairly
complex, confused and dangerous with as many as three distinct wave patterns prevalent at

100
any given time. This is particularly true in the right rear quadrant (with respect to direction of
motion) of the tropical cyclone.

Golden Rule : Never Cross the Tropical storm. That must be avoided under all
circumstances

Dangerous quarter,

right Front Quarter

Actual ships course

Course alteration to avoid the dangerous right quarter

Actual path of Tropical Storm

Forecasted path of Tropical Storm

Illustration 50: avoiding dangerous semi circle ( Source : P.Grunau own drawing )

In the southern hemisphere the dangerous semicircle is left of the storm track and the
navigable semicircle right of the storm track.
Because of the greater wind speeds in the dangerous semicircle also the seas are higher than
in the navigable semicircle.

To avoid the storm centre the vessel should have the wind on the starboard
bow ( 45/ relative ), make as much way as possible and hold course, if in the

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dangerous semicircle. On southern hemisphere : 315/ relative - bring wind
on port bow.

On the starboard quarter ( 135/ relative ) if in the navigable quarter.


Hold course and make as much way as possible. On southern hemisphere : 225/ relative -
bring the wind on port quarter.

If on the storm track ahead of the storm


The wind should be put about 160/ on the starboard quarter until the vessel is well within the
navigable semicircle. In the southern hemisphere the same rules are good, but with respect to
the port side.

On the storm track, behind centre


Avoid the centre, by the best possible and practicable course. ( Always be reminded that the
storm can curve northward and eastward - southern hemisphere southward and eastward )
If the storm maintains the direction and speed, the ships course should be maintained as the
wind shifts.

Illustration 51: Track of a tropical cyclone ( Source : P.Grunau )

9.6 Measurements to avoid the Tropical Cyclone

9.6.1 The 1-2-3 Rule


For an Officer it is important to know, coming in such a situation, how to avoid the tropical
storm and come to the navigable semi-circle and what will be the course to steer to avoid the
storm - keeping clear of the storm, what time the storm will be abeam of me.

There are for sure more than one solution. The first is to know the risky area, which can be
assumed as an area of wind force of 34-35 knots. This area should be for sure avoided.

A good method, which will be also used by the meteorological institutes is the so called
1-2-3- Rule

102
For vessels at sea, avoiding the 34 KT wind field of a tropical cyclone is paramount. Any
ship in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone should make every effort to remain clear of the
maximum radius of analyzed or forecast 34 KT winds associated with the tropical cyclone.
Knowing that the area of 34 KT around tropical cyclones is rarely symmetric but instead
varies within semi-circles or quadrants is important. Understanding that each tropical storm or
hurricane has it own unique 34 KT wind field are necessary factors to account for when
attempting to remain clear of this dangerous area around a tropical cyclone. NHC forecasts
attempt to define the structure of this wind field and use of the latest TCM in determining the
maximum radius of 34 KT winds is necessary when trying to avoid this dangerous threshold.

1. Plot the current and forecast tropical cyclone positions taken from the latest TCM.

2. Find the maximum radius of 34 KT winds at the current and each forecast time period
of the TCM out to 72 hours.

For example, the radii of 34 KT winds given for the 24 hour forecast position in the latest
TCM are:

34 KT...175NE 150SE 150SW 150NW

Therefore, the maximum radius of 34 KT winds associated with the tropical cyclone at its
24-hour forecast position is 175 NM.

3. Next apply the 1-2-3 rule to each of the radii at the 24, 48, and 72 hour forecast
positions. At the 24-hour forecast position (1 day): add 100 NM to the maximum
radius
of 34 KT winds found in the 24 hours forecast of step two.
>>>175 NM (Forecast radius of 34 KT) + 100 NM = 275 NM
At the 48-hour forecast position (2 days): add 200 NM to the maximum radius of 34
KT winds found in the 48 hour forecast of step two.
At the 72-hour forecast position (3 days): add 300 NM to the maximum radius of 34
KT winds found in the 72 hour forecast of step two.

4. Now draw a circle around the 24, 48, and 72 hour forecast positions of the tropical
cyclone using the radii found in step 3.

5. Connect a line tangent to each circle constructed in step 4. The area enclosed by these
tangent lines is known as the danger area of the tropical cyclone and must be avoided
as a vessel attempts to navigate in the vicinity of the tropical cyclone.

The 1-2-3 rule relies solely on avoiding the radius of 34 KT winds in a tropical cyclone and
does not take sea heights into consideration. Vessels with lower sea keeping limits should also
make adjustments to the 1-2-3 rule in order to minimize exposure to seas that will
dangerously hamper ship stability and maneuverability.
103
Illustration 52: Forecasting of TS Haiyan using the 1-2-3- Rule ( Source : P.Grunau )

Illustration 53: Graphical explanation of the 1-2-3- Rule ( Graph from NOAA )

9.6.2 The Tropical Storm Plot


To avoid the tropical storm and to know which course to steer the Officer can use the radar
plotting technique. The method is similar.

104
What we like to know is the :

Course to steer to avoid the TS

What time will the ship abeam of the TS

Which courses should be at least avoided.

The plot is actually not taking into account the sea state ( wind sea and swell ). It further
depends on the master which radius he likes to avoid. A nearly safe distance is about 300 nm
of off the tropical cyclone. For sure it requires an immediate action and after the decision is
once done to alter the course this decision must be kept.

Following Parameter are necessary :

Main Parameter for the Plot

Calculation of the Parameter


Graphical Solution for getting the course to avoid the dangerous
quarter

The main parameters for the Tropical Storm plot are:

a.Ships speed = Vs [ kn ]
b.Forward speed of the TS = Vg [ kn ]
c.Relative speed of the ship in regards to the TS = Vr [ kn ]
d.Danger area of the TS = rg [ nm ]
e.Dispersion radius of TS (Radius of uncertainty) = rs [ nm ]
f.Ship position = S
g. Relative distance to the outer danger area of TS = dr [ nm ]

1. Calculation of the dispersion Radius or radius of uncertainty

Rule for the calculation :

Is the Tropical Storm on his equatoreal track than the radius of uncertainty is
rs = 1/3*Vg ; where Vg= velocity of TS

Is the Tropical Storm on his northern path than the radius of uncertainty is
rs = *Vg

105
Illustration 54: Step to step explanation of the Tropical Storm Plot ( Source : P.Grunau )

106
The final Plot

Illustration 55: Explanation of the TS Plot ( Source: P. Grunau )

107
Illustration 56: Range of courses to be steered

If there are different dangerous area semi circles :

Illustration 57: TS - Plot if different area of risk a present 17

17
Illustration 56&57 : Property of P.Grunau
108
A simple plot can be also done on the paper chart. It has the advantage that the Officer can
also identify other risks like chart depth, shallow waters etc.

Example of a chart plot

Ship course

Course to be
avoided
Ship abeam
Possible of TS
courses to
avoid TS
Illustration 58: Example of a paper chart plot ( Source : P. Grunau )

109
Using the Radar Plotting sheet the tropical storm plot looks like this:

Illustration 59: Example of a TS - using the Radar plotting sheet ( Source . P.Grunau )

Using the radar plotting sheet it is important to have the correct scale between distance and
speed, otherwise the results are not accurate anymore.

9.7 The Fujiwhara Effect

The Japanese Fujiwhara was the first who recognized that two Tropical storms , which are
close to each other, will effect each other.

If two TS are very close to each other, they will effect each other in this way, that they are
rotating along a common rotation axis.
In the northern hemisphere they will rotate anticlockwise, in the
Southern hemisphere clockwise. Her Rotation center is the great circle connection between
the two center of the TS. If both TS have the power, the rotation point is in the center
between them. If the power is unequal the center of rotation is closer to the strongest one.
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As closer the TS are coming, as stronger this effect will be.

9.7.1 Calculation of the maximum winds of a tropical cyclone


Takashi ( 1939 ) and also Fletcher developed an empirical formula for getting the maximum
wind of a tropical cyclone. The first equation of Takashi :
1
Vmax = K ( p R p0 ) ,where K is an empirical constant = 11,5 ( was revised )
2

PR = environmental pressure

P0 = Central pressure of the tropical cyclone

Fletcher published in 1955 an empirical formula, where the value K = 16

Therefore : Vmax = 16 * ( p R po ) o ,5

Based on The Fletchers formula, The Postanalysis Board (Mcknown et al 1952) revised the
formula


1
Vmax = (20 (1010 p0 ) 2
5

In 1977 Atkinson and Holliday found the nonlinear relation :

Vmax = 6,70(1010 p0 ) 0, 644

The formula was always revised, but the revised formulas are not from interest for us because
they are based on the 700 hPa term.

The factor K was several updated and depends on the studying of the tropical cyclones. This
factor varies between 16 and 11,5. For us as a navigating Officer the Fletcher Formula can be
used Vmax = 16 * ( p R po ) o ,5

If we are calculating the max wind speed, assuming that the central pressure is 990 hPa, the
environmental pressure is 1014 hPa , the Latitude is 25N than the results between Fletchers,
Takashis , Atkinson / Holliday and Mcknown varies between 19 and 23 knots. For an Officer
to know the wind speed at his position, relative to the TS, Fletchers formula can be still used.
The advantage is that the central pressure of the TS is part of the formula. Mcknown has the
advantage that he includes the latitude as well. All others are using an environmental pressure
of 1010 hPa.

111
9.8 Rules for the path of a tropical storm

On the Northern Hemisphere:

Rule No 1 :

On the Southern Hemisphere:

Rule No. 2 :

Illustration 60: Illustration for the rules of a TS (Source : P.Grunau)

112
Rule No. 2 :

Rule No. 3:

Illustration 61: Illustration for Rule No 2 and No 3 ( Source : P. Grunau )

113
Rule No. 4 :

Illustration 62: Illustration for Rule No 4 ( Source : P.Grunau )

114
Chapter 10 Weather Charts and Forecasting Rules

10.1 Introduction

The first weather map was produced in the 19th Century. It was and is, one of the useful
charts ever produced. Now a days the computer are playing the utmost important role in
producing a weather map and for forecasting the weather. At the end of 19th century this was
not yet all developed. The weather map, a summery out of temperature, pressure, wind, wind
speed etc, was collected by meteorologist, from different stations all over the country, and
was sent to one location, where it was analyzed by hand. Today computer will do this job, but
the meteorologist still need the important data from different stations all over the country and
for the world weather, all over the world, sea and land. Be always reminded that the weather
chart never can be accurate. There is no 100% accuracy. A meteorologist must study the
charts and have to interpret the chart for the specific location the forecast should be done.

A short term weather forecast is much more accuracy ( 12 hrs / 24 hrs ) as a long term
forecast ( 48, 72 or 96 hrs ).

In general we are differ two kinds of weather maps :

- The surface weather map


- The Topographies ( 200 ,300, 500,700, 850 etc )

In meteorology the term weather analysis usually refers to a sequence of operations involved
with the organization of the plotted information on the weather map. Out of a weather map a
lot of different and useful information can be seen by the seafarer. The pictorial presentation
of weather data together with an analysis can be determined at a glance.

For a seafarer two weather maps are important.

The surface analysis


The 500 mb ( hPa )topography

10.2 The different weather maps used by the seafarer

10.2.1 The surface analysis weather chart

Historically the surface weather chart was the first weather map ever produced. This chart is
useful for the current weather condition, just above the surface of the earth for a large
geographical region. ( English Channel, North sea, Gulf of Biscay etc ).

115
These charts are containing different data, and fronts and analyzed pressure fields, with solid
lines representing the isobars
Because these charts display weather conditions at a certain and particular time, they can be
also considered as synoptic charts.( from the Greek words : "syn" = the same or together and
"optic" = visible . By international agreement
all meteorological weather charts are taken st the same time according to UTC. The frontal
analysis that may appear on the surface chart will be produced at a 3 hourly interval ( 0000
UTC, 0300 UTC, and so on ).

In a surface weather station map following data can be found :

Air temperature ( near surface air temperature )


Dew point temperature
Wind direction ( to the nearest 10/ )
Wind speed ( approx. 10 m above the surface )
Barometric pressure ( adjusted to sea level condition19
the High and Low pressure area
The isobars ( distance in between the isobars is always the same :
5 hPa
Tendency of the path of a Low and High pressure system.

Most of this information will be found in a surface weather chart as a station model.
About 8000 weather stations ( northern hemisphere ) are working and analyzing their weather
at their station.

Illustration 63: Surface Weather chart (Source : (center))

116
The next picture shows the common weather symbols used in a surface weather chart. These
symbols are indicating the observation of a particular significant current weather . The
symbols are unique and international standard.
The reason why weather symbols will be used is simple. Weather symbols are invented so
that weather maps could be looked at in a short amount of time.

Illustration 64: International symbols in weather charts( Source :(wisc.edu))

10.2.2 The 500 hPa Topography

Four times a day a 500 hPa topography will be sent. ( 0000 UTC, 0600 UTC, 1200 UTC and
1800 UTC ). There are different topographies ( 850, 500, 300, 200 ) but for the seafarer the
500 hPa topography is important.
In a 500 hPa topography the pressure , temperature and wind fields ( jet streams ) will be
analyzed. the analysis will be done at a pressure level of 500 hPa. The isobars, which are
indicating the pressure are not called isobars, they are called isohyps. The distance between
these isohyps is also always the same, 4 dekameter, which is nearly equal to the 5 to 5 hPa
distance between the isobars in a surface analysis.

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Illustration 65: 48 hrs forcecast - 500 mb topography (Source : (www.mpc.ncep.noaa.gov)

The 500 hPa topography shows the seafarer the moving of a pressure system (high or low ) at
the 500 hpa pressure level. The Low pressure systems at the surface are moving with the high
wind currents ( jet streams ) representing in the 500 hPa topography. For a forecasting these
chart is important. With the flow of this currents the low pressure systems are moving at the
surface. These currents are visible as waves.
In this 500 hPa pressure level, the "high wind waves" are clearly seen. The wind speed is, at
the 500 hPa pressure level is always higher than the wind at the surface21 of the earth.

10.3 Weather Chart Interpretation

In a surface analysis large scale features of sea level pressure field and fronts can be
identified. Isobars with the lowest pressure are encircling the region with the lowest point of
pressure of this pressure field. The close isobars with the largest value of pressure are
indicating the highest sea level pressure.
The packing of the isobars shows how rapidly the pressure varies with distance in the
horizontal direction. A tighter packing indicates a much more rapid horizontal variation of air
pressure.
The isobars are also very useful. The wind tend to parallel the isobars, with the low pressure
to the left of the wind flow ( in the northern hemisphere ) .Where the isobars are packed more
closely, the wind speed tends to be greater.
Together with the 500 hPa topography and previous weather charts, a reasonable short range
weather forecast can be done. ( based upon the movement of the High and Low pressure
center )

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On board there are no high speed computers for forecasting. A 100% accuracy never can be
granted. But here are some guidelines:

1. Pressure Trend :
A rising barometer trend indicates high pressure and a greater chance for and dry weather.
Falling barometer or barometer readings in the map indicating a low pressure with the chance
of clouds and precipitation.

2. Wind direction :
At a low pressure system the wind blows counterclockwise, which means to you that you are
observing a warm southerly wind ahead of a low and colder northerly winds behind it. the
lows on the weather map give you an idea about what type of weather and temperature trend
to expect in your area.

3. Cloud Cover :
Growing cumulus clouds are or can indicate conditions from thunderstorms. High ice crystal
cirrus clouds can indicate an approaching storm. The location and coverage of clouds on a
satellite image can be extremely helpful in predicting sunny or cloudy skies. Further the cloud
band can indicate the storm and the storm center.

Even if the seafarer will have only one map on hand, useful deductions can be made.

1. Frontal depressions tend to move in families, each depression following the other, but on
a slightly lower latitude.

2. A depression with a warm sector tends to move with the wind parallel to the isobars in
the warm sector. Speed : about of the wind speed.

3. Depressions tend to move with the wind around a large and well established anticyclone.

4. An occludes depression will move slowly and irregularly

5. If the depression will have a large warm sector it tends to deepen

6. As a depression occludes the deepening process will decrease

7. A non - frontal depression tends to move with the strongest wind circulating around it.

8. A front which is crossed by isobars which are close together will probably be fast moving.

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9. A front which is parallel to the isobars will move slowly

10. Warm fronts moving about half the speed of the wind at the front

11. Small anticyclones usually moving faster than old once

10.3.1 Weather Chart Symbols

The weather chart symbols are unique and have an international standard. The illustrations
below showing the common symbols. The first are showing the symbols for frontal systems

Cold Front Symbol

Warm Front Symbol

Occluded Front Symbol

Stationary front Symbol

Rain symbol convention :

Illustration 66: Weather charts symbols ( Source :Bracknell weather charts )

Sky Cover Code :

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10.3.2 Weather forecast for the next 24 hours
To get a nearly exact weather forecast for the next 24 hours the Officer should use the surface
weather chart and the 500 mb Chart. Using the 500 mb topography the track of the pressure
systems can be determined. The navigator has no barocline models on hand to make an exact
forecast like a meteorologist.

If interpreting the weather chart the Officer should remember :

- The warm front is deflected by 50%-70% of the front perpendicular


component

- The cold front is deflected by 80%-100% of the front perpendicular


component

1005 hPa
Vt

Vgeo

Vn 1010 hPa

Illustration 67: Front parallel and Front vertical component ( Source : P. Grunau )

- The front is deflected in direction to the strongest pressure difference.


As stronger it is, tendency in front and rear of the front, as higher the
velocity

- If the low pressure is drastically getting stronger, the velocity of the low
and his frontal systems slows down

llustration 68: Shifting of fronts using the wind ruler ( Source : P. Grunau )

- Are the Isobars very close to each other ( distance between the isobars ),
strong wind can be expected.

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- Temperature, atmospheric pressure and formation of clouds can be
concluded by the general rules.

- Deflection of High pressure systems can be concluded by the general


rules for High pressure systems.
- Win direction are in accordance to the isobars, because the wind is
blowing parallel to the isobars. The fore can be calculated by using the
Rudolfs Wind nomogram or wind rulers ( part of the weather chart )

These are the criteria for forecasting the weather for the next 24 hrs 48 hrs.

A detailed weather forecast is not possible for the Officer, because this forecast is based on
following equation :

1
- Equation of motion s = vt at
2

S1
j1ds1 = j 2 ds 2
S2

- Continuity equation or in differential form


p
+ j = 0
t

U = Q + W
- First theorem of thermodynamics or for quasi static system
dU = Q dCV

- State equation of gases pVm = R(Tc + 273.15)

W
- Balance equation of water vapor + Q = E p
E

+ L
- Rossby Phase equation c=u ,
4

Actually there are seven equations to be considered which are again subdivide in 18 different
equations. In general we can differ between a barotropic and a barocline forecast model.
Therefore an exact weather forecast is not possible for the navigator, but this also not

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necessary. The Officer must be able to interpret the weather chart and out of the data he must
get the correct conclusion.

As already mentioned the most important weather chart is the 500 mb topography, because in
the topography the track and the deflection of the atmospheric waves are indicated. Looking
to the different equations necessary for a weather forecast it is obviously that such an exact
forecast cannot be calculated by the Officer.

The ship command must make sure that at least twice a day a surface weather chart and also a
500 mb topographical chart must be on hand to analyze the weather condition. In some areas
it is also advisable to have a current chart and special wind chart on hand and if trading in
areas where tropical cyclones can develop the necessity of having always updated weather
reports on hand is a must. For a voyage pre calculation of the climatic and meteorological
condition the Pilot charts can be also used. Tide and current maps are available from all
meteorological institutes.

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Chapter 11 Meteorological Navigation

11.1 General
Meteorological Navigation is part of the voyage planning and also part of the SEEMP ( Ships
Energy Efficiency Plan. Meteorological Navigation is the determination of the voyage under
meteorological, climatological aspects to avoid damages to ship and cargo, to reduce the fuel
oil consumption and therefore also to reduce the CO2 consumption, as required in the
SEEMP. The safe and economical transportation of the cargo depends on a good voyage
meteorological voyage- planning. Cargoes like hygroscopic cargoes or heavy lift cargo,
transported on deck, need special attention ( Shifting of cargo, sweat water effect on
hygroscopic and non hygroscopic cargoes due to climatic changes, Offshore industry )

The ship command must consider aspects and facts to guarantee a good, safe and effective
voyage. For the meteorological route planning following aspects must be considered :

- Expected wind condition for the voyage

- Expected wind sea and swell

- Atmospheric temperatures and sea water temperatures for the voyage

- Dew points in regards to the ventilation of cargoes

- Expected current forces and set

- The climate zone which will be passed and therefore also the climatic
changes

- Expected tropical cyclones if trading in such areas

All above mentioned aspects must be considered to avoid structural damages to the ship and
damages to the cargo ( wetness of cargo , wrong ventilation ). In regards to the safety of the
cargo securing and lashing of cargo are these facts essential to know. prior the voyage -
Due to strong wind sea or swell the cargo will be additionally accelerated which will affect
the securing system on board.(Container , Heavy Lift Cargo )

Of course meteorological navigation is influenced by ship specific factors, or is even limited


by these factors. These ship specific facts must be considered also, like:

o How is the ship conduct in sea general aspects

o Stability of the ship

o Trim and longitudinal stress condition of the ship

o Type of cargo loaded or which must be transported

o Distribution of cargo

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o Economical factors like : Energy Efficiency Operation Index (
EEOI ), slow steaming or economic speed

o Ballast water management of the ship

Considering all these facts will prevent and minimize damages to ship and cargo.

11.2 Route optimization by means of meteorological voyage planning


Within specified limits of weather and sea condition, the voyage of a vessel can be optimized
and a voyage plan can be created, which will establish a maximum safety for the ship, crew
and the cargo.
To establish a safe navigational weather route, the master needs some pre -information
regarding the weather, sea condition , in the area he is trading. If not a meteorological
navigation program is on hand, the most useful charts for getting information are the Pilot
Charts.
The Pilot charts are available for all oceans. They are presenting the ship's command 12
charts, for each month one chart, with all weather information included. This information is
based on a 20 or 30 yearly mean. ( the average of weather data over the past 20 or 30 years ).

Temperature chart for the south Pacific Month: July

Illustration 69: Temperature chart - Pilot books

There are other publications which will give useful information, like the Sailing Directions.
The sailing directions recommend specific routes. Another solution is the ship routing
service. The service will be established by either the meteorological Institutes or by
independent agencies. These agencies are acting as an advisor only. The decision which route
will be used is still with the master.
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The process of optimizing a voyage is part of the company policy, part of charter parties and
is also required in the SEEMP. The first aim is for sure the optimization with regards to the
sailing time using the Minimum Time Tracking for a voyage. Than the route must be
optimized to fulfill the requirements of the SEEMP, means less fuel oil consumption and
therefore less CO2 emission. Besides the meteorological parameter which will limit the fuel
oil consumption there are also other factors, like to trim the ship by head optimization using
better antifouling paints, propeller blade cleaning etc. In the design phase of a ship, the
structural optimization will be already considered and are part of the EEDI - Energy
Efficiency Design Index. All other parameters are part of the EEOI including the
meteorological voyage planning and optimization.

The minimum time track will be calculated, using the part distance for the voyage and
therefore the total time for the voyage can be calculated.

T= s/v ,

where : s = part distance and v = Speed for the different distances s will be defined as :

s =( s1,s2,s3.sn) and v = v1,v2,v3,vn .

If we divide the complete route in single parts including the corresponding speed than the
summery of all part distances can be defined as a defined integral.

z 1
T = ds = min imum
0 v

where : T = voyage time

v = speed over ground

ds = the different distances

Using a specified algorithm the planned route or voyage can be now , under consideration of
meteorological and climatic influences, calculated. Here also the requirements of the SEEMP
will be considered.

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11.3 Voyage Planning including the climatic and meteorological Aspects
Explanation of a meteorological voyage planning on hand of an example

Ship Particulars

L.O.A = 145,5 m

B.O.A = 25,3 m

Depth = 11,0 m

Summer Draft = 8,20 m

Max. Speed = 21,3 knots

Slow Steaming = 16,5 knots

Max.Volume = 15050 m

Max.Displacement on Summer draft = 19100 mt [ SW ]

Facilities:

1 Hatch = 120,2 m x 21,4 m


with one TD

2 low type cranes: 140 mt each at 5 m outreach

Engine Power = PE = 9500 kW = 12916 PS

Fuel type = Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) ISO 8217 Grades RME through
RMK
Carbon Content = 0.85
Cf = 3.114400
Consumption per day: 26,5 tons

Diesel/Gas Oil ISO 8217 Grades DMX through DMC


Carbon Content = 0.875
Cf = 3.206000
Consumption per day: 1,2 tons

EEOI [ given by Comp.] = 6,0


EEDI [ Yard/Class ] = 16,0

Ballastwater Exchange: BWTK No 1 and 2 P/S : sequential Method


All other tanks : BWTK No 3 6 P/S : Flow through method
2 Pumps, capacity/pump : 280 m/hr

127
Remarks:
Condition in which ballast water exchange at sea is not to be undertaken:

GM < = 0,60 m
Winds > = 6 Bft
Swell and sea higher than 2,5 meters
The draught aft should be always > 4,6 m
The draught fwd should be always > 3,10 m
The values of the bending and shear forces should be always < 100% under sea-condition.

Vessel is reinforced for the carriage of heavy lift cargo in the hatches and on deck.

Cargo and Voyage Details:

Voyage Number : L 02/2014

P.O.L. Le Havre, France

P.O.D Jacksonville , USA

Month of transit : February

Cargo loaded :

Lower Hold : Steel pipes for Jacksonville

Tween Deck: Sugar and wheat in bags aft part of the hatch

Deck cargo : 2 Turbines, each 200 mt size: 18,5 x 4,7 x 9,3 m

20 x 20 Container, each 11,4 mt machinery parts

128
129
130
Illustration 70: Illustration of a voyage planning ( Source : Voyage Template P.Grunau )

General Remarks for this voyage:


Weather and climate condition during the voyage:

Winds
Prevailing winds over most of the Atlantic north of 35N are from the westerly quadrants with
the exception of an area to the west of the Iberian Peninsula where they are more northerly.
South of 35N, the prevailing winds are from the east and northeast. Average winds of force 3
to 5 occur over most of the Atlantic north of30N with the exception of an area 400 to 600
miles wide extending from southern Greenland to about 48N where they increase to force 5
to 7. The "Northeast Trades", 25N to the Equator, and the Mediterranean Sea both observe
average winds of force 3 to 5. Easterly winds are predominant over the Gulf of Mexico and
Caribbean Sea with an average force 3 to 4 over the Gulf and force 4 to 5 over the Caribbean.

Gales
During February winds of force 8 or greater are confined mainly north of 30N. The 10
percent occurrence line extends south from Norway past western Ireland and northern Spain
to some 500 miles east of Cape Hatteras where it turns northeast and parallels the North
American coast to Nova Scotia. The Golf du Lion is the only area in the Mediterranean Sea
with a greater than 10 percent occurrence of gales.

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The area with the highest frequency, 30 percent, is off the southern tip of Greenland with a
surrounding 20 percent area that extends from the Labrador Sea to southern Iceland. Another
20 percent area is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Tropical Cyclones
Tropical cyclones are such a rare event in February that only one storm has been reported in
100 years. Its movement was from the Yucatan Peninsula to off the Carolina Coast.

ExtraTropical Cyclones
A large area of cyclogenesis extends from the Gulf Coast of the United States to northeast
Newfoundland. Other major areas of cyclone development are over the Denmark Strait-
Western Iceland region and over the northwest region of the Mediterranean Sea north of a line
from Barcelona to central Yugoslavia. Of two primary tracks, one crosses the Great Lakes and
Bay of Fundy before turning north to the Labrador coast where it splits with one branch
continuing north towards Baffin Bay and the other heading northeast past the southern tip of
Greenland. The other primary track runs from northern Florida northeast to about 50N, 40W
where it divides with Lows either heading for the Denmark Strait or Norwegian Sea.
Secondary tracks in the Mediterranean cross southern France and the northern Adriatic, while
others lead from northern Spain through southern Italy and northern Greece. Additional
secondary tracks cross Hudson Bay and the British Isles.

Pressure

The average pressure distribution remains quite similar to that of January. The Icelandic Low
fills to 1000 millibars and is located near 60N, 40W. The central pressure of the Azores
High is still above 1020 millibars with a more clearly defined center near 30N, 30W. The
reduction in the average north-south pressure gradient is generally caused by Lows being less
intense on the average during February although many are severe.

Wave Heights
The red lines on the main body of the chart indicate the percentage of frequency of wave
heights equal to or greater than 12 feet. In analysis, when both sea and swell are reported, the
higher value is used in the summarization. North of 25N, most areas of the North Atlantic
except for protected coastal areas and frozen northern waters experience wave heights of 12
feet or higher 10 percent or more of the time.
Frequencies of 10 percent or more are also observed in the Mediterranean Sea from the Golfe
du Lion near Sardinia and over the Caribbean Sea near Barranquilla, Colombia. The highest
frequency, 50 percent, is located north of 42N and south of 61N, between southeastern
Greenland and 10W.

Ocean Currents
The broken arrows indicate the probable surface current flow where data are sparse, but more
importantly, they indicate directional variability such as in the Sargasso Sea, in regions of
entrainment between currents setting in opposing directions, in near shore tidal regions, and in
the northern seas where currents are generally weak and easily influenced by winds.
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Air Temperature
The mean air temperature pattern in February has changed little from that of January. The
zero isotherm is the only one to shift noticeably as it moves farther south off the Greenland
coast. The means range from below -6C over Baffin Bay to above 26C in areas south of
18N in the Caribbean. The orientation of the isotherms is southwest-northeast in the northern
latitudes. Extreme temperatures drop slightly in February as they range from below -16C in
the Davis Strait to over 28C in the southern regions of the North Atlantic.

Great Circle Routes


The courses shown on this chart are drawn to provide the shortest distances normally
available during the month represented. Abnormal or severe ice or weather conditions may
require vessels to alter course farther south to the tracks represented on the late winter or
spring Pilot Charts. Ice and weather reports should be monitored constantly when proceeding
south of Cape Race, as these waters are subject to irregular hazards

Visibility
The frequency of visibility less than 2 miles reaches 10 percent or more north of a line
extending from southern Maine northeastward to northern Iceland and the Barents Sea.
Another region of 10 percent or more covers the Irish Sea, English Channel, and southern
regions of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The frequency increases to more than 20 percent over
the Gulf of St. Lawrence along the southeast coast of Greenland, and north of 67N in the
Greenland Sea.

Climatic Condition:
The ship will pass two climate zones:

1. Continental - Temperate Climate zone


From departure Le Havre until 5 days prior arrival Jacksonville the vessel is trading in this
climate zone. At the beginning there are dry and cold, later moisture air masses which are at
the beginning influenced by the polar cold air coming from the north. Air masses are getting
warmer, containing warm and moisture air, during the next days.

Temperate Zone from 4060


In the temperate zone, the solar radiation arrives at a smaller angle, and the average
temperatures here are much cooler than in the subtropics. The seasons and day length differ
significantly in the course of a year. The climate is characterized by less frequent extremes, a
more regular distribution of the precipitation over the year and a longer Vegetation period
- therefore the tame "temperate".

2.Mid-latitude Climates:
Climates in this zone are affected by two different air masses. The tropical air-masses are
moving towards the poles and the polar air-masses are moving towards the equator. These two
air masses are in constant conflict. Either air mass may dominate the area, but neither has
exclusive control.

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Subtropics from 23,540
The subtropics receive the highest radiation in the summer, since the sun's angle at noon is
almost vertical to the earth, whilst the cloud cover is relatively thin. These regions receive less
moisture, and that increases the effect of radiation. Therefore, most of the deserts in the world
are situated in this zone. In the winter, the radiation in these regions decreases significantly,
and it can be temporarily very cool and moist .

Cargo Maintenance during the voyage:

The voyage is from cold to warm. The cargo hold temperature after loading is: 7
The hatch can be considered as a quasi hermetic closed body. The temperature increase during
the voyage/day = 0,2 ( empirical value) .
The steel cargo should not be ventilated until loaded wet. If the cargo was loaded wet, then
the first two days are suitable for ventilating for drying the cargo. Afterwards the cargo should
not be ventilated anymore.
Assuming the cargo is loaded dry, than a ventilation of the steel cargo should be not done.
The temperature increase in the hatch for a 10,6 day voyage = 2,2, without any ventilation.
Thus : 7+2,2 = 9,2 final temperature on arrival Jacksonville.
Follow the rule of ventilation: If the dew point of the atmospheric, ventilating air is higher
than the dew point of the cargo/hatch temperature ventilation should be not done. If you are
ventilating you will ventilate with warmer, moistures air will causes corrosion to the cargo
resulting in a cargo claim.
Hygroscopic cargo ( sugar and wheat in the tween deck ) may be not ventilated if the
ventilating atmosphere is more than 3 cooler than the estimated cargo temperature. This is
not the case during this voyage, because the atmospheric, ventilating temperature is always
higher than the estimated cargo temperature.
Checking if there is a need for ventilating is in the decision of the ship command. Use
Stefen-Boltzmann law or cargo hold meteorological diagrams. Cargo sweat will only occur if
the temperature of the surface of the cargo is below the dew point of the atmospheric
temperature. The thermal conductivity can be also calculate using the law of thermal
conductivity:

The radiation will be calculated by means of the Stefan Boltzmann Law, named after the
two Austrian physicians : Stefan and Boltzmann.

134
= Emissivity factor of the objects surface ( Value between 0 1 )
The Emissivity factor is the ratio between a black body, = 1 and a grey Body
T = Temperature difference between warm and cold temperature expressed in Kelvin.
Pnet = Pabs-Prad, where Pnet is positive if energy will be absorbed and negative if the body
lost energy via radiation

As soon as passing from the continental zone to the subtropical zone, check for ship
sweat.
On arrival and opening of the hatches there will be sweat water occurs due to the temperature
differential between atmospheric air in Jacksonville and ambient hatch temperature. ~ 8-
10C. But this is no problem because the cargo will dry immediately and a cargo claim is not
rectified here.

Heavy Lift cargo on deck:


Daily checking of lash arrangement and supports. After five days a special check to be done
to avoid shifting due to rolling of the vessel. (Half a day prior arriving at WPT 5 ). If
necessary set additional lashing. Confirm with charterer.

Taking the example we can conclude ( in regards to the meteorological voyage Planning

The initial route recommendation is based on :

1. Survey of weather and sea forecast


2. The ships specific particulars for the voyage
(Cargo , Stability, Hull type, speed capability, loading condition,
Draught)

The weather and sea condition forecast must include the whole voyage from the Port of
departure and the Port of destination, which means a pre - information must be on hand, how
the weather could be in the certain trading area.
The ships track have to be monitored all the time and forecast along the ship's current track
have to taken. By monitoring the vessel's progress during the voyage ( weather and sea
condition ), it is possible to maximize the ship's speed and safety. From the 1st of July 2002, a
correct voyage planning, which includes a weather routing as well , is part of the whole
voyage plan ( Sea passage ).

135
The greatest potential advantage for a good ship weather routing exist when :

- The passage is relatively long (more than 1500 to 2000 or more, miles )
- The trading area is not restricted, so that there is a choice of route
- Weather is a factor in determining the route to be followed.

Normally a ship's officer will not have any computer based forecasting program
on hand. But also without a routing program, a good meteorological navigation
is practicable.

Ships and cargo condition

These two characteristics have a great influence on the ships weather routing.

What is important to know for a navigator ?


The general weather parameter are already fixed and don't have to be discussed by the
navigator like water temperature or atmospheric temperature. From interest for the ship
command is the general weather situation on the route which will be selected.
For this reason the ship command should fix key positions for the said voyage. For this key
positions the weather can be prepared. The pilot charts for the said ocean are a good
navigational aid in preparing a meteorological routing. All parameters have to be present for
these key points and should be documented in the voyage plan . On hand of this information,
the ship command already will get an idea about the average weather condition on the certain
route.
At first you have to ask yourself if it is a voyage from cold to warm or from warm to cold. ( to
avoid ships and cargo sweat, calculation of the dew point ).
Sea and weather condition ( wind, air - water temperature, wind speed etc ) are
the next step to checked.
The amount of all this information have to be compared with the ships own characteristics.
The ship's characteristics identity its vulnerability to adverse conditions and is there a ability
to avoid them.
Generally we can state that ships with higher speed and less cargo encumbrances will have
shorter routes and be better able to maintain the ship's speed of advance.
If you are avoiding one element of weather to reduce a characteristic of your vessel, like
rolling or pounding, may be of utmost importance.
The cargo and stability condition of the ship is also important. Vessels with high deck cargo,
like heavy lifting vessel are for sure not as vulnerable to maintain a certain speed like ships
without deck cargo and a stable cargo under deck.
By selecting the route, it is possible to avoid already early in time a bad weather region and to
avoid damages to the ship and the cargo. ( especially if trading in tropical storm areas. ) Now
a day charterers are looking for, that the master will keep his ETA for the port, what will
affect the vessels speed. A meteorological navigation have to be done. The wave
characteristics at certain areas are here from importance, because they can have a successive

136
crest on the bow and the stern of a vessel. ( Being equal with the wave length , this
wavelength can induce very dangerous stresses up to the capsizing of the vessel.)
If a meteorological pre voyage planning was done, these areas can be avoided immediately.
On the other hand we have to be pre-informed about the environmental factors. To optimize a
ship's routing, the information must be on hand.
The ships speed can be reduced by wind, head and following wind, due to increased wave
action. Here again the ships particulars are from importance. The lateral surface of the vessel
will indicate the effect of wind, reducing the ship's speed. Car carrier of large container carrier
with fully loaded deck cargo ( 6 high ) are more effected than bulk carrier.

The wave height is a major factor, which affects the ships performance during the voyage and
can cost a lot of damages to the cargo, especially the deck cargo.
The effect of wave height and sea swell is much greater than wind. Also here the
ship officer should know that the wave length are not the same for all oceans. In the Pacific
Ocean the wave length is longer than in the Atlantic ocean.

Other environmental factors are : Fog and ice.

Typical questions which have to be asked prior departure are :

1. Which mean or maximum values of wind and sea have to be expected in


a certain sea area or special location

2. To which extent might a projected type of ship be affected by wave


height, wave length and period in its envisaged area of operation.

3. By which probability and within which period of time may tropical storms
occur in certain sea or coastal areas.

4. What are the impact being exerted or buildings by weather or climate

5. What about the climate in overseas region during the time of growths and
harvest of certain plants

6. Which had been the past weather conditions at a given time and at a given
place .

7. Which values of e.g temperature, humidity and other stress parameter


have to be expected in a area I am trading.

137
11.4 Navigation in severe weather condition

The main problems if navigating in bad weather have to be well understood by the ship's
command. The parts which will be mainly stresses are :

- Stress at the longitudinal ships structure


- Damage of ship parts
- Damage at the underwater ship ( floor construction )
- Damage of cargo or part cargo
- Damage due to resonances ( ship )
- Bending of decks, if they are overloaded
- Bending of deck construction
- Slamming and bow flare slamming
- Total loss of the vessel due to reduced stability ( capsizing )

These problems are well know to the ship's command and have to put into account if starting
the voyage, to avoid such risky areas.

What can happen in detail if navigating in heavy weather :

1. Head sea :
The main movement of the vessel is rolling and pitching. The ship's longitudinal structure will
be extremely stressed. Severe damages to the ship and the vessel might be the result. In this
case also stress ( longitudinal stress ) to the engine is the result.

Counter-measurement :
Alter the course and / or reduce the speed or both if necessary. The speed
reduction should be done until the limit the vessel is still maneuverable.

2. Following seas :
Depending on the relationship between rolling period and ship movement, the vessel will roll
more or less or will jaw.
There is a reduction in stability if the vessel is on the peak of the wave. Risk of shifting cargo.
Vessels with less freeboard will be over rolled by the sea and ships parts will be bended or
dented. ( Wave speed higher than ships speed ).

Counter-measurement :
Drastically altering of the course, to avoid strong jawing of the ships. If there is now way to
alter the course, the ships speed should be reduced, because the waves must pass by very fast
and will not stay for a long time with the vessel. The vessel must be manoeuvrable.The speed
reduction should be done slowly. Ships with less stability should for sure avoid sailing in
following seas.

138
3. Sailing in beam seas:
Heavy rolling and pitching is the result. The rolling period is in accordance with the stability
of the vessel. (Stiff or cranky vessel ) If there is less stability the tendency of capsizing is
given. cargo can easily shift ( Bulk cargo or not correct lashed decks cargo )

Counter-measurement :
The best way to avoid this heavy rolling periods is to alter the course. Advance planning of a
proposed transit, combined with the study of expected weather conditions, before and during
the voyage, provide the greatest opportunity to achieve the goal of optimum environmental
conditions for the ocean transit.

139
APPENDIX

140
Appendix 1 Calculation of EEDI and EEOI

Calculation of EEDI
and EEOI
Energy Efficiency Design Index ( EEDI ) and Energy Efficiency
Operation Index ( EEOI )
The attained EEDI shall be calculated for all ships of 400 GT and above. The attained EEDI is the
actual calculated and verified EEDI value for an individual ship based on the EEDI Technical File.

The EEDI Technical File is the basis document for the EEDO certification and includes all relevant
data and information.
At the design stage it has to be ensured that the EEDI requirements as well as the minimum required
power demand for the maneuverability of the ship in adverse weather condition is fulfilled.

What is the EEDI ?


The EEDI is a value which represents the ships specific emission of CO2. The result for each ship is
expressed in grams of CO2 / capacity mile. The EEDI for a ship must be less or equal the EEDI
expressed by the reference lines developed by IMO for each ship type.

The EEDI is mandatory since 01.01.2013 for all new ships of 400 GT and above. The EEDI was
adopted July 2011 as amendment to MARPOL Annex VI.

What are the requirements?


Minimum energy efficiency load for new ships
Will continuous technical development
Will be included in a new certificate ( IEEC 0 International Energy Efficiency
Certificate )
Is based on a formula for calculation of ship specific emission of CO2
The EEDI for each ship must be less or equal to the EEDI expressed by
reference lines developed by IMO for each ship type.
The required EEDI will be reduced by X % each five years based on the
Initial value (Phase 0) and depending on the vessel size. Below a certain
size no reduction applies. Above a certain ship size the reduction is in
general 10 % for each reduction phase. In between of those sizes the
reduction is linear interpolated.

Who is responsible for the EEDI?


The yards must already put the requirements IMO requirements - for the specific ship to be build,
into account. The yard will work very close with the Classification societies who will certify the
EEDI. New ship designs will also reduce the CO2 emission and therefore the ship construction has a
direct influence on the EEDI.

141
How to calculate the EEDI ?

The simplified formula is :

where SFc is the specific fuel consumption of the engine [g(kWh]


Cf = CO2 emission rate based on the fuel type
DWT = Deadweight of the ship at summer load draught[mt]
Vref = Vessels speed at design load.
P = 75% of the rate of the installed shaft power

This simplified formula can only be use if the ship will use also her shaft generate. If this is not the
case the complete formula for the EEDI calculation must be used:

If part of the Normal Maximum Sea Load is provided by shaft generators, SFCME may for that part
of the power be used instead of SFCAE

The EEDI calculated (attained EEDI) based on the design specification and the sea trials. For all ships,
expect for Container ship and Passenger ships , the DWT = 100%. For Passenger ships the GT will be
used instead of the DWT. For Container ships the DWT used for the calculation = 70% of the DWT.
Further the regulation does not apply for mixed used vessels ( Ferries, RO-RO ships and other ships
which deadweight tonnage is not an adequate representation of transportation capacity.( e.g Ice-
breaker with Ice class 1 A super ) It also does not apply to ships below 400 GT. Also ships with
alternative propulsion system, like diesel electric engines, the simplified EEDI equation cannot be
used because the installed power variable PME(I) cannot be determined in the straight forward manner
necessary for the equation.

Using the formula to calculate the Main Engine CO2 Emissions :

The factor fj is defined for general cargo ships in general:

142
Analyzing the formula we come to the conclusion that here again the wave resistance, expressed by
the Froude Number is an important factor for the calculation.

Example :
Ship Particulars : Ship Type : General Cargo ship
L.O.A : 110,00 m
B.O.A : 18,90 m
Daft Summer : 7,50 m
Main Engine: 7000 kW
Cb : 0,65
ME consumption: 171 g/kWh
Cf for Fuel oil: 3,114

Calculation of the attained EEDI using the simplified formula:

EEDI maximum according to IMO


Formula to be used : EEDI=a*b-c ; all values out of table below

EEDI according to IMO for this type of General Cargo Ship:

143
Attained EEDI = 17,23 Maximum EEDI acc. IMO = 23,76. 17,23<23,76 therefore fulfilled
by 27,5%

Reduction of the EEDI until 2019 for this ship. (see table below for the values)

Reduction : Until 2014 no reduction = EEDI = 17,23, because X = 0


From 2015 2019 : According to the DWT, reduction ~ 7% for this DWT
EEDI = 17,23 7% = 17,23 1,21 = 16,02

The Energy Efficiency Operation Index


This index will be given by the company and is part of the SEEMP Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan.

The company must determine the EEOI with regards to the data and information on
hand.

The EEOI indicator will be calculated as:

144
Example :
Cargo mass total : 15654,5 mt
Total distance : 6543 nm
Consumption of fuel oil in Port and at sea at 16 knots speed : 817,90 mt
Calculation of EEOI :

If the company determines the EEOI with 3,7 then the EEOI for this voyage is fulfilled
because: 2,5<3,7

The EEOI for each voyage must be calculated by the ship command and the result to
be sent to the company.

If we do the same calculation for the EEOI with regards to the work done, assuming that the
vessel had loaded 2500 TEU, we will get:

145
The company must specify which value for the EEOI ( mass of cargo or work done) will be
used in the SEEMP. We cannot mix the values. One voyage the mass as a basis of the EEOI
calculation and the other voyage the work done as a basis of the EEOI calculation.

146
APPENDIX 2 Dew Point Table

147
Appendix No 3 Example of Meteorological Voyage Planning

148
Table of Illustration :

Illustration 1: The Heat budget of the earth.......................................................................................... 13

Illustration 2: Albedo values ................................................................................................................ 14

Illustration 3: Comparing the different Formulas ................................................................................. 18

Illustration 4: Barometer Illustration 5: Barograph ......................... 19

Illustration 6: 500 mb geopotential height............................................................................................ 24

Illustration 7: Thermometer ............................................................................................................... 31

Illustration 8: Sling Psychrometer ........................................................................................................ 31

Illustration 9: Water temperatures : Voyage North Continent - East Coast USA ............................. 31

Illustration 10 : Atmospheric Temperatures for the Voyage North Continent - East Coast USA ....... 32

Illustration 11: Average Water temperatures for a voyage from Seattle to Hong Kong .................... 33

Illustration 12: Sling Psychrometer ..................................................................................................... 37

Illustration 13: Amann Psychrometer ................................................................................................ 38

Illustration 14: Hygrometer .................................................................................................................. 38

Illustration 15: Coriolis second theorem .............................................................................................. 43

Illustration 16: Geostrophic wind at a geopotential height of 5360 m ................................................. 47

Illustration 17: Geostrophic and Gradient Wind ................................................................................. 49

Illustration 18: PG and Fc in balance - wind parallel to the isobars ..................................................... 51

Illustration 19: Force for Gradient wind ............................................................................................... 53

Illustration 20: Vector representation for True wind ............................................................................ 57

Illustration 21: Cup anemometer ......................................................................................................... 58

Illustration 22: Rudolfs Wind Nomogram ........................................................................................... 58

Illustration 23: 300 nm - Rule ............................................................................................................... 59

Illustration 24: Character of Low Pressure - instable for Mid.latitudes ............................................... 60

Illustration 25: Character low pressure - stable condition for Mid. latitudes ..................................... 61

Illustration 26: Apparent Wind........................................................................................................... 65

Illustration 27 General Circulation of the Atmosphere ....................................................................... 66

Illustration 28: Low Pressure with Cold and Warm front ..................................................................... 67
149
Illustration 29: Convergence and Divergence - Low Pressure system ................................................. 68

Illustration 30: Frontal zone .................................................................................................................. 69

Illustration 31: Disturbance ................................................................................................................... 69

Illustration 32: Deveolping of Low Pressure......................................................................................... 69

Illustration 33 : Fully developed Low pressure system ........................................................................ 70

Illustration 34: Occlusion ..................................................................................................................... 70

Illustration 35: Cold front symbol.......................................................................................................... 75

Illustration 36: Cold Front system ......................................................................................................... 75

Illustration 37: Warm Front symbol ...................................................................................................... 76

Illustration 38: Warm Front System ...................................................................................................... 76

Illustration 39: Cold Front Occlusion .................................................................................................... 77

Illustration 40: Frontal components .................................................................................................... 79

Illustration 41: Getting the shift of the front ......................................................................................... 79

Illustration 42; Forming of Clouds by means of convection ................................................................. 83

Illustration 43: Getting the base of Clouds at the LCL.......................................................................... 86

Illustration 44: Development of waves.................................................................................................. 89

Illustration 45: Max. deflection of a wave............................................................................................. 89

Illustration 46: Wave length .................................................................................................................. 90

Illustration 47: measuring of wave length ............................................................................................. 90

Illustration 48: Normal track of a tropical cyclone ............................................................................... 99

Illustration 49: Looping of a TS ............................................................................................................ 99

Illustration 50: avoiding dangerous semi circle................................................................................... 101

Illustration 51: Track of a tropical cyclone ......................................................................................... 102

Illustration 52: Forecasting of TS Haiyan using the 1-2-3- Rule ........................................................ 104

Illustration 53: Graphical explanation of the 1-2-3- Rule ................................................................... 104

Illustration 54: Step to step explanation of the Tropical Storm Plot ................................................... 106

Illustration 55: Explanation of the TS Plot ....................................................................................... 107

Illustration 56: Range of courses to be steered .................................................................................... 108


150
Illustration 57: TS - Plot if different area of risk a present.................................................................. 108

Illustration 58: Example of a paper chart plot ..................................................................................... 109

Illustration 59: Example of a TS - using the Radar plotting sheet ...................................................... 110

Illustration 60: Illustration for the rules of a TS .................................................................................. 112

Illustration 61: Illustration for Rule No 2 and No 3 ............................................................................ 113

Illustration 62: Illustration for Rule No 4 ............................................................................................ 114

Illustration 63: Surface Weather chart ................................................................................................. 116

Illustration 64: International symbols in weather charts ..................................................................... 117

Illustration 65: 48 hrs forcecast - 500 mb topography ........................................................................ 118

Illustration 66: Weather charts symbols ............................................................................................. 120

Illustration 67: Front parallel and Front vertical component............................................................... 121

llustration 68: Shifting of fronts using the wind ruler ......................................................................... 121

Illustration 69: Temperature chart - Pilot books.................................................................................. 125

Illustration 70: Illustration of a voyage planning ................................................................................ 131

151
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