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Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among
the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a
process driven by trade and investment and aided by information
technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture,
on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and
on human physical well-being in societies around the world.

Economic globalization has become one of the most important features of world economic
activities since the end of the Cold War. It has not only produced a far reaching impact on the
political, economic and social aspects of the world, but is also confronting the world economic
system with unprecedented challenges. With existing problems under the current economic
order still outstanding, the economic order under globalization has presented new and tougher
security problems to countries of the world, especially the developing countries. As
globalization of the world's economy has increasingly become a new kind of economic
colonialism by developed countries of the North upon developing countries of the South, it is
undoubtedly worthwhile for us to explore the impact of economic globalization on national

The Meaning Of Globalization:

The term "globalization" was first used in 1985 by Theodore Levitt to characterize the vast
changes that have taken place over the last two to three decades in the international economy,
that is, the rapid and pervasive economic and financial changes that have taken place in
production, consumption and investment globally as a result of both economic and financial
liberalization, structural adjustment programmes, and dramatically diminishing role of the state
in the economy.

Related to the above, the current dominant form of globalization implies that decisions made in
one part of the world have greater and greater direct and indirect impact on nation states and
local communities in far away parts of the world. The world is said to be shrinking and
globalization is the new order that binds us all together in mutual interdependence.
"The distinctive meaning of national security

means freedom from foreign dictation."

Origin of national security:

The origin of the modern concept of "national security" as a philosophy of maintaining a stable
nation state can be traced to the Peace of Westphalia, where in the concept of a sovereign
state, ruled by a sovereign, became the basis of a new international order of nation states. Ever
since then, the concept of national security has been a popular idea and taken as international
discourse, more prominently in the west. National security means the use of various
instruments of national power to secure own interests. With the Initial focus on military might,
national security now encompasses a broad range of facets like economy, diplomacy, politics
and the values espoused by the national society. Each state focuses on own national interests
and uses all of its military and non-military power to ensure national security. The growth of
such national power like military, economy, diplomacy or politics does not depend on a nation's
internal dynamics and challenges only. The demise of the cold war has brought about a sea of
change in the world's politico-security environment. The impact of geopolitics, geo-economics,
environment, threats and capabilities of other states do matter for each nation to formulate its
national security architecture. Threats of national security, therefore, emanate from both
within and outside. Accordingly, each state develops a capability in all the tools of national
power to protect its own security from threats either inside or outside. Every state has the right
to ensure its own security, but an increase in one state's security decreases the security of
others. The paradox lives within the cleavage of national and international security, which
causes imbalance in the international order.

Importance of national security:

National security and international security and order are intertwined. The horrendous
memories of the destruction of World Wars and fear of nuclear war have pushed the world to
allow more space for international security. The world is looking at methods other than war to
ensure national prosperity as well as maintaining international security. Liberal forms of
democratic governments have been the only choice to avoid war, and to pursue prosperity
through cooperation. In the process, globalization turned out to be a new idea to effect
interaction amongst the nations in realizing their national agenda as well as maintaining
international security.
Countries agreed to adapt themselves to the process of globalization by choice or none with a
common value, approach and attitude towards global problem under the rule of international
law. The moral commitment of states, thus, helped in the fusion of national and international
security to build a peaceful world and an enlightened world order. This has reduced the
chances of direct conflict amongst countries and opened more space for cooperation. Despite
the absence of direct conflict of a greater magnitude, there is dormant tension in different
fields as national security in some countries find more dominant place than the idea of
globalization. Interestingly, countries that promote globalization for their own benefits are
found extremely sensitive in articulating their own national security doctrine notwithstanding
the fact that their efforts to ensure national security may violate the principle of globalization
and international security.

The countries particularly in the developed world promoting globalization, do also take a lot of
interest in national security issues themselves. It is hard to understand why they promote
globalization so strongly, while again underscore the national security equally. Probably the
reason is that national security draws its identity from the nation state concept, while
globalization goes beyond the border from the human security perspective. Many issues
commonly accepted or perceived as global problems find much narrower space when the same
are included as national security agenda in their national security doctrine. For instance, issues
like economic prosperity inserted as the national value, or energy/water security as national
interest constrict the wider perspective of the global problem into much parochial narrow
national agenda.

Importance of national security in the age of globalization:

To make sense of this question one needs to establish some understandings about what its
main terms mean. Where a term appears in the text in italics it is defined further below.

Security is about the management of threat. It is often thought of as the pursuit of freedom
from threat, though whether individuals or states would actually want to live in a threat-free
environment is an interesting question with no clear or absolute answer. Many individuals
would find it boring. For states, a threat-free environment would threaten the principal raisond
of the state, which is provision of security. States and/or governments, may therefore need, or
prefer to have, at least some level of threat. Security requires specification of both a threat, and
a referent object.

Threats are about the possibility of harm coming to a valued referent object. In relation to
national security there are two different ways of understanding when a threat exists.
In a perfectly rational world there may be no difference between these two understandings.
The material threat triggers a securitization that reflects it accurately: our traditional enemy is
arming to excess and we need to respond. But factor in the possibilities of paranoia
(exaggerating threats) and complacency (not seeing threats), and space opens up between


There are so many implications cause by globalization towards the national security. It operated
24/7, while we are in the bed; our enemies are looking on us by using their satellite. The
information is easily searched and shared with another side of the world. This paper will discuss
on seven areas of globalization influence towards national security. It created globalization
cycle which cordoned the nation national security and the influence time is 24/7 . They are
created complexity and new challenges, wider the scope of national security, national security
becomes more vulnerable, borderless security environment, infected national culture, tradition
and values, increased of international crime and transnational threats


As in the case of national power, the military aspect of security is an important, but not the
sole, component of national security. To be truly secure, a nation needs other forms of security.
Authorities differ in their choice of nation security elements. Besides the military aspect of
security, the aspects of diplomacy or politics; society; environment; energy and natural
resources; and economics are commonly listed. The elements of national security correlate
closely to the concept of the elements of national power. Romm (1993) lists security from
narcotic cartels, economic security, environmental security and energy security as the non-
military elements of national security

Military security:
This is traditionally, the earliest recognized form of national security Military security implies
the capability of a nation to defend itself, and/or deter military aggression. Alternatively,
military security implies the capability of a nation to enforce its policy choices by use of military
force. The term "military security" is considered synonymous with "security" in much of its
usage. One of the definitions of security given in the Dictionary of Military and Associated
Terms, may be considered a definition of "military security".A condition that results from the
establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensures a state of inviolability
from hostile acts or influences.
Political security:
The political aspect of security has been offered by Barry Buzan, Ole Wver, Jaap de Wilde as
an important component of national security, Political security is about the stability of the
social order. Closely allied to military security and societal security, other components proposed
in a framework for national security in their book "Security: a new framework for analysis", it
specifically addresses threats to sovereignty. System referent objects are defined, such
as nation-states, nations, transnational groups of political importance including tribes,
minorities, some religious organizations, systems of states such as the European Union and the
United, besides others. Diplomacy, negotiation and other interactions form the means of
interaction between the objects,

Economic security:
Historically, conquest of nations has made conquerors rich through plunder, access to new
resources and enlarged trade by controlling a conquered nations' economy. In today's complex
system of international trade, characterized by multi-national agreements, mutual inter-
dependence and availability of natural resources etc., the freedom to exercise choice of policies
to develop a nation's economy in the manner desired, invites economic security. Economic
security today forms, arguably, as important a part of national security as military security. The
creation and protection of jobs that supply defense and non-defense needs are vital to national
security. Third world countries are less secured due to lack of employment for their citizens.

Environmental security:
Environmental security deals with environmental issues which threaten the national security of
a nation in any manner. The scope and nature of environmental threats to national security and
strategies to engage them is a subject of debate. While all environmental events are not
considered significant of being categorized as threats, many transnational issues, both global
and regional would affect national security. Romm (1993) classifies these as Transnational
environmental problems that threaten a nation's security, in its broad defined sense. These
include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warming,
deforestation and loss of biodiversity, etc

Environmental or resource problems that threaten a nation's security, traditionally defined.

These would be problems whose outcomes would result in conventional threats to national
security as first or higher order outcomes. Such disputes could range from heightened tension
or outright conflict due to disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East, to illegal immigration
into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico The genocide in Rwanda,
indirectly or partly caused by rise in population and dwindling availability of farmland, is an
example of environmental security.

Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare, e.g. Romans destroyed the fields

of Carthage by pouring salt over them; Saddam Hussein's burning of oil wells in the Gulf War;
the use of Agent Orange by the UK in the Malayan Emergency and the USA in the Vietnam
War for defoliating forests for military purposes.

Security Of Energy And Natural Resources:

A resource has been defined as:

"A support inventory... biotic or a biotic, renewable or

expendable... for sustaining life at a heightened level
of well-being."

Resources include water, sources of energy, land and minerals. Availability of adequate natural
resources is important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power. Lack of
resources is a serious challenge for Japan to overcome to increase its national power. In
the Persian Gulf War of 1991, fought over economic issues, Iraq captured Kuwait in order to
capture its oil wells, among other reasons. Water resources are subject to disputes between
many nations, including the two nuclear powers, India and Pakistan. Nations attempt to attain
energy and natural resource security by acquiring the needed resources by force, negotiation
and commerce.

Cyber security:
Recently, cyber security began to be viewed as a pressing national security issue. Electronic
information systems are vital for maintaining a national security of any state. Possible
unauthorized access to the critical governmental infrastructures by state and non-state entities
can create a serious threat and have a negative impact on political, economic and military
security of a given nation.

In the United States, the Bush Administration in January 2008 initiated the Comprehensive
National Cyber security Initiative (CNCI). It introduced a differentiated approach, such as:
identifying existing and emerging cyber security threats, finding and plugging existing cyber
vulnerabilities, and apprehending actors that trying to gain access to secure federal information
systems President Obama issued a declaration that the "cyber threat is one of the most serious
economic and national security challenges we face as a nation" and that "America's economic
prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cyber security."
Fundamental Elements:
There are seven fundamental elements that lie at the core of, and therefore further amplify
our definition of national security. At the same time, they constitute the most important

Challenges we face as a nation and people.

1. Socio-Political Stability

2. Territorial Integrity

3. Economic Solidarity and Strength

4. Ecological Balance

5. Cultural Cohesiveness

6. Moral-Spiritual Consensus

7. External Peace

Description of Fundamental Elements:

Socio-Political Stability:
The first and foremost element is socio-political stability. We must achieve peace and
harmony among all Filipinos, regardless of creed, ethnic origin or social station. The
Government and the people must engage in nation-building under the rule of law,
Constitutional democracy and the full respect for human rights.

Territorial Integrity:
The second is territorial integrity. We must ensure the permanent inviolability of our national
territory and its effective control by the Government and the State. This Includes the
preservation of our countrys Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and its protection from illegal
Incursions and resource exploitation.

Economic Solidarity And Strength:

The third is economic solidarity and strength. We must vigorously pursue a Free-market
economy through responsible entrepreneurship based on social conscience, respect for the
dignity of labor and concern for the public interest. We must perpetuate an economic regime
where the people take command of their own lives, their livelihood and their economic destiny.
Ecological Balance:
The fourth is ecological balance. National survival rests upon the effective . Conservation of our
natural environment in the face of industrial and agricultural expansion and Population
growth. We must promote sustainable development side by side with social justice.

Cultural Cohesiveness:
The fifth is cultural cohesiveness. Our lives as a people must be ruled by a Common set of
values and beliefs grounded on high moral and ethical standards, drawn from our Heritage and
embodying a Filipino standard, drawn from our heritage and embodying a Filipino Identity
transcending religious, ethnic and linguistic differences.

Moral-Spiritual Consensus:
The sixth is moral-spiritual consensus. We must be propelled by a national Vision inspired, and
manifested in our words and deeds, by patriotism, national pride and the Advancement of
national goals and objectives.

External Peace:
The seventh is external peace. We must pursue constructive and cordial relations with all
nations and peoples, even as our nation it must chart an independent course, free from
external control, interference or threat of aggression.

The English term threat means warning, an indication of harm, danger or pain or any negative
event that can cause a risk become a loss. It can be a person or thing likely to cause a damage
or danger.

Types Of Threats:
There are two types of threats:
1. External threats and
2. Internal threats

Pakistan is facing many security challenges. Here are some external threats faces by Pakistan.
Territorial Threats:
Pakistan has been facing external threats to its independence and territorial integrity right from
its birth. Since partition, India and Pakistan have fought three major wars (1948, 1965, and
1971) and had innumerable exchanges of fire along the LOC (line of control) within 65 years of
independent existence. Pakistans porous borders are another problem that support and
sustain the violence and terrorism in Pakistan through infiltration, illegal immigration,
smuggling and drug trafficking. Whether its the border with India, Afghanistan, Iran, or the
seashores, with the exception of the northeast, Pakistans borders are by and large only
monitored on road crossings. This leads to the general problem of a growing illegal population
and infiltration. Smuggling also thrives in Pakistan due to the border situation. There are well-
known bazaars throughout the country, which sell smuggled goods.
The porous borders not only allow foreign agents and illegal immigrants to get into Pakistan but
also allow drug dealers, criminals, and terrorists to seek temporary refuge on the other side of
the border. It sustains a thriving underground economy and a culture of smuggling and
lawlessness. Anytime a major criminal is hunted, he heads for the borders and comes back
when he has made his deals with the police. India and Afghanistan have been traditional havens
for these criminals and terrorists.

Drug Trafficking:
Another cause for concern was the involvement of the refugees in drug trafficking. They had
free access to drugs like heroin that they smuggled through the porous borders into Pakistan.
This made all these drugs easily accessible to the local society, which, resulted in increase of
drug addiction. Drug trafficking is the biggest challenge with the detrimental effects on Pak-
Afghan relations. It has played an important role in destabilization, terrorism and exacerbating
the current Pak-Afghan conflict.Pak-Afghan drug trafficking has emerged as a lucrative business
and a biggest challenge to keep Pak-Afghan relations on solid footings. Both countries are
closely linked in drug trade. Afghanistan produces largest and fine quality of opium while
Pakistan is an important consumer.

Cyber Attacks:
Cybernetic crime is a growing global threat, as experienced with computer viruses such as
Melissa and Chernobyl, which have attacked isolated or networked information systems
through the internet or through software carriers and devices. Many vital decision making
processes of our Government are now electronically-based and therefore vulnerable to this
threat. Main Cyber crime Threats Experienced by Pakistan are 3% complaints pertained to
System damage,Data damage,Malicious code, andMisuse of Encryption1% complaints were
regarding Termination of International Voice Traffic in Pakistan Through Illegally Installed VoIP
Gateway Exchanges.

Weapon Poliferation:
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is a threat to global security. Nuclear
materials and technologies are more accessible now than at any other time in history. The
relative ease of production of both chemical and biological weapons has made these attractive
to terrorists.

Environmental Disasters:
Natural disasters and environmental issues will continue to pervade the global security agenda.
Mankinds global activities particularly population growth, resource consumption, pollution,
urbanization, industrialization, desertification and deforestation will increasingly impact on
climate and weather patterns, strain fragile ecosystems, and put more pressure on health and
social support systems. Pakistan is subject to frequent earthquakes which are often severe
(especially in north and west) and severe flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and
August). Landslides are common in the northern mountains. The flooding is the worst in
Pakistans history and the worst the region has seen in more than 80 years. The UN now says
the flooding has eclipsed the scale of devastation seen during the 2004 tsunami and the
earthquakes that hit Pakistan in 2005 and Haiti in 2010. Over 1,600 people have died thus far,
and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that 1.5 million people have been
displaced and more than 13.8 million people have been affected by the rising waters. Whole
villages remain under water, and the torrential downpour continues to hamper ongoing rescue

The challenges face by the organization, institution, and individual or by the government within
their sovereign realm and also the threat which occure within one independent body is called
internal threat. Here are some internal threats faces by Pakistan.

Economic Unstability:
Generally, Pakistan has experienced a severe economic downturn, though in the past couple of
years Not only did growth rate stagnate and inflation continue to stay in double digits during
last few years, but also not much industrial investment was witnessed, and unemployment
continued to grow. Gas and electricity shortages further complicated the situation. In spite of
having huge-hydro-power potential and proven coal deposits, Pakistan has been facing and
continues to experience energy shortages.
According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2011-12, the current GDP growth rate is 3.7%,
inflation 10.8%, unemployment 6% and population growth rate is 2.0%.Not only has tax
collection registered increases, but both the public and external debt have also increased.

Political Instability:
Security threats always increase when political system becomes dysfunctional. At present,
Pakistans political system is facing the worst haze of its history. Politically ; Pakistan is very
much unstable owing to its weak political institutions, and low profile system capabilities.
Political instability has become a s serious and threatening problem especially in
developing and underdeveloped countries. It is creating massive problems and hindering the
development of these countries. The instability of government, inefficiency of political parties,
and a weak political culture create the scenario for a politically instable state. The lack of
education and a decay of leadership are the two most important contributing factors to the
political instability in Pakistan. Political instability in any state is the best opportunity for the
external interference, anti-state elements, and pressure groups for the exploitation of their
own selfish interests. The quality of governance is very bad nowadays. All the rulers are corrupt
and there is no system of counter-check to check them. Civil and military relations are not very
good; a harmony between them needs to be created to create a cordial domestic political
The present political instability in Pakistan has raised the external and internal challenges
for its society and state. Pakistan is facing serious challenges specially in the realms of
politics and economics. The global world is providing aid and assistance to Pakistan but in
presence of insincere leadership and political instable conditions the huge foreign aid is not
generating any positive results.

Terrorism has been a major threat to Pakistans internal security. Pakistan has faced the
menace of terrorism due to intolerance, suppression, and excessive violence, and economic and
political discrimination, religious and ethnic discrimination. Terrorism basically exists in two
forms in Pakistan. The religious extremist groups, which have been outlawed and have been
involved in sectarian killings or violence and the second one is supported by external
Pakistan has been held hostage to terrorist activities carried out by ethnic and religious groups.
The religious groups used religion as a tool and expressed that due to suppression of not being
free to actively practice religion, a reaction has occurred. Pakistans security has also been
threatened by foreign powers sponsoring terrorist activities in Pakistan. The former Soviet
Union, sponsored terrorism in Pakistan during the days when Pakistan was supporting
Afghanistan against the invasion. The famous Hathora group that emerged in the mid-eighties
was funded by the Soviets. Bomb explosions are a normal way of their modus operandi. Indian
government is also seen as supporting groups in Pakistan. They react by bombing innocent
civilian targets and buildings. No country has suffered as much as Pakistan in terms of both
human lives as well as material damage. Pakistans engagement in the war on terror has cost
her more than 6,700 lives of armed forces personnel, along with more than 15,000 soldiers
wounded, and a civilian death count higher than 37,000.9 In terms of material damage to
Pakistan, it is generally referred to as more than $78 billions.

Ethnic And Cultural Violence:

Pakistan has been facing ethnic, linguistic and communal problems. A blind dedication to ones
own race, tribe and creed creates hatred in one group against the other, which ends in
violence. Economic injustices further worsen the situation as our society is extremely divided
into rich and poor classes. Regional and provincial political leaders who exploit these disparities
at the cost of federation have hindered the path of national unity. Ethnic conflicts are posing
serious threats to our national security. In the recent history of New Pakistan, ethnicity
emerged again in the wake of language riots. This time in the province of Sindh where Urdu
speaking urbanites of Karachi and Hyderabad clashed with native Sindhis. The quest of Mohajirs
migrants in the wake of partition for a parallel political identity as the fifth sub nationality
along with the native Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtuns and Balochs lead to large scale bloodshed and
terrorist activities.

The first effort should be on the educational front. There is a popular national consensus about
the importance of education. It is important to develop the curricula and syllabi of the first
twelve years of education and to rewrite books on Islamic studies, social studies, history, Urdu,
and English for all school levels to strengthen the elements which deal with pluralism, the rights
of others, tolerance, justice and love. The emphasis on education will broaden the horizon of
the people and they will tend to be more open to ideas from different schools of thought.
Education will bring the better out of the people as they will not easily be vowed into drastic
decisions, which they will not know the consequences. Hence Education needs to be
emphasized and made as a key to success for the development and stability in the country.

The quality of governance needs to be improved. The weak political institutions need to be
developed, in a manner that the evolutionary process of democracy takes a smooth toll. Bold
and decisive leadership that can make the hard choices between consumption and investment,
education, defense spending, economic and human development needs to be there. Leadership
that shows integrity in its personal and public dealings, and that make policies, which are rid of
all malpractices and corruption. Civil and military relations needs to be addressed, a harmony
between them needs to be created to create a cordial domestic political environment. Social,
diplomatic, military and economic policies should be formulated between the two which guard
the national interest of the state and which in the long-term perspective does not pose a
threat. A system for the check on corruption needs to be derived, which will encompass all the
bodies of government, the civil as well as the military. A system of counter-check on all the
institutes are drafted which should be transparent for the public. Anyone found corrupt under
the system should be penalized, as this will set a trend for the future and no one will tread on
this path again. Thus Pakistan needs to have stability within in order to meet the challenges
from outside and the remedy for that would be smooth governance. Good governance would
enhance the problems, or rid the country with impediments, which have caused the
development and led to internal security threats.

Foreign policy:
The foreign policy of Pakistan should promote the internationally recognized norms of
interstate relations, i.e. respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States, non-
interference in the internal affairs of other State; non-aggression and peaceful settlement of
disputes, develop friendly and cordial relations with all countries of the world.

An ongoing dialogue between the leaders of the two groups at a national as well as at the city
level is important. Many times, culprits of the violence between the two groups have been
unknown gunmen who have killed at either Sunni or Shia Masjids with no one claiming any
responsibility. Most leaders from both sides are not involved in the violence. Most Masjids do
not preach violence against any group. Then who starts these fights? If leaders from both sides
engage each other in dialogue, there is a good chance that they will be able to help save lives
on both sides. The education boards of their respective area should also scrutinize the
Madrassahs syllabi. Police should make a plan to visit these Madrassahs on a regular basis to
make sure that there is no military training being given to the students there. The number of
students should be recorded on a proper database, which should be available online, and the
activities of all the students should be monitored or watched carefully. Foreign donations
should not be allowed to these Madrassahs, from either an individual or a country without the
approval of the government. The political parties should also refrain from forming any alliances
with these Madrassahs. This will deter the students from acting in any sort of political activities,
which might pose a threat to the society. Any form of representation should not be given to
these groups which are running these institutes as this will set a precedence which in the longer
run will aid these groups to blackmail or play havoc with the smooth functioning of the
government, if any policy is formulated which does not coincide with their game plan.

Civil leadership should facilitate dialogue between the ethnic groups to create a balance and
harmony. Contact should be established between the ethnic groups so that they can talk out
their grievances and redress the situation. A common cause for the betterment of the society
should be established between the two. The minorities should be treated appropriately.
Positive relationship should be worked out between the Muslims and the non-Muslims. A
cordial environment should be created where the minorities do not feel neglected and
contribute in building Pakistan as a better state.

Internally Pakistan should deal with curbing sectarianism as that is posing a lot of terrorist
threats to the security. With emphasis on controlling internal threats of terrorism, the external
threats should also not be ignored as they act as feeders to the internal threats. The support by
the Indian government to terrorist functioning inside Pakistan also needs a reprisal. Due to the
fact that the two countries share a history of animosity, Indian cooperation to these terrorist
activities in Pakistan needs to be closely monitored. The Indian agencies carry covert operation
in Pakistan in order to settle scores with their counterparts. What Pakistan needs to do is that
derive a policy that the Indians could not influence the sectarian groups or provide them with
covert aid, a system of check and counter-check needs to be invoked.

Pakistans porous, minimally manned borders are another problem that support and sustain the
violence and terrorism in Pakistan through infiltration, illegal immigration, smuggling and drug
trafficking. This leads to the general problem of a growing illegal population and infiltration. The
porous borders not only allow foreign agents and illegal immigrants to get into Pakistan but
also allow drug dealers, criminals, and terrorists to seek temporary refuge on the other side of
the border. It sustains a thriving underground economy and a culture of smuggling and
lawlessness. Pakistan cannot stop terrorism unless it can control its borders. It will cost too
much to wire the borders. However, a regular system of helicopter-based monitoring must be
developed if Pakistan wants to assure security. Since Pakistan has a large army, it should not
have a problem of personnel. The cost will be essentially that of helicopters and of
Military Forces:
Military forces are well-equipped, well-trained, well-inoculated and highly motivated conduct
operations in aid of civil power, something that they have amply displayed during the recent
years. However, there is always a room for improvement. While they have devoted a part of
their training period to anti-terror operations, they do need to further develop the capacity in
terms of ant terror gear and means of mobility. Armed Forces are direly in need of more
transport / gunship helicopters and armed drones. Pakistan has progressed well on the way of
indigenous development of drones and fighter jets (JF-17 Thunder) in collaboration with China.
The government must pursue for acquisition of drone technology, preferably from the United
States or make efforts for indigenous development.

Police forces on the one hand need training to deal with the threat posed by the terrorists
including bomb blasts, gun running, bomb disposal and post-blast operations. On the other,
there is a dire need to continue with the training in criminology, intelligence, detection,
investigation and interrogation. establishment of women police stations and counter terrorism
department (CTD) etc, establishment of Public Safety Commissions, education and training, use
of information technology, research and development, welfare of police personnel,
enhancement of means of mobility, and cutting down political infringement in police affairs.

Other strategies :
Improve worsening law and order situation by eliminating trends of targeted
assassinations, extortion, kidnapping for ransom and other serious and organized crime.
Integrate national data base and registration plan to identify people residing in Pakistan
and their assets.
Rehabilitation of internally displaced persons (IDPs)
Economic reforms need to be introduced
Political stability
Security agency:
Security is defined as being free from danger, or feeling safe.

An organization or department whose task is protection or safety,

e.g. a private police force hired to patrol or guard a building, park,

or an area or security force of country guarding and enforcing law

in the country.

National security agencies:

According to the sources of print media today there are thirty-three security organizations
including all intelligence agencies, which deal with national (internal and external) security,
have more than 600,000 personnel that exceed even the strength of the standing army of
Pakistan. Of the 33 outfits, twenty-six organizations are either
exclusively engaged in intelligence gathering or doing this
work apart from their other assignments. The rest of seven
agencies are doing only coordination or law enforcement
duties. The paper notes that Pakistan is spending
approximately Rs155 billion on policing every year, which
recorded 76%, increase since 2009. Extra expenditures have
also incurred on maintaining civil armed forces (CAFs) and
other law enforcement agencies (LEAs) deputed for internal security
purposes. However, the budget of the remaining 27 organizations
including the intelligence agencies has not been spelt out in the
National Internal Security Policy (NISP) document presented by
Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan in the National Assembly
on 25 February 2014. It is certainly much more than this.

Today the Pakistan security is controlled by civil armed forces,

police, intelligences agencies and military of Pakistan (army, air
force, and navy). Before the beginning war on terrorism only police
and paramilitary forces were applied for any internal security purposes but after 9/11 attack
terrorism problem in Pakistan went on increased and started effecting infrastructure of country
on national and international level therefore Pakistani military was also deployed with internal
security agencies for the eradicating terrorism and controlling other security problems that
poses as threat to state integration and balance. Thus Pak army carried out different operations
like (FATA operation, Swat operation, Bajur operation etc). In this way army co-operated a lot
with internal security agencies to eliminate terrorism.
This step is now taken properly, progressively and directly in written document according to
Nation Internal Security Policy of Pakistan (NISP) which has launched recently by the present
government. Mission of NISP is to bring the institution of security control and defense agencies
under one umbrella and this will help country to get rid of this nightmare which has taken lives
of over 50,000 Pakistanis past decade NACTA is another institute to look after the security
measures especially of terrorism related, established before NISP.

National Counter Terrorism Authority:

Due to the increasing fever of terrorism war steps were also taken by past government to
eliminate the terrorism abscess. In 2013 interior minister presented the bill to established

with planed strategies and proper execution of these strategies. Now its main goal includes
counter terrorism and extremism in co-operation with federal government, our country wide.

Also for discussion of security measures and steps in the country combinable by government
and national security agencies, the platform is established called Pakistan Security Council.

Pakistan Security Council:

Pakistan National Security Council (reporting name: NSC) is a federal institutional and
consultative body chaired by the Prime minister of Pakistan.
The NSC is a principal forum that is mandated for considering
national security and foreign policy matters with the senior
national security advisers and Cabinet ministers. The idea and
inception of National Security Council was first conceived in
1969 under the President Yahya, its functions were to advise
and assist the President and Prime minister on national security
and foreign policies. The Council serves as a forum for
consultation for the president and the federal government on matters of national security
including the sovereignty, integrity, defense, and security of the State and crisis management in
general. It may also formulate recommendations to the president and the federal government
in such matters. Picture showing President Yahya Khan with President Nixon established the
NSC as akin to the American National Security Council (NSC) in 1969.
Now the three basic assets that controlled the security (territorial, economical, cyber, etc) of
Pakistan are divided as follow:

1. Pakistan intelligence community.

2. Pakistan Law enforcement agencies.
3. Pakistan paramilitary forces.
Pakistan National Guard
Frontier Corps

Frontier Constabulary Pakistan Rangers

Pakistan Coast Guard

Airport Security Force

Maritime Security Agency

Gilgit Baltistan Scouts

4. Pakistan military.

Paramilitary forces of Pakistan:

Pakistan National Guard:The National Guard comprises the Mujahid Force,

the Janbaz Force and locally recruited militia and is charged with air defense. Also
included are the National Cadet Corps and the Women's Guard.
Pakistan Rangers:The Rangers are headquartered in Lahore, Punjab and
in Karachi, Sindh. This force has a border security role on the international borders of
Punjab and Sindh and performs internal security duties as an extension of the Army.
This force is organized on a provincial level but is subordinate to the Ministry of the
Interior and is commanded by seconded army generals. Pakistan rangers are described
below under the heading of law enforcement agency of Pakistan.
Mehran Force: The Mehran Force, based in the Sindh province, performed the same
function as the Punjab-based Rangers. The Mehran Force became the Pakistan Rangers
(Sindh) in 1995. It was a force of 25,000 men divided into "wings" of approximately 800
men each.
Frontier Corps: The Frontier Corps, based in Peshawar, North West Frontier
Province and Quetta, Balochistan is responsible for protecting the western border
regions. The force is responsible to both the Ministry of States and Frontier Regions and
to Army Headquarters. The Force comprises fourteen units based in the North-West
Frontier and sixteen units based in Balochistan. Some of the local units have a long
history such as the Chitral Scouts, the Khyber Rifles, Swat Levies, the Kurram Militia,
the Tochi Scouts, the South Waziristan Scouts, the Zhob Militia, and the Gilgit Scouts.
These histories date back to Colonial times and many of the regiments have
distinguished combat records, e.g. the Khyber Rifles.These regiments can be
"regularized" i.e. attached to regular Army as necessary. Khyber Rifles was in fact
regularized during the 1965 war and fought with distinction in Kashmir. Frontier corps is
described below under the heading of law enforcement agency.
Maritime Security Agency: The 2,500-strong Maritime Security Agency,
headquartered in Karachi, is a coast guard and is responsible for patrolling Pakistan's
territorial waters. The MSA is equipped with a former Pakistan Navy destroyer, two
coastal patrol craft and four oceanic patrol craft.
Airport Security Force: Safeguarding and protecting airports in Pakistan. Airport
security force is described below under the heading of law enforcement agency.

Pakistan Intelligence community:

Pakistan Intelligence Services is a cooperative services federation of the consolidated
intelligence services of Pakistan that works separately and together
to manage, research and collected intelligence materials and information considered necessary
for the conduct of the foreign relations and national security of Pakistan. Consolidated
intelligence organizations includes the personnel and members of the intelligence
agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis directorates becomes
operational under the executive ministries of the Government of Pakistan.

There are numbers of intelligences services are active working on varied intelligence programs
including the collection and production of foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to
military planning, and perform espionage.

Structure and Organizations

Intelligence Services:

Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)

Ministry of Defense of the Government of Pakistan
Military Intelligence (MI)
Air Intelligence (AI)
Naval Intelligence (NI)
Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Interior of the Government of Pakistan
Federal Investigation Agency (FIA)
Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
National Crises Management Cell (NCMC)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan
Intelligence Bureau
Ministry of Finance of the Government of Pakistan
Financial Monitoring Unit
Directorate-General of Intelligence and Investigation
Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of Pakistan
Joint Intelligence Technical (JIT)
Joint Intelligence X (JIX)

Inter-Services Intelligence:

Formed 1948 by General Robert


The Directorate for Inter-

Jurisdiction Government of Pakistan
Services Intelligence (more
commonly known as just
Headquarters Islamabad, Pakistan the Inter-Services
Intelligence or simply by its
Agency Nawaz Sharif initials ISI), is the
executive premier intelligence
service of Pakistan,
operationally responsible for providing critical national and intelligence assessment to
the Government of Pakistan. The ISI is the largest of the three intelligence services of Pakistan.
Previously in the 20th century, the ISIs work and activities have included the support of
the Afghan mujahedeen in then-communist Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in their
war against the mujahedeen (in conjunction with the Central Intelligence Agency) and later
provided strategic and intelligence support to the Afghan Taliban against the Northern
Alliance in the civil war in Afghanistan in the 1990s.

Defense Ministry of government of Pakistan:

The Ministry of Defense initially called as Defense Ministry; reporting name: MOD, is
a Cabinet-level ministry tasked with coordinating and supervising all major government
agencies and federal departments of the government relating directly to National security and
the Pakistan Defense Forces. The MOD plays an integral role in allocating and formulating the
defense budget and pertain military exercises to all the
branches of Pakistan Armed Forces engaged in the defense of
the country. The organization and functions of the MOD are
set forth in the Part XII, Chapter II (Miscellaneous) of
the Constitution. Following are the intelligence agencies fall
under this ministry are as follow:
Military Intelligence:

Active 1948

Country Pakistan

Branch Pakistan Army

Type Intelligence

Garrison/HQ GHQ, Rawalpindi


Director Major General Sarfraz

General sattar

The Directorate for Military Intelligence, known as "Military Intelligence" and its acronym "MI",
is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Army. It is headquartered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Unlike
the ISI, the MI is composed of all uniformed officers who are tasked with gathering the
offensive counter-insurgence intelligence, identifying and eliminating sleeper cells, foreign
agents and other anti Pakistan elements within Pakistan, and investigation of military

Air Intelligence:

Formed 1948

Jurisdiction Pakistan Air Force personnel

and bases
Headquarters Islamabad, Pakistan

Agency , PAF
executive Director-General

The Directorate for Air Intelligence,

Parent agency Pakistan Air Force known as "Air Intelligence" and its
acronym "AI", is the intelligence arm
of the Pakistan Air Force. It is headquartered in Islamabad, Pakistan. The AI is responsible for
the formulation of the aerial intelligence picture, and participates in forging the overall
intelligence view as part of the Intelligence Community of Pakistan. It operates several research
and collection units, including the Technical Assistance Unit (formerly the Air Photography Unit)
which analyses aerial photography and the Zoom Unit which studies the procurement of new
aircraft, and AI also work alongside the Military Intelligence and the Naval Intelligence
Department of the Inter-Services Intelligence.

Naval intelligence:

Agency overview

Formed 1960

Jurisdiction Pakistan Navy

Headquarters Rawalpindi, Punjab Province

Employees Highly classified

Agency Radm Raja Jamil Akhtar

executive SI(M),Director-General

Parent Ministry of Defense

department (Government of Pakistan)

Parent agency Naval Intelligence Division

(Royal Navy)

The Directorate for Naval Intelligence, known as "Naval Intelligence" and its acronym "NI", is
the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Navy. It is headquartered in Islamabad, Pakistan at NHQ.
The NI directly reports to Chief of Naval Staff, and is subordinated to the Ministry of Defense of
Pakistan. The NI is mandate and tasked with gathering naval intelligence and providing the
information to Pakistan Defense Forces at large with the naval intelligence picture. The NI
provides warning of war or terrorism from the sea; instructs and trains the Sea Corps' (Pakistan
Marines, Naval Special Forces) on areas related to field intelligence, intelligence-related human
resources, and hydrography; and coordinates between the Sea Corps and other elements in
the Intelligence Community.

Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of

Interior of Government of Pakistan :

The Ministry of Justice (abbreviated as MOJ) is a Cabinet-

level ministry of Pakistan, responsible for the enforcement of law
and administration of justice. The ministry's political executive
figure is known as the Minister for Law, Justice and Human Rights,
who must be an elected legislator and Parliamentarian. The Minister for Justice is associated
with enforcing laws and administration of government judicial departments, and is a public face
of the government in legal services required by the state.

The Ministry of the Interior and Narcotics Control, also

shortened to MOI, is a Cabinet-level ministry of the
Government of Pakistan, tasked and primarily responsible
for implementing the internal policies, state security,
administration of internal affairs involving the state, and
assisting the government on territorial affairs of Federally
Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), and insular areas
of Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA). Following are the intelligence agencies fall
under this ministry:
Federal Investigation Agency:

Agency overview

Formed January 13, 1975; 39 years ago

Preceding agency Pakistan Special Police Establishment (1948)

Legal personality Governmental: Government agency

Jurisdictional structure

Legal jurisdiction Constitution of Pakistan

Governing body Government of Pakistan

General nature Law enforcement

Civilian agency

The Federal Investigation Agency (reporting name: FIA), is an autonomous agency under
Ministry of Interior, Pakistan tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations
against terrorism, federal crimes, fascism, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific
crimes. Codified under the Constitution in 1974, the institutions act its functions under
the Ministry of Interior (MOI). The FIA also undertakes international operations with the close
co-operation and coordination with the Interpol.
Headquartered in Islamabad, the agency has various branch
and field offices located in all major cities throughout
Criminal Investigation Department (CID):
The Criminal Investigation Department in Pakistan are a
special unit of the provincial and metropolitan police departments responsible for carrying out
investigations into crimes, including terrorism, murders, organized crime and sectarianism. The
Special Branch of CID in Asia Division (CIDA) was a division of this department, but is currently
not operational nationwide. It had only 12 members. Yet in some parts of the country it active
likes Karachi etc.
National Crises Management Cell :

Agency overview

Formed 2006

Jurisdiction Government of Pakistan

Headquarters Islamabad, Pakistan

Agency executive Fareed Khan


The National Crises Management Cell (reporting name: NCMC) is a primary domestic
intelligence assessment and management institution, operational under
the Ministry of Interior (MOI). Its other activities involves building
efforts towards counter-intelligence, counter-proliferation, and counter-
insurgency as well as assisting the government at all levels of commands
in managing intelligence. Established in 2001 to tackle the domestic and
foreign terrorism in all of its form, and manifestations and to rid the
society of religious extremism. However, its influence and role in
the intelligence community further grew and further expanded its role
in issuing warnings and building efforts against all kinds of threat matrix
posed to the state.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan:
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ( Foreign Ministry), is a Pakistan Government's federal and
executive level ministry responsible for international and Foreign
Affairs of Pakistan. The ministry was created in 1947, and was one of
the first ministries to be established. The executive and political
figure heading the Foreign Ministry is the Minister. The Foreign
Ministry is currently headed by Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian
Nawaz Sharif himself. In Government cabinet secretariat and public
service spectrum, the position of Foreign Minister is a one of the high-profile portfolios
in Cabinet Secretariat, and usually has a Deputy Minister. The Deputy Minister who is known
as Minister of State for Foreign Affairs is a chief assistant to the Foreign Minister or is second to
take a charge of the ministry in case the Foreign Minister dies or resigns. The Minister also
contained an administrative bureaucratic infrastructure that is tasked with the management of
foreign affairs records, government identifications, foreign portfolios, and is responsible for
coordinating and implementing foreign missions and objectives to Pakistan' diplomatic missions
abroad. Foreign Minister is the bureaucratic head of the Ministry. Appointed in December
2013, Aizaz Ahmad Chaudhry, a career diplomat, is the current Foreign Secretary. The Minister
operates the diplomatic missions of Pakistan abroad and is responsible for implementing
the foreign policy of Pakistan and Pakistan's diplomacy efforts.

Department and staff division:

Department of Comprehensive Nuclear-testing ban (Department
on CTBT):

(The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states

agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It
was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not
entered into force due to the non-ratification of eight specific states. Status in treaty of
Pakistan is non signatory.)

Department of Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and

nuclear power

(The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-
Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the
spread of nuclear and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of
nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and
complete disarmament. Status in treaty of Pakistan is non signatory.)

Directorate of International Cooperation

Bureau of Foreign Intelligence

Department of National Assessment and Security Auditing (NASA)

Directorate-General for Audit and Inspections (DG AI)
Directorate-General for Special Projects (DG SP)
Directorate-General for Foreign Services and Admissions (DG FSA)

Directorate-General for International Security Services (DG ISS)

Directorate for Mission Building and Specialized Programs (MBSP)

Directorate for High Security Building (HSB)

Additional Secretariat for Administration

Additional Secretariat for Afghanistan and Economic Cooperation Organization
Additional Secretariat for North America and Americas
Additional Secretariat for Asia-Pacific
Additional Secretariat for Europe
Additional Secretariat for Middle East and Africa
Additional Secretariat for United Nations
Additional Secretariat for Policy planning and

Above highlighted points are the components

associated with the foreign ministry of Pakistan which
are directly related to the security purpose of Pakistan
not only inside the country but also internationally. One of the intelligence agencies
working under the ministry is Bureau of Foreign Intelligence.

Bureau of Foreign Intelligence: Agency overview

The Intelligence Bureau monitors politicians, Formed 1949

political activists, suspected terrorists, and
suspected foreign intelligence agents. The IB Preceding Agency Intelligence Bureau
keeps tabs on political operatives from countries
it considers hostile to Pakistan's interests, and it is
Jurisdiction Government of Pakistan
responsible for harassing domestic opposition
parties. Credible reports indicate that the
Headquarters Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory
authorities commonly resort to wiretapping and
occasionally intercept and open mail. The
Employees Highly Classified
Intelligence Bureau is under the Prime Minister's
cabinet division. In 1996, the IB was granted
control of government censorship programs, Annual budget Classified

controlling information dissemination via mail,

wire, or electronic medium. From 1990s, the Agency executives Aftab Sultan, PSP, Director-General
agency remained actively involved to Mansoor Khan
curb Sectarian violence in Pakistan. After 9/11, it
also played its role as a stakeholder of the Parent agency Chief Executive of Pakistan
Government of Pakistan in the War on Terror. IB
has captured a number of high profile terrorists and sectarian
militants. Moreover it has been instrumental in efforts to break
terrorist networks and organized crime rackets throughout the
country especially Karachi through its sophisticated human and
technical intelligence apparatus.
Ministry of Finance of government of
The Ministry of Finance (also called Ministry of Finance, Revenue, Economic Affairs, Statistics
and Privatization) is a cabinet-level department of
the Government of Pakistan which was formed on 15 August
1947. The ministry is primarily concerned with promoting
economic growth and activities throughout Pakistan. The
executive and political head of
authority at the ministry is
the Minister of Finance who
must be an elected member of the Parliament of Pakistan. The
current Minister of Finance is Mohammad Ishaq Dar Ministry is
associated with the national security on following basis:

Budget For National Security

Military Wing of Ministry:
Basic functions include procurement of all defense equipment for the Ministry of
Defense (MOD) and the Ministry of Defense Production (MODP).
The wing also prepares, executes and monitors the budget and
expenditure of the armed forces, MOD, MODP, inter-services
organizations and defense production establishments. The entire
budget that is reserved for the national security agencies and
measures are discuss and decided by this ministry. All the
equipments, instrument, expenditures on the national security
forces are issued by this ministry. All the Infantry weapons
Ammunition for: small arms, artillery, mortar, tank and anti-tank, aircraft and anti-aircraft
weapons Pyrotechnics, fuses, detonators, primers, propellants, bomb detector devices and
other explosives which are manufactured here in Pakistan or either being imported from
outside uses the issued budget to the by finance ministry. In addition to meeting the demands
of Pakistan Defense Forces, POF products are in service with over 40 countries, in Europe, Asia,
the Middle East and the America. Ammunition and rifles have been exported to countries like
Iraq and Afghanistan for their respective military establishments. Advancement the ordnance
industries to the international level credited to the properly planned and balance issued budget
by finance ministry.
Financial Monitoring Unit:
The Financial Monitoring Unit (reporting name: FMU), is an intelligence service department,
active within the Ministry of Finance (MOF) secretariat of the Government of Pakistan.
Established in 2007, it is responsible for analyzing money laundering cases, building efforts
against the terrorist financing, and all sorts of finance crimes. Financial Monitoring Unit was
established ensure compliance with the Pakistan's Financial Action Task Force (FATF)s
recommendations on Anti-Money laundering (AML) and terrorist financing. This unit manages
and sorts out the economical security issues.
Directorate general, intelligence & investigation-FBR:
Directorate of Customs Intelligence and Investigation was created as an attached department
of Revenue Division on 12th August, 1957 headed by a Director with headquarters at Karachi.
Charter of function of FBR is as follow:

To collect and collate information and intelligence about evasion of Customs duties and
smuggling of contraband goods, including narcotics.
To perform enforcement functions and to carry out preventive operations throughout
the country relating to smuggling, to detect and investigate cases cognizable under the
Prevention of Smuggling Act, 1977, evasion of customs duties through clandestine
removal of dutiable goods, mis-declarations, valuation frauds, fraudulent claims of
Customs rebate / refund etc.
To maintain national computerized record and index of the known smugglers, their
financiers and associates
To investigate cases of Sales Tax and Federal Excise made out by the Directorate General
prior to 30th June, 2011.
To collect and consolidate reports regarding seizures of contraband and smuggled goods
under the Customs Act 1969 and CNSA 1997 including narcotics, made by various law
enforcement agencies in Pakistan.
To investigate and prosecute offences under Anti Money Laundering (AML) Act, 2010
where proceeds of crime have been accrued from commission of offenses under the
Customs Act, 1969 included in the schedule of AML Act as Predicate Offences.
To carry out IPR field enforcement activities and co-ordinate with IPO Pakistan on IPR
related matters a focal agency on behalf of FBR.
To prepare periodical reports about trends of smuggling of foreign origin goods with a
view to suggest fiscal measures to prevent illicit trade of all kinds including drugs,
precursors, IPR-infringed goods etc.
To coordinate with WCO, RILO Asia Pacific, Drug Liaison Offices (DLOs), National and
local agencies, Pakistan Missions abroad for collection, collation and dissemination of
information on narcotics seizures and uploading of drug seizure data on WCOs,
Customs Enforcement Network (CEN).
To look into and investigate cases of corruption and mal-practices of the revenue
collecting agencies working under the FBR received by the Directorate General through
public, press or any other source and to propose appropriate corrective or punitive

Ministry Of Science And Technology Of Pakistan:

Headquarters Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory

Minister Zahid Hamid, Federal Minister for Science

responsible and Technology

Agency Kamran Ali Qureshi, Secretary for Ministry

executive of Science and Technology

The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) is a Cabinet-

level ministry of the Government of Pakistan concerned
with science and technology in Pakistan and in general,
Pakistan's science policy, planning, coordination and
directing of efforts to initiate and launch scientific and technological programs as well as
projects aimed at economic development. The ministry is coordinated by the Federal Minister
for Science and Technology, and is headquartered in Islamabad. The Ministry of science and
Technology is the national focal Ministry and enabling arm of the Government of Pakistan for
planning, coordination and directing efforts to initiate and launch scientific and technological
programs and projects aimed at economic development of the country. The Ministry is working
on the national agenda to have a sound and sustainable Science and technological research
base which would lead to the socio-economic development of the country and to achieve the
vision for a better Pakistan.

The Ministry of Science and Technology National Research Institutes and

Technological departments is an administrative and systematic division that oversees,
coordinates, and supervises the system of facilities and laboratories for the purpose of
developing and promoting advancement of science and technology to benefits the country's
economy and foreign policy. Majority of these institutes are federally funded but are controlled
autonomously by their appointed and designated director-generals who are under contract to
Ministry of Science. These national research institutes and laboratories are staffed by private
corporations and academic universities, and conduct their research on behalf of the
government on national and defense initiatives. Some of the important research related to
security purposes and defense purposes.

Kahuta Research Laboratories, at Kahuta District

Metallurgical Laboratories at Wah Military District
Analytical Research Laboratories, at PINSTECH
Vacuum Technology Laboratory, at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
Charge Accelerator Laboratories, at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology

Following are the two departments of inter service intelligence associated with science and
technological research on intelligence gathering and security purposes

Joint Intelligence Technical (JIT):

It deals with development of science and technology to advance the Pakistan intelligence
gathering. The directorate is charged to take steps against the electronic warfare attacks in
Pakistan. Without any exception, officers from these divisions are reported to be engineer
officers and military scientists who deal with the military promotion of science and
technology. In addition, there are also separate explosives and a chemical and biological
warfare sections.

Joint Intelligence X:
It coordinates all the other departments in the ISI. Intelligence and information gathered from
the other departments are sent to JIX which prepares and processes the information and from
which prepares reports which are presented.

Pakistan law enforcement Agencies:

Law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by several federal and provincial police agencies.
The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory each have a civilian police force with
jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory. At the federal level, there are a
number of civilian agencies with nationwide jurisdictions including the Federal Investigation
Agency and the National Highways and Motorway Police, as well as several paramilitary forces
including the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps. The most senior officers of all the civilian
police forces also form part of the Police Service of Pakistan, which is a component of the civil
service of Pakistan.
List of federal law enforcement agencies:

Airport security force( Paramilitary force)

Anti-Narcotics Force
Special Security Unit
Frontier Constabulary ( Paramilitary force)
Frontier Corps (Paramilitary force)
National Highways and Motorway Police
National Police Academy
Pakistan Coast Guard
Pakistan Railways Police
Pakistan Rangers ( Paramilitary force)
Pakistan Customs

Airport security force:

The Airports Security Force (ASF) is part of the Aviation Division (Pakistan) and is responsible for
protecting the airports and the facilities and the planes (on-
ground or in-air). ASF safeguards the civil aviation industry
against unlawful interferences, adopting counter
terrorism measures, preventing crime and maintaining law and
order within the limits of Airports in Pakistan. Colour of their
uniform is blue and black.

Anti-Narcotics Force:

The Anti-Narcotics Force (reporting name: as ANF) is a federal executive bureau of

the Government of Pakistan, tasked with combating the drug smuggling and use within
Pakistan. Due to its nominal nature, the bureau's director consisted the active-duty general
officer of Pakistan Army, who are hired and given commissioned by the civilian government of
Pakistan; currently, Major General Khawar Hanif is a hired and commissioned officer of the
ANF. The ANF is a lead bureau for domestic anti-drug policies enforcement but it
shares concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) and the National
Database and Registration Authority (NADRA). The ANF also has sole responsibility for
coordinating and pursuing Pakistan drug investigations abroad. Force wears black colour
Special Security Unit :
Unit as a semi-autonomous part of National Crises Management Cell (NCMC), Coordinate,
Interrogate, Monitor and Regulate the various activities of all law enforcement agencies both
civilian and armed forces along with the filtration of shared Information and update the policy
draft including implementation of internal security SOP ( Standing Operating Procedures ) for
VVIP/VIP's and the members of public in the supreme national interest under Ministry of
Interior and Defense, Government of Pakistan. Agency uses black colour uniform.
Frontier corps:
The Frontier Corps(reporting name: FC) is a federal auxiliary military force under the command
of the Paramilitary forces of Pakistan, recruited mostly from the tribal areas along the western
borders and are the direct counterparts to the Rangers of the eastern provinces. The Frontier
Corps comprises three major subdivisions: FC NWFP (stationed
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, formerly known as North-
West Frontier Province) and the FC FATA (Federally
Administered Tribal Areas) and FC Balochistan (stationed in
Balochistan province). Each subdivision is headed by
a seconded inspector general, who is a Pakistan Army officer
of at least major-general rank, although the force itself is
under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry.
With a total manpower of approximately 80,000, the task of the Frontier Corps is to help local
law enforcement in the maintenance of law and order, and to carry out border patrol and anti-
smuggling operations. Recently, units of the Frontier Corps have been used in military
operations against insurgents in Balochistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
Frontier Constabulary:
The Frontier Constabulary, FC, is a Police force responsible for maintaining law and order
in Pakistan and dealing with Situations out of the capabilities of Normal Police Force of KPK. It
was founded in the British Raj in 1913; it was named after the
former North-West Frontier Province. The Frontier Constabulary is
a Federal Paramilitary Police Force of Pakistan which is largely
drawn from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but operates in all
the provinces of Pakistan. The Frontier Constabulary was created
by amalgamating Border Military Police (BMP) and Samana Rifles
(SR) in 1913. Both of the forces were guarding the border between
the settled areas of NWFP and Tribal areas. Frontier Constabularys
main function is to police the border of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Tribal areas against tribal
incursions, criminal gangs operating across the border and to
check the smuggling of contraband items. Uniform agency is of
black colour.
National Highway and Motor Police:
National Highways & Motorway Police (NH&MP) is
a police force in Pakistan that is responsible for enforcement of
traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on
Pakistan's National Highways and Motorway network. The
NH&MP use SUVs, cars and heavy motorbikes for patrolling
purposes and uses speed cameras for enforcing speed limits.
National Police Academy:

The National Police Academy, in Islamabad, is a federal training centre

for the senior officers of the civilian law enforcement agencies
of Pakistan. The senior officers jointly form the Police
Service of Pakistan (PSP), which is a civil service pay
group. Since 1947, the training of Assistant
Superintendents of Police (the lowest senior rank) was
conducted at a police college in Sardah, an institution
established in 1913. After 1971, makeshift
arrangements were made and training of officers was
conducted at the Civil Services Academy in Lahore and
the Police Training College in Sihala.
Pakistan Coast Guards :
Pakistan Coast Guard is a organization and one of the six uniform
services of the Paramilitary command functioning and operating
under the civilian control of the Interior Ministry (MOI).
The Coast Guards consists of the active-duty members of Pakistan
Army and commanded by one-star rank Brigadier who is
headquartered in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. The Coast
Guard are charged and mandated with protecting the coastal areas of Balochistan and Sindh
Province while it conducts military exercises and operations relating to riverrine warfare. The
Coast Guards should not be confused with the Maritime Security Agency (MSA) of the Pakistan
Navy, which is by law and constitution, charged with defense of coastal areas of the country,
conducting military operations to maintain maritime law enforcement in national and
international waters.
Pakistan Railways Police:

Pakistan Railways Police is a hardworking and efficient Police force of Pakistan by providing
security and safe journey. National railway police is a police force in Pakistan that is responsible
for enforcement of railway traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's railways
networking all our the country.

Pakistan rangers:
The Pakistan Rangers are the part of
the Paramilitary forces of Pakistan, under
the direct control of the Ministry of the
Interior of the Pakistan Government. The
Rangers are an internal security force with
the prime objective to provide and
maintain security in war zones and areas of
conflict as well as maintaining law and
order which includes providing assistance
to the police. Prior to 1995, the Pakistan
Rangers were two separate forces: the Pakistan Rangers Punjab headquartered
in Lahore, Punjab, and the Mehran Rangers headquartered in Karachi, Sindh. The two forces
maintain their different uniforms and chains of command but work under same ordinances,
such as the Pakistan Rangers Ordinance 1959.
Each evening, Pakistan Rangers stationed near Lahore, together with their counterparts in
the Indian Border Security Force, participate in a flag lowering ceremony at Wagah.
Pakistan Customs:
Pakistan Customs is the guardian of Pakistan's borders against
movement of contra band goods and is a facilitator of bona fide
trade. It provides a major source of revenue to the Government
of Pakistan in the form of taxes levied on the goods traded
across the borders. It also helps to protect the domestic
industry, discourage consumptions of luxury goods and
stimulate development in the under -developed areas. Pakistan
Customs is manned by officers from the Pakistan Customs
Service (PCS) which has been one of the premier
occupational group amongst Pakistan's civil services .The
anti-smuggling powers delegated previously by Pakistan
Customs to Pakistan Rangers and FC were withdrawn in
view of expansion of PCS in border regions and now Pakistan Customs is planning to have an
enhanced anti-smuggling role in border areas which will allow it to play an important role in
national development. The shift in the role of Pakistan
Customs from a revenue-collection agency to a border
control agency with substantial responsibility in safe-
guarding countrys trade policies is what appears to be the
future of Pakistan Customs Service. Picture showing Pakistan
customs officer destroyed worth 550 million narcotics to
mark war against illegal drug and to celebrate world custom
List of provincial law enforcement agencies:

Balochistan Police
Balochistan Constabulary ( Paramilitary force)
Balochistan Levies (Paramilitary force)
Capital Territory Police
Frontier Police
Punjab Police
Punjab Prisons (Pakistan)
Sindh Police
Azad Jammu and Kashmir Police
Gilgit-Baltistan Police

Balochistan Police:
Balochistan Police is responsible for policing urban Balochistan, Pakistan. Its strength was
36000 as of 2008. Balochistan Police is responsible for the law and order situation in mostly
urban areas only, which are called areas. Picture showing the Balochistan police completes
training of anti terrorism.
Balochistan constabulary:
Balochistan constabulary is a large civil police force organized and trained along military lines,
which may contain paramilitary elements under the provincial government. Balochistan
Constabularys main function is to police the border of Balochistan and the Tribal areas against
tribal incursions, criminal gangs operating across the border and to check the smuggling of
contraband items.
Balochistan levies:
Balochistan Levies is a paramilitary force in the Pakistani province of Balochistan. It operates as
a law enforcement agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the province. The levies
force has jurisdiction in some districts of Balochistan. The force has its origins back in the days
of the British Raj, and has continued to function for over a century. It is headed by a director-
general and is mostly constituted by local security personnel,
including Baloch officers.
Areas which are manned by and are under the control of the Levies
are called "B-Areas" while those under the control of
the Balochistan Police are dubbed "A-Areas". The levies have been
praised for their efficiency and reliability compared to the police
force; this is attributed to the fact that it predominantly consists of
local officers who are familiar with and well accustomed to the
political and law and order landscape of Balochistan, thus
fulfilling the concept of community policing, whereas the
police force predominantly consists of non-locals. It is also in
charge of more areas as compared to the police, and yet has a
lower budget, rendering it the "cheapest available law
enforcement agency". However, many critics have contended
that the force has been used by Baloch tribal chiefs to serve
their own interests. The force has often been targeted by militants involved in the insurgency in
Frontier police:
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police or frontier police is responsible
for law enforcement and policing in the Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa province. Mission of frontier Police is prevention
and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and
enforcement of the Constitution of Pakistan. It has active 65,000
members working our entire province.
Punjab Police:
The Punjab Police is responsible for policing in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Mission of
Punjab Police is prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and
enforcement of the Constitution of Pakistan. With more than 180,000 active members, it is the
world's second largest police organization.
Sindh police:
The Department of Sindh Police also known as Sindh
Police) is a police department established in 1843 to
maintain law and order and law
enforcement in Sindh, Pakistan. The department serves an
area of ~140,914, and has about ~105,234 police
officers and staff to serve in the department.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir police:
The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Police are responsible for policing in the province. Mission of
Police is prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and enforcement of
the Constitution of Pakistan all over the area.
Gilgit-Baltistan Police:
The Gilgit Baltistan Police is responsible for policing in the province. Mission of Police is
prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and enforcement of the
Constitution of Pakistan all over the area.

Pakistan Military:
The Pakistan Armed Forces (Musallah Afwaj-e-Pakistan) are the military forces of Pakistan. They
are the seventh largest in the world in terms of active military personnel. The armed forces
comprise three main branches: Army, Navy, and the Air Force, together with a number
of paramilitary forces and Strategic Plans Division forces. Chain of command of the military is
organized under the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee alongside with chiefs of staff
of army, navy, and the air force. All of the branches work together during operations and joint
missions under the Joint Staff HQ. Pakistan military is ranked top in military services among the
world. From past few decades it is fight bravely the war ofterrorism in cooperation with USA
America and saving their mother land from fire of terror. Terrorism is one of the major national
security issues in Pakistan. Pak armed force is playing its full role in eliminating it. All the basic
assets of Pakistan military is described later in the following context.


Pakistan military formed the officer who fought world war II under the British Raj joined the
military of Pakistan giving it professionalism, experience and leadership . After independence,
the military was supposed to have been divided between India and Pakistan with a ratio of 64%
going to India and 36% for Pakistan; however, it is estimated that India refused to divide its
share of equipment and some analyst suggest that Pakistan inherited a mere 15% of its
allocated share.

Post-independence, it has fought three wars against India, several border skirmishes with
Afghanistan and against the Soviet Union which occupied Afghanistan in 1979, and an extended
border skirmish with India in 1999 (Kargil War) and is currently conducting anti-terrorist
operations along the border areas of Afghanistan. The Military of Pakistan has participated in
several United Nations peacekeeping operations.

Troop strength:
Pakistan Military is the seventh largest in the world and has a large number of troops
deployed around the globe in military assistance and peacekeeping operations PAKISTANI
MILITARY TROOP LEVELS Service Total Active Duty Personnel Total Reserve Army 550,000
528,000 Navy 24,000 0 Air Force 45,000 0 Paramilitary Forces 302,000 0 Coast Guard Classified
Classified Total 921,000 528,000

Pakistan Army is the largest branch of military and is mainly responsible for protection of the
stateborders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of
Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations.

Structure Of Army Units:

Regiment of Artillery
Armoured Corps
Regiment of Air Defence
Corps of Engineers
Army Medical Corps
Corps of Signals
Army Aviation Corps
Women And Minorites In The Forces:
Women have served in the Pakistani Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizable
number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to
perform medical and educational work . Also minorities served in forces.
Political Power Of The Army:
The Pakistani army has always played an integral part of the Pakistan government since its
inception. It has virtually acted as a third party that has repeatedly seized power in the name of
stabilizing Pakistan.

Pakistan Army Heroes:

Captain Sarwar:
At the age of 38, soon after the birth of Pakistan, during the Kashmir operations in 1948, as
Company Commander in the 2nd Battalion of the Punjab Regiment, Captain Sarwar became a
worthy recipient of this military award after he launched an attack causing heavy casualties
against a strongly fortified enemy position in the Uri Sector under heavy machine-gun, grenade
and mortar fire, while moving forward with six of his men to cut their way through barbed
wires and barriers, he died when his chest was riddled by a burst of automatic fire.

Major Aziz Bhatti:

On 6th September 1965, as Company Commander in the Burki Area of the Lahore Sector, Major
Bhatti chose to move with his forward platoon under incessant artillery and tank attacks for five
days and nights in Defence of the strategically vital BRB Canal. Throughout, undaunghted by
constant fire from enemy small arms, tanks and artillery, he organized the Defence of the canal,
directing his men to answer the fire until he was hit by an enemy tank shell which killed him on
10th September 1965.

Captain "Kernal" Sher Khan:

Captain Karnal Sher and Hav. Lalak Jan joined those eight legendary heroes who received the
highest military award of Nishan-i-Haider for laying down their lives in defence of the beloved
motherland. Captain Karnal Sher Khan emerged as the symbol of mettle and courage during the
Kargil conflict on the Line of Control (LoC). He set personal examples of bravery and inflicted
heavy losses on the enemy. He defended the five strategic posts, which he established with his
jawans at the height of some 17,000 feet at Gultary, and repulsed many Indian attacks. After
many abortive attempts, the enemy on July 5 ringed the post of Capt. Sher Khan with the help
of two battalion and unleashed heavy mortar firing and managed to capture some part of the
post. Despite facing all odds, he lead a counter-attack and re- captured the lost parts. But
during the course he was hit by the machine-gun fire and embraced Shahadat at the same post.
He is the first officer from the NWFP province to be awarded with Nishan-i-Haider.
Havildar Lalak Jan:
Hav. Lalak Jan of the Northern Light Infantry (NLI) was one of those many who as a junior leader
fought from the forefront to thwart heavy Indian attacks. He volunteered himself to be
deployed on the front positions located at the jagged peak in May 1999. Hav. Lalak driven back
many aggressive ventures by the enemy and imposed colossal losses on them. On July 7, Hav.
Lalak sustained serious injuries as enemies pounded the area with heavy mortar shelling. But
despite being injured, he retained his position and frustrated the Indian assault. He, however,
succumbed to his injuries at the same post he was defending. Hav. Lalak was awarded with the
Nishan-i-Haider for his dauntless courage and devotion.


Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, said on 13 April, 1948, at Risalpor military academy.

A country without a strong air force is at the

mercy of any aggressor, Pakistan must build up
its own Air Force as quickly as possible, it must
be an efficient Air Force, second to none.

Pakistan Air Force (PAF) ( Urdu : , Pak Fiza'ya) is the air arm of the Pakistan Armed
Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defense of Pakistan with a secondary role to
provide air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy . The PAF also has a tertiary role
to provide strategic air transport and logistics capability.

The Air Force has about 65,000 active personnel with about 10,000 reserves. The Chief of the
Air Staff holds the operational and administrative powers. He is assisted by a Vice Chief of Air
Staff and six Deputy Chiefs of the Air Staff who control and administer the Administration,
Operations, Engineering, Supply (logistics), Personnel, and Training divisions of the PAF

Current Aircraft Inventory:

The PAF today operates F-16s , F-7PGs , F-7MPs , Mirage- IIIs , JF-17 Thunders , A-5Cs and
Mirage-Vs , around 500 to 530 fighters organized in 27 front-line squadrons [
Engineering & Maintenance Capability:
Since independence the PAF has developed and nurtured an extensive in house engineering,
maintenance and repair capability with significant inputs and guidance from the US.
Indigenization of in house maintenance has enabled it to maintain force levels and high
serviceability and reliability rates.

Air Force Heroes:

SQN LDR Muhammad Mahmood Alam :
He is officially credited with downing nine indian fighters six of them are hunters Hunters of the
Indian Air Force in air-to-air combats, 5 of them in less than a minute.

FLT LT Saiful Azam :

After 1965, on the request of Jordan, Syria, Iraq n Egypt Pakistan send its some pilots on
deputation who intercept the Israeli air force aggression. PAF Flt. Lt. Saiful Azam became the
only pilot from the Arab side to have shot down 3 IDF/IAF aircraft within 72 hours.

Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas:

On August 20, 1971 Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas , a pilot still under training, was taxing out a T-
33 Jet trainer for take-off. An instructor pilot forced his way into the rear cockpit, seized control
of the aircraft and having taken off, headed the aircraft towards India. When failed to regain
control of his aircraft, Minhas had only one course of action open to him to prevent his aircraft
from being taken to India. He valiantly forced his aircraft to crash at a point 32 miles from the
Indian border.

Today is a historic day for Pakistan, doubly so for those of us in
the Navy. The Dominion of Pakistan has come into being and with
it a new Navy the Royal Pakistan Navy has been born. I am proud
to have been appointed to command it and serve with you at this time.
In the coming months, it will be my duty and yours to build up our Navy
into a happy and efficient force.

( Urdu : ) is the naval branch of the military of Pakistan . It is responsible for Pakistan's
1,046 kilometer (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important
harbors. It operates a wide range of ships ranging from cruisers to destroyers as well as

The Pakistan Navy has around 24,000 active personnel and 5,000 in reserve. The force includes
a small Naval Air Arm and the approximately 2,000 member paramilitary Maritime Security
Agency, charged primarily with protecting Pakistan's exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The Navy
also comprises the Special Services Group Navy , a marine commando unit as well.

Tsunami Relief Activities:

The Navy has been involved in some peacetime operations, most notably during the tsunami
tragedy that struck on December 26 , 2004 . Pakistan sent vessels to Sri Lanka and the Maldives
to help in rescue and relief work.

PN Role In War On Terror:

The Pakistani Navy plays an active role in the multinational Combined Task Force 150 . The
command of the force was give to Pakistan from March 24 , 2006 till February 25 , 2008 .

Battle Against So Called Taliban:

The Pakistani army is fighting for the survival of the country.
RAW promoting separatism in Balochistansame like as promoted separation in
India supports Taliban by its 24 consulates in Afghanistan, giving them hi-tech weapon n
training. To make Pakistan weak.
Indian agenda to achieve this goal. Now when Pakistani Army moves in to Save Pashtun
Lives and kill these Taliban who are draining Pashtun blood and killing so many innocent
Pashtun children, women and man
Pakistani Armed Forces Relief Operation :
The Pakistani armed forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts,
with more than 10,000 personnel deployed in 2007.Other foreign deployments have consisted
of Pakistani military personnel as advisers in African and Arab countries
Economic Development :
The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud
and dairy farms, were for the army's own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the
local civilian economy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass
castings and sold them to civilian consumers.

Gallantry Awards:
NISHAN-I-HAIDER, Highest military decoration of Pakistan. Awarded "to those who have
performed acts of greatest heroism or most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme
danger and have shown bravery of the highest order or devotion to the country, in the
presence of the enemy on land, at sea or in the air ... and scarificed their lives for this cause.
this award can not be given to an alive soldier"


Operation Zarb-e-Azb:
It is a joint offensive being conducted by Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups,
including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Jundallah, al-Qaeda, the East
Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) and
the Haqqani network. The operation was launched by the Pakistan Armed Forces on 15 June
2014 in North Waziristan (part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan
border) as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah
International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. Part of
the ongoing war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers are involved in Zarb-e-
Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding
in North Waziristan.

The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and
civilian sectors. The two largest Islamic clerical groups (the All Pakistan Ulema Council and
the Council of Islamic Ideology) declared a fatwa endorsing the offensive, calling it
a jihad against terrorism.
Globalization brings opportunity and also vulnerability for all. It produces powerful forces of
social fragmentation, creating critical vulnerabilities and sowing the seeds of violence and
conflict. All these aspects of globalization have important security implications. It is capable to
bring the world together, tearing it apart or facilitating some combination of both. It is easy to
understand the impact of globalization towards economic, communication and social; but in
terms of national security is a problematic. Therefore, this paper will discuss on the aspect of
how the globalization can influence the national security on other countries. The paper will
start with a brief history and the definition of globalization and subsequently to examine the
effect of globalization on the national security on other countries.

The concept of globalization is the process of increasing interconnectedness between societies
such that events in one part of the world and have more effects on peoples and societies far
away (Baylis, Patricia & Smith, 2008). According to Keohane, Robert and Nye (2000),
globalization is a process of rapid economic integration among countries driven by the
liberalization of trade, investment and capital flows, as well as technological change. Baylis and
Keohane definition are similar to the definition given by Rodrik (1997). He points out that the
phenomenon of globalization as fundamentally the closer integration of the countries and
peoples of the world which have been brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of
transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of
goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders.

Therefore, by globalization, simply means such phenomena includes flow of goods and services
across borders, reductions in policy and transport barriers to trade, international capital flows,
multinational activity, foreign direct investment, outsourcing, increased exposure to exchange
rate volatility and immigration. These movements of goods, services, capital, firms, and people
are believed to contribute to the spread of technology, knowledge, culture and information
across borders and political freedom and promote peace. In fact, the term of globalization is a
multi-dimensional. It has economic, social, cultural and connotations. It is accelerated by
technology which is driven by only a few hundred multinational corporations and may be
harmful to the environment. There in lies the conundrum of whether it is wise to leave
globalization in the hands of these few corporations, or it might not make more sense to seek
greater involvement from the global community.

National Security:
Hartland in Buzan (1991), has defined national security as the ability of a nation to pursue
successfully its national interest, as it sees them, any place in the world. The inclusion of
traditional defense policy and also the non-military actions of a state in the national security is
introduced by Louw (Buzan, 1991). US Defense Dictionary has defined national security as a
collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relation specifically the
condition provided by a military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of
nations or a favorable foreign relations positions or a defense posture capable of successfully
resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. In this light,
national security may also means the protection of the political, economic, psychosocial,
military, geo-ecological and techno-scientific environment of the nation.

Based on those definition and todays circumstances, national security is a very broad concept.
It encompasses the internal strength, cohesiveness and firmness of the purposes of the nation
itself. It is the ability of the state to exist and develop in a rapidly changing international
environment. However, there is no exact and standard definition of national security for it is
always been compared to other states view of security. The perception of security differs from
one state to another.

Created Complexity and New Challenges:

21st century had witnesses that the elements of globalization had shaping international politics
and security affairs. Globalization has been recognized by scholars and policy makers in the field
of international relations as a global phenomenon that make the subject related to national
security becomes more complex (Baylis, Patricia & Smiith, 2008). The subject of security that
encompasses both traditional and non-traditional security issues have become more complex,
where part of the complexity arises due to the awareness and concern on non-traditional issues
in particular human security and the impact of the national security. The increased complexity
poses new challenges to the formulation of state defence policy. One of which is the need to
balance between security of state and the concern on

human security dimension in international relations. Globalization has no boundary and in

some ways the impact has been positive such as relationship between states leader become
more faster and has reduced the potential for conflict. Nevertheless, globalization may give rise
to new security concerns and intensify tensions. Globalization makes the world become closer
and most of the events occurred in some part of the world are now affecting each other.
Wider the Scope of National Security:
Globalization has vastly expanded the scope of national security. For individuals, communities,
and nations alike, security has always meant freedom to pursue a freely chosen way of life
without undue danger, interference or uncertainty. Globalization creates and exposes
vulnerability to what had previously seemed remote or irrelevant. In our globalizing world,
many contradictory things are happening at the same time and will be for the foreseeable
future. States are losing power; states are not losing power. According to Joseph (2003), some
groups dream of nationhood, others have only recently won it, and members of the modern
community such as EU are moving beyond it. Depending on the area, the rule of law is on the
rise or breaking down. Local culture is threatened or flowering. Religion is fading away or
undergoing a revival.

National Security Becomes Vulnerable:

Information technologies and systems are central features of globalization and have become
increasingly important to the functioning of many critical civilian systems such as
communications, energy, transportation, electrical, water, and banking. The problem is that
they are now vulnerable to the threat of cyber-attacks and disruption. The dangers have arising
from environmental degradation often cross state borders. The rising global temperatures are
touching off devastating droughts, floods and violent storms. Other environmental dangers
include air and water pollution, the loss of forests and biodiversity and the potential
introduction of toxic substances into the human food chain. The threat is growing that
infectious diseases will spread globally and quickly, as a result of increasingly drug-resistant
microbes, the lag in development of new antibiotics, poor patterns of land and water use, shifts
in climate, the rise of mega-cities with severe health care deficiencies, the ease of movement of
peoples across borders and the growing number of refugees.

Borderless Security Environment:

Traditionally, security has been an external, cross-border concept. City dwellers built walls and
fought off invaders. Alternatively, their leaders went off and conquered their neighbors.
Military forces are still organized geographically and their most basic mission is to protect
territorial integrity. In the era of globalization, by contrast, external threats from military to
military confrontation have increasingly changed to transnational forms. Information that
classified as secret such as on making weapons of mass destruction can be easily gleaned from
the internet. The intelligence job becomes easier and difficult to detect. By using satellite
camera technology, others state can torch others states activity especially military movement in
24/7 without been at that particular area and most undetectable. Because of improvement in
transportations and ....

Country-by-country perspectives:

United Kingdom
The National Security Implications of Pakistans:
The border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan is a place where militants continue to plot
to target the United States. Senator Shaheen supports a joint military and civilian effort in
Afghanistan, while working with the government of Pakistan to address our security challenges.
Though our commitment to working with our partners in Afghanistan and Pakistan is long-term,
our military engagement in Afghanistan cannot remain open-ended. Senator Shaheen supports
bringing our men and women in uniform home, while transferring responsibility for security
and governance to the people of Afghanistan.

Osama bin Ladens death was a triumph for U.S. national security interests and a testament to
the quality and unrelenting resolve of Americas intelligence, diplomatic, and military
establishment. However, Senator Shaheen knows we must continue to stay vigilant in
protecting the American people from the threat of terrorism.

As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the Senate Armed Services
Committee and the Senate Committee on Appropriations, Senator Shaheen works to ensure
rigorous oversight of our efforts in Afghanistan and with Pakistan. Real progress will require a
commitment from the governments in Afghanistan and Pakistan to not only address military
threats, but to make progress on the civilian front by fighting corruption and improving
governance. This requires holding Afghan leaders to account.

Senator Shaheen has been a strong supporter of past sanctions legislation as a means of
bringing Iran to the negotiating table. She hopes the current diplomatic initiative aimed at
resolving the Iranian nuclear issue peacefully will succeed, but she recognizes that the true test
will be whether Iran takes the steps needed to resolve international concerns with its nuclear
program in a comprehensive deal. Senator Shaheen remains concerned that Iran continues to
threaten our allies abroad. In addition to its illicit efforts to develop a nuclear weapon and its
deplorable human rights record, Irans military aid to insurgents in Iraq and Afghanistan,
Palestinian Hamas and Lebanese Hezbollah is deeply troubling and directly undermines stability
in a volatile and dangerous Middle East. The U.S. should continue to pursue all appropriate
avenues to ensure that the Iranian government does not obtain a nuclear weapon, stops its
support for terrorism, and respects the universal rights of its citizens.


The war in Iraq has carried an enormous cost thousands of troops have been killed, tens of
thousands were wounded, countless others suffer from PTSD and depression and hundreds of
billions of dollars were spent. The recent upsurge of violence in Iraq is extremely troubling, and
Senator Shaheen believes that the United States needs to stay diplomatically engaged in
supporting stability in Iraq to honor the sacrifices of our men and women who fought there.
She also believes it is important to keep faith with those Iraqis who assisted the U.S. effort,
often at great personal risk. For this reason, Senator Shaheen has worked to improve the Iraq
and Afghanistan Special Immigrant Visa programs, which enable those whose service to the U.S.
has put them and their families in danger to immigrate to the United States.

Europe and NATO:

With years of experience in international politics, both through her role as Director of Harvards
Institute of Politics and as an international election monitor, Senator Shaheen has emerged as a
leader in the Senate on trans-Atlantic policy issues. As the former Chair of the Senate Foreign
Relations Subcommittee on European Affairs, Senator Shaheen was responsible for overseeing
U.S. involvement in NATO efforts around the globe, and U.S. foreign policy efforts in Russia, the
Caucasus, and the Balkans and throughout Europe. She believes that the enduring relationship
between the United States and Europe remains the anchor for global stability. The greatest
security challenges of our generation the global economic crisis, terrorism, nuclear
proliferation, and climate change and energy security require a close cooperation with our
European allies.

In addition to ensuring the security of Americans, the trans-Atlantic relationship continues to

have a significant, direct impact on the livelihood of the people of New Hampshire. Our
European allies purchase nearly $1 billion worth of goods annually from Granite State
businesses and are a significant source of foreign investment. Senator Shaheen has made
deepening and expanding this vital economic relationship a top priority.
Impact of Globalization on National Security
Positive Impacts:
National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of
economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed
mostly in the United States after World War II.

As mentioned in the above definition that National Security is related with the use of Economic
Power, Diplomacy and Political Power, so, I am going to discuss the positive impact of
Globalization on:

Economic Power
Political Power

Which in other words have impacts of Globalization on National Security.

Positive Impact of Globalization on Economic Power:

Economic impact of globalization is one of the most important issues that are considered by
many researchers. Nowadays the economic effect on national interests and national security is
one of the most debated issues in the world. In a positive context globalization can be
considered as a process of integration of goods and capital markets across the world, where
thresholds to international trade and foreign investment are reduced. Markets are global and
many corporations are successful and more powerful than many countries.

International trade is a benefit of globalization. United States is the worlds largest economy.
Americas increasing interdependence with the rest of the world makes surplus for U.S national
interests and economic development. Economic engagement with the world plays a key part in
the U.S economic revival. America is a partner to a number of international trade agreements,
including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Trade
Organization. United States helped created and lead two international institutions that are
beneficial to U.S national interests. They are International Monetary Fund and World Trade
Organization. The roots of economic globalization should be started during the Clinton

President Bill Clinton enjoyed a spectacular start on trade. Administration completed the
Uruguay Round in 1993 and won congressional approval for both the round and the North
America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It launched the Free Trade Area of Americas (FTAA)
and the Asia-pacific Economic Cooperation initiative (APEC) aiming to achieve free and open
trade and investment in the huge and dynamic region by 2010 and 2020. U.S. continues to
achieve economic heights.

According to the 2010 National Security Strategy, the Obama Administration aims to open
foreign markets for U.S. goods and services by negotiating and enforcing multilateral
agreements. Open markets will be crucial to U.S. companies and workers, according to the NSS
statement, as they strive to compete in an increasingly globalized world.

Free trade allows U.S residents to purchase the goods that are imported at a lower price and
export produced goods at a higher price. They can create an unambiguous increase in real
income. Rising productivity in any good and in any country, has the great effect of raising
income in U.S. Americans can move to other countries and find surplus by improving their
economic activity. They can collaborate with foreign companies and simply influence on them
by showing American style of economy. Usually, it is the source of their high wage and income.

According to Deepak Nayyar, Globalization is expansion of economic activities across the

boundaries of nation states. Globalization is marked with increasing economic integration and
growing economic interdependence between countries of the world. There is an increased
cross border movement of goods, technology, people; information etc. The internationalization
of economic activities began with the voyages of discovery of the European maritime powers.
This process was further accelerated by the spread of industrialization in the nineteenth
century. The key period in the process of Internationalization occurred between 1870 and 1914
when transportation and communication networks expanded rapidly around the world which
lead to the significant growth with a considerable increase in the level of interdependence
between rich and poor nations. There were very large flows of capital from European to other
parts of the world.

Some economists have a positive outlook regarding the net effects of globalization on economic
growth. These effects have been analyzed over the years by several studies attempting to
measure the impact of globalization on various nations' economies using variables such as
trade, capital flows and their openness, GDP per capita, foreign direct investment (FDI) and
more. These studies examined the effects of several components of globalization on growth
using time series cross sectional data on trade, FDI and portfolio investment. Although they
provide an analysis of individual components of globalization on economic growth, some of the
results are inconclusive or even contradictory. However, overall, the findings of those studies
seem to be supportive of the economists' positive position, instead of the one held by the
public and non-economist view.

Trade among nations via the use of comparative advantage promotes growth, which is
attributed to a strong correlation between the openness to trade flows and the affect on
economic growth and economic performance. Additionally there is a strong positive relation
between capital flows and their impact on economic growth.

Foreign Direct Investment's impact on economic growth has had a positive growth effect in
wealthy countries and an increase in trade and FDI, resulting in higher growth rates. Empirical
research examining the effects of several components of globalization on growth, using time
series and cross sectional data on trade, FDI and portfolio investment, found that a country
tends to have a lower degree of globalization if it generates higher revenues from trade taxes.
Further evidence indicates that there is a positive growth-effect in countries that are
sufficiently rich, as are most of the developed nations.

The World Bank reports that integration with global capital markets can lead to disastrous
effects, without sound domestic financial systems in place. Furthermore, globalized countries
have lower increases in government outlays and taxes, and lower levels of corruption in their

One of the potential benefits of globalization is to provide opportunities for reducing

macroeconomic volatility on output and consumption via diversification of risk.

Positive Impact of Globalization on Diplomacy:

This section addresses the universalization of a uniform form of diplomatic relations. It does not
ignore the unique contributions of the various civilizations to the development of diplomatic
practice. Neither does it deny the distinct euro centrism of contemporary diplomatic practice.

The globalization of the contemporary form of diplomacy in so many ways mirrors the nature of
relations between the various actors in the evolution of the international system. Since the
inter-state system in itself is largely a universalization of the European world, it is to be
expected that diplomatic practice will be significantly influenced by the European value system.
Starting from the treaty of Westphalia, one may look at key events in the evolution of the
international system that captures the globalization of contemporary diplomatic practice.

The Independence of the US in1776 after defeating a major European power marked the first
definite phase of the global expansion of the European state system. By the nineteenth century,
the Spanish dominions in Latin America had attained independence, further expanding the
reach of the European diplomatic system. The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese war
signaled the effective arrival of Japan into the international system and the end of its isolation
from the rest of the rapidly growing European world. The fact that Japan had also defeated a
key European power was critical in the acceptance, however grudgingly, of Japan as a member
of the civilized comity of nations.
The Second World War and its aftermath brought immense changes to the diplomatic
landscape. For one, it highlighted the inherent weaknesses in the balance of power system that
acted as the chief framework within which diplomacy was conducted. It also exposed the
unsustainability of empire and the imperative of universalizing the values of self determination,
freedom and sovereign independence. These two key changes in the international system were
further highlighted by the reconfiguration of the international power system to the point that
Europe ceased to be the chief centre of international diplomacy. The implication of this was
that, non European values, albeit with roots in the European system, began to assert their
relevance in the emerging international system. The independence of the colonial territories in
Africa in the 1960s and 70s further expanded the scope of this evolving system.

The evolution of the international political system was not complete however until states like
Namibia (former South West Africa), Zimbabwe (former Rhodesia), the Portuguese settler
colonies of Mozambique and Cape Verde, and of course apartheid South Africa had gained
freedom by 1994. In the contemporary system, the United Nations seems to demonstrate in
the most poignant form the globalization of diplomatic practice, deeply rooted in the Judea-
Christian traditions of Europe.

Positive Impacts of Globalization on Political Power:

One of the major impacts of political globalization is that it reduces the importance of nation
states. Many have organized themselves into trade blocs. Emergence of supranational
institutions such as the European Union, the WTO, the G8, and The International Criminal
Courtesy replaced or extended the national functions to facilitate international agreement. This
has reduced the sovereignty of nation states in taking important decisions with respect to their
country where we see massive intervention of these organizations in all fields. It should be
noted that the executive body of all these organizations are from USA and European countries
which was reflected in their decisions as all of them were pro West legislations.

Another major impact of globalization is the increased influence of Non Governmental

Organizations in public policy like humanitarian aid, developmental efforts etc. Many
organizations have come forward with the mission of uplifting the most unprivileged societies
of the world where there s massive funding of millions of dollars. Globalization has also lead to
the growth of terrorism. Terrorism can be seen as a response from certain groups of people
who were neglected and humiliated for centuries which lead to the wide spread terrorist
networks across world which was accelerated with the ultra modern technology helping them
to strengthen their network and activities. Democracy is seen as the ultimate form of political
stability by the world. This can be linked to the western intellectual propaganda where they
highlighted the enlightenment values of freedom, liberty, tolerance etc. Under the pretext of
establishing democracy in those countries where there was autocratic rule for years, United
States intervened in many Middle East Asian countries recently. The whole idea was on
extracting oil mines for which they took the economic, political, social and cultural control of
these oil rich countries. This can be seen as a gradual movement to World Government.

The rise of global civil society is one of the major contributions of globalization. The multivariate
groups make up civil society which often protests against capitalism. This shows the existence
of a social sphere above and beyond national, regional or local societies. Thus the political
impacts of globalization are immense and wide across the nation state. The modern concepts of
one government and showcasing democracy as the ultimate deign for a stable government etc
has lead to massive scale of corruption, inefficiency and lack of transparency in these
developing countries.

Negative Impacts:
Background of the study:
While the international order among states is quite strong, the world is not peaceful. In the
wake of globalization and the explosion in communication technologies, new security related
threats have emerged that are to a great extent independent of national boundaries.

As a result, a new kind of war is being waged in every country all over the world This is because
the primary threats to national security have changed fundamentally. They no longer spring
from territorial and ideological disputes among nation states but from how far globalization,
technological threats and criminal networks have grown to challenge nation states.

There are many negative impacts of National security on globalization. Some of them are as

Cyber Attacks
Drug trafficking
Global terror
Weapon proliferation

Cyber Attack:
Cyber-attack is any type of offensive maneuver employed by individuals or whole organizations
that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, and/or
personal computer devices by various means of malicious acts usually originating from an
anonymous source that either steals, alters, or destroys a specified target by hacking into a
susceptible system. These can be labeled as either a Cyber campaign Cyber warfare or cyber
terrorism in different context. Cyber-attacks can range from installing spyware on a PC to
attempts to destroy the infrastructure of entire nations. Three factors contribute to why cyber-
attacks are launched against a state or an individual:

The fear factor,

Spectacular factor
Vulnerability factor.

Fear factor:
The most common, fear factor, a cyber-terrorist will create fear amongst individuals, groups, or
societies. The bombing of a Bali nightclub in 2002 created fear amongst the foreign tourists
who frequently visited the venue. Once the bomb went off and casualties ensued, the influx of
tourists to Bali significantly reduced due to fear of death.
Spectacular factor:
With spectacular factors, it is the actual damage of the attack, meaning the attacks created
direct losses and gained negative publicity. In 1999, a denial of service attack rendered unusable. Amazon experienced losses because of suspended trading and it was
publicized worldwide.
Vulnerability factor:
Vulnerability factor exploits how easy an organization or government establishment is
vulnerable to cyber-attacks. An organization can easily be vulnerable to a denial of service
attack or a government establishment can be defaced on a web page. A computer network
attack disrupts the integrity or authenticity of data, usually through malicious code that alters
program logic that controls data, leading to errors in output.
Professional hackers to Cyber terrorists:
Professional hackers either working on their own or employed by the government or military
service can find computer systems with vulnerabilities lacking the appropriate security
software. Once found, they can infect systems with malicious code and then remotely control
the system or computer by sending commands to view content or to disrupt other computers.
There needs to be a pre-existing system flaw within the computer such as no antivirus
protection or faulty system configuration for the viral code to work. Many professional hackers
will promote themselves to cyber terrorists where a new set of rules govern their actions.
Drug trafficking:
The illegal drug trade is a global market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution
and sale of drugs that are subject to drug laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except
under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.
Drugs which are trafficking in large amounts are:
The countries of drug production and drug transit are some of the most affected by the drug
trade, though countries receiving the illegally-imported substances are also adversely affected.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent
crimes such as murder.
A large amount of drugs are smuggled into Europe from Asia. The main source of these drugs is
Afghanistan. Farmers in Afghanistan produce drugs which are smuggled into the West and
central Asia.
It is well known that drugs in pop culture have a heavy influence in society. Today it is
commonplace for drug and alcohol references and outright usage to occur in popular music,
movies, and even literature. Children see drugs in pop culture references in cartoons and
movies all the time even though they may not realize it.

Global terror:
All around the world, terrorism is a huge threat. And what's especially worrying is that for all
the advances made in recent years, the threat of terror seems to be worsening. A new
report from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) finds that there was a 61 percent
increase in deaths from terrorism globally in 2013. The group also notes that the data it
collected shows a five-fold increase in the number of deaths caused by terrorism since 2000.
However, although the Global Terrorism Index notes that there were 17,958 deaths from
terrorism in 60 countries last year, the numbers show that more than 80 percent of
those deaths occurred in just five countries and accounted for the global figures going up.
Perhaps even more controversially, the IEP finds that only four terrorist organizations the
Islamic State, Boko Haram, the Taliban and al-Qaeda had asserted responsibility for more than
66 percent of the deaths.
Weapon proliferation:
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-
applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon
States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear
Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the
spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful
uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general
and complete disarmament. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without
nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons
may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "counter
value" targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional
relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states.

Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are
presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons:

North Korea


To regard various laws and policies that restrict immigration as merely a self-centered for a
nation to escape its moral obligations is very narrow minded. Do the various laws and policies
reflect what the citizens within that nation desire? They are requesting and often demanding
that their government protect its borders, its workers and their jobs, its economy, its
environment, its health programs etc., all of which are issues that comprise and make up
National Security. Even if the major potential of migration were only a force to reduce
poverty in the world, then it has clearly failed; however, if the greater issues are the impact that
migration has on the receiving communities, the sending communities and on the migrants
themselves, then we are immediately immersed in national security issues.

The major issues are the obligations which citizens require of their government as well as the
obligations citizens have to bequeath to future generations both a political order that has
nurtured liberty and one which has always sustained and absorbed large number of
In the coming decades, the number of potential illegal immigrants is likely to swell, driven by
the number of young adults living today in low income/poverty countries. Because once a
country loses this ability, it can no longer support and provide for the broad range issues
including improving schools, improving and providing health care and services to the
disadvantaged and the elderly, offering

transportation within and without its borders, nor the freedom and human rights issues which
many of us take for granted and are very important to us and our ability to function. Every free
nation in the world today is struggling with these same security problems, as well as gaining
international legitimacy for any new rules and policies they believe are needed to provide for
the citizens within their country and to ensure their countrys ability to survive as a nation.

It would be a mistake for us to conclude that the July 7th and July 21st bombings in London or
the recent failed bombing attempts in London and Glasgow had nothing to do with migration.
The attack on 9/11 turned our attention to our own immigration laws and policies and how
they were or were not enforced. In fact, migration control, asylum and admission to citizenship
were all scrutinized more intensely as security issues in the aftermath of each of these attacks.
One could add as well the bombing of the Bali night club, the Jordanian hotel in Amman, and
various other bombings that have taken place throughout the world.

Every country in the world today is facing stateless terrorist attacks and the problems coming
from global migration. These problems will be the major issues that every nation in the world
must address in providing physical safety and security for its nationals.

However, it is necessary to consider not simply the deterring of threats to our national security
and to international security as it is now, but also about dealing with the situations that have
given rise to this threat. We cannot allow ourselves to be placed in a small box in building a case
for action. We need to analyze and attack each argument separately and it will be easier to
accomplish something positive if we look at the various issues within their context and try to
understand the threat and how we might establish some type of solution. There has been some

amply deserved resentment over how certain aspects of the American National Security system
has handled various issues on global migration and it is critically important to keep in mind that
we have survived as a nation of many national origins by having one government and a set of
rules for all to follow.

Where the problem seems to fall is that the major flow of global migration in the 21st Century
is outside the policies set forth in international and national law. A few of these issues were
discussed earlier in regards to the 19 terrorists of 9/11 and how they misused our immigration
law, the bombings in London by first generation and asylum seekers, the riots in France and
Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the murder of Theo van Gogh.
A major challenge for governments today is deciding where to focus their efforts as they strive
to make the necessary decisions and conditions for growth and stability. Strategies for national
security have to be determined not only within each nation state but also as an international
community with clear capabilities within each state. However, assessments need to be focused
on the essential issues first. Surely the main concern is keeping a nation safe from current and
longer-term security threats threats that are not going away. Yet no government can
successfully push ahead effectively on all of the on-going issues at the same time. There are
troubling issues in identifying the most critical areas and in the development of a sequence of
steps and procedures appropriate to the particular country. It is going to be a great challenge.

A consensus within the international community on such issues as global migration and its
effect on the economy, government subsidies, human rights, education and health benefits,
foreign affairs, technology/ trade, safety and justice and the protection of its infrastructure as
well as its sovereignty can aid in providing a productive and global strategy for the present and
future problems that mass global migration causes. Access to pertinent information will be
crucial for any effective action, but without institutional mechanism and accountability,
government and citizen accountability, there will not be the proper means to take action and
make it work, since we cannot expect our government to take action and not as citizens are
willing to accept our own responsibility in its implementation.

Mr. Kenneth Christie, a senior lecturer in the Department of Politics at the University of Natal in
South Africa, affirmed in his published article

The world is witnessing a migration crisis of global proportion.

Every year, millions of people are leaving their homes, crossing
national boundaries out of fear of violence, discrimination or
simply seeking employment. How does a State deal with these
movements, and what are the consequences? The question
arises whether it will still be possible for states to exercise control
over their populations and to achieve control over their territory?

present issues and emphasize the complexity of the many considerations involved in
establishing the new policies and laws needed in the 21st century to control the effects of these
immigration movements on both national and international security. This large scale movement
of people, technology, culture, and information across geopolitical borders around the world is
a trend that is certain to continue for decades.How should governments manage the new
diversity which is and will continue to accompany it?
Jared Diamond, four key areas:

Failure to perceive a problem or failing to perceive that a problem has actually arrived.
Failure to anticipate the enormity of the problem due to the lack of prior experience or
to reasoning by false analogy.
Psychological denial that there is a threat and/or a problem.
Clashes of the interest between the elite in power and that of the general population.

Does our nation fall under one or more of these four categories?

Jefferson warned the congressional party that A strict observance of the written laws is
doubtless one of the high duties of a citizen, but it is not the highest.The laws of necessity, of
self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation. To lose our
country by a scrupulous adherence to written law, would be to lose the law itself, with life,
liberty, property and all those who are enjoying them with us; thus absurdly sacrificing the end
to the means.

As a closing thought, Winston Churchills counsel to his colleagues during World War II surely
applies to us as well:

"It is not enough to do ones best."

What is required is rather that one does what is necessary for success.