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PHASE 1

PHASE 1

Define problem

Problem identification

In order to design a braking system for an open cockpit car, all necessary analysis and
calculation such as braking force, pedal force, braking ratio, component strength analysis,
material use analysis and joint method analysis must be performed. However, in this project
the major requirement is braking system must acts on all four wheels by single operation of
brake pedal. Next is brake by wire are prohibited and system must consist command control,
common transmission and activators. Besides that, brake pedal must be design and fabricate
using materials provided by faculty and can withstand a force of 2000 N without any failure
of the system. For safety, the brake light must be equipped with minimum shining surface of
at least 15 cm2. Same with other vehicles, red brake light need to be used for this car.

Through the specification was stated above, there are several problems need to
consider on designing the braking system for this car project. Those are the problems:

1. Heat produce during braking.


2. Power distribution of braking force.
3. Assembly problem.
4. Cost.
5. Reparability.
6. Pedal design.
7. Safety during braking.

As to provide a good braking system for this project, our team needs to counter those entire
problems with good judgement and excellent decision.
GATHER INFORMATION

Literature Review

The purpose of brake is to slow down the speed of the car or make it completely stop.
The important mechanism and criteria for braking system of a car has been studied in order to
design an open cockpit car. Most information was obtained from internet and from others
group. Braking system is one of important system in a car. Braking system of a car consist a
few main parts which is:

No Component Function
1. Master cylinder Store the hydraulic fluid of the brake.
2. Hydraulic lines Link between the master cylinder and brake calipers. The
hydraulic fluid will move along the hydraulic line until
reach to the calipers.
3. Caliper and disc Caliper has brake pads. Between these brake pad is the
disc or rotor. Brake pads will push until it touches the
rotating disc and friction will be generating to slow down
the wheel.
4. Brake pedal Force was applied to brake pedal and it will transmitted to
the master cylinder piston.
5. Brake light Brake light will turn on as the brake pedal was pushed to
indicate that the vehicle is slowing down.

However, there are some commercial cars that using combination between discs brake
(front wheels) and drum brake (rear wheels) because its more economical. For an open
cockpit car, it only used simple braking system. Therefore, only one type of braking system
need to be used either drum brake or disc brake.
Drum Braking System

Drum brake were used in 1900 by Maybach for a car. Two years later, this principle
was patterned by Louis Renault. Initially, drum brake was operated mechanically using rods
or cables. The mechanical operations were replaced by hydraulic pressure operation.
Nowadays, there are some passenger cars that still used drum brake but only at the rear
wheels. Drum brake still an option because its more economical compare to disc brake.
Drum brake consist many parts which is drum, brake cylinder, pistons, brake shoes and
adjuster mechanism.

When the brake pedal was pushed, the hydraulic fluid from the master cylinder
allowed moving along the hydraulic lines. As the fluid reach to pistons inside drum, the
pistons will pushed outwards and the brake shoes will move outwards and touch the rotating
drum. Noted that the drum was attached to the wheel, as the friction was generated to
between brake shoes and rotating drum, it will forced the rotating drum to slowing down and
cause the reducing in speed of the vehicles. When the pressure is released, the spring will pull
the shoes back to their original position.
No Component Function
1. Brake shoes To exert force onto the shoes so as to bring them into
contact with the drum and stop the vehicle with friction.
2. Wheel cylinder The wheel cylinder sits at the top of the drum brake with
two pistons inside.
When the brake is applied, the pressurized brake fluid
pushes the piston outward, which in turn force the brake
shoes against the outer drum.
3. Braking plate It attaches to axle sleeve and provides a non-rotating rigid
mounting surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes, and
assorted hardware.
4. Brake drum When a driver applies the brake, the lining pushes radially
against the inner surface of the drum, and the ensuring
friction slows or stop rotation of the wheel and axle so
those to vehicle.
5. Brake adjuster To make the drum brake function correctly
The advantage of drum brake is taking less hydraulic force to active and doesnt need
the high initial pressure to apply. Other than that, it used less hardware which everything in
assemble near the hub and not have calliper. It also have the smaller master cylinder compare
with master cylinder in disc brake. The system usually used as the parking brake or called by
emergency brake. This because the force was acted generally less than the hydraulic system
forces so the drum brake are capable to action due the drum brake doesnt need high initial
pressure.

The disadvantages of drum disc are heat cannot be dissipated to surrounding, such
descending a steep hill with a heavy load or repeated high speed to slow down. The
effectiveness of brake lose because the heat will built-up within drum. Other than that, the
efficiency of drum brake will reduce when the brake shoes dirty. Dust inside the drum need
to cleaning for optimal operation. The drum brake also has wedging action, it will effect
when the more force applied to the drum brake.
Disc Brake

Disc brake system was started use in earlier 1900. However, its became non-viable at
the time because the braking system cannot be used for long period of time due to non-
suitable material used. Innovation in the disc brake cause it become an option for the braking
system of most cars manufacture nowadays. Disc brake system consists three main parts
which is master cylinder, hydraulic lines and brake calliper.

No Component Function
Used to generate friction when it touches the rotating rotor
1. Brake pads
to slowing down the vehicle.
Disc was attached to wheel. Rotating disc will gripped by
2. Disc or rotor
brake pads to reduce the speed of wheel.
Brake pads were attached at caliper. There are pistons
3. Calipers inside the caliper to push the brake pads towards rotating
disc.
When compression force were applied to the brake pedal as shown in figure above,
the force applied will transmitted to the master cylinder piston inside the master cylinder
reservoir. The piston will move in the direction of the force applied and as the result it allows
the hydraulic fluid to move along the hydraulic lines. As the pressurized fluid reach to the
caliper, it will cause the pistons inside the caliper to move in the opposite direction. The
brake pads will move as the direction of the piston attached. Friction generated between
rotating rotor and brake pads resulting the reduction in speed of the wheels.

The advantages of disc brake are it cools down faster. The disc brake rotor is fully
exposed to outside air which helps to reduce heat develop due to friction. Next, the disc rotor
also required less effort or force to stop vehicle. This because of the force was applied will
transmit to the hydraulic line which the force are not equal as the given. The disc brake
systems can completely self-adjusting where the piston in the caliper disc is self-centering
and self-adjusting. There also no dust will develop inside the calliper as it has open brake
pad.

The disadvantages of disc brake are it is expensive compare to the other kind of brake.
Other than that, the weight is heavier than the drum brake. The disc brake also more complex
than drum brake like the size of shaft using must be considered. The disc brake also must be
operating under the skill worker to ensure that the hydraulic line not mixed with air which
can blocked the braking system.
Brake Pedal

Brake pedal were used to applied force on it so that the applied compressive force can
be transmitted to the master cylinder piston. There are few types of brake pedal were used in
vehicle nowadays. The types of brake pedal used are known by on how the pedal itself was
attached to other component of vehicle. For example the common types of brake pedal used
in vehicle are hanging and standing brake pedal. For a commercial car, hanging brake pedal
was used. The brake pedal was hanging from the firewall or bulkhead and for standing brake
pedal, the pedal was stand on the floor and commonly used in trucks and buses. Note that
open cockpit car does not has firewall in front of the driver because the engine was placed
behind the driver. Since an open cockpit car approximately same concept to the go-kart, the
design of go-kart pedal can be implementing to this car.

The advantage of go-karts design for pedal is easy to fabricate. This fabricate of
pedal will reduce time production. Other than that, this kind of pedal can stand for the high
pressure force which as the requirement was stated that the pedal must withstand a force of
2000N without any failure. This kind of pedal also has advantage which the force was
distributed direct to the master cylinder because it will fabricate directly.

The disadvantages of go-karts pedal design are the force cannot be distributed to the
other part or other link. The force applied will directly to the piston in the master cylinder. It
also use for simple mechanism and working principle. Not suitable for the real car using
which need to consider other link.
CONCEPT GENERATION

Morphological chart

Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4


Type of Plain rotor Slotted rotor Drilled rotor Drilled and slotted
rotor rotor

Type of Hydraulic fluid Cable Mechanical


transmis
sion

Type of
callipers

Type of
master
cylinder
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4
Type
pedal

Type of
brake
lamp
CONCEPT EVALUATION
WEIGHT DECISION MATRIX

M Magnitude
S Score
R Rating

Design criterion Weight CONCEPT 1 CONCEPT 2 CONCEPT 3


factor
M S R M S R M S R
COST 0.30 RM600 4 1.2 RM400 5 1.5 RM350 6 1.8
ASSEMBLY 0.15 Easy 7 1.05 Moderate 5 0.75 Hard 3 0.45
RELIABILITY 0.10 Good 6 0.6 Good 6 0.6 Moderate 4 0.4

REPARABILITY 0.15 Good 7 1.05 Moderate 5 0.75 Hard 3 0.45


DURABILITY 0.20 Excellent 8 1.6 Moderate 5 1.0 Low 3 0.6

NUT AND
BOLT USE 0.04 Low 7 0.28 Medium 5 0.2 Many 3 0.12

SPACE
REQUIREMENT 0.06 less 8 0.48 Moderate 6 0.36 Large 4 0.24
IN CHASSIS space space use space use
AND use
SUSPENSION
SYSTEM

TOTAL 1 6.26 5.16 4.06


From the weight decision matrix shown above, there are7 criteria that have been
selected based on the information gathered. There are 3 concepts that have been evaluated
which are concept 1 is a 3 disc brake system, concept 2 is 4 disc brake system and concept 3
is drum brake system. Based on the weight factor given, the rating can be calculated from the
score. From the comparison between 3 concepts, concept 1 has a higher rating compared to
the concept 2 and concept 3.From the table also, can be seen that concept 1 also has a higher
score than others. It can see clearly from the table for assembly criteria, concept 1 is easy to
assemble the disc brake than concept 2 and concept 3. Besides that, concept 1 also easy to
repair if there is any problem in the disc brake but the concept 3 is hard to repair. Concept 1
also require less space use to assemble the disc brake, while the concept 3, it need large space
to assemble the drum brake. As a conclusion, concept 1 is much better to design even it is
more expensive than others.

As a conclusion, the chosen concept is Drilled rotor, Hydraulic fluid, and type of
calliper no3, type of master cylinder no2, brake pedal no1 and brake lamp no2&3. Drilled
rotor has been chose because it can reduce heat and for the hydraulic fluid is it easier to set up
and adjust the length. Between the Pugh concept and weight decision matrix above, the rating
of concept 1 can see clearly from the weight decision matrix.
THE FINAL CONCEPT OF BRAKING SYSTEM:

Type of rotor Type of Type of Type of Type of Type of brake


transmission callipers master pedal lamp
cylinder

Based on the final concept of braking system as shown in the table above, the drilled
rotor was selected based on its capability to dissipate heat, water, and dust better compare to
others. It also has the thin thickness where it will help the disc rotor cold down quickly.

The hydraulic fluid was chosen as the best type of transmission. It is because the
hydraulic fluid doesnt need high initial force to start the braking system. It also synchronizes
with the pedal design that our team was choosing. For the type of callipers, our team were
selected the option 3 where its commonly used. It also better efficiency than the other option
as stated in the morphological chart.

Other than that, the option 2 of master cylinder was selected in the final concept due
to the design of pedal. The selected of master cylinder was depend on the type of pedal
chosen which our team decide to choose the option 1 for the type of pedal. The option 1 for
the type of pedal was selected because its easy to fabricate and it require less moveable part
on its design compare to the other option of brake pedal.

Lastly, for the safety requirement that is brake lamp, the option 1 for the type of brake
lamp was selected where it from the LED light and designed with the square shape. Its due
with the design of car which it more suitable compare to the other option as stated on the
morphological chart.
PHASE 2

MODELLING
PART
Table: Braking system part

NO PART NO PART

Rotor and Calliper


Fluid Line

1 4

Master Cylinders
Pedal

2 5

Master Cylinder bracket Bolt

3 6
ANALYSIS

CALCULATION OF FORCE DEVELOP BY CALLIPERS

Brake pedal force

Brake pedal force was calculated based on amount of force applied by drivers leg to the
pedal plate.

= (2 /2 )

= (20 9.81) (0.07/0.1)

= 343.35

Master cylinder pressure

Master cylinder pressure generated by the force that applied by the driver to the brake pedal.
Since the force transmitted to the piston inside the master cylinder equal to force applied by
the driver, the pressure inside the master cylinder can be calculated by dividing the force
transmitted to the area of the master cylinder.

0.014 2
, = ( ) = 1.539 104 2
2

343.35
=
1.539x104 2

= 2.2309
Assumption, =

Assume that the pressure on the master cylinder equal to pressure on the brake callipers, the
force transmitted to the callipers can be calculated by equation below.

0.03 2
, = ( ) = 7.0685 104 2
2

= 2.2309 7.0685 104 2 = 1576.91 N

Total clamp force of 4 callipers

Since the car are using four callipers, the total of braking force exerted to the car is force on
the calliper times by four. Therefore, the total braking force on the car is:

, = 1576.91 3

= 4730.73

CALCULATION OF BRAKING DISTANCE

The total force of the car need to be calculated in order to obtained the deceleration of the car
until the car fully stop. The deceleration of the car calculated using Newtons Second Law.
Assume that the calliper force and friction force is constant. The total force generated to slow
down the car is:

= 200 9.81

= 1962
( + ) = )

4730.73 + 7100 = 1962

= 6.029 / 2

The initial velocity of the car is set to be 50 km/h. Assume that the brake was applied to the
car since it velocity at 50 km/h until it completely stop.

1000 1
, = 50
1 3600

= 13.89 /

Therefore, the distance travelled by the car when the brake was applied in order to stop the
car is:

2
, =
2

13.892
=
2(9.81)(6.029)

= 1.6

Time taken to stop the car is

( + )
=
2

(13.89 + 0)
1.4 =
2

= 3
FABRICATED PEDAL ANALYSIS

Figure 1: Deflection occurs on the pedal.


Based on the figure 1, the maximum deflection occurs on the top of the pedal. The material
applied is steel and force applied during analysis on the pedal surface is about 2000N. The
maximum translational displacement recorded is about 0.274 mm.

Figure 2: Stress distributed along the pedal.


When force applied is about 2000N, the maximum stress obtained is 1.51 108 N/m2.
The critical stress produced is at the joint between horizontal bar and vertical bar. This stress
may be reduced by using welding process as the process of joint between these two steel bars.
Figure below shows some details of material used for the brake pedal.

Figure 3: Properties of the material used.


PHASE 3(DETAIL DRAWING)

3.1 DRAFTING
1. pedal
2. rotor
3. calliper
4. master cylinder
5. master cylinder bracket
3.2 ASSEMBLY
3.3 FABRICATION PROCESS

COMPONENT FABRICATION METHOD ASSEMBLY METHOD

For the rotor, it will joining


with its hub and the hub
Buy from BLYGO will attach with the knuckle
Company part. For the calliper, it will
join with the bracket that
will mount to the body part

Fabricate by welding The pedal will assemble by


process and machining using bolt and nut at the
process bracket which the bracket
will mount at the body.

The hydraulic line was


Buy from BLYGO assembly from the master
Company cylinder to the brake
callipers.

The master cylinder was


Buy from BLYGO installed at the master
Company cylinder bracket.
COMPONENT FABRICATION METHOD ASSEMBLY METHOD

The bracket master cylinder


Fabricate by machining and will be mounted to the body
welding process part.
3.4 COST

No. Items Quantity Price per unit Total Price


(RM)
1 3 Disc Brake 1 SET RM 650.00 RM 650.00
2 LED Brake lamp 1 SET RM 50.00 RM 50.00
3 Bolt and Nuts 30 RM 0.50 RM 15.00
4 Emergency cost RM 100.00 RM 100.00
Total Costing RM 825.00
3.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT

GANTT CART BRAKING DEPARTMENT (MEC 531-Design 1)

WEEKS 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PHASES

Product
identification

Presentation
1

Gather
information
and product
evaluation
(Phase 1)

Presentation
2

Embodiment
design
(Phase 2)

Detail design
(CAT design)

Product
analysis

Presentation
3

Full report
GANTT CART BRAKING DEPARTMENT (MEC 531-Design 2)

WEEKS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PHASES

Product
purchase

Fabrication
process

Assembly
process

Testing

Improvement

Evaluation
ASSEMBLY GANTT CHART FOR ASSEMBLY FOR WHOLE CAR

DEPARTMENT/
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
WEEK

CHASSIS

SUSPENSION

POWER AND
DRIVE TRAIN

BRAKING
SYSTEM

STEERING
SYSTEM

BODYWORK
AND SAFETY
MINUTE MEETING
LOG BOOK
REFERENCE

1. James Walker, Jr of scR motorsports (2005). The Physics of Braking System,


Copyright 2005 StopTech LLC, Journal HIGH PERFORMANCE BRAKE
SYSTEM (1-8).
2. Swapnil R. Abhang and D.P.Bhaskar, (2014). Design and Analysis of Disc Brake,
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) (Volume 8
Number 4).
3. Faramarz Talati and Salman Jalalifar, (2009). Analysis of heat conduction in a disk
brake system. Journal of Heat Mass Transfer (45:10471059).
4. Manjunath T and Dr Suresh, (2013). Structural and Thermal Analysis of Rotor Disc
of Disc Brake, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering
and Technology (Vol. 2, Issue 12).
5. Evtushenko, O. O., Ivanyk, E. H., Horbachova, N. V., Analytic methods for thermal
calculation of brakes (review), materials Science, Vol. 36, pp. 857862, 2000.