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TABLE 8.

2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames

202
NOTATION: W load (force); w unit load (force per unit length); Mo applied couple (force-length); yo externally created concentrated angular displacement (radians); Do externally created
concentrated lateral displacement (length); T  To uniform temperature rise (degrees); T1 and T2 temperature on outside and inside, respectively (degrees). HA and HB are the horizontal end
reactions at the left and right, respectively, and are positive to the left; VA and VB are the vertical end reactions at the left and right, respectively, and are positive upwards; MA and MB are the

Formulas for Stress and Strain


reaction moments at the left and right, respectively, and are positive clockwise. I1 , I2 , and I3 are the respective area moments of inertia for bending in the plane of the frame for the three members
(length to the fourth); E1 , E2 , and E3 are the respective moduli of elasticity (force per unit area); g1 , g2 , and g3 are the respective temperature coefficients of expansions (unit strain per degree)

General reaction and deformation expressions for cases 14, right end pinned in all four cases
Deformation equations:

Horizontal deflection at A dHA AHH HA AHM MA  LPH

Angular rotation at A cA AMH HA AMM MA  LPM


l31 I3 l
where AHH 2 3 l2 l1 l2 l22
3E1 I1 3E2 I2 3E3 I3 1
l21 l
AHM AMH 3 2l l2
2E1 I1 6E3 I3 1
l1 l
AMM 3
E1 I1 3E3 I3

and where LPH and LPM are loading terms given below for several types of load
(Note: VA , VB ; and HB are to be evaluated from equilibrium equations after calculating HA and MA )

1. Left end pinned, Since dHA 0 and MA 0;


right end pinned LPH
HA and cA AMH HA  LPM
AHH
The loading terms are as follows:

Reference no., loading Loading terms



Wa a2
1a. Concentrated load on the LPH 3l1 a  2l1 l3  l2 l3  l1  l2
6E3 I3 l3
horizontal member
 
Wa a2
LPM 3a  2l3 

[CHAP. 8
6E3 I3 l3
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

SEC.
wa l33 w  wa l33
1b. Distributed load on the LPH l l2  b 7l1 8l2
24E3 I3 1 360E3 I3

8.17]
horizontal member
7wa l33 11wb  wa l33
LPM 
72E3 I3 180E3 I3

Mo 3a2
1c. Concentrated moment on LPH 6l1 a  2l1 l3  l2 l3  l  l2
6E3 I3 l3 1
the horizontal member
 
Mo 3a2
LPM 4a  2l3 
6E3 I3 l3

a
1d. Concentrated angular LPH yo l1  l1  l2
l3
displacement on the  
horizontal member 2 a
LPM yo 
3 l3

Do l1  l2
1e. Concentrated laternal LPH Note: Do could also be an increase in the length l1 or a decrease in the length l2
l3
displacement on the
horizontal member Do
LPM
l3

 

Beams; Flexure of Straight Bars


a3
1f. Concentrated load on the LPH W AHH  aAHM
6E1 I1
left vertical member
 
a2
LPM W AMH  aAMM
2E1 I1
   
l2 l41 l l2 l41
1g. Distributed load on the LPH wa AHH l1  AHM 1 wb  wa AHH 1  AHM 1
2 24E1 I1 2 3 30E1 I1
left vertical member
 3 
l1 l l l31 l l
LPM wa 1 3 l l2 wb  wa 1 3 2l 3l2
6E1 I1 6E3 I3 1 24E1 I1 36E3 I3 1

 
a2
1h. Concentrated moment LPH Mo  AHM
2E1 I1
on the left vertical
 
member a
LPM Mo  AMM
E 1 I1

203
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

204
Reference no., loading Loading terms

Formulas for Stress and Strain


LPH yo a
1i. Concentrated angular
displacement on the left LPM yo 1
vertical member

1j. Concentrated lateral LPH Do 1 Note: Do could also be a decrease in the length l3
displacement on the
LPM 0
left vertical member


1 l
1k. Concentrated load LPH W 3l a2  2l32  a3  3 l2  al1 2l2
6E2 I2 2 6E3 I3
on the right vertical 
member l3
LPM W l  a
6E3 I3 2
 
5l24 l2 l 3l42 l2 l
1l. Distributed load on LPH wa  2 3 l 2l2 wb  wa  2 3 l 2l2
24E2 I2 12E3 I3 1 40E2 I2 36E3 I3 1
the right vertical
 2   2 
member l2 l3 l2 l3
LPM wa wb  wa
12E3 I3 36E3 I3

a l
1m. Concentrated moment LPH Mo 2l  a 3 l1 2l2
2E2 I2 2 6E3 I3
on the right vertical
member l3
LPM Mo
6E3 I3

1n. Concentrated angular LPH yo l2  a


displacement on the
LPM 0
right vertical member

1p. Concentrated lateral LPH Do 1 Note: Do could also be an increase in the length l3
displacement on the
LPM 0
right vertical member

[CHAP. 8
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

SEC.

l  l2
1q. Uniform temperature rise: LPH T  To g3 l3  1 g1 l1  g2 l2 g temperature coefficient of expansion unit strain=degree
l3

8.17]
T uniform temperature 
1
To unloaded temperature LPM T  To g1 l1  g2 l2
l3


T1  T2 g1 l21 g2 l22 g3 l3 l1 l2
1r. Uniform temperature LPH t1 ; t2 ; and t3 are beam thicknesses from inside to outside
2 t1 t2 t3
differential from outside
 
to inside. Average T  T2 4g1 l1 g3 l3
LPM 1
temperature is To 2 t1 3t3

2. Left and guided Since cA 0 and HA 0


horizontally, right end
pinned
LPM
MA and dHA AHM MA  LPH
AMM

Use the loading terms for cases 1a to 1r

3. Left end roller Since HA and MA are both zero, this is a statically determinate case

Beams; Flexure of Straight Bars


supported along the dHA LPH and cA LPM
horizontal,
right end pinned Use the loading terms for cases 1a to 1r

4. Left end fixed, right Since dHA 0 and cA 0,


end pinned
AMM LPH  AHM LPM AHH LPM  AHM LPH
HA and MA
AHH AMM  AHM 2 AHH AMM  AHM 2
Use the loading terms for cases 1a to 1r

205
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

General reaction and deformation expressions for cases 512, right end fixed in all eight cases:

206
Deformation equations:
Horizontal deflection at A dHA CHH HA CHV VA CHM MA  LFH

Vertical deflection at A dVA CVH HA CVV VA CVM MA  LFV

Formulas for Stress and Strain


Angular rotation at A cA CMH HA CMV VA CMM MA  LFM
l31 l3  l1  l2 3 l21 l3
where CHH 1
3E1 I1 3E2 I2 E3 l3
l2 l3 l l2
CHV CVH 2l  l2 1 3
2E2 I2 1 2E3 I3
l21 l l l
CHM CMH 2 2l  l2 1 3
2E1 I1 2E2 I2 1 E3 I3
l2 l23 l3
CVV 3
E2 I2 3E3 I3
l2 l3 l2
CVM CMV 3
E2 I2 2E3 I3
l1 l l
CMM 2 3
E1 I1 E2 I2 E3 l3

and where LFH , LFV , and LFM are loading terms given below for several types of load
(Note: If desired, HB , VB , and MB are to be evaluated from equilibrium equations after calculating HA , VA , and MA )

5. Left end fixed, Since dHA 0, dVA 0, and cA 0, these three equations are solved simultaneously for HA, VA , and MA :
right end
fixed
CHH HA CHV VA CHM MA LFH

CVH HA CVV VA CVM MA LFV


CMH HA CMV VA CMM MA LFM
The loading terms are given below.

Reference no., loading Loading terms



5a. Concentrated load on l2 l
LFH W 2l  l2 l3  a 1 l3  a2
the horizontal 2E2 I2 1 2E3 I3

[CHAP. 8
member  
a3
LFV W CVV  aCVM
6E3 I3

l2 1
LFM W l3  a l3  a2
E2 I2 2E3 I3
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

 
l2 l23 l l3 l2 l23 l l3
5b. Distributed load on LFH wa 2l1  l2 1 3 wb  wa 2l1  l2 1 3

SEC.
4E2 I2 6E3 I3 12E2 I2 24E3 I3
the horizontal member
   
l2 l33 l43 l2 l33 l43

8.17]
LFV wa wb  wa
2E2 I2 8E3 I3 6E2 I2 30E3 I3
 3
  
l2 l32
l l2 l32
l33
LFM wa 3 wb  wa
2E2 I2 6E3 I3 6E2 I2 24E3 I3

l2 l1
5c. Concentrated moment on LFH Mo 2l  l2  l  a
2E2 I2 1 E3 I3 3
the horizontal member
 
a2
LFV Mo CVM
2E3 I3

l2 1
LFM Mo  l  a
E2 I2 E3 I3 3

5d. Concentrated angular LFH yo l1


displacement on the
LFV yo a e
horizontal member
LFM yo 1

5e. Concentrated lateral LFH 0

Beams; Flexure of Straight Bars


displacement on the
LFV Do 1
horizontal member
LFM 0

 
a3
5f. Concentrated load on LFH W CHH  aCHM
6E1 I1
the left vertical member
LFV W CVH  aCVM
 
a2
LFM W CMH  aCMM
2E1 I1
   
l2 l41 l l2 l41
5g. Distributed load on LFH wa CHH l1  CHM 1 wb  wa CHH 1  CHM 1
2 24E1 I1 2 3 30E1 I1
the left vertical member
   
l2 l l2
LFV wa CVH l1  CVM 1 wb  wa CVH 1  CVM 1
2 2 3
   

207
l2 l3 l l2 l3
LFM wa CMH l1  CMM 1 1 wb  wa CMH 1  CMM 1 1
2 6E1 I1 2 3 8E1 I1
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

208
Reference no., loading Loading terms
 
a2
5h. Concentrated moment on LFH Mo CHM
2E1 I1
the left vertical member

Formulas for Stress and Strain


LFV Mo CVM
 
a
LFM Mo CMM
E 1 I1

5i. Concentrated angular LFH yo a


displacement on the left
LFV 0
vertical member
LFM yo 1

5j. Concentrated lateral LFH Do 1


displacement on the left
LFV 0
vertical member
LFM 0

W
5k. Concentrated load on the LFH 3l l  a2  2l32  a3 3al22
6E2 I2 1 2
right vertical member
W
LFV l l  a2
2E2 I2 3 2
W
LFM l  a2
2E2 I2 2
 
l32 l32
5l. Distributed load on the LFH wa 4l1  3l2 wb  wa 5l1  4l2
24E2 I2 120E2 I2
right vertical member
l32 l3 l3 l
LFV wa wb  wa 2 3
6E2 I2 24E2 I2
l32 l32
LfM wa wb  wa
6E2 I2 24E2 I2
Mo
5m. Concentrated moment LFH 2l1 l2  a  a2 l22

[CHAP. 8
2E2 I2
on the right vertical
member Mo
LFV l3 l2  a
E2 I2
Mo
LFM l2  a
E2 I2
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

SEC.
5n. Concentrated angular LFH yo l1  a
displacement on the right

8.17]
LFV yo l3
vertical member
LFM yo 1

5p. Concentrated lateral LFH Do 1 Note: Do could also be an increase in the length l3
displacement on the right
LFV 0
vertical member
LFM 0

5q. Uniform temperature rise: LFH T  To g3 l3 g temperature coefficient of expansion inches=inch=degree

T uniform temperature LFV T  To g1 l1  g2 l2


To unloaded temperature
LFM 0

2
l g l g l l g
5r. Uniform temperature LFH T1  T2 1 1 2 2 2l1  l2 1 3 3
2t1 2t2 t3
differential from outside
 
to inside; average l l g l2 g
LFV T1  T2 2 3 2 3 3 t1 ; t2 ; and t3 are beam thicknesses from inside to outside
temperature is To t2 2t3
 

Beams; Flexure of Straight Bars


l g l g l g
LFM T1  T2 1 1 2 2 3 3
t1 t2 t3

6. Left end pinned, Since dHA 0; dVA 0 and MA 0,


right end fixed LFH CVV  LFV CHV LFV CHH  LFH CHV
HA VA
CHH CVV  CHV 2 CHH CVV  CHV 2
cA CMH HA CMV VA  LFM

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

7. Left end guided Since dVA 0; cA 0 and HA 0,


horizontally, right LFV CMM  LFM CVM LFM CVV  LFV CVM
end fixed VA MA
CVV CMM  CVM 2 CVV CMM  CVM 2
dHA CHV VA CHM MA  LFH

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

209
210
TABLE 8.2 Reaction and deection formulas for in-plane loading of elastic frames (Continued)

8. Left end guided vertically, Since dHA 0; cA 0, and VA 0,


right end fixed

Formulas for Stress and Strain


LFH CMM  LFM CHM LFM CHH  LFH CHM
HA MA
CHH CMM  CHM 2 CHH CMM  CHM 2
dVA CVH HA CVM MA  LFV
Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

9. Left end roller supported Since dVA 0; HA 0, and MA 0,


along the horizontal, LFV
VA dHA CHV VA  LFH and cA CMV VA  LFM
right end fixed CVV

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

10. Left end roller supported Since dHA 0; VA 0, and MA 0,


along the vertical, right LFH
HA dVA CVH HA  LFV and cA CMH HA  LFM
end fixed CHH

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

11. Left end guided by Since cA 0; HA 0, and VA 0,


moment only (zero slope LFM
MA dHA CHM MA  LFH and dVA CVM MA  LFV
at the left end), right CMM
end fixed

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

12. Left end free, right end Since HA 0; VA 0 and MA 0, this is a statically determinate case. The deflections are given by
fixed
dHA LFH dVA LFV and cA LFM

Use the loading terms for cases 5a to 5r

[CHAP. 8