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. . How should prudent spending of riches be done ?

Ans. The prudent spending of riches should be done for honour and good deeds. Riches should be spend
according to the worth of the occasron. One should manage his own

expenses. , Q2. What are the two motives for the sacrifice of all other possessions ?

. Ans. All other possessions as estate, regular income etc. can be sacrificed for the sake ofone's country
and for religion. , . What is Bacon's advice on extraordinary expenses ?

Ans. Bacon's advice for extraordinary expenses is that a person should spend according to his means. He
should manage his affairs personally instead of relying on servants. That l5, one should be discreet in
spending money, " .

What are Bacon's views on servants and employees ?

Ans. Bacon does not hold a good opinion on servants and employees. If a person wishes to be free from
the abuse and deceit of servants, he should choose his servants

carefully and change them frequently. Besides he should manage his affairs personally. . . Why is hasty
selling disadvantageous ?

Ans. Hasty selling of one's estate .or property is disadvantageous because then, there are chances of
one's getting befooled and duped by the hands of middleman.

B. Answer the following questions in about 50 words each: .

Q.l. Sum up the salutary rules for expenditure suggested by Bacon in the lesson.
Ans. The salutary rules for expenditure suggested by Bacon are as fellows-'

(1) One should spend only a portion of one's income. '

(2) One should not feel ashamed in the management of his own expenses.

(3) Servants should be chosen carefully and changed frequently.

(4) There should be a proper balance between one's gettings and spendings.

(5) One should be economical in petty expenses whereas lavishness may be advisable} ' in non-returning
expenses. , i '

M What does Bacon want to convey, when he says, To turn all to certainties'?

Ans. Bacon favours certainties. He says that'nothing should be left to uncertainty. . There should be
reduction in income and expenditure to a fixed amount with perfect balance. One should not depend on
their servants because they bring uncertainty by wasteful expenditure. One should not spend more than
half of his income. Ordinary expenses should be curtailed. . . A

Q.3. Distinguish between ordinary 'and extraordinary expenses in the light of the Views expressed by
Bacon. . . (2016)

Ans. Ordinary expenses are routine, usual and unavoidable expenses. Food, payment if bills etc. are
unavoidable ordinary expenses. Extraordinary expenses cannot be calculated beforehand. They should
be in accordance with the need of the occasion. Expenditure on Medicine, entertainment etc. come in
this category.
Q4. How far are the views of Bacon relevant to the present time ?

Ans. The views of Bacon on spending are a very wise and practical guide on the Flanagement of financial
matters. He opines that one should save a certain portion of one's "300nm for an emergent situation.
One should be wise in spending money.~Bacon's views are hghly relevant in the present time because
they teach people the act of prudency. Spending one's monev wiqelv helps one in earning honour and


and 5 nt out . isgusted.

B. Answfer the following questiOns in about 50 Words each :

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$2.8. According to Nehru when is it folly to talk about culture or God ? Why ?

Ans. According to Nehru, it is folly to talk about culture or God When human beings starve and die
because before talking about anything else, the normal essentials of life must be provided to human

B. Answer the following questions in about 50 words each :

Q]. The evaluation of culture depends on a vast number of factors. Describe a few of them.

Ans. The evaluation of culture depends on how it perceives things. It is generally affected by means of
transportation and communication among societies. it depends on geography, climate etc. of a nation. lts
fundamental strength lies in its idea of unity among diversity. It takes its power from being an organic
whole. Democratic ideals, spirit of brotherhood among people, integrated view of life, fulfilment of basis
requirements of people etc., are some of the factors on which the evaluation of culture depends.

wow does the author compare the growth of culture with the growth of a tree; ~ (201

Ans. The author compares the growth of culture with the growth of a tree and says that every individual
or nation must have a certain depth or roots. The roots lie in the Pastoral are related to experience and
wisdom of the past. But the roots need sunshine and fresh 3 One cannot live in roots alone. Branching
and tloweringis equally important. A propel balance among the branches, flowers and roots is required
for a tree to flourish. Similarly)" culture depends on individuals, groups, races and their past experiences
and wisdom.

r 3 What is the scientific approach to life's problems, according to the author 7

' Ans. The scientific approach to life's problems indicates towards an attitude to exam?11 everything. It
seeks truth by trial and error method and experimentatinn A nerson W

scientitic approach never says no to anyone. He always tries to understand others point of view. He has
an open mind to imbibe the truth. Such an approach can solve all the national and international
problems. '

Q. 4. Culture 15 evolved or inherited, not made or acquired'. Examine this statement in the light of the
ideas expressed by Nehru.

Ans. According to Pt. Nehru, culture is evolved or inherited. No one can claim of making or acquiring it.
Every nation has its own culture which it evolved during the course of centuries lts roots lie deep in
generations of the past. It is impossible to find factors. It indicates the 1nner growth of a nation and this
growth cannot be hained 1n one or two years, it is a result of the progress of centuries.

Q. 5. Summarise the views expressed by Nehru on Nationalism.

Ans. Nationalism, according to Pt. Nehru, is a curious phenomenon. It gives life, growth, strength and
unity to the concerned countrys histroy. Sometimes it restricts one to think for ones own country only
resulting into a symbol of the cessation of growth in mind. This feeling when beocmes successful
sometimes goes on spreading in an aggressive way and become a danger internationally. It truns the
noble culture into revengeful and hateful culture. It breeds conflict and hatred. We should try to get rid
of narrow feeling of nationalism and should become cosmopolitan in our outlook. '