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A. Evaluation
Pauline Robinson defines evaluation as the discovery of the value for
some purposes. Furthermore, Alderson and Murphy stated that evaluation is
concerned wth describing what is there and placing some value on what is

B. Why Evaluation in ESP?

1. ESP has developed in response to certain pressures.
2. Developments in the theoritical bases of language teaching indicated a
need to pay more attention to the individual leraner.
3. The world of commerce and technology were producing host of people
with specific language learning needs at that time.
4. A demand was generated as a result for courses which would equip
particular learners with necessary skills to carry out particular tasks in
C. ESP is Accountable Teaching?
Like any other language teaching course, ESP has requirements which
are brought sharply into focus by the fact that ESP has specified objectives.
ESP learners and sponsors are investors in ESP course and they want to seea
return on their investment of time or money. The managers of the ESP course
are accountable to these investors. This accountability has produced a demand
for more and better evaluation procedures.

D. Levels of Evaluation
1. Learner assessment
a. characteristic
1) In any language course, there is a need to assess students
performance at any strategic . i.e. at strart or at end.
2) Learner assessment has great importance in ESP because it deals
with the ability to perform particular communicative tasks.
3) The result of this kind of evaluation enable sponsirs, learners and
teachers to decide wheter and how much tuition is required.
4) But there is a general lack of discussion or guidance on ESP
b. Are there lacks?
1) The lack does not imply that theere are no tests available in ESP.
2) There is no shortage of available examinations in ESP
3) What is lacking is any sound theoritical and empirical basis for
ESP testing
c. Types of asessment
1) Placement tests
a) The aim of placement tests is to determine the learners state
of knowledge before the ESP begins.
b) These are used to place the learners in the ESP course most
suited to their needs.
c) If a learner is already proficient in the skills required, no
further tuition is required.
d) The placement test is diagnostic indicating how far and in
what ways the learner falls short of the proficiency level.
e) A good placement test should reveal positive factors. It should
show not just what the learners lacks but also what potential
for learning can be exploited in ESP course
2) Achievement tests
a) This kind of test is least problematic, since it is usually internal
to the course.
b) It does not have to conform to external influences, but should
rather reflect the nature and content of the course itself.
c) Principles to conduct achievement test:
- Test what you can reasonably assume the learners have
- Test what actually to be tested
- Avoid bias in the test
3) Proficiency tests
a) Proficient test are designed to assess whether candidattes will
be able to perform the language tasks required of them.
b) The candidates ability is assessed according to how far it
matches certain criteria judged to be essential for proficiency
in a particular task.
c) There is no pass/ fail distinction but rather a scale of degree of
proficiency in the task (as British Council uses bands for
d) These tests are criterion-referened.
2. Course evaluation
a. Characteristic
1) Evaluating ESP course helps to establish whether it is meeting its
aims or not.
2) Course evaluation also plays a useful social role, by showing the
various parties involved (teachers, learners, sponsors, etc) that
their views are important.
3) There are four aspects of ESP course evaluation to be considered:
a) What should be evaluated?
- Shortly, everything of significance should be evaluated
- Your ability to collect information
- Your ability to use information once it has been collected
- ESP course, in learning centered approach, is to meet two
main needs: their needs as language learner and their needs
as language user. So what should be evaluated is is the
course fulfilling the learners language learning and using
b) How can ESP courses be evaluated?
There are many ways in which ESP course can be
evaluated ranging from stimulations to suggestion boxes.
However, in practice, most ESP courses are evaluated using
one or more of the following techniques:
- Test results
- Questionnaires
- Discussions
- Interviews
- Informal means (e.g. unsolicited comments, causal chats
c) Who should be involved in the evaluation?
- The extent of involvement of any group will vary, but it is
likely that the bodies most closely concerned will the ESP
teaching institution, the ESP teachers and the course
- Former students can also provide useful information.
- It is important to get a representative cross-section of
views and to take them properly into account.
- With learners, it can be difficult to get feedback which is
an expression of their real views. They may be reluctant to
criticize authority.
- Orientation exercises can be used to get learners
accustomed to expressing their views honestly and
candidly, although it must be said that an open and trusting
relationship between the teacher and the students is the
best basis for promoting frank and useful feedback.
d) When (and how often) should evaluation take place?
- There is an undoubted danger in doing course evaluation
too frequently.
- The dangers in not doing course evaluation often enough
are equal, or greater.
- If there is no proper channel or forum for these views,
there is a risk of misunderstanding or at worst hostility.
- It is difficult to prescribe how often course evaluation
should be done.
- All sensitive and responsive teaching will include this as a
continuing feature anyway.
- The most important times occur:
In the first week of the course. The tone established
here will probably have a greater overall effect on the
success of the course that what occurs later.
At regukar intervals throughout the course.
At the end of the course.
After the course (if possible). This is potentially the
most valuablem since the learners will be in a position
to judge how well the course prepared them for the
target situation they are now in.
5.1 Test and Examination
Test is when well-estabilished, formal public exams. It mean that test refer to
the various evaluation procedures utilised in EAP course. And examination
used when referring to public exams.
5.2 Test: Differences
1. objective test
2. subjective test
3. receptive test
5.3 Test: Type
1. Placement test
2. Progress/diagnostic test
3. Achievment/attainment test
4. Proficiency test
5.4 Tests: general futures
5.4.1 Basic Principles
1. Every test should reliable
2. Every test should valid
a) Content validity
b) Face validity
3. Every test should be economical
5.4.2 Norm-reference and criterion referenced test
Norm_referenced are to placed test-takers along mathematical
continuum in rank order. Criterion_referenced are designed to give
test-takers feedback, usually in the form of grades, on specific course
orr lesson objective.
5.5 Feedback
There are two main type of evaluatin taht are untilised to obtain information
about the course itself. The first is formatife evaluation which concerned with
the development process and is usually informal. In EAP course it ofteh takes
the form of meeting between students and tutors where views can be
exchange, e.g weekly tutorials. As a result of this feedback, aspects of the
course can be adapted in an ongoing process.
The second type ocurs at the end of a course: it is summative. Students will
normally be given a questionaire to complate anonymously: it usually include
question relating to teh content and organisations of the course , and may ask
about social activities and accomodation agrrangements. Tutors may also
disccus the course with theirs group and thus obtain an overall picture of
certain aspects.
The schemes assessement criteria are listed by OBrien (1996):
a. Management and administration
b. Staffing
c. Resource and facilities
d. Course design
e. Teaching
f. Assessment
g. Students welfare
h. Course evaluations
Wellesley and Bazergan (1995) they discribe a collaborative self-evaluation
scheme being depeloved in a number of language centres in Indonesia. The
purpose is to premit language centre staff to assess their practice and activities,
and to identify strategies that will guarantee the sustainability of their centres
when external project support is no longer availible.
5.5.1 End of course questionnaires
The following are based on speciments from pre-sessional EAP course at UK
universities, but they can be adapted to any situation
1. The shortest, simplest kind poses a few open-ended question about certain
features of the course, giving studetns complate scope to say what they
like, but with very little guidance. Example:
What did you think of .....
a. The study skill session?
b. General language development?
c. The questionaire project?
2. This also brief: it leaves the choice to the students about what to comment
on, but gives guidance in the sense that it seeks view on the best/worset
aspect. This will probably provide plorised informaton.
a. What did you enjoy most on the course?
b. What did you enjoy least?
c. What would you like to change in the course:
i. Added?
ii. Omited?
3. All the main course component can be listed, and opinions sought, on a
scale (ranging fromthree-point to ten-point), as to their value: extramely
velue ... of no velue.
4. Students can be asked to make judgments about their own improvement, in
a fairly detailed way in the different language and study skill.
Example: speaking. My speaking has improved in the following areas:
(scale: 5 strongly agree, 4 agree, 3 not sure, 2 disagree, 1 strongly
i. Presenting information
ii. Discussiing
iii. Asking questions
iv. Pronounciation
v. Other: please specity
5.6 Introspect and discuss
1. What experience do you have of placement test? Have you found that one
type is preferable to others? Is it necessary to have one at all at the
beginning of an EAP course?
2. Do you have any views on the use of progress/diagnostics test on EAP
course? Which type do you prefer? Why? From your experience, are there
any real benefits the students intaking such test on short EAP course (i.e 4-
11 weeks)?
3. How would you design an end of course EAP test for students who will go
on to study in differents specialist departments? What kind of items would
you include?
4. From your experience, which kind of feedback do you think are the most
useful for course director to guide them in modifying current or future
5. Four type of end of course questionnaire for evaluation purposes are
exemplified. Which type do you prefer? Can you suggest other types?