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Class of 2006

Mankato Power Plant

Mankato, Minn
Calpine Corp

Grey water cools plant in

Land of 10,000 Lakes
1. Mankatodesigned, built, and

operated by Calpine Corp illus-
hat happens in Califor- But then again, the Mankato trates well the benefits of a collabora-
nia doesnt necessarily Power Plant, owned by Mankato tive relationship among developers,
stay there. Take Title 22 Energy Center LLC, a subsidiary of the cities where the powerplants are
of the California Code Calpine Corp, San Jose, is the first built, and regulatory authorities
of Regulations, for example. One of generating station built by that com-
its many sections addresses the use pany in Minnesota. California think-
of water for powerplant cooling. The ing moving east. States Power Co (Xcel Energy Inc),
policy of the State Water Resources Mankato was designed as a Minneapolis. Expectations are that
Control Board, based on the intent 2 1 natural-gas-fired combined the second GT will be installed in a
of the federal Clean Water Act, is cycle, powered by 501FD2 gas tur- couple of years as demand grows in
that fresh inland waters should be bines (GTs) from Siemens Power the Upper Midwest.
used for powerplant cooling only if Generation Inc, Orlando (Fig 1). But For the 1 1 configuration, the
other sources or methods of cool- only one GT was installed initially plant is rated at 292 MW; with duct
ing would be environmentally unde- because the output for a 1 1 con- burners on it can produce 375 MW.
sirable or economically unsound. figuration met the needs of the 20-yr Heat rate without supplementary fir-
As you read through the profiles power-purchase agreement the inde- ing is 7560 Btu/kWh.
of California plants in the Class of pendent producer has with Northern Calpine was the EPC contrac-
2006 youll find that most rely on
tertiary-treated municipal wastewa- MEC discharge-water pipeline
ter for makeup and cooling. Good for Municipal
California, the nations most popu- sewer Reclamation
lous state, and one with a booming Evaporation
ota River

agricultural industry and extensive transfer

desert lands? Absolutely. Good for equipment
WWTF Reclaimed-
everyone else? Perhaps, but not nec- water pipeline
(existing) WRF supply- M
Min nes

Wastewater water pipeline Water Mankato

Ever think that a powerplant in (treated effluent)
treatment reclamation Energy
Minnesotaa state with substantial plant (WWTF) facility (WRF) Center
shoreline on Lake Superior and home dechlorination M Processed-water pipeline (MEC)
to a long stretch of the Mississippi system Solid-waste
disposal Facility
River as well as 11,842 lakes larger (existing) Metering equipment fenceline
than 10 acreswould use municipal
wastewater for powerplant cooling? 2. Water reclamation facility installed by Calpine takes the citys wastewater
Probably not. treatment to a higher level, benefiting both the environment and the powerplant
36 COMBINED CYCLE JOURNAL, Fourth Quarter 2006

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tor and WorleyParsons the engineer and a win for Calpine and off-taker Latter is accomplished in an Acti-
subcontractor for Mankato. Tony North States Power. Heres a bul- flo clarifier (I Kruger Inc, Cary,
Warburton, who manages Calpines let-point prcis of the plan that was NC) where ferric chloride and a
mechanical design department, was implemented: polymer additive are blended into
the companys engineering leader on n Calpine built a reclamation facil- the wastewater stream.
water supply and treatment for this ity at the citys wastewater plant, n About 75% of the water processed
project. The 11-acre plant site on a located one mile from the generat- by the reclamation facility is dis-
reclaimed landfill was particularly ing station, to tertiary-treat the charged directly to the Minnesota
conducive to fresh thinking because approximately 12 million gal it River. Water effluent is of signifi-
it was too small to accommodate a receives daily (Fig 2, Sidebar). Sys- cantly higher quality today than
traditional cooling-water treatment tem also provided for the removal previously.
system. of a substantial percentage of the n Remainder of the wastewater
Warburtons California experience phosphorus contributed by agri- treated in the new reclamation
taught him that it was important for cultural and industrial sources. facility is chlorinated (Fig 3) and
powerplant owner/operators to have
a strong sense of social responsibil-
ity regarding the use of air, water,
land, and natural resourcesregu- Governor honors water reclamation facility
lated or not. The fact that his team Minnesotas governor congratulated conservation of energy and water,
was designing a plant for Minnesota the city of Mankato on the environ- recycling, and composting. Sponsor
made no difference: Same thinking mental benefit of the water reclama- of the awards program is the states
should apply. tion facility designed and built by Interagency Pollution Prevention
The Mankato area is similar to Calpine Corp, San Jose, as part of Advisory Team, which does the judg-
the California locations of several the companys collaborative effort ing.
Calpine generating plants in that with the city to use treated municipal Awards for 2007 were presented
agriculture is the dominant indus- wastewater for powerplant cooling. by the governor at the Air, Water,
try. Sensitive to the water needs of The Governors MnGREAT and Waste Environmental Confer-
farmers, Calpine approached the Awardsfor Minnesota Government ence sponsored by the Minnesota
city of Mankato with a plan to use Reaching Environmental Achieve- Pollution Control Agency at the end
its treated municipal wastewater ments Togetherrecognize environ- of February. Plant Manager Dave
for cooling and its potable water for mental achievements by government Jacobs, Operations Manager Dana
boiler makeup. employees and focuses on the McNally, and Engineer Jamie Tyrpa
The plan was designed to be a win prevention of waste and pollution, represented Mankato Power Plant at
for the city, a win for the Minnesota the reduction of waste at its source, the event.
Pollution Control Agency (MPCA),
38 COMBINED CYCLE JOURNAL, Fourth Quarter 2006
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QM_RVI_0605.indd 1 because its wastewater15/05/06

facilities were improved; MPCA won
because water discharged to the river
is of higher quality; Calpine won
because the powerplant is viewed as
a neighbor in positive light and the
company avoided the expense of an
onsite wastewater treatment, includ-
ing an increase in plant staff. Note
that the price Calpine pays for water
is discounted to reflect the companys
investment in the city facility.

Design facilitates
Mankato illustrates some of the
demands placed on the engineering
staff of an independent-power proj-
ect to accommodate the vagaries of
todays electricity market. In years
past, if a vertically integrated electric
3. Chlorine contact basin was added to ensure the suitability of water for cool- utility were to build a project such
ing-tower use. Adjacent building is home to wastewater treatment equipment as Mankato, it probably would have
built the entire 2 1 facility and
waited for the demand to grow.
filtered using high-efficiency cloth design meets Californias Title 22 Independent producers cannot
media (Fig 4). It is then pumped standards. afford such luxury. The build it and
(Fig 5) to the powerplant via the n Cooling-tower blowdown is returned they will come mentality does not
reclaimed-water pipeline shown to the treatment plant and enters apply. Joe Kadingo, WorleyParsons
in Fig 2. Note that the cooling at the inlet to the existing chlori- project manager for Mankato, says
tower requires about 400-500 gpm nation/dechlorination system for that piping, electrical, and other sys-
in winter, 2500-3000 gpm in sum- final treatment prior to discharge tems were designed to accommodate
mer; it operates at three to four to the river. a rapid transition from the 1 1 to a
cycles of concentration. Facility The bottom line: The city won 2 1 configuration.
COMBINED CYCLE JOURNAL, Fourth Quarter 2006 39
tion from Northern States dispatch
4. Filter removes
center is possible. Future participa-
particulates from
tion in the ancillary services market
is under consideration.
makeup (left)
Steam turbine. Two interesting
aspects of this project concern the
5. Pumping sta- steam turbine/generator. First, elec-
tion pushes water trical sendout from the steamer is at
from the new rec- 345 kV, that from the GTs 115 kV.
lamation facility Second, the turbine, repurposed from
to the powerplant a cancelled project, was rated 400
(below) MW. Manufacturer Toshiba Interna-
tional Corp reportedly modified the
unit to ensure the best efficiency pos-
sible at the 330 MW required for the
2 1 configuration. Calls to the OEM
for more detail
were not returned.
One of the chal-
lenges facing the
operations staff:
Cold starts in the
1 1 configuration.
Balancing of steam
flows has been dif-
ficult. Basic rea-
son is that the GT
must be operating at 60% of its full-
load rating within 185 minutes after
startup to ensure emissions will be
within permitted limits. HRSG (heat-
recovery steam generator) steam flow
and temperature at the 60% GT oper-
ating point are not consistent with
One example is the wet cooling iliary cooling-water pump, but that steam-turbine requirements for a cold
tower. It was designed as a 12-cell one might be added in the future to start at the 185-min mark. Engineers
tower to accommodate a 2 1 facility, reduce the parasitic load during unit say 300 minutes is required to get
but only eight were installed initially. cool-down. the proper system balance; plant has
Circ-water system was designed with Jacobs adds that the original oper- applied for a change to its operating
two 50% pumps; one handles 1 1 ating plan for the unit was that it permit for cold starts.
cooling requirements. would run Monday through Friday. Temperature matching challenges
Plant Manager Dave Jacobs, who But in the real world, things rarely on cold starts is something you hear
directs the 17-person Calpine opera- go as planned. In the shoulder about from many plant managers.
tions team responsible for running months, the unit is operating some For more on the subject, see the
Mankato, says that the circ-water of the time at about 250 MW. AGC Cosumnes profile elsewhere in the
system was designed without an aux- (automatic generation control) opera- Class of 2006 report. ccj
40 COMBINED CYCLE JOURNAL, Fourth Quarter 2006