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Techniques of Differentiation

Mathematics 53

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

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For today

1 Differentiation Rules

2 The Chain Rule

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For today

1 Differentiation Rules

2 The Chain Rule

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
Let f and g be functions and c R.

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
Let f and g be functions and c R.
If f (x) = c R, then f 0 (x) = 0.

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
Let f and g be functions and c R.
If f (x) = c R, then f 0 (x) = 0.

(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
Let f and g be functions and c R.
If f (x) = c R, then f 0 (x) = 0.

(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

If f (x) = c g(x), then f 0 (x) = c g 0 (x) if g 0 (x) exists.

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
Let f and g be functions and c R.
If f (x) = c R, then f 0 (x) = 0.

(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

If f (x) = c g(x), then f 0 (x) = c g 0 (x) if g 0 (x) exists.

If h(x) = f (x) + g(x), then h0 (x) = f 0 (x) + g 0 (x), provided both


f 0 (x) and g 0 (x) exist.

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
(Product Rule) If h(x) = f (x)g(x), then
h0 (x) = f 0 (x)g(x) + f (x)g 0 (x),
provided f 0 (x) and g 0 (x) both exist.

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Differentiation Rules

Theorem
(Product Rule) If h(x) = f (x)g(x), then
h0 (x) = f 0 (x)g(x) + f (x)g 0 (x),
provided f 0 (x) and g 0 (x) both exist.

f (x)
(Quotient Rule) If h(x) = , where g(x) 6= 0, then
g(x)
g(x)f 0 (x) f (x)g 0 (x)
h0 (x) = ,
[g(x)]2
provided f 0 (x) and g 0 (x) both exist.

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Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.

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Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

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Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

Dx [c]

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Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

f (x + x) f (x)
Dx [c] = lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 6 / 32


Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

f (x + x) f (x)
Dx [c] = lim
x0 x
cc
= lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 6 / 32


Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

f (x + x) f (x)
Dx [c] = lim
x0 x
cc
= lim
x0 x
0
= lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 6 / 32


Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

f (x + x) f (x)
Dx [c] = lim
x0 x
cc
= lim
x0 x
0
= lim
x0 x
= lim 0
x0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 6 / 32


Theorem
If f (x) = c R, then f 0(x) = 0.
Proof.

f (x + x) f (x)
Dx [c] = lim
x0 x
cc
= lim
x0 x
0
= lim
x0 x
= lim 0
x0
=0

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Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

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Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

Dx [ x3 ]

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Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

(x + x)3 x3
Dx [ x3 ] = lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

(x + x)3 x3
Dx [ x3 ] = lim
x0 x
x + 3x2 (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3 x3
3
= lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

(x + x)3 x3
Dx [ x3 ] = lim
x0 x
x + 3x2 (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3 x3
3
= lim
x0 x
3x (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3
2
= lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

(x + x)3 x3
Dx [ x3 ] = lim
x0 x
x + 3x2 (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3 x3
3
= lim
x0 x
3x (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3
2
= lim
x0 x
= lim (3x + 3x(x) + (x)2 )
2
x0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 7 / 32


Theorem
(Power Rule) If f (x) = xn , where n Q, then f 0 (x) = nxn1 .

We will show this for n = 3. We consider f (x) = x3 .

(x + x)3 x3
Dx [ x3 ] = lim
x0 x
x + 3x2 (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3 x3
3
= lim
x0 x
3x (x) + 3x(x)2 + (x)3
2
= lim
x0 x
= lim (3x + 3x(x) + (x)2 )
2
x0
2
= 3x

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Examples

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Examples

Dx [x5 ]

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ]

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ]

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

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Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx
d d 4 d
= [2x4 ] [ 5 x] + [7]
dx dx dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx
d d 4 d
= [2x4 ] [ 5 x] + [7]
dx dx dx
= 8x3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx
d d 4 d
= [2x4 ] [ 5 x] + [7]
dx dx dx
= 8x3 45 21 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx
d d 4 d
= [2x4 ] [ 5 x] + [7]
dx dx dx
= 8x3 45 21 x + 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 8 / 32


Examples

Dx [x5 ] = 5x51 = 5x4

Dx [(2x)5 ] = Dx [32x5 ] = 32 5x4 = 160x4

(Note that the derivative is not 5(2x)4 which is 80x4 .)

d
[2x4 45 x + 7]
dx
d d 4 d
= [2x4 ] [ 5 x] + [7]
dx dx dx
= 8x3 45 21 x + 0
2
= 8x3
5 x
.

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Examples

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Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3),

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

d 4
[(3x5 + 6x 3 2)(4x3 5 3 x)]
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

d 4
[(3x5 + 6x 3 2)(4x3 5 3 x)]
dx
1
= (15x4 + 8x 3 )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

d 4
[(3x5 + 6x 3 2)(4x3 5 3 x)]
dx
1
= (15x4 + 8x 3 )(4x3 5 3 x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

d 4
[(3x5 + 6x 3 2)(4x3 5 3 x)]
dx
1 4
= (15x4 + 8x 3 )(4x3 5 3 x) + (3x5 + 6x 3 2)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples

If y = (x 3)(2x2 3), then y = 2x3 6x2 3x + 9 and so

y 0 = 6x2 12x 3.

Alternatively, we may also use the Product Rule.

Dx [(x 3)(2x2 3)] = (1)(2x2 3) + (x 3)(4x)


= 2x2 3 + 4x2 12x
= 6x2 12x 3.

d 4
[(3x5 + 6x 3 2)(4x3 5 3 x)]
dx
1 4 2
= (15x4 + 8x 3 )(4x3 5 3 x) + (3x5 + 6x 3 2)(12x2 5 13 x 3 ).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 9 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5

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Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5

f 0 (x) = .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)
f 0 (x) = .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 )
f 0 (x) = .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)
f 0 (x) = .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x

= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x

(2x3 4 x 3x)
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x
1
(2x3 4 x 3x)(8x3
2 x
)
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x
1
(2x3 4 x 3x)(8x3
2 x
) (2x4 x + 2)
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x
1
(2x3 4 x 3x)(8x3 ) (2x4 x + 2)(6x2 2 3)
2 x x
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Examples
2x3 x3 + 4
If f (x) = , then
3x 5
(3x 5)(6x2 + 3x4 ) (2x3 x3 + 4)(3)
f 0 (x) = .
(3x 5)2


2x4 x + 2
 
d

dx 2x3 4 x 3x
1
(2x3 4 x 3x)(8x3 ) (2x4 x + 2)(6x2 2 3)
2 x x
= .
(2x3 4 x 3x)2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 10 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x
2 Dx [cos x] = sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x
2 Dx [cos x] = sin x
3 Dx [tan x] = sec2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x
2 Dx [cos x] = sin x
3 Dx [tan x] = sec2 x
4 Dx [cot x] = csc2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x
2 Dx [cos x] = sin x
3 Dx [tan x] = sec2 x
4 Dx [cot x] = csc2 x
5 Dx [sec x] = sec x tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Theorem
1 Dx [sin x] = cos x
2 Dx [cos x] = sin x
3 Dx [tan x] = sec2 x
4 Dx [cot x] = csc2 x
5 Dx [sec x] = sec x tan x
6 Dx [csc x] = csc x cot x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 11 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

Dx [ sin x ]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

sin(x + x) sin x
Dx [ sin x ] = lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

sin(x + x) sin x
Dx [ sin x ] = lim
x0 x
sin x cos(x) + cos x sin(x) sin x
= lim
x0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

sin(x + x) sin x
Dx [ sin x ] = lim
x0 x
sin x cos(x) + cos x sin(x) sin x
= lim
x0 x
 
sin(x) 1 cos(x)
= lim cos x sin x
x0 x x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

sin(x + x) sin x
Dx [ sin x ] = lim
x0 x
sin x cos(x) + cos x sin(x) sin x
= lim
x0 x
 
sin(x) 1 cos(x)
= lim cos x sin x
x0 x x
= (cos x)(1) (sin x)(0)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Theorem
Dx [sin x] = cos x

Proof.

sin(x + x) sin x
Dx [ sin x ] = lim
x0 x
sin x cos(x) + cos x sin(x) sin x
= lim
x0 x
 
sin(x) 1 cos(x)
= lim cos x sin x
x0 x x
= (cos x)(1) (sin x)(0)
= cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 12 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x]
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = ,
1 + tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
f 0 (x) =

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)
f 0 (x) =

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1)
f 0 (x) =

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)
f 0 (x) =

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


=2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x cos x + sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x cos x + sin x ( sin x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x cos x + sin x ( sin x)) = 2(cos2 x sin2 x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


Examples
d
[3 sin x 7 cos x] = 3 cos x + 7 sin x
dx

Dx [sec x csc x] = (sec x tan x)(csc x) + (sec x)( csc x cot x)

cot x x
If f (x) = , then
1 + tan x
(1 + tan x)( csc2 x 1) (cot x x)(sec2 x)
f 0 (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

Dx [sin(2x)] = Dx [2 sin x cos x] = 2Dx [sin x cos x]


= 2 (cos x cos x + sin x ( sin x)) = 2(cos2 x sin2 x) = 2 cos(2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 13 / 32


For today

1 Differentiation Rules

2 The Chain Rule

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 14 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 ))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy
=
dx du

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy du
=
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy du
= or
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy du
= or Dx [f (u)]
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy du
= or Dx [f (u)] = f 0 (u)
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Theorem (Chain Rule)


If the function g is differentiable at x = x0 and the function f is
differentiable at g(x0 ), then (f g)(x) is differentiable at x = x0 and

(f g)0 (x0 ) = f 0 (g(x0 )) g 0 (x0 ).

Remark
The chain rule can also be stated in the following manner:
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) , then
dy dy du
= or Dx [f (u)] = f 0 (u)Dx [u].
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 15 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Dx [(2x)5 ]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Dx [(2x)5 ] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Dx [(2x)5 ] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = 5[g(x)]4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Dx [(2x)5 ] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = 5[g(x)]4 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find Dx [(2x)5 ].

Solution
Note that (2x)5 = (f g)(x) where f (x) = x5 and g(x) = 2x.
We have

f 0 (x) = 5x4 and g 0 (x) = 2.

Using chain rule,

Dx [(2x)5 ] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = 5[g(x)]4 2 = 10(2x)4 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 16 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)] = f 0 (g(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (cos[g(x)])

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (cos[g(x)]) (2)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Determine Dx [sin(2x)].

Solution
We have sin(2x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 2x.
So,

f 0 (x) = cos x and g 0 (x) = 2

and by the chain rule,

Dx [sin(2x)] = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (cos[g(x)]) (2) = 2 cos(2x).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 17 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (2 cos g(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (2 cos g(x)) (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
Find h0 (x) if h(x) = 2 sin(x2 ).

Solution
Note that h(x) = (f g)(x) where f (x) = 2 sin x and g(x) = x2 .
Now,

f 0 (x) = 2 cos x and g 0 (x) = 2x.

Using chain rule,

h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x) = (2 cos g(x)) (2x) = 4x cos x2 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 18 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy dy
=
dx du

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy dy du
=
dx du dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy dy du 1
= =
dx du dx 2 u

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy dy du 1
= = (3x2 sec2 x)
dx du dx 2 u

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
dy
Find if y = x3 tan x.
dx

Solution

We let y = u and u = x3 tan x.
Thus,
dy dy du 1 3x2 sec2 x
= = (3x2 sec2 x) = .
dx du dx 2 u 2 x3 tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 19 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x) = f10 ((f2 f3 )(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x) = f10 ((f2 f3 )(x)) f20 (f3 (x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x) = f10 ((f2 f3 )(x)) f20 (f3 (x)) f30 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x) = f10 ((f2 f3 )(x)) f20 (f3 (x)) f30 (x)

2 It may help to think that :

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Remarks
1 The chain rule can also be extended to a finite composition of
functions.
To illustrate,
(f1 f2 f3 )0 (x) = f10 ((f2 f3 )(x)) f20 (f3 (x)) f30 (x)

2 It may help to think that :


The derivative of f (g(x)) is the derivative of the outside function
evaluated at the inside function times the derivative of the inside
function.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 20 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx
d
[sec(cos x)]
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx
d
[sec(cos x)] = sec(cos x) tan(cos x)
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx
d d
[sec(cos x)] = sec(cos x) tan(cos x) [cos x]
dx dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx
d d
[sec(cos x)] = sec(cos x) tan(cos x) [cos x]
dx dx
= sec(cos x) tan(cos x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Examples

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ]

Dx [(3x2 x 6)27 ] = 27(3x2 x 6)26 Dx [3x2 x 6]


= 27(3x2 x 6)26 (6x 1).

d
[sec(cos x)]
dx
d d
[sec(cos x)] = sec(cos x) tan(cos x) [cos x]
dx dx
= sec(cos x) tan(cos x) ( sin x).

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 21 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx
+(2x 1)100

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx
+(2x 1)100 200(2 x)199

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx
+(2x 1)100 200(2 x)199 (1)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx
+(2x 1)100 200(2 x)199 (1)
= (2x 1)99 (2 x)199 [200(2 x) 200(2x 1)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

y = (2x 1)100 (2 x)200

dy
= 100(2x 1)99 2 (2 x)200
dx
+(2x 1)100 200(2 x)199 (1)
= (2x 1)99 (2 x)199 [200(2 x) 200(2x 1)]
= 600(1 x)(2x 1)99 (2 x)199 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 22 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x

( 2x csc x)
=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ]
=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4
=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2


( 2x csc x)
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5
( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3
( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 )
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3 5
( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 ) (2x 2 + 2)4
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3 5

( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 ) (2x 2 + 2)4 212x
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3 5

( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 ) (2x 2 + 2)4 212x 2
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3 5
 
( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 ) (2x 2 + 2)4 212x 2 + csc x cot x
= .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example
" 5
#
(2x 2 + 2)4
Dx
2x csc x
5 5
( 2x csc x) Dx [(2x 2 + 2)4 ] (2x 2 + 2)4 Dx [ 2x csc x]
=
( 2x csc x)2

5 3 5
 
( 2x csc x) 4(2x 2 + 2)3 (5x 2 ) (2x 2 + 2)4 212x 2 + csc x cot x
= .
( 2x csc x)2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 23 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 ,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x)) 2(h(x))

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x)) 2(h(x)) sec2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x)) 2(h(x)) sec2 x
= cos(tan2 x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x)) 2(h(x)) sec2 x
= cos(tan2 x) 2(tan x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

F (x) = sin(tan2 x) = (f g h)(x)


f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x2 , h(x) = tan x
f 0 (x) = cos x, g 0 (x) = 2x, h0 (x) = sec2 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 ((g h)(x)) g 0 (h(x)) h0 (x)


= cos((g h)(x)) 2(h(x)) sec2 x
= cos(tan2 x) 2(tan x) sec2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 24 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 25 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 25 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

= cos(tan2 x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 25 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

= cos(tan2 x) 2(tan x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 25 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [sin(tan2 x)]

= cos(tan2 x) 2(tan x) sec2 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 25 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 26 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [cos2 (cot 4x)]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 26 / 32


The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [cos2 (cot 4x)]

= 2 cos(cot 4x)

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The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [cos2 (cot 4x)]

= 2 cos(cot 4x) ( sin(cot 4x))

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The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [cos2 (cot 4x)]

= 2 cos(cot 4x) ( sin(cot 4x)) ( csc2 4x)

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The Chain Rule

Example

Dx [cos2 (cot 4x)]

= 2 cos(cot 4x) ( sin(cot 4x)) ( csc2 4x) (4)

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Theorem

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Theorem
1 If f is continuous at x = x0 from the left and lim f 0 (x) exists, then
xx
0
0
f0 (x0 ) = lim f (x).
xx
0

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Theorem
1 If f is continuous at x = x0 from the left and lim f 0 (x) exists, then
xx
0
0
f0 (x0 ) = lim f (x).
xx
0

2 If f is continuous at x = x0 from the right and lim f 0 (x) exists, then


xx+
0

f+0 (x0 ) = lim f 0 (x).


xx+
0

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Example
Determine if
x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

is differentiable at x0 = 1.

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Example
Determine if
x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

is differentiable at x0 = 1.

Solution. We first check continuity of f (x) at x = 1.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 28 / 32


Example
Determine if
x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

is differentiable at x0 = 1.

Solution. We first check continuity of f (x) at x = 1.

f (1) = 1
lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 1
x1 x1+

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 28 / 32


Example
Determine if
x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

is differentiable at x0 = 1.

Solution. We first check continuity of f (x) at x = 1.

f (1) = 1
lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 1
x1 x1+

f (x) is continuous at x = 1.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 28 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

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x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

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x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x)


x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 29 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2(1) = 2


x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 29 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2(1) = 2


x1
f+0 (1) = lim f 0 (x)
x1+

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 29 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2(1) = 2


x1
f+0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2
x1+

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 29 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2(1) = 2


x1
f+0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2
x1+

f0 (1) = f+0 (1) = 2,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 29 / 32


x2 , x < 1

f (x) =
1 2x , x 1

We have

2x , x < 1
f 0 (x) =
2 , x > 1.

Thus,

f0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2(1) = 2


x1
f+0 (1) = lim f 0 (x) = 2
x1+

f0 (1) = f+0 (1) = 2,


= f (x) is differentiable at x = 1 and f 0 (1) = 2

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Example
Determine if the following function is differentiable at x = 1:
 2
x +x+2 , x1
g(x) =
3x , x > 1

Solution. It can be shown that g is discontinuous at x = 1.

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Example
Determine if the following function is differentiable at x = 1:
 2
x +x+2 , x1
g(x) =
3x , x > 1

Solution. It can be shown that g is discontinuous at x = 1.


However,

0 2x + 1 , x < 1
g (x) =
3 , x>1

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Example
Determine if the following function is differentiable at x = 1:
 2
x +x+2 , x1
g(x) =
3x , x > 1

Solution. It can be shown that g is discontinuous at x = 1.


However,

0 2x + 1 , x < 1
g (x) =
3 , x>1

= lim g 0 (x) = 3 and lim g 0 (x) = 3


x1 x1+

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 30 / 32


Example
Determine if the following function is differentiable at x = 1:
 2
x +x+2 , x1
g(x) =
3x , x > 1

Solution. It can be shown that g is discontinuous at x = 1.


However,

0 2x + 1 , x < 1
g (x) =
3 , x>1

= lim g 0 (x) = 3 and lim g 0 (x) = 3


x1 x1+

Warning! We cannot conclude that g(x) is differentiable at x = 1. (Why?)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Techniques of Differentiation Mathematics 53 30 / 32


Example
Determine if the following function is differentiable at x = 1:
 2
x +x+2 , x1
g(x) =
3x , x > 1

Solution. It can be shown that g is discontinuous at x = 1.


However,

0 2x + 1 , x < 1
g (x) =
3 , x>1

= lim g 0 (x) = 3 and lim g 0 (x) = 3


x1 x1+

Warning! We cannot conclude that g(x) is differentiable at x = 1. (Why?)


In fact, g is not differentiable at x = 1. (Why?)

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* * * The End * * *

Next Meeting:
Implicit Differentiation
Higher Order Derivative
Local Linear Approximation and Differentials

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Exercise
1 Find f 0 (x) if
f (x) = sin3 (2x3 2x).
2 Given
2 3 x x2 , x 1
f (x) = ,
tan(x2 1) 5x2/3 , x < 1

find f 0 (1), if it exists.

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