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Richard Andreyo

20 Sept. 2017

Readings for Rhetorical Proofs

Emotion is a natural instinctive state of mind deriving from ones circumstances, mood, or
relationships with others. Emotional appeals are powerful tools for influencing what people think
and believe. People make decisions based on their feelings. Many companies use ads to
capitalize on their sales based on our emotions. Speakers utilize emotions to build bridges with
their audience especially important when youre writing about matters that readers regard as
sensitive. Before the public trusts you, they will want assurances you understand the issues in
depth. If the speaker strikes the right emotional speech, he/she will have established a
meaningful connection through emotions. Issues such as racism or abortion will automatically
provoke strong feelings and involve emotional arguments of the public.

Humor is the quality of being amusing or comic, especially as expressed in literature or speech.
A speaker will use humor in an argument to put their audience at ease to make them more open
to lean toward the speakers viewpoint. Public speakers, such as politicians, uses humor to sway
an audience to accept their argument. In the world of arguments, not all humor is meant to be
well-intentioned. Ridicule is the most powerful form of emotional argument aimed at a particular
target. Professional, entertaining speakers do not just tell jokes; they use humor to illustrate their
message effectively. If a speaker is going to use humor in their speech, it is critical to know their
audience. Speakers should research all about their demographics, interests and political leanings
of their audience to prevent the speaker from putting their foot in their mouth by accident.

Trustworthiness and credibility refer to the degree to which the audience considers the writer
believable or what the audience thinks of the writer. It involves three areas: expertise (knowledge
or ability ascribed to the writer), trustworthiness (authors honesty and character), and goodwill
(writer shows understanding of others ideas and empathic with their audiences problems). A
writer perceived as an individual of integrity and character, with rich knowledge and goodwill is
more credible and gains the audiences trust. If the viewers consider the writer sincere and
competent, they will be receptive to their ideas and more likely to change their attitudes toward
the subject. Authors demonstrate their competency in speaking by taking advantage of the
audiences senses to help express them precisely by presenting their ideas vividly. They appeal
to the publics senses by using specific and concrete words and phrases or by providing details.
Writers should proofread their writing to ensure the correct rules of grammar, punctuation, and
spelling because without correctness their writing will most likely be unclear, and credibility
damaged in the eyes of the audience.

Motives are a reason for doing something especially one that is hidden or not visible. Writers
preparing for their speeches should come clean about their motives. Arguments with suspicious
motives will not be very influential to their audience. The public will point out mistakes and
criticize the argument based on associated affiliations. The writer should be prepared to respond
to the audience inquiries. Politicians are well known for their hidden motives in their political
schemes in politics. Politicians, especially during their campaigns trails, contain significant
amounts of criticism, and these candidates must be prepared to rebuke those arguments.

Facts are the pieces of information used as evidence or as part of a report or news article. Factual
arguments attempt to establish whether something is true or just false. They become arguments
when theyre controversial in themselves or used to challenge or change peoples beliefs. The
purpose of factual arguments is to educate the audiences. These arguments broaden readers
perspectives and help make judgments by better information. The writer should use hard
evidence, research and go to primary sources for evidence.

Statistics are facts or pieces of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data. A reliable
statistic can be very helpful in convincing an audience of the validity of your argument. The
trouble with statistics is that its easy to lie with them. Charts and graphs can be manipulated to
distort the facts. Statistics need to be current and taken from an important resource. Government
and academic resources are reliable, unbiased providers of statistical information.

Surveys and polls are an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people based
on a series of questions. Polls have become valuable to find out what people think about a
subject. Polling or survey site must contain the actual content of the study, the questions asked of
participants, dates during which the poll conducted, number of participants, and the sampling
error. Legitimate pollsters have a website page devoted to news reports based on their votes.
Some support groups attack legitimate pollsters and polls by twisting their data. Any poll-based
report must make the full source information available to its readers otherwise its not acceptable

Testimonies are a spoken or written account of connected events. The evidence comes in two
types as eyewitness and expert. Witness statements reported from people who directly
experience some event. First-hand testimony can give the audience a sense of being there.
Experts may also have direct experience, but their testimony backed by more formal knowledge,
methods, and training. Brian Williams anchored NBC Nightly News fabricated his eyewitness
story of traveling in a helicopter that was hit by a rocket propelled grenade after a veteran
involved questioned the event. He was riding in another helicopter that was the one hit. This
incident shows that even the most trusted reporter is capable of giving false eyewitness account
in their new stories to the public.

Logic is the reasoning conducted according to strict principles of validity. Logic is about whether
or not the support is adequate. If the logic is not sufficient, it doesnt matter what the premises
are about; they wont provide adequate support for the conclusion. Premises are there to give
support for the conclusion. A person only inspects the truth of the premises once they know that
the logic is adequate. The first step in assessing arguments is to make sure they succeed
logically. Arguments can fail by either having a bad logical structure or by false premises.

Analogies are the comparison between two things for clarification. To argue by analogy is to
argue because two things are similar, what applies to one is also true of the other which is called
analogical arguments. Analogical arguments rely on analogies so that any two objects are similar
in some ways and different in others. It is important to make clear in what ways the two things
are supposed to be similar. The writer must make sure that those aspects which are similar are
relevant to the conclusion. Analogical arguments occur in discussions of law, ethics, and politics.

Precedent is the decision of a court which has a particular legal significance lies in the courts
decision regarded as having practical, and not merely theoretical, authority over the content of
the law. Its an earlier event or action that observed as a guide to considered in subsequent
similar circumstances. The basis for deciding whether one case is a precedent for another in law
has been the subject of debate for generations. An argument based on legal precedent includes
analogizing one instance from facts of example cases and disputing for a particular rule to be
adopted. A person also exams what rules past courts used and why. They would argue which
courts are correct or wrong based on how interpretation the Constitution.

Authority is the power or right to give orders, make decisions and enforce obedience. When
addressing arguments, make sure the author has the claiming authority to make individual
claims. The past experiences dealing with the author make the audience more willing to listen to
the argument. Each person has experience in different fields of work. Authors must be particular
when establishing credentials in their writing. In this way, the audience will have more of a
reason to believe the arguments made in the text.