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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated

enerated on 2017-10-25

1. How does Gastrin How does Gastrin influence gastric acid 5. Which chromosomal Which chromosomal trisomy is associated
influence gastric acid secretion?? trisomy is associated with duodenal atresia?
secretion?? Increase with duodenal Trisomy 21
[...] atresia?
[...]

Occurs due to a failure of the duodenum to


recanalize.

6. [...] is a GI hormone Motilin is a GI hormone secreted by the


secreted by the small small intestine that functions to produce
intestine that migratory motor complexes (MMCs).
functions to
produce migratory
motor complexes Hence, motilin receptor agonists are
(MMCs). used to stimulate intestinal peristalsis.
2. Which type of inguinal Which type of inguinal hernia involves
hernia involves protrusion of the bowel through the
7. [...] is a macrolide Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that
protrusion of the internal inguinal ring, external inguinal
antibiotic that also also acts as a Motilin agonist, thereby
bowel through the ring and into the scrotum?
acts as a Motilin stimulating intestinal peristalsis.
internal inguinal Indirect Inguinal hernia
agonist, thereby
ring, external
stimulating intestinal
inguinal ring and
peristalsis.
into the scrotum?
[...]
8. How does How does Somatostatin influence gastric
Somatostatin acid secretion?
3. To which plasma To which plasma protein does
influence gastric acid Decrease
protein does unconjugated/indirect bilirubin bind?
secretion?
unconjugated/indirect Albumin
[...]
bilirubin bind?
[...]
9. How does CCK How does CCK influence pancreatic
influence pancreatic secretion?
secretion? Increase
[...]

This is done indirectly.


CCK acts on neural muscarinic pathways
4. Which abdominal Which abdominal muscle gives rise to the to trigger pancreatic secretion.
muscle gives rise to cremasteric muscle and fascia?
the cremasteric Internal oblique 10. [...] is a Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a
muscle and fascia? parasympathetic parasympathetic transmitter that triggers
[...] transmitter that release of Gastrin from G cells.
triggers release of
Gastrin from G cells.
It is unaffected by Atropine which blocks
ACh action.

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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated on 2017-10-25

11. How do Gastrin How do Gastrin levels change in 17. What is the most What is the most common type of Hiatal
levels change in Zollinger-Ellision Syndrome? common type of Hernia?
Zollinger-Ellision Increase Hiatal Hernia? Sliding Hiatal hernia
Syndrome? [...]
[...]

12. What is the site of What is the site of protrustion in an Indirect 18. [...] is a non-alpha, VIPoma is a non-alpha, non-beta islet cell
protrustion in an Inguinal Hernia? non-beta islet cell pancreatic tumour that secretes VIP,
Indirect Inguinal Internal Inguinal Ring pancreatic tumour thereby causing copious watery diarrhea,
Hernia? that secretes VIP, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
[...] thereby causing
copious watery
Indirect = Internal diarrhea, WDHA Syndrome:
hypokalemia and - Watery Diarrhea
achlorhydria. - Hypokalemia
- Achlorhydria

19. What is the lymphatic What is the lymphatic drainage of the


drainage of the rectum below the pectinate line?
rectum below the Superficial Inguinal Nodes
13. Which pancreatic Which pancreatic enzyme functions in pectinate line?
enzyme functions in starch digestion? [...]
starch digestion? alpha-amylase
[...] 20. How does How does Somatostatin influence small
Somatostatin intestine secretion?
influence small Decrease
Secreted in its active form. intestine secretion?
[...]
14. How does Secretin How does Secretin influence gastric acid
influence gastric acid secretion? 21. In which anatomical In which anatomical direction do arteries
secretion? Decrease direction do arteries that supply the GI tract branch off the
[...] that supply the GI abdominal aorta?
tract branch off the Anteriorly
abdominal aorta?
15. Which abdominal Which abdominal fascia gives rise to the [...]
fascia gives rise to internal spermatic fascia?
the internal spermatic Transversalis fascia
fascia?
[...]

16. What structure is What structure is contained within the


contained within the Falciform ligament?
Falciform ligament? Ligamentum teres hepatis
[...]

Which develops from the fetal umbilical


vein.

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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated on 2017-10-25

22. Which artery supplies Which artery supplies the rectum above 25. How does a How does a decrease in pH influence
the rectum above the pectinate line? decrease in pH pepsin activity?
the pectinate line? Superior Rectal artery (from the IMA) influence pepsin Increase
[...] activity?
[...]

Pepsin is activated by gastric acid via


conversion from pepsinogen.

26. The [...] is a GI The gastrosplenic ligament is a GI


ligament that ligament that connects the greater
connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the spleen.
curvature of the
stomach to the
spleen.

27. Which Which monosaccharide transporter uptakes


monosaccharide fructose at the enterocyte brush border via
transporter uptakes facilitated diffusion?
fructose at the GLUT-5
enterocyte brush
border via facilitated
diffusion?
23. Where in the Where in the stomach are G cells found? [...]
stomach are G cells Antrum
found?
28. [...] is a type of Hiatal Sliding Hiatal Hernia is a type of Hiatal
[...]
hernia that involves hernia that involves superior
superior displacement of the gastroesophageal
displacement of the junction, thereby yielding an "hourglass
gastroesophageal stomach."
junction, thereby
yielding an
"hourglass
stomach."

24. To which compound To which compound is bilirubin


is bilirubin conjugated?
conjugated? Glucuronate
[...]

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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated on 2017-10-25

29. Which parts of the Which parts of the colon are 33. Where in the small Where in the small intestine are I-cells
colon are retroperitoneal? intestine are I-cells found?
retroperitoneal? Ascending and descending found? Duodenum; Jejunum
[...] [...]

34. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete Gastrin?
tract secrete Gastrin? G cells
[...]

30. Which Which monosaccharide transporter uptakes


monosaccharide glucose and galactose at the enterocyte
transporter uptakes brush border?
glucose and SGLUT1 (with Na)
galactose at the
enterocyte brush
border?
[...]

35. What structure is What structure is contained in the


31. [...] is a feature of Cyanosis is a feature of congenital contained in the Gastrocolic Ligament?
congenital trancheoesophageal anomalies that occurs Gastrocolic Gastroepiploic arteries
trancheoesophageal secondary to laryngospasm which Ligament?
anomalies that occurs to avoid reflux-related aspiration. [...]
occurs secondary to
laryngospasm which
36. How does How does Glucose-dependent
occurs to avoid
Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) influence
reflux-related
Insulinotropic Peptide insulin release?
aspiration.
(GIP) influence Increase
insulin release?
32. How does How does Somatostatin influence insulin [...]
Somatostatin and glucagon release?
influence insulin and Decrease
37. The [...] is the The Ampulla of Vater is the common
glucagon release?
common opening of opening of the common bile duct and main
[...]
the common bile duct pancreatic duct into the duodenum.
and main pancreatic
duct into the
duodenum. Obstruction here can block both pancreatic
and biliary function.

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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated on 2017-10-25

41. Which GI ligament Which GI ligament separates the greater


38. How does Secretin How does Secretin influence gastric acid separates the greater and lesser abdominal sacs?
influence gastric acid secretion?? and lesser abdominal Gastrohepatic ligament
secretion?? Decrease sacs?
[...] [...]

It may be cut during surgery to access the


lesser sac.
39. The [...] is an The pectinate/dentate line is an
anatomical landmark anatomical landmark at the rectum that
at the rectum that forms where the endoderm (i.e. hidgut)
forms where the meets the invaginating ectoderm.
endoderm (i.e.
hidgut) meets the
invaginating
ectoderm.
42. Which layer of the GI Which layer of the GI wall is affected by
wall is affected by erosions?
erosions? Mucosa only
[...]

43. The [...] The middle colic artery anastamoses with


anastamoses with the left colic artery.
the left colic artery.

40. Which portion of the Which portion of the esophagus is 44. The middle colic The middle colic artery anastamoses with
esophagus is retroperitoneal? artery anastamoses the left colic artery.
retroperitoneal? with the [...].
Lower 2/3
[...]
45. What is the venous What is the venous drainage of the rectum
drainage of the below the pectinate line?
rectum below the Inferior rectal vein to Internal pudendal
pectinate line? vein to Internal iliac vein to the IVC
[...]

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46. Which abdominal Which abdominal muscle gives rise to the 51. The [...] is a fascial The femoral sheath is a fascial tube found
muscle gives rise to external spermatic fascia? tube found 3-4 cm 3-4 cm below the inguinal ligament that
the external External oblique below the inguinal contains the femoral vein, artery and deep
spermatic fascia? ligament that inguinal lymph nodes.
[...] contains the femoral
vein, artery and deep
inguinal lymph
nodes.

47. [...] is a congenital GI Gastroschisis is a congenital GI disorder


disorder that involves that involves extrusion of the abdominal
extrusion of the contents through the lateral abdominal
abdominal contents folds.
through the lateral
abdominal folds.
The contents are not covered by
peritoneum. 52. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver is affected 1st by
liver is affected 1st by viral hepatitis?
viral hepatitis? Zone 1/Periportal Zone
48. [...] is a congenital GI Pyloric Stenosis is a congenital GI
[...]
disorder that involves disorder that involves hypertrophy of the
hypertrophy of the pylorus, thereby causing obstruction and a
pylorus, thereby palpable "olive" mass in the epigastric
causing obstruction region.
and a palpable
"olive" mass in the
epigastric region.

49. What is the main What is the main artery that supplies
artery that supplies derivatives of the hindgut?
derivatives of the IMA
hindgut?
[...] Includes distal 1/3 of the transverse 53. Which embryological Which embryological structure gives rise to
colon to the upper portion of the structure gives rise to the pancreas?
rectum. the pancreas? Foregut
Splenic flexure is watershed region. [...]

54. [...] is a Gastrinoma is a gastrin-secreting tumour


gastrin-secreting that yields high levels of acid secretion and
tumour that yields ulcers refractory to medical therapy.
high levels of acid
secretion and ulcers
refractory to medical
therapy.

55. The [...] is a GI The Gastrocolic ligament is a GI ligament


50. How does a How does a decrease in gastric pH ligament that that connects the greater curvature of the
decrease in gastric influence Somatostatin release? connects the greater stomach to the transverse colon.
pH influence Increase curvature of the
Somatostatin stomach to the
release? transverse colon.
[...]
Remember, Somatostatin decreases
gastric acid secretion.

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Anki Glossary: Brosencephalon - Anatomy Physiology > First Aid (without Path/Pharm) > Gastrointestinal (241 cards) Generated on 2017-10-25

56. [...] is a GI disorder Achalasia is a GI disorder that involves an 62. Which embryological Which embryological tissue layer gives rise
that involves an increase in lower esophageal sphincter tissue layer gives rise to the spleen?
increase in lower (LES) resting tone due to loss of NO to the spleen? Mesoderm
esophageal secretion. [...]
sphincter (LES)
resting tone due to
loss of NO The spleen arises in the mesentary of the
secretion. stomach but it is supplied by the foregut
(i.e. the celiac artery).

57. Which embryological Which embryological pancreatic buds


pancreatic buds contribute to the head of the pancreas 63. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia herniates
contribute to the and the main pancreatic duct? inguinal hernia lateral to the inferior epigastric artery?
head of the Ventral pancreatic buds herniates lateral to Indirect
pancreas and the the inferior epigastric
main pancreatic artery?
duct? [...]
[...]

58. Where in the GI tract Where in the GI tract are bile acids
are bile acids absorbed?
absorbed? Terminal ileum
[...]

59. Where in the GI tract Where in the GI tract is iron absorbed?


64. How does How does Tryptophan influence Gastrin
is iron absorbed? Duodenum as Fe2+
Tryptophan influence release?
[...]
Gastrin release? Increase
[...]

60. Where in the GI tract Where in the GI tract is folate absorbed?


is folate absorbed? Jejunum; Ileum
65. What is the venous What is the venous drainage of the rectum
[...]
drainage of the above the pectinate line?
rectum above the Superior rectal vein to Inferior
pectinate line? Mesenteric Vein to Portal System
61. [...] is a type of Indirect Inguinal hernia is a type of [...]
inguinal hernia that inguinal hernia that involves protrustion of
involves protrustion tissue through the internal inguinal ring,
of tissue through the external inguinal ring and into the
66. What is the What is the frequency of basal electric
internal inguinal scrotum.
frequency of basal rhythm at the stomach?
ring, external
electric rhythm at the 3 waves/min
inguinal ring and
stomach?
into the scrotum.
[...]

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67. What are the 3 main What are the 3 main branches of the celiac 71. [...] is a type of Femoral hernia is a type of gastrointestinal
branches of the trunk? gastrointestinal hernia that protrudes below the inguinal
celiac trunk? Common hepatic artery; Splenic artery; hernia that protrudes ligament through the femoral canal and
[...] Left gastric artery below the inguinal below/lateral to the pubic tubercle.
ligament through
Notice the strong anastamoses between the femoral canal
the left and right gastric/gastroepiploic and below/lateral to
arteries. the pubic tubercle.

72. Which type of Which type of hemorrhoids are found


hemorrhoids are below the pectinate line?
found below the External hemorrhoids
pectinate line?
68. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver is most sensitive to [...]
liver is most sensitive metabolic toxins?
to metabolic toxins? Zone 3/Centrilobular Zone 73. [...] is a clinical Esophageal varices is a clinical
[...] manifestation of manifestation of portal HTN at the
portal HTN at the esophagus due to portosystemic
esophagus due to anastomoses between the left gastric vein
portosystemic and the esophageal veins.
anastomoses
between the left
gastric vein and the
esophageal veins.

69. Which abdominal Which abdominal wall fold is associated


wall fold is with bladder exstrophy if it fails to close?
associated with Caudal fold
bladder exstrophy if
it fails to close?
[...]

70. How does vagal How does vagal stimulation influence 74. What is the main What is the main artery that supplies
stimulation influence Somatostatin release? artery that supplies derivatives of the foregut?
Somatostatin Decrease derivatives of the Celiac artery
release? foregut?
[...] [...] Includes the pharynx and lower
esophagus to the proximal duodenum.
Remember, the PSNS generally increases
GI secretion. Somatostatin however works
to generally decrease GI secretion. Hence,
the PSNS inhibits somatostatin release.

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75. The [...] The superior rectal artery anastamoses 79. An [...] is a type of An diaphragmatic hernia is a type of
anastamoses with with the middle and inferior arteries. hernia that involves hernia that involves protrusion of
the middle and protrusion of abdominal structures into the thorax
inferior arteries. abdominal through the diaphragm.
structures into the
thorax through the
76. The superior rectal The superior rectal artery anastamoses
diaphragm. Occurs in infants as a result of defective
artery anastamoses with the middle and inferior arteries.
development of the pleuroperitoneal
with the [...].
membrane.

77. [...] are a type of Internal hemorrhoids are a type of


80. Which section of the Which section of the small intestine is
hemorrhoids found hemorrhoids found above the pectinate
small intestine is associated with Crypts of Lieberkuhn?
above the pectinate line that are not painful as they receive
associated with All of them (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
line that are not visceral innervation.
Crypts of
painful as they
Lieberkuhn?
receive visceral
[...]
innervation.
:)

81. How does CCK How does CCK influence gastric emptying?
influence gastric Decrease
emptying?
[...]

82. What is the What is the parasympathetic innervation of


parasympathetic derivatives of the foregut?
innervation of CN X (vagus)
derivatives of the
foregut?
[...]

83. Which abdominal Which abdominal wall fold is associated


wall fold is with omphalocele and gastroschisis if it
associated with fails to close?
omphalocele and Lateral fold
gastroschisis if it
fails to close?
[...]
78. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete
tract secrete Secretin? 84. What are the What are the contents of the femoral
Secretin? S cells contents of the sheath?
[...] femoral sheath? Femoral artery; Femoral vein; Deep
[...] Inguinal Lymph Nodes

Note, it does not include the femoral


nerve.

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85. What are the What are the contents of the inguinal 89. [...] is a congenital GI Pyloric Stenosis is a congenital GI
contents of the (Hasselbach's) triangle? disorder due to disorder due to hypertrophy of the pylorus
inguinal Inferior epigastric vessels; Lateral hypertrophy of the that presents with nonbilious projectile
(Hasselbach's) border of the rectus abdominus; pylorus that presents vomit at ~2-6 weeks old.
triangle? Inguinal Ligament with nonbilious
[...] projectile vomit at
~2-6 weeks old. Occurs in 1/600 live births.

90. Which Which monosaccharide transporter


monosaccharide transports all monosaccharides across
transporter the basolateral membrane of enterocytes
transports all into the blood?
monosaccharides GLUT2
across the
basolateral
membrane of
86. Which type of Which type of bilirubin is unconjugated?
enterocytes into the
bilirubin is Indirect
blood?
unconjugated?
[...]
[...]

91. What structure is What structure is contained in the


contained in the Gastrohepatic Ligament?
Gastrohepatic Gastric arteries
Ligament?
[...]

87. How does a How does a decrease in duodenal pH


decrease in duodenal influence Secretin levels?
pH influence Secretin Increase
levels?
[...]

Remember, Secretin induces pancreatic


HCO3 secretion. 92. [...] is a type of Hiatal Hernia is a type of diaphragmatic
diaphragmatic hernia hernia where the stomach herniates
where the stomach upward through the esophageal hiatus
88. Which intracellular Which intracellular signalling cascade is
herniates upward of the diaphragm.
signalling cascade is associated with Histamine (H2) action at
through the
associated with parietal cells?
esophageal hiatus
Histamine (H2) action Gs --> cAMP --> gastric acid secretion
of the diaphragm.
at parietal cells?
[...]
93. Which embryological Which embryological pancreatic buds
pancreatic buds contribute to the uncinate process of the
contribute to the pancreas?
uncinate process of Ventral bud
the pancreas?
[...]

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94. Which type of Which type of hemorrhoids are found 98. Which receptor does Which receptor does Gastrin bind to at
hemorrhoids are above the pectinate line? Gastrin bind to at parietal cells to trigger gastric acid
found above the Internal hemorrhoids parietal cells to secretion?
pectinate line? trigger gastric acid CCKB
[...] secretion?
[...]

99. How does How does Somatostatin influence


Somatostatin gallbladder contraction?
influence gallbladder Decrease
contraction?
[...]

100. In which layer of the In which layer of the GI wall is the


GI wall is the Meissner plexus found?
Meissner plexus Submucosa
95. How does CCK How does CCK influence sphincter of Oddi found?
influence sphincter of tone? [...]
Oddi tone? Decrease
[...] i.e. Submucosal plexus

Remember, CCK triggers gallbladder


contraction, so the sphincter of Oddi must
be relaxed at the same time.

96. How does Nitric How does Nitric Oxide influence Lower
Oxide influence Esophageal Sphincter (LES) tone?
Lower Esophageal Decrease
Sphincter (LES)
tone?
101. Which surface of Which surface of hepatocytes faces the
[...]
hepatocytes faces bile canaliculi?
NO pretty much causes smooth muscle
the bile canaliculi? Apical surface
relaxation everywhere. LES included.
[...]

97. What is the most What is the most common type of


common type of diaphragmatic hernia?
diaphragmatic Hiatal Hernia
hernia?
[...]

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102. What are the What are the contents of the Spermatic 108. How does Histamine How does Histamine influence gastric acid
contents of the Cord? influence gastric acid secretion?
Spermatic Cord? External spermatic fascia; Cremasteric secretion? Increase
[...] muscle and fascia; Internal spermatic [...]
fascia

103. Where is Where is Urobilinogen made? 109. Which section of the Which section of the small intestine is
Urobilinogen made? In the gut by normal flora
small intestine is associated with plicae circulares?
[...]
associated with Jejunum; Ileum
plicae circulares?
[...]

110. Which hepatic Which hepatic enzyme functions to


enzyme functions to conjugate bilirubin with glucuronate?
conjugate bilirubin UDP-glucuronyl transferase
with glucuronate?
[...]
104. [...], phospholipase A Lipase, phospholipase A and colipase are
and colipase are pancreatic enzymes that function in fat
pancreatic enzymes digestion.
that function in fat
digestion.

105. Lipase, [...] and Lipase, phospholipase A and colipase


colipase are are pancreatic enzymes that function in fat 111. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete HCO3?
pancreatic enzymes digestion.
tract secrete HCO3? Mucosal cells of the stomach,
that function in fat
[...] duodenum, salivary glands and
digestion.
pancreas

106. Lipase, Lipase, phospholipase A and colipase are


phospholipase A and pancreatic enzymes that function in fat
[...] are pancreatic digestion. 112. [...] is a GI hormone Gastrin is a GI hormone secreted from G
enzymes that
secreted from G cells cells that triggers Histamine release from
function in fat
that triggers Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells in order
digestion.
Histamine release to increase gastric acid secretion.
from Hence, Gastrin has both direct and
107. Which section of the Which section of the small intestine is Enterochromaffin-like indirect effects on parietal cells to
small intestine is associated with Peyer's patches (in the (ECL) cells in order govern gastric acid release.
associated with lamina propria and submucosa)? to increase gastric
Peyer's patches (in Ileum acid secretion.
the lamina propria
and submucosa)?
[...]

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113. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia protrudes 117. What is the What is the parasympathetic innervation of
inguinal hernia through the inguinal (Hasselbach's) parasympathetic derivatives of the hindgut?
protrudes through triangle? innervation of Pelvic Nerve
the inguinal Direct inguinal hernia derivatives of the
(Hasselbach's) hindgut?
triangle? [...]
[...]

118. How does GIP How does GIP influence gastric acid
influence gastric acid secretion?
secretion? Decrease
[...]

119. How does How does Phenylalanine influence Gastrin


114. [...] is a congenital GI Omphalocele is a congenital GI disorder Phenylalanine release?
disorder that involves that involves the persistence of influence Gastrin Increase
the persistence of herniation of abdominal contents into release?
herniation of the umbilical cord. [...]
abdominal contents
into the umbilical
120. What is the lymphatic What is the lymphatic drainage of the
cord.
drainage of the rectum above the pectinate line?
rectum above the Internal iliac nodes
pectinate line?
[...]

121. Which parts of the Which parts of the duodenum are


duodenum are retroperitoneal?
retroperitoneal? 2nd-4th
[...]
The contents are sealed by peritoneum.

115. How does ACh How does ACh influence gastric acid
influence gastric acid secretion?
secretion? Increase
[...]

116. The [...] is a GI The gastrohepatic ligament is a GI


ligament that ligament that connects the liver to the
122. How does stomach How does stomach distention influence
connects the liver to lesser curvature of the stomach.
distention influence Gastrin release?
the lesser curvature
Gastrin release? Increase
of the stomach.
[...]

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123. Which type of Which type of hemorrhoids are not painful 127. What is the vertebral What is the vertebral level of the
hemorrhoids are not as they receive visceral innervation from level of the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?
painful as they above the pectinate line? bifurcation of the L4
receive visceral Internal hemorrhoids abdominal aorta?
innervation from [...]
above the pectinate
line? Bi-four-cation of the abdominal aorta.
[...]

128. In which anatomical In which anatomical direction to arteries


direction to arteries that supply non-GI tract structures
that supply non-GI branch off the abdominal aorta?
tract structures Laterally
branch off the
abdominal aorta?
[...]

124. During which week of During which week of gestation does the
gestation does the midgut return into the abdominal cavity
midgut return into and rotate around the superior mesenteric
the abdominal cavity artery (SMA)?
and rotate around 10th week
the superior
129. Which metabolite of Which metabolite of Urobilinogen gives
mesenteric artery
(SMA)? Urobilinogen gives feces its brown colour?
[...] feces its brown Stercobilin
colour?
[...]
125. What is the What is the frequency of basal electric
frequency of basal rhythm at the duodenum?
electric rhythm at the 12 waves/min
duodenum?
[...]

126. How does an How does an increase in fatty acids,


increase in fatty amino acids and oral glucose influence
acids, amino acids Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
and oral glucose (GIP) release?
influence Increase
Glucose-dependent
Insulinotropic
Peptide (GIP)
release? Oral glucose loads are used more rapidly
[...] by the body versus equivalent IV doses
due to the GIP secretion it stimulates.

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130. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver is the site of 135. Where in the small Where in the small intestine are K cells
liver is the site of alcoholic hepatitis? intestine are K cells found?
alcoholic hepatitis? Zone 3/Centrilobular Zone found? Duodenum; Jejunum
[...] [...]

131. Where in the GI tract Where in the GI tract is vitamin B12


136. The [...] is the The Sphincter of Oddi is the sphincter
is vitamin B12 absorbed?
sphincter that that surrounds the common bile duct.
absorbed? Terminal ileum
surrounds the
[...]
common bile duct.

132. Which type of Which type of hemorroids are painful as


hemorroids are they receive somatic innervation from the
painful as they inferior rectal branch of the pudendal
receive somatic nerve?
innervation from the External hemorrhoids
inferior rectal
branch of the
pudendal nerve?
137. The [...] is a GI The falciform ligament is a GI ligament
[...]
ligament that that connects the liver to the anterior
connects the liver to abdominal wall.
133. During which week of During which week of gestation does the the anterior
gestation does the midgut herniate through the umbilical ring? abdominal wall.
midgut herniate 6th week
through the umbilical
ring?
[...]

134. [...] are a feature of Anorectal varices are a feature of portal


portal HTN that HTN that presents at the rectum due to
presents at the portosystemic anastomoses between the
138. [...] is a protein Intrinsic Factor is a protein secreted by
rectum due to superior rectal vein and the
secreted by parietal parietal cells of the stomach that binds to
portosystemic middle/inferior rectal veins.
cells of the stomach vitamin B12 in order for it to be absorbed
anastomoses
that binds to in the terminal ileum.
between the
vitamin B12 in order
superior rectal vein
for it to be absorbed
and the
in the terminal ileum.
middle/inferior
rectal veins.
139. Which abdominal Which abdominal wall fold is associated
wall fold is with sternal defects if it fails to close?
associated with Rostral fold
sternal defects if it
fails to close?
[...]

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140. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia herniates 144. Which intracellular Which intracellular signalling cascade is
inguinal hernia medial to the Inferior Epigastric Artery? signalling cascade is associated with ACh (M3) and Gastrin
herniates medial to Direct inguinal hernia associated with ACh (CCKB) action at parietal cells?
the Inferior Epigastric (M3) and Gastrin Gq --> IP3/DAG --> increased Ca
Artery? (CCKB) action at
[...] parietal cells?
[...]

141. What structures are What structures are found in the 145. How does How does Somatostatin influence gastric
found in the Splenorenal ligament? Somatostatin acid and pepsinogen secretion?
Splenorenal Splenic artery; Splenic vein; Tail of the influence gastric acid Decrease
ligament? pancreas and pepsinogen
[...] secretion?
[...]

142. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete Intrinsic 146. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver contains the
tract secrete Intrinsic Factor? liver contains the cytochrome P450 system?
Factor? Parietal cells of the stomach cytochrome P450 Zone 3/Centrilobular Zone
[...] system?
[...]

147. How do How do prostaglandins influence gastric


143. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete CCK?
prostaglandins acid secretion?
tract secrete CCK? I cells
influence gastric acid Decrease
[...]
secretion?
[...]

This is why chronic NSAID use can result


in gastric ulcers due to increased gastric
acid secretion.

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148. Which receptor does Which receptor does Histamine bind to on 151. In which layer of the In which layer of the GI wall is the
Histamine bind to on parietal cells in order to trigger gastric acid GI wall is the Myenteric/Auerbach plexus found?
parietal cells in order secretion? Myenteric/Auerbach Muscularis externa
to trigger gastric acid H2 plexus found?
secretion? [...]
[...]

152. Where in the small Where in the small intestine are S cells
intestine are S cells located?
located? Duodenum
149. [...] are a feature of Caput medusae are a feature of portal
[...]
portal HTN that HTN that presents at the umbilicus due to
presents at the the portosystemic anastamoses between
umbilicus due to the the paraumbilical vein and the small
portosystemic epigastric veins of the anterior
anastamoses abdominal wall.
between the
paraumbilical vein
and the small
epigastric veins of
the anterior
abdominal wall.

153. [...], chymotrypsin, Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and


elastase and carboxypeptidase are 4 pancreatic
carboxypeptidase enzymes that function in protein
are 4 pancreatic digestion and are secreted as
enzymes that proenzymes in zymogen form.
function in protein
digestion and are
secreted as
proenzymes in
150. What structures are What structures are found in the
zymogen form.
found in the Gastrosplenic ligament?
Gastrosplenic Short Gastric vessels; Left
ligament? Gastroepiploic vessels 154. Trypsin, [...], Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and
[...] elastase and carboxypeptidase are 4 pancreatic
carboxypeptidase enzymes that function in protein
are 4 pancreatic digestion and are secreted as
enzymes that proenzymes in zymogen form.
function in protein
digestion and are
secreted as
proenzymes in
zymogen form.

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155. Trypsin, Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and 160. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia is typically
chymotrypsin, [...] carboxypeptidase are 4 pancreatic inguinal hernia is seen in older men?
and enzymes that function in protein typically seen in Direct
carboxypeptidase digestion and are secreted as older men?
are 4 pancreatic proenzymes in zymogen form. [...]
enzymes that
function in protein
digestion and are
secreted as
proenzymes in
zymogen form.

156. Trypsin, Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and


chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase are 4 pancreatic 161. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia involves
elastase and [...] are enzymes that function in protein inguinal hernia herniation through the external
4 pancreatic digestion and are secreted as involves herniation (superficial) inguinal ring only?
enzymes that proenzymes in zymogen form. through the external Direct inguinal hernia
function in protein (superficial)
digestion and are inguinal ring only?
secreted as [...]
proenzymes in
zymogen form.

157. Where in the GI tract Where in the GI tract is Vitamin B12


is Vitamin B12 absorbed?
absorbed? Terminal ileum
[...]

162. [...] is a surgically Transjugular Intrahepatic


places shunt that is Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) is a
Requires intrinsic factor.
used to treat portal surgically places shunt that is used to treat
HTN as it shunts portal HTN as it shunts blood flow from
158. Which embryological Which embryological pancreatic bud blood flow from the the portal vein to the hepatic vein.
pancreatic bud contributes to the body, tail and isthmus portal vein to the
contributes to the of the pancreas and accessory hepatic vein.
body, tail and pancreatic ducts? i.e. it directly shunts the portal system into
isthmus of the Dorsal bud systemic circulation
pancreas and
accessory
pancreatic ducts?
[...]

159. Which embryological Which embryological structure develops


structure develops into the GI tract from the duodenum to
into the GI tract from the proximal 2/3 of the transverse
the duodenum to colon?
the proximal 2/3 of Midgut
the transverse
colon?
[...]

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163. What is the vertebral What is the vertebral level of the Superior 167. [...] is a type of Paraesophageal Hernia is a type of
level of the Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA)? diaphragmatic hernia diaphragmatic hernia that involves
Mesenteric Artery L1 that involves protrustion of the fundus of the
(SMA)? protrustion of the stomach into the thorax with
[...] fundus of the preservation of the gastroesophageal
stomach into the junction.
thorax with
preservation of the
gastroesophageal
junction.

168. Which enzyme Which enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting


catalyzes the step of bile synthesis?
rate-limiting step of 7-alpha hydroxylase
bile synthesis?
[...]
164. What section of the What section of the GI tract secretes
GI tract secretes Motilin? 169. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete Pepsin?
Motilin? Small intestine tract secrete Pepsin? Chief cells of the stomach
[...] [...]

165. [...] is a Superior Mesenteric Arter (SMA) 170. Which Which immunoglobulin isotype is
cardiovascular Syndrome is a cardiovascular syndrome immunoglobulin transported across the epithelium into the
syndrome that that occurs when the transverse/third isotype is transported gut from Peyer patches in the lamina
occurs when the portion of the duodenum is entrapped across the epithelium propria to deal with intraluminal
transverse/third between the SMA and aorta, thereby into the gut from antigens?
portion of the causing intestinal obstruction. Peyer patches in the IgA
duodenum is lamina propria to
entrapped between deal with
the SMA and aorta, intraluminal
thereby causing antigens? i.e. secretory IgA
intestinal obstruction. [...]

166. Which embryological Which embryological structure develops


structure develops into the GI tract from the pharynx to the
into the GI tract from duodenum?
the pharynx to the Foregut
duodenum?
[...] 171. How does a How does a decrease in stomach pH
decrease in stomach influence Gastrin release?
pH influence Gastrin Decrease
release?
[...]

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172. Which sex is more Which sex is more commonly affected by


180. Which submucosal Which submucosal glands of the
commonly affected Congenital Pyloric Stenosis?
by Congenital Pyloric Males glands of the duodenum secrete HCO3?
Stenosis? duodenum secrete Brunner glands
[...] HCO3?
[...]
Seen in 1/600 live births.
181. The [...] is a GI The Splenorenal ligament is a GI
173. Which somatic nerve Which somatic nerve innervates the ligament that ligament that connects the spleen to the
innervates the external hemorrhoids found below the connects the spleen anterior surface of the left kidney,
external pectinate line? to the anterior extending to the posterior abdominal wall.
hemorrhoids found Inferior Rectal Branch of the Pudendal surface of the left
below the pectinate Nerve kidney, extending to
line? the posterior
[...] abdominal wall.

174. How do Motilin levels How do Motilin levels change in the


change in the fasting state?
fasting state? Increase
[...]
182. Which type of Which type of bilirubin is not water
bilirubin is not water soluble?
This is why we tell patients to not feed soluble? Indirect
their children if they happen to swallow [...]
something like a coin or marble.
Fasting state = increased motilin =
increased frequency of MMCs = whatever
was ingested will be pooped out sooner.

175. Which section of the Which section of the small intestine is


small intestine is associated with Brunner glands (in the
associated with submucosa)?
Brunner glands (in Duodenum
183. [...] is a brush-border Enterkinase/Enteropeptidase is a
the submucosa)?
enzyme on the brush-border enzyme on the duodenal and
[...]
duodenal and jejunal jejunal mucosa that functions to convert
mucosa that Trypsinogen into Trypsin.
176. The [...] The superior pancreaticoduodenal functions to convert
anastamoses with artery anastamoses with the inferior Trypsinogen into
the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Trypsin.
pancreaticoduodenal
artery.
184. What is the vertebral What is the vertebral level of the Inferior
level of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA)?
177. The superior The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery Mesenteric Artery L3
pancreaticoduodenal anastamoses with the inferior (IMA)?
artery anastamoses pancreaticoduodenal artery. [...]
with the [...].

178. How does Gastrin How does Gastrin influence growth of the
influence growth of gastric mucosa?
the gastric mucosa? Increase
[...]

179. Which sex is more Which sex is more commonly affected by


commonly affected Indirect Inguinal Hernia?
by Indirect Inguinal Males
Hernia?
[...]

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185. [...] is a congenital GI Annular Pancreas is a congenital GI 188. [...] are a specialized M cells are a specialized cell found in
disorder that involves disorder that involves a ring of pancreatic cell found in peyer peyer patches that sample and present
a ring of pancreatic tissue around the duodenum due to patches that sample antigens to immune cells.
tissue around the abnormal development of the ventral and present
duodenum due to pancreatic bud. antigens to immune
abnormal cells.
development of the This can cause duodenal narrowing.
ventral pancreatic Normally, the ventral pancreatic bud goes
189. What structure is What structure is contained within the
bud. entirely one way around the duodenum to
contained within the Hepatoduodenal Ligament?
form the head of the pancreas. Sometimes
Hepatoduodenal Portal Triad
it can split, forming a ring.
Ligament?
[...]

Portal vein; Proper hepatic artery;


Common bile duct.

186. Which parts of the Which parts of the pancreas are


pancreas are retroperitoneal?
retroperitoneal? All parts except the tail
[...]

190. [...] is a pancreatic


Trypsinogen is a pancreatic enzyme that
enzyme that functions to convert
functions to convert proenzyme/zymogens from the
proenzyme/zymogens pancreas in its active form.
from the pancreas
in its active form.
Trypsin is its active form.

191. Which metabolite of Which metabolite of Urobilinogen gives


Urobilinogen gives urine its yellow colour?
urine its yellow Urobilin
colour?
[...]

187. Which receptor does Which receptor does ACh bind to at


ACh bind to at parietal cells to trigger gastric acid
parietal cells to secretion? 192. Which areas of the Which areas of the GI tract secrete
trigger gastric acid M3
GI tract secrete Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)?
secretion?
Vasoactive Intestinal Parasympathetic ganglia in GI
[...]
Polypeptide (VIP)? sphincters, gallbladder and SI
[...]

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193. Which type of Which type of bilirubin is conjugated with 199. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver is affected first by
bilirubin is glucuronate? liver is affected first ischemia?
conjugated with Direct by ischemia? Zone 3/Centrilobular Zone
glucuronate? [...]
[...]

194. Which embryological Which embryological structure develops


structure develops into the GI tract from the distal 1/3 of the
into the GI tract from colon to the anal canal above the
the distal 1/3 of the pectinate line? 200. Which enzyme on Which enzyme on the brush border of the
colon to the anal Hindgut the brush border of duodenum and jejunum functions to
canal above the the duodenum and convert trypsinogen into trypsin?
pectinate line? jejunum functions to Enterokinase/Enteropeptidase
[...] convert trypsinogen
into trypsin?
[...]
195. What histological What histological type of epithelium is
type of epithelium is seen at the esophagus?
seen at the Nonkeratinized stratified squamous 201. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete Gastric
esophagus? epithelium tract secrete Gastric Acid?
[...] Acid? Parietal cells of the stomach
[...]

196. How does Gastrin How does Gastrin influence gastric


influence gastric motility?
motility? Increase
[...]

197. How does How does Glucose-dependent


Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) influence
Insulinotropic gastric acid secretion?
Peptide (GIP) Decrease
influence gastric acid
202. What is the leading What is the leading cause of bowel
secretion?
cause of bowel incarceration?
[...]
incarceration? Femoral hernia
[...]
198. How does Secretin How does Secretin influence bile
influence bile secretion?
secretion? Increase
[...]

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203. What structures What structures make up the portal triad? 208. [...] is a surgical Pringle maneuver is a surgical maneuver
make up the portal Proper hepatic artery; Portal vein; maneuver that that involves compression of the
triad? Common bile duct involves hepatoduodenal ligament between the
[...] compression of the thumb and index finger to control
hepatoduodenal bleeding.
ligament between
the thumb and
index finger to
control bleeding.

204. What is the What is the frequency of basal electric


frequency of basal rhythm at the ileum? 209. How does an How does an increase in stomach pH
electric rhythm at the 8-9 waves/min increase in stomach influence Gastrin secretion?
ileum? pH influence Gastrin Increase
[...] secretion?
[...]

205. The [...] is a GI The hepatoduodenal ligament is a GI


ligament that ligament that connects the liver to the 210. Which section of the Which section of the small intestine has
connects the liver to duodenum. small intestine has the largest number of goblet cells in the
the duodenum. the largest number of small intestine?
goblet cells in the Ileum
small intestine?
[...]

211. Which type of Which type of bilirubin is water soluble?


bilirubin is water Direct bilirubin
soluble?
[...]
206. [...] are Peyer's patches are unencapsulated
unencapsulated lymphoid tissue found in the lamina propria
lymphoid tissue and submucosa of the
found in the lamina ileum.
propria and
submucosa of the
ileum.

212. Which type of Which type of inguinal hernia is associated


inguinal hernia is with failure of the processus vaginalis
associated with to close?
failure of the Indirect inguinal hernia
processus
vaginalis to close?
[...]
Can also result in hydrocele.
The path of an indirect inguinal hernia
207. How does How does Vasoactive Intestinal
follows the path of descent of testes and it
Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) influence relaxation of
is covered by all 3 layers of the spermatic
Polypeptide (VIP) intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters?
fascia.
influence relaxation Increase
of intestinal smooth
muscle and
sphincters?
[...]

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213. What is the vertebral What is the vertebral level of the celiac 218. Which zone of the Which zone of the liver is affected first by
level of the celiac trunk? liver is affected first ingested toxins?
trunk? T12 by ingested toxins? Zone 1/Periportal Zone
[...] [...]

219. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete


214. Which GI hormone is Which GI hormone is also known as tract secrete Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
also known as Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)? Glucose-dependent (GIP)?
Gastric Inhibitory Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Insulinotropic K cells
Peptide (GIP)? Peptide (GIP) Peptide (GIP)?
[...] [...]

215. [...] is a congenital GI Pancreas divisum is a congenital GI


disorder that involves disorder that involves failure of the
failure of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds to
ventral and dorsal fuse at 8 weeks.
pancreatic buds to
fuse at 8 weeks.

216. Which sex is more Which sex is more commonly affected by


commonly affected Femoral Hernias?
by Femoral Hernias? Females 220. What is the most What is the most common
[...] common tracheoesophageal anomaly?
tracheoesophageal Esophageal atresia with distal
anomaly? tracheoesophageal fistula
[...]
Presents with drooling, choking and
vomiting with the first feeding.
Presence of a TEF will allow for air to
enter the stomach, which is noticeable on
chest x-ray.

217. How does How does Somatostatin influence


Somatostatin pancreatic secretion?
influence pancreatic Decrease
secretion?
[...]

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221. Which layer of the GI Which layer of the GI wall contains the 227. What are the What are the contents of the Femoral
wall contains the epithelium, lamina propria and contents of the Triangle?
epithelium, lamina muscularis mucosa? Femoral Triangle? Femoral nerve, artery and vein (from
propria and Mucosa [...] lateral the medial)
muscularis
mucosa?
[...]

222. How does How does Vasoactive Intestinal


Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) influence intestinal water
228. What is the main What is the main artery that supplies
Polypeptide (VIP) and electrolyte secretion?
artery that supplies derivatives of the midgut?
influence intestinal Increase
derivatives of the
water and electrolyte
midgut? SMA
secretion?
[...]
[...] Includes distal duodenum to the
proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon.
223. How does Gastrin How does Gastrin influence gastric acid
influence gastric acid secretion?
secretion? Increase
[...]

224. What is the vertebral What is the vertebral level of the left renal
level of the left renal artery?
artery? L1
[...]

229. How do Gastrin How do Gastrin levels change in chronic


levels change in PPI use?
chronic PPI use? Increase
[...]

PPI's work to decrease stomach acid (i.e.


increase stomach pH).
This in turn triggers Gastrin release.

230. What artery supplies What artery supplies the rectum below the
225. The [...] The superior epigastric artery the rectum below pectinate line?
anastamoses with anastamoses with the inferior epigastric the pectinate line? Inferior Rectal Artery from the Internal
the inferior epigastric artery. [...] Pudendal Artery
artery.

226. The superior The superior epigastric artery


epigastric artery anastamoses with the inferior epigastric
anastamoses with artery.
the [...].

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231. Which cells of the GI Which cells of the GI tract secrete 234. [...] are a type of External hemorrhoids are a type of
tract secrete Somatostatin? hemorrhoids that are hemorrhoids that are found below the
Somatostatin? D cells found below the pectinate line and are painful as they
[...] pectinate line and receive somatic innervation from the
are painful as they inferior rectal branch of the pudendal
receive somatic nerve.
innervation from the
inferior rectal branch
of the pudendal
nerve.

232. What is the site of What is the site of protrusion in a Direct


protrusion in a Direct Inguinal Hernia?
Inguinal Hernia? Abdominal Wall
[...]

233. How does CCK How does CCK influence gallbladder


235. [...] is a GI disorder Anal Fissure is a GI disorder described as
influence gallbladder contraction?
described as a tear a tear in the anal mucosa below the
contraction? Increase
in the anal mucosa pectinate line.
[...]
below the pectinate Presents with pain while pooping, blood
line. on the toilet paper.
Typically located posteriorly due to poor
perfusion in that area.

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236. What is the What is the parasympathetic innervation of 241. How does an How does an increase in fatty acids and
parasympathetic derivatives of the midgut? increase in fatty amino acids influence CCK release?
innervation of CN X (vagus) acids and amino Increase
derivatives of the acids influence CCK
midgut? release?
[...] [...]

237. How does Secretin How does Secretin influence pancreatic


influence pancreatic HCO3 secretion?
HCO3 secretion? Increase
[...]
This is integral for duodenal digestion.
The HCO3 secretion into the duodenum
neutralizes the incoming acidic bile and
allows pancreatic enzymes to function.

238. The [...], Splenic The Common Hepatic Artery, Splenic


Artery and Left Artery and Left Gastric artery are the 3
Gastric artery are the main branches of the celiac trunk.
3 main branches of
the celiac trunk.

239. The Common The Common Hepatic Artery, Splenic


Hepatic Artery, [...] Artery and Left Gastric artery are the 3
and Left Gastric main branches of the celiac trunk.
artery are the 3 main
branches of the
celiac trunk.

240. The Common The Common Hepatic Artery, Splenic


Hepatic Artery, Artery and Left Gastric artery are the 3
Splenic Artery and main branches of the celiac trunk.
[...] are the 3 main
branches of the
celiac trunk.

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