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8 MAJOR RELIGIONS

In the world

Submitted By: Angelo Baleza


Herokim Berwico

Submitted to: Ms. Loydi Cadag


1.) CHRISTIANITY

is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who is
the focal point of the Christian faith. It is the world's largest religion, with over 2.4 billion
followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians. Christians make up a majority
of the population in 158 countries and territories. They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and
the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ) was prophesied in the Old
Testament. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.
Christianity grew out of Judaism and began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-
1st century. Originating in the Roman province of Judea, it quickly
spread to Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Egypt, Ethiopia and
the Indian subcontinent, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of
the Roman Empire. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to
the Americas, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world through missionary
work and colonization.
Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed.
These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, descended into hell,
and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him
for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus
physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy
Spirit, and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his
followers. His incarnation, earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as
"the gospel", meaning "good news".The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus' life
and teaching, four of whichMatthew, Mark, Luke, and Johnare considered canonical and
included in the Christian Bible, as established by the 5th century for the ancient
undivided Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions before the EastWest Schism.
2.) CONFUCIANISM

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a


humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism
developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of
the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551479 BCE), who considered himself a retransmitter of
the values of the Zhou dynasty golden age of several centuries before. In the Han dynasty (206
BCE 220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang-Lao, as the official
ideology while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. The
disintegration of the Han political order in the second century CE opened the way for the
doctrines of Buddhism and Neo-Taoism, which offered spiritual explanations lacking in
Confucianism.
A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty of 618-907. In the late Tang, Confucianism
developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism.
This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy
of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960-1297). The abolition of the examination
system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the
early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. They searched for new
doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the "Three
Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and
then Maoism under the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century Confucian work
ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy.
3.) HINDUISM

Hinduism is an Indian religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in South Asia.


Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars
refer to it as Santana Dharma, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human
history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and
traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between
500 BCE and 300 CE, following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE).
Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts,
recognisable rituals, cosmology, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu
texts are classified into ruti ("heard") and Smti ("remembered"). These texts discuss
theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building,
among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and
the Agamas. Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is
also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of
these truths and to further develop the tradition.
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Pururthas, the proper goals or aims of
human life, namely Dharma (ethics/duties), Artha (prosperity/work), Kama (desires/passions)
and Moksha (liberation/freedom/salvation); karma (action, intent and
consequences), Sasra (cycle of rebirth), and the various Yogas (paths or practices to attain
moksha). Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation,
family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus
leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa (monastic
practices) to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining
from injuring living beings (ahimsa), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, and compassion,
among others. The four largest denominations of Hinduism are
the Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.
4.) BUDDHISM

Is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual
practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted
philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries
BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in Indiaduring the
Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by
scholars: Theravada (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana (Sanskrit: "The Great
Vehicle"). Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion, with over 520 million followers or
over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity
of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. Practices of
Buddhism include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, study of scriptures,
observance of moral precepts, renunciation of craving and attachment, the practice
of meditation (including calm and insight), the cultivation of wisdom, loving-
kindness and compassion, the Mahayana practice of bodhicitta and the Vajrayana practices
of generation stage and completion stage.
In Theravada the ultimate goal is the cessation of the kleshas and the attainment of the sublime
state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path (also known as the Middle
Way), thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth. Theravada has a widespread
following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.
Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren
Buddhism, Shingon and Tiantai (Tendai), is found throughout East Asia. Rather than Nirvana,
Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains
in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening.
5.) ISLAM

is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one incomparable


God (Allah) and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest
religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world, with over 1.8 billion followers or
24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the
population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has
guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures
of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and
normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
(c. 5708 June 632 CE).
Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was
revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. As
for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like
other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous
rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include
the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which
touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and
the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites
in Islam.
Apart from the Muslim viewpoint, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th
century CE in Mecca, and by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic caliphate extended
from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the
period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate,
when much of the historically Islamic world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural
flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders
and conversion to Islam by missionary activities.
6.) JUDAISM

Judaism (originally from Hebrew , Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is an
ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. It encompasses
the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious
Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of
Israel. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of
organization. The Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and
supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With
between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the
world.
Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic
Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount
Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah. Historically, this assertion was challenged
by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple
period; the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period;[8] and among
segments of the modern non-Orthodox denominations. Modern branches of Judaism such
as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. Today, the largest Jewish religious
movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox
Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these
groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the
significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are
divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative
and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more
"traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform
position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of
restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Historically, special
courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly
voluntary.
7.) SIKHISM

Sikhism (/sikzm/, Punjabi: ), or Sikhi Sikkh, pronounced [ski], from Sikh,


meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a religion that originated in the Punjab region of
the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major
world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru
Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all
humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity
of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st
century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in the
Indian state of Punjab.
Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, and the nine Sikh
gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru
Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the
eternal, impersonal spiritual guide for Sikhs. Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious
tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.
Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be
expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a
means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to avoid the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed,
attachment and conceit). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the
spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of
"truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal
man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will". Guru
Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri)
realms to be mutually coexistent.
Sikhism is a relatively recent religion, that evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the
Sikh gurus Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur, after they refused to convert to Islam, were
tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers. The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of
the Khalsa, as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a
"Sant-Siph" a saint-soldier.
8.) TAOISM

Taoism (/dazm/ or /tazm/), also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical


tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (, literally
"Way", also romanized as Dao). The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese
philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and
substance of everything that exists. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid
rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend
to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three
Treasures: "compassion", "frugality", and "humility".
The roots of Taoism go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism drew its cosmological
notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest
texts of Chinese culture, the Yijing, which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep
human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature. The "Legalist" Shen
Buhai may also have been a major influence, expounding a realpolitik of wu wei. The Tao Te
Ching, a compact book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (Chinese:
; pinyin: Loz; WadeGiles: Lao Tzu), is widely considered the keystone work of the Taoist
tradition, together with the later writings of Zhuangzi.
By the Han dynasty (206 BCE220 CE), the various sources of Taoism had coalesced into a
coherent tradition of religious organizations and orders of ritualists in the state
of Shu (modern Sichuan). In earlier ancient China, Taoists were thought of as hermits or recluses
who did not participate in political life. Zhuangzi was the best known of these, and it is
significant that he lived in the south, where he was part of local Chinese shamanic traditions.