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Plant Cells produces proteins (which are sent to the Golgi

shape - most plant cells are squarish or body, or inserted into the cell membrane).
rectangular in shape. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth
Amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an ER) a vast system of interconnected,
organelle in some plant cells that stores membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes
starch. Amyloplasts are found in starchy plants that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER
like tubers and fruits. is continuous with the outer nuclear
Cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and membrane). It produces lipids (fats) and
fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from
cell wall. The cell membrane is rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins
semipermeable, allowing some substances to and lipids to the Golgi body for further
pass into the cell and blocking others. processing and to the membranes.
Cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that Vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space
surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose within a plant cell that is filled with fluid,
fiber gives the cell most of its support and mostly water.
structure. The cell wall also bonds with other Most plant cells have a single vacuole that
cell walls to form the structure of the plant. takes up much of the cell. It helps maintain
Chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped water balance and the shape of the cell.
organelle containing chlorophyll. Vesicle - a small, membrane-bound space
Photosynthesis (in which energy from sunlight that helps to transport material in/out or
is converted into chemical energy - food) takes within the cell. Some are storage vessels. eg.
place in the chloroplasts. proteins produced in the rough endoplasmic
Chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that reticulum are transported by vesicles produced
can use light energy from sunlight to turn at the tips of the rough ER, to the Golgi body,
water and carbon dioxide gas into glucose and for processing.
oxygen (i.e. photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is
green. Animal Cell
Cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the Shape - most animal cells are roundish or
cell nucleus in which the organelles are irregular in shape.
located. Cell membrane
Golgi body - (or the Golgi apparatus or Golgi Centriole - during cell division in animal
complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like cells, two pairs of centrioles form from
organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes microtubules at each end of the cell. The two
and is located near the nucleus. The Golgi centrioles are arranged perpendicular to
body modifies, processes and packages each other. Microtubules formed in the
proteins, lipids and carbohydrates into centriole grow into spindle fibers which then
membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from attach to replicated chromosomes and assist
the cell. in separating them during mitosis.
Lysosome - vesicles containing digestive Cytoplasm
enzymes. Where the digestion of cell nutrients Golgi body
takes place. Lysosome
Mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped Mitochondrion
organelles with a double membrane. The inner Nuclear membrane
membrane is infolded many times, forming a Nucleolus
series of projections (called cristae). The Nucleus
mitochondrion converts the energy stored in Ribosome
glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a Rough endoplasmic reticulum
high energy molecule, for use by cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Nuclear membrane - the membrane that Vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded
surrounds the nucleus. cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with
Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus. food being digested and waste material that
Ribosomal RNA is produced here, then is on its way out of the cell. Smaller than
exported into the cytoplasm where it forms the plant cell vacuole.
ribosomes. Vesicle
Nucleus - The nucleus is a spherical body
surrounded by the nuclear membrane. It
contains mostly
DNA in chromosomes. The nucleus controls
many of the functions of the cell (by
controlling protein synthesis). The nucleolus is
found within the nucleus.
Ribosome - small organelles composed of
RNA. Are sites of protein synthesis.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER)
a vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted sacks that are located
in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous
with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER
is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough
appearance. Rough ER transport materials and
Chloroplasts - sites of photosynthesis - in nearly sorts, concentrates and packs them into
all plants and some protists trap light energy and sealed droplets called vesicles.
convert it into chemical energy have double
membrane structure - inner space is the stroma.
Within the stroma have a series of stacks of The endomembrane system includes the
flattened membrane structures called thylakoids nuclear envelope, lysosomes, vesicles, the
the stacks are called grana. ER, and Golgi apparatus, as well as the
plasma membrane. These cellular
components work together to modify,
package, tag, and transport proteins and
lipids that form the membranes.

The RER modifies proteins and synthesizes

phospholipids used in cell membranes.
The light energy trapping molecules of The SER synthesizes carbohydrates, lipids,
photosynthesis are found in the membranes of and steroid hormones; engages in the
the thylakoids. detoxification of medications and poisons;
and stores calcium ions. Sorting, tagging,
Plants have cell walls made of cellulose. packaging, and distribution of lipids and
proteins take place in the Golgi apparatus.
During cell division plant cells build dividing walls Lysosomes are created by the budding of
between the two new cells called the cell plate. the membranes of the RER and Golgi.
An adhesive layer the middle lamella - is laid Lysosomes digest macromolecules, recycle
down between the new cell walls. worn-out organelles, and destroy

Cell walls can be thickened through the addition

of materials to the inside of the primary cell wall.

Golgi apparatus(or complex, or body, or

the Golgi) is found in all plant and
animal cells and is the term given to
groups of flattened disc-like structures
located close to the endoplasmic
The number of Golgi apparatus within a
cell is variable. Animal cells tend to have
fewer and larger Golgi apparatus. Plant
cells can contain as many as several
hundred smaller versions.
The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and
lipids (fats) from the rough endoplasmic
reticulum. It modifies some of them and
All eukaryotic cells have the following: Ribosomes are made inside the nucleolus
and then sent outside the nucleus to make
A nucleus proteins.
Genetic material The most important function of the
A plasma membrane nucleus is to store the cell's genetic
Ribosomes information in the form of DNA. DNA
Cytoplasm, including the cytoskeleton holds the instructions for how the cell
should work. DNA stands for
deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecules of
DNA are organized into special structures
called chromosomes. Sections of DNA
Pili: They are short protein appendages, are called genes which hold hereditary
which fixes bacteria to surfaces. These pili information such as eye color and height.
are smaller than those flagella and are
used in conjugation to exchange the
genetic information.

Flagella: They are rigid rotating tail. The

clockwise rotation moves the cell forward
and anticlockwise rotation helps the cell to
spin. The rotation is powered by H+
gradient across the cell membrane.

Pseudopod: are temporary cytoplasmic

projections of cell membrane in certain
unicellular protists such as amoeba.
Pseudopods, also called pseudopodia
(singular: pseudopodium), literally means
false foot. That is because they are
associated with locomotion. Amoeba, for
instance, moves in distinctively crawling-
like manner in which the cell forms
pseudopods towards the front of the cell.

The nucleus is perhaps the most

important structure inside animal and Where did Eukaryotic Cells come from?
plant cells. It is the main control center
The oldest rocks with evidence of fossil
for the cell and acts kind of like the cell's
cells date to 3.5 billion years. The oldest
brain. Only eukaryotic cells have a
rocks with cells large and complex enough
nucleus. In fact, the definition of a
to be eukaryotic date to 1.0 billion years.
eukaryotic cell is that it contains a nucleus
For 2.5 billion years only prokaryotic cells
while a prokaryotic cell is defined as not
existed on earth. The best hypothesis for
having a nucleus.
the origin of eukaryotic cells was proposed
The nucleus is an organelle within the
by Lynn Margulis in the early 1970s. This
cell. This means it has a special function
hypothesis is now called the
and is surrounded by a membrane that
Endosymbiotic Hypothesis.
protects it from the rest of the cell. It
Eukaryotic cells appear to be the product
floats within the cytoplasm (the fluid
of a collaboration among different types of
inside the cell).
prokaryotic cells.
The nuclear envelope is made up of two
separate membranes: the outer
membrane and the inner membrane. The
envelope protects the nucleus from the
rest of the cytoplasm in the cell and keeps
the special molecules within the nucleus
from getting out.
The nucleolus is a large structure in the
nucleus that mainly makes ribosomes and
The nucleoplasm is the liquid that fills the
inside of the nucleus. Some prokaryotic cells became the host
Chromatin are composed of proteins and for other prokaryotic cells that lived inside
DNA. They organize into chromosomes them. Some of the complex organelles of
prior to the cell dividing. eukaryotes provide evidence for this
The pores are small channels through the theory.
nuclear envelope. They allow for smaller
molecules to pass through such as Mitochondria and chloroplasts appear to
messenger RNA molecules, but keep be the direct descendants of energy
larger DNA molecules inside the nucleus.
producing bacteria. Mitochondria are the Groups of cells can be organized and function
descendants of bacteria that were capable as multicellular organisms
of oxidative respiration.
Chloroplasts are the descendants of Cells of multicellular organisms can become
photosynthetic bacteria. specialized in form and function to carry out
subprocesses of the multicellular organism.

2. Are there living organisms without cells?

Viruses are considered the only living organisms

that do not have cells. Viruses are made up of
genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a
protein capsule. They do not have
membranes, cell organelles, or own metabolism.

3. In 1665, Robert Hooke, an English

scientist, published his book Micrographia,
in which he described that pieces of cork
viewed under a microscope presented small
cavities, similar to pores and filled with air.
Evidence: Based on knowledge discovered later
on, what do you think those cavities were
Both have their own DNA and ribosomes that are composed of? What is the historical
similar to those found in prokaryotes. Both make importance of this observation?
many of their own proteins and both multiply in a
fashion similar to prokaryotic cell division. Both The walls of the cavities observed by Hooke were
are double membrane organelles - the inner the walls of the plant cells that form the tissue.
membrane descended from the ancestral guest This observation led to the discovery of cells, a
cell, and the outer membrane descended from fact only possible after the invention of the
the vacuole membrane that was formed around microscope. In that book, Hooke established the
the guest. term cell", which is now widely used in biology,
Other organelles may also be the product of to designate those cavities seen under the
endosymbiosis. microscope.
Some centrioles and basal bodies have naked
DNA as part of their structure.
There are many modern examples of
endosymbiosis involving organisms that can live Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
together or live independently. The same was 4. What are the two main groups into which
probably true of the ancestors of endosymbiotic cells are classified?
organelles in the distant past.
Cells can be classified as eukaryotic or

Prokaryotic cells are those that do not have an

enclosed nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are those with
a nucleus enclosed by a membrane.
A Review of All Cell Organelles Through Q&As
5. Do the cells of bacteria have a nucleus?

Cell Theory In bacteria, genetic material is contained in the

1. What is cell theory? cytosol and there is no internal membrane that
encloses a nucleus.
Cell theory states that the cell is the basic unit of 6. Are any bacteria made of more than one
living organisms. cell?
Before the discovery of the cell, people were There are no pluricellular bacteria. All bacteria
unaware that living organisms were made of are unicellular and prokaryotic.
building blocks like cells.

Cell theory is one of the basic theories of biology.

Plasma Membrane
All organisms are constructed of and by cells. 7. What is the plasma membrane of the cell?
What are its main functions?
All cells arise from preexisting cells. Cells
contain the information necessary for their own The plasma membrane is the outer membrane of
reproduction. No new cells are originating a cell, it encloses the cell itself, maintaining
spontaneously on earth today. specific conditions for cellular function within the
cell. Since it is selectively permeable, the plasma
Cells are the functional units of life. All
membrane plays an important role in the
biochemical processes are carried out by cells.
entrance and exit of substances.
8. What chemical substances compose the 13. Regarding the presence of the nucleus,
plasma membrane? what is the difference between animal and
bacterial cells?
The main components of the plasma membrane
are phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Animal cells (the cells of organisms of the
Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules that are kingdom Animalia) have an interior membrane
regularly organized in the membrane according that encloses a cell nucleus and are therefore
to their polarity: two layers of phospholipids form eukaryotic cells. In these cells, the genetic
the lipid bilayer, with the polar part of the material is located within the nucleus. Bacterial
phospholipids pointing to the exterior part of the cells (the cells of living organisms of the kingdom
layer and the non-polar phospholipid chains Monera) do not have organized cellular nuclei and
toward the interior. Proteins can be found are therefore prokaryotic cells. Their genetic
embedded in the lipid bilayer. In addition, there material is found in the cytosol.
are also some carbohydrates bound to proteins
and to phospholipids in the outer surface of the 14. What are the three main parts of a
membrane. eukaryotic cell?

9. What is the difference between a plasma Eukaryotic cells can be divided into three main
membrane and a cell wall? parts: the cell membrane that physically
separates the intracellular space from the outer
A plasma membrane and a cell wall are not the space by enclosing the cell; the cytoplasm, the
same thing. The plasma membrane, also called interior portion filled with cytosol (the aqueous
the cell membrane, is the outer membrane fluid inside the cell); and the nucleus, the
common to all living cells, made of a phospholipid membrane-enclosed internal region that contains
bilayer, embedded proteins and some bound genetic material.
15. What are the main structures within the
Because cell membranes are fragile, in some nucleus of a cell?
types of cells, there are also external structures
to support and protect the membrane, like the Within the nucleus of a cell, the main structures
cellulose wall of plant cells and the chitin wall of are: the nucleolus, an optically dense region,
some fungi cells. Most bacteria also have an sphere shaped region, which contains
outer cell wall made of peptidoglycans and other concentrated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bound to
organic substances. proteins (there may be more than one nucleolus
in a nucleus); the chromatin, made of DNA
10. What are the main respective molecules released into the nuclear matrix during
components of cell walls in bacteria, cell interphase; and the karyotheca, or nuclear
protists, fungi and plants? membrane, which is the membrane that encloses
the nucleus.
In bacteria, the cell wall is made of 16. What substances is chromatin made up
peptidoglycans; among protists, algae have cell of? What is the difference between
walls made of cellulose; in fungi, the cell wall is chromatin and a chromosome?
made of chitin (the same substance that makes
the exoskeleton of arthropods); and in plants, Chromatin, dispersed in the nucleus, is a set of
the cell wall is also made of cellulose. filamentous DNA molecules attached to nuclear
11. Are membranes only present as the proteins called histones. Each DNA filament is a
outside of cells? double helix of DNA and therefore a
Lipid membranes do not only form the outer layer 17. What is the fluid that fills the nucleus
of cells. Cell organelles, such as the Golgi called?
complex, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes,
the endoplasmic reticula and the nucleus, are The aqueous fluid that fills the nuclear region is
also enclosed by membranes. called karyolymph, or the nucleoplasm. This fluid
contains proteins, enzymes and other important
substances for nuclear metabolism.
Cell Nucleus
18. What substances make up the
12. Which type of cell evolved first, the
nucleolus? Is there a membrane around the
eukaryotic cell or the prokaryotic cell?
This is an interesting problem of biological
The nucleolus is a region within the nucleus made
evolution. The most accepted hypothesis claims
of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. It is not
that the simpler cell, the prokaryotic cell,
enclosed by a membrane.
appeared earlier in evolution than the more
complex eukaryotic cell. The endosymbiotic 19. What is the name of the membrane that
hypothesis, for example, claims that aerobic encloses the nucleus? Which component
eukaryotic cells appeared from the mutualistic of cell structure is contiguous to this
ecological interaction between aerobic membrane?
prokaryotes and primitive anaerobic eukaryotes.
The nuclear membrane is also called the is the observed structure called? What is its
karyotheca. The nuclear membrane is contiguous biological function?
to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.
What is being observed is the Golgi complex, or
Golgi apparatus. This cytoplasmic organelle is
associated with chemical processing and the
The Cytoplasm
modification of proteins made by the cell as well
20. What are the main structures of the
as with the storage and marking of these proteins
cytoplasm present in animal cells?
for later use or secretion. Vesicles seen under an
electronic microscope contain materials already
The main structures of the cytoplasm of a cell are
processed, and which are ready to be exported
centrioles, the cytoskeleton, lysosomes,
(secreted) by the cell. The vesicles detach from
mitochondria, peroxisomes, the Golgi apparatus,
the Golgi apparatus, travel across the cytoplasm
the endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes.
and fuse with the plasma membrane, secreting
their substances to the exterior.
21. What are cytoplasmic inclusions?

Cytoplasmic inclusions are foreign molecules

added to the cytoplasm, such as pigments, Lysosomes and Peroxysomes
organic polymers and crystals. They are not 25. Which organelle of the cell structure is
considered cell organelles. responsible for intracellular digestion? What
is the chemical content of those organelles?
Fat droplets and glycogen granules are examples
of cytoplasmic inclusions. Intracellular digestion occurs through the action
of lysosomes. Lysosomes contain digestive
enzymes (hydrolases) that are produced in the
rough endoplasmic reticulum and stored in the
Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are hydrolase-
22. Where in the cell can ribosomes be
containing vesicles that detach from the Golgi
found? What is the main biological function
of ribosomes?
26. Why are lysosomes known as the
Ribosomes can be found unbound in the cleaners of cell waste?
cytoplasm, attached to the outer side of the
nuclear membrane or attached to the Lysosomes carry out autophagic and
endoplasmic reticulum membrane that encloses heterophagic digestion. Autophagic digestion
the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are occurs when residual substances of the cellular
the structures in which protein synthesis takes metabolism are digested. Heterophagic digestion
place. takes place when substances that enter the cell
are digested. Lysosomes enfold the substances to
be broken down, forming digestive vacuoles or
The Endoplasmic Reticulum residual vacuoles, which later migrate toward the
23. What is the difference between the plasma membrane, fusing with it and releasing
smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum? (exocytosis) the digested material to the exterior.

The endoplasmic reticulum is a delicate 27. What are the morphological, chemical
membrane structure that is contiguous to the and functional similarities and differences
nuclear membrane and which is present in the between lysosomes and peroxisomes?
cytoplasm. It forms an extensive net of channels
throughout the cell and is classified into rough or Similarities: lysosomes and peroxisomes are
smooth types. small membranous vesicles that contain enzymes
and enclose residual substances of an internal or
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has a large external origin to break them down. Differences:
number of ribosomes attached to the external lysosomes have digestive enzymes (hydrolases)
side of its membrane. The smooth endoplasmic that break down substances to be digested into
reticulum does not have ribosomes attached to smaller molecules whereas peroxisomes contain
its membrane. enzymes that mainly break down long-chain fatty
acids and amino acids, and which inactivate toxic
The main functions of the rough endoplasmic agents including ethanol. In addition, within
reticulum are the synthesis and storage of peroxisomes, the enzyme catalase is present. It
proteins made in the ribosomes. The smooth is responsible for the oxidation of organic
endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in lipid compounds by hydrogen peroxide (HO) and,
synthesis and, in muscle cells, it is important in when this substance is present in excess, it is
carrying out of contraction stimuli. responsible for the breaking down of the peroxide
into water and molecular oxygen.

The Golgi Apparatus

24. A netlike membrane complex of Centrioles
superposed flat saccules with vesicles 28. Which cell organelles participate in cell
detaching from its extremities seen is division and in the formation of the cilia and
observed during electron microscopy. What flagella of some eukaryotic cells?
The organelles that participate in cell division and The endosymbiotic theory can also be applied to
in the formation of the cilia and flagella of some chloroplasts. It is assumed that these organelles
eukaryotic cells are centrioles. Some cells have were primitive photosynthetic prokaryotes
cilia (paramecium, the bronchial ciliated because they have their own DNA, RNA and
epithelium, etc.) or flagella (flagellate protists, ribosomes, and can also self-replicate.
sperm cells, etc.). These cell structures are
composed of microtubules that originate from the
centrioles. Centrioles also produce the aster
The Cytoskeleton
microtubules that are very important for cell
32. What are the main components of the

The cytoskeleton is a network of very small

Mitochondria tubules and filaments distributed throughout the
29. What are mitochondria? What is the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is made of
basic morphology of these organelles and in microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate
which cells can they be found? filaments.

Mitochondria are the organelles in which the most Microtubules are formed by molecules of a
important part of cellular respiration occurs: ATP protein called tubulin. Microfilaments are made of
production. actin, the same protein that is involved in the
contraction of muscle cells. Intermediate
Mitochondria are organelles enclosed by two lipid filaments are also made of protein.
membranes. The inner membrane invaginates to
the interior of the organelle, forming the cristae 33. What are the functions of the
that enclose the internal space known as the cytoskeleton?
mitochondrial matrix, in which mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA), mitochondrial RNA (mt RNA), As the name indicates, the cytoskeleton is
mitochondrial ribosomes and respiratory enzymes responsible for maintaining of the normal shape
can be found. Mitochondria are numerous in of the cell. It also facilitates the transport of
eukaryotic cells and they are even more substances across the cell and the movement of
abundant in cells that use more energy, such as cellular organelles. For example, the interaction
muscle cells. Because they have their own DNA, between actin-containing filaments and the
RNA and ribosomes, mitochondria can self- protein myosin creates pseudopods. In the cells
replicate. of the phagocytic defense system, such as
macrophages, the cytoskeleton is responsible for
30. Why can mitochondria be considered the the plasma membrane projections that engulf the
"power plants" of aerobic cells? external material to be interiorized and attacked
by the cell.
Mitochondria are the power plants of aerobic
cells because, within them, the final stages of the
cellular respiration process occur. Cellular
respiration is the process of using an organic
34. What are chloroplasts? What is the main
molecule (mainly glucose) and oxygen to produce
function of chloroplasts?
carbon dioxide and energy. The energy is stored
in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Chloroplasts are organelles present in the
molecules and is later used in other cellular
cytoplasm of plant and algae cells. Like
metabolic reactions. In mitochondria, the two last
mitochondria, chloroplasts have two boundary
steps of cellular respiration take place: the Krebs
membranes and many internal membranous
cycle and the respiratory chain.
sacs. Within the organelle, DNA, RNA ribosomes
31. What is the endosymbiotic hypothesis and also the pigment chlorophyll are present. The
regarding the origin of mitochondria? What latter is responsible for the absorption of the light
molecular facts support this hypothesis? To photic energy used in photosynthesis.
which other cellular organelles can the
hypothesis also be applied? The main function of chloroplasts is
photosynthesis: the production of highly
It is presumed that mitochondria were primitive energetic organic molecules (glucose) from
aerobic prokaryotes that were engaged in carbon dioxide, water and light.
mutualism with primitive anaerobic eukaryotes,
receiving protection from these organisms and 35. What is the molecule responsible for the
providing them with energy in return. This absorption of light energy during
hypothesis is called the endosymbiotic hypothesis photosynthesis? Where is that molecule
of the origin of mitochondria. located in photosynthetic cells?

This hypothesis is strengthened by some Chlorophyll molecules are responsible for the
molecular evidence, such as the fact that absorption of light energy during photosynthesis.
mitochondria have their own independent DNA These molecules are found in the internal
and protein synthesis machinery, as well as their membranes of chloroplasts.
own RNA and ribosomes, and that they can self-
36. What colors (of the electromagnetic
spectrum) are absorbed by plants? What
would happen to photosynthesis if the green The main function of vacuoles is the osmotic
light waves that reach a plant were balance of the intracellular space. They act as an
blocked? external space inside the cell. Vacuoles absorb
or release water in response to cellular metabolic
Chlorophyll absorbs all other colors of the necessities by increasing or lowering the
electromagnetic spectrum, but it does not absorb concentration of osmotic particles dissolved in the
green. Green is reflected and such reflection is cytosol. Vacuoles also serve as a place for the
the reason for that characteristic color of plants. storage of some substances.
If the green light that reaches a plant was
blocked and exposure of the plant to other colors The membrane that encloses vacuoles is called
was maintained, there would be no harm to the the tonoplast, named after the osmotic function
photosynthesis process. This appears to be a of the structure.
paradox: green light is not important for

There is a difference between the optimum color

frequency for the two main types of chlorophyll,
chlorophyll A and the chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll A
has an absorption peak at a wavelength of
approximately 420 nm (indigo) and chlorophyll B
has its major absorption at a wavelength of 450
nm (blue).

37. What path is followed by the energy

absorbed by plants to be used in

The energy source of photosynthesis is the sun,

the unique and central star of our solar system.
In photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed
into chemical energy, the energy of the chemical
bonds of the produced glucose molecules (and of
the molecular oxygen released). The energy of
glucose is then stored as starch (a glucose
polymer) or it is used in the cellular respiration
process and transferred to ATP molecules. ATP is
consumed during metabolic processes that
require energy (for example, in active transport
across membranes).

Plant Cell Wall and Vacuoles

38. What substance are plant cell walls
made of? Which monomer is this substance
made of?

Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. Cellulose is

a polymer whose monomer is glucose. There are
other polymers of glucose, such as glycogen and

39. What is the function of plant cell walls?

Plant cell walls have structural and protective

functions. They play an important role in limiting
cell size, and stopping cells from bursting, when
they absorb a lot of water.

40. What are plant cell vacuoles? What are

their functions? What is the covering
membrane of vacuoles called?

Plant cell vacuoles are cell structures enclosed by

membranes within which there is an aqueous
solution made of various substances such as
carbohydrates and proteins. In young plant cells,
many small vacuoles can be seen; within adult
cells, the majority of the internal area of the cell
is occupied by a central vacuole.