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Clarifying Thinking Challenging Assumptions Using Evidence in Arguments

Get them to think more about what exactly Challenging their assumptions makes them When they give a rationale for their
they are asking or thinking about. Prove the think about the presuppositions and arguments, dig into that reasoning and
concepts behind their answer or argument. unquestioned beliefs on which they are challenge un-thought-through or weakly-
Use basic 'tell me more' questions that get founding their answer. This is shaking the understood supports for their arguments.
them to go deeper. bedrock and should get them really going!
What evidence do you have for this?
Why do you say that? Is this always the case? Is there reason to doubt this evidence?
Could you explain further? What assumptions have you made here? How do you know this?
What do you mean by....? Do all _____ (e.g. Christians) think like Can you support this with a reasoned
How does this relate to what we have this? argument?
been talking about? You seem to be assuming... ? Can you give me an example of that?
What do we already know about this? What religious beliefs might you be What religious quotes/teachings would
Can you give me an example? basing your argument on? support this?
Are you saying ... or ... ? How can you verify or disprove that Are these reasons good enough?
Can you restate that, with a bit more assumption? How might it be refuted?
clarity and precision? What exceptions are there to this? On what authority are you basing your
How do you feel about this? Please explain why/how ... ? argument?

Exploring Alternative Perspectives Considering the Consequences Questioning the Question

Most arguments are given from a particular The argument that they give may have logical And you can also get reflexive about the whole
position. So attack the position. Show that implications that can be forecast. Do these thing, turning the question in on itself. Use
there are other, equally valid, viewpoints. make sense? Are they desirable? their attack against themselves. Bounce the
ball back into their court, etc.
How else could you answer this? Then what would happen?
What is the counter-argument? What would happen if everyone What was the point of asking that
Who might see this differently? Why? did/believed this? question?
What religious quotes/teachings would What would happen if a ____ didnt do Why is this question important?
challenge this view this? this? Why do you think I asked this question?
Another view is.... does this seem What would happen if ____ happened? Am I making sense? Why not?
reasonable? What are the implications of ... ? What else might I ask?
How might a ______ answer this? How does ... affect ... ? What does that mean?
How could agape apply here? How does ... fit with what we learned What other questions could I ask?
What is the difference between... and...? before?
Why is this... better than ...? Why is ... important?
What are the strengths and weaknesses