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ABSTRACT

This Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit is used to observe the process of heat
transfer during condensation, as well as gather experimental data for a better theoretical
understanding. The unit itself contained bench top unit, with an integrated steam generator
and air extraction system. The main components in the unit are the specially designed
condensers for the observation of both filmwise and dropwise condensation about the
differences of them. In this experiment, we want to study the heat transfer coefficient and
the heat flux. Besides that, we were study the effect of air inside the chamber. Condensation
occurs when vapour changes to liquid state with a large heat-transfer coefficient. Filmwise
condensation occurs on a vertical or horizontal plane when a film of condensate is formed
on surface and flows by action of gravity. Dropwise condensation occurs when small drops
formed on surface. The heat transfer coefficient can be calculated using Nussselt equation.
Nusselt assumed that the heat transfer that occurs from the vapour through the film and to
the wall is conduction. Since the process is conduction is well known, therefore calculation
on the heat-transfer coefficients can be done. In this experiment, obtained data are for Tsat,
Tsurf, Tin and Tout.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Filmwise and Dropwise are two forms of condensation. In filmwise condensation a


laminar film of vapour is created upon a surface. This film can then flow downwards, increasing
in thickness as additional vapour is picked up along the way. In dropwise then flow downwards,
accumulating static droplets below them along the way.

When the rate of condensation is low (e.g., a noncondensible gas is present) or when the
liquid does not "wet" the wall, dropwise condensation occurs. In most engineering components
where condensation is a required part of an industrial process film condensation is expected,
because of the large mass flux of condensed liquid per unit length of wetted area.

Dropwise condensation was first recognized by Schmidt et al. (1930), and much interest
was stimulated by their report that heat transfer coefficient were between 5 and 7 times those
found with film condensation. Over the years there have been a few demonstrations of successful
applications on an industrial scale. This experiment would be used in by any industry which is
trying to increase the efficiency of heat transfer. An example of this is any vapour power cycle
such as the rankine cycle. By increasing the efficiency of the condenser, its operational pressure
can be reduced and the overall efficiency of the cycle can be increased. Dropwise condensation

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is difficult to sustain reliably; therefore, industrial equipment is normally designed to operate in
filmwise condensation mode.

In all application, the steam must be condensed as it transfer heat to a cooling medium
which could be cold water in a condenser of generating station, hot water in a heating calorifier,
sugar solution in a sugar refinery and etc. during condensation very high heat fluxes are possible
and provided that the heat can be quickly transferred from the condensing surface into the
cooling medium, the heat exchangers can be compact and effective.

The SOLTEQ Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model: HE163) is designed to help
student to understand several key aspects in condensation topic, in particular the process of
filmwise and dropwise condensation. It allows students to visualize both phenomena and
perform a few experiments to demonstrate both concepts and how their applied and give benefit
in industry.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

2.1 To demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise condensation.


2.2 To describe filmwise and dropwise condensation.
2.3 To demonstrate the effect of air on heat transfer coefficient of condensation.
2.4 To demonstrate the filmwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient ay
constant pressure.
2.5 To determine the dropwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at constant
pressure.

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3.0 THEORY

3.1 Mechanism of Condensation

Condensation of a vapor to a liquid and vice versa, both involve a change of a fluid with
large heat-transfer coefficients. Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor such as steam
makes a contact with a solid whose surface temperature is below the saturation temperature, to
form a liquid such as water.

When a vapor condenses on a surface, for example vertical or horizontal tube or other
surface, a film of condensate is formed on the surface and flows over the surface because of
gravity. It is this film of liquid between the surface and the vapor that produce the main
resistance of heat transfer. This is called filmwise condensation.

Another type of condensation is dropwise condensation. Dropwise condensation occurs


when small drops are formed on the surface. These drops grow and mix together, and the liquid
flows from the surface. Large areas of tube are devoid of any liquid and are exposed directly to
the vapor during condensation. Very high rates of heat-transfer occur on these bare areas. The
average heat transfer coefficient for dropwise condensation is five to ten times larger than the
filmwise coefficient.

Dropwise condensation can be promoted by making the surface non-welting by coating.


However, dropwise condensation is difficult to maintain in industrial applications because of
oxidation, fouling and degrading of coating, and finally film condensation occurs. Therefore,
condenser designs are often based on the assumption of filmwise condensation.

3.2 Film-condensation coefficients for vertical surfaces

Film type condensation on a vertical wall or tube can be find analytically by assuming
laminar flow of the condensate film down the wall. The film thickness is zero at the top of the
wall or tube. It increases in thickness as it flows downward as a result of condensation. Nusselt
assumed that the heat transfer from the condensing vapor at Tsat, through this liquid film, and at
the wall at Tw, was by conduction. Equating this heat-transfer by conduction to that from
condensation of the vapor, final expression can be obtained for the average heat-transfer
coefficient over the whole surfaces.

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4.0 APPARATUS

Equipment Prefer:
SOLTEQ MODEL: HE 163 (Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit)

Figure 4.1: Apparatus set up

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5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1 General Start-up

5.1.1 The main switch was ensured in its off position.


5.1.2 The power regulator knobs were turned fully anti-clockwise to set the power to
minimum.
5.1.3 Valves V1 to V6 were checked to ensure that they were closed.
5.1.4 The chamber was filled with distilled water until the water level stays between
the hater and baffles plates. The heater was ensured to be fully immersed in the
water throughout the experiment. The chamber was filled with water through
the drain valve with the vent valve, V4 opened. Then the vent valve V4 was
closed.
5.1.5 The water flow rate to the condenser was adjusted by controlling the control
valve according to experimental procedure.
5.1.6 The main switch and the heater switch were turned on. The heater power was
set by rotating the power regulator clockwise to increase the hater power.
5.1.7 The water temperature reading was observed where the water temperature
should increase when its start heat-up.
5.1.8 The water wass heated up to boiling point until the pressure reach 1.02-1.10
bar. Immediately valve V1 was opened and followed by valve V5 for 1 minute
to vacuum out the air inside condenser. Then both valve V1 and V5 were
closed.
5.1.9 The system was left to stabilize. Then all relevant measurements were taken for
experimental purposes. Adjustment was made if required.

5.2 General Shut-down.

5.2.1 The voltage control knob is turned to 0 Volt position by turning the knob fully
anti-clockwise. The cooling water is kept flowing for at least 5 minutes through
the condenser to cold them down.
5.2.2 The main switch and power supply are switch off. Then, the power supply
cable is unplugged.
5.2.3 The water supply is closed and the cooling water connection tubes are
disconnected if necessary. Otherwise, the connection tubes are leaved for next
experiment.
5.2.4 The water inside the chamber is discharged using the discharge valve.

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5.3 Demonstration of Filmwise and Dropwise Condensation

5.3.1 The basic procedure is followed as written in the general set-up. The
equipment by make sure connected to the service unit.

5.4 The Filmwise Heat Flux and Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination at
Constant Pressure

5.4.1 Cooling water is circulated through the filmwise condenser starting with a
minimum value of 0.1 LPM.
5.4.2 The heater power is adjusted to obtain the desired pressure at 1.01 bar.
5.4.3 When the condition is stabilized, the steam ( ) and surface temperature
( ), (T1) and (T2), and flowrate are recorded.

5.5 The Dropwise Heat Flux and Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination at
Constant Pressure

5.5.1 Cooling water is circulated through the dropwise condenser starting with a
minimum value of 0.4 LPM.
5.5.2 The heater power is adjusted to obtain the desired pressure at 1.01 bar.
5.5.3 When the condition is stabilized, the steam ( ) and surface
temperature , (T3), (T4) and flowrate are recorded.

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6.0 RESULTS

6.1 Experiment 1: Demonstration of filmwise and dropwise condensation

6.1.1 Pressure is kept constant at 1.02-1.10 bar


6.1.2 Tin= 30.2
6.1.3 Tout=29.7
6.1.4 Tsat=61.8
6.1.5 Tsurf=31.0

6.2 Experiment 2

Table 6.2: The filmwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient determination at constant
pressure

Tsat
Flowrate Power Tin Tout Tsat Tsurf - Tm
q U
(LMP) (P) ( C) ( C) ( C) ( C) Tsurf (oC)
( C)
0.1 322 31.5 44.1 67.3 54.0 13.3 29.00 87.92 21777.3 750.9
0.2 449 31.3 36.6 68.8 39.3 29.5 34.78 73.95 18317.0 526.7
0.3 522 31.3 40.7 71.8 62.1 62.1 35.59 196.74 48731.5 1369.3
0.4 530 31.4 40.5 71.9 65.0 65.0 35.76 254.08 62934.3 1759.9
0.5 532 31.4 38.9 71.9 63.3 63.3 36.62 261.52 64777.1 1768.9
0.6 533 31.6 38.0 71.9 60.2 63.2 37.00 267.90 66357.4 1793.4
0.7 559 31.6 37.9 71.9 62.5 62.5 37.06 307.76 76230.6 2057.0

6.3 Experiment 3

Table 6.3: The dropwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient determination at constant
pressure

Tsat
Flowrate Power Tin Tout Tsat Tsurf - Tm
q U
(LMP) (P) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Tsurf (oC)
(oC)
0.4 542 31.7 42.0 72.0 75.0 - 3.0 34.90 287.58 71232.07 2041.03
0.8 543 31.7 38.3 71.8 68.5 3.3 33.90 268.28 91221.04 2690.89
1.2 564 31.8 36.5 71.6 71.6 7.6 37.40 393.48 975788.70 26090.61

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6.4 Experiment 4

6.4.1 For Dropwise Condenser

Table 6.4: The effect of air inside chamber for filmwise

Tsat
Tsur
Flowrate Power Tin Tout Tsat - Tm
f q U
(LMP) (P) ( C) ( C) ( C) Tsurf ( C)
( C)
(oC)
0.4 0.0 31.1 33.1 59.2 34.7 24.5 27.09 55.08 13643.03 503.62
0.8 0.0 31.1 32.9 57.1 33.5 23.6 25.10 100.21 24821.50 988.90
1.2 0.0 31.1 32.5 55.2 32.3 22.9 23.39 117.21 29032.31 1241.23

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7.0 CALCULATION

Sample calculation

7.1 Volumetric flowrate. Q

7.2 Power,

7.3 Log mean temperature difference:

7.4 Heat flux,

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7.5 Heat transfer coefficient, U

Full calculations are in the Appendices.


Data Analysis was tabulated in Appendices.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS

In this experiment, the film boiling condensation was investigated by using the SOLTEQ
Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model: HE 163). There were 4 objectives that must be
accomplished. The first one was to demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise condensation. From
this experiment, we are able to describe the characteristics of filmwise and dropwise
condensation. In filmwise condensation, most materials used in the construction of heat
exchangers are wettable and during the condensation a film condensate spreads over the
surface. More vapour condenses onto the outside of this film will increases its thickness and
causes the flow downward and drip from the lowest points. The heat given up by the vapour
during condensation is conducted through the film. During filmwise condensation a layer of
condensate covers the cool surface and this will causes the resistance to the transfer of heat.
However, for the dropwise condensation the material used in the construction is non-wet table
.When the steam condenses, a large number of spherical forms on its surface. These beads
become larger and then the trickle downwards. The moving bead gathers all the static beads
along its downward path, becomes larger, accelerates and leaves a virtually bare surface in its
trail.

For experiment 2 and 3, theoretically there is a big difference from the graph for the
dropwise and filmwise condensation based on its heat transfer coefficient and temperature
difference. For dropwise there is a relatively larger area heat transfer coefficient that proposes a
larger value of heat transfer during condensation. As for filmwise there is a smaller value of heat
transfer and the larger area on the graph that shows the larger margin of heat transfer value are at
larger heat transfer value. But for the errors that has occur, they didnt match for the desirable
data.

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For experiment 4, theoretically, the clear difference between both heat transfer coefficient
and temperature difference for filmwise and dropwise condensation is for dropwise with the
present of air there is a larger value of heat transfer coefficient at a small temperature difference
rather than for filmwise that shows a smaller value of heat transfer coefficient and at a more
larger difference of temperature. The analysis for the data collected is that heat flux shows a
clear difference due to the presence of air. With the presence of air the heat flux value is smaller.
Dropwise condensation is far more efficient for condensation process due to the specifications
for each plate surface. However we are not able to achieve the desired outcome due to some
errors.

The errors involve that effect the results is due to fluid involve for the process of
condensation to occur. The impurities that contain within the fluid involve has effect the density
and boiling temperature that occur at a much lower temperature. Thus condensation occurs at a
less precise order and resulting in impairment data.

8.0 CONCLUSION

8.1 The dropwise condensation heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at constant
pressure occur at a relatively larger value at smaller temperature difference than for
filmwise condensation. Thus efficient condensation.
8.2 Dropwise has a more stable and larger heat transfer value for condensation process
thus a more efficient condensation process.

9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 Avoid error in taking readings and make sure eyes of observer are parallel to the
meniscus.
9.2 Make sure the valve are close tightly when the film condensation equipment is turn
off.
9.3 Make sure all the valve close at the beginning of the experiment
9.4 Allow the cooling water to flow at the end of the experiment before the equipment is
shut down to avoid the cracking of cylindrical tube.

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REFERENCES

Aksan, S. N. and Rose, J. W. (1973). Dropwise CondensationThe Effect of Thermal Properties


of the Condenser Material. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 16, 461-467.

Blackman, L. C. F., Dewar, M. S. J. and Hampson, H. (1957). Compounds for Promoting


Dropwise Condensation of Steam. J. Appl. Chem., 7, 160-171.

Date of search: 10/10/2014

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5048600.html
http://www.p-a-hilton.co.uk/English/Products/Heat_Transfer/heat_transfer.html
http://wins.engr.wisc.edu/teaching/mpfBook/node9.html

Date of search: 13/10/2014

http://www.focus-science.com/pahilton-heattransfer-h910.html
http://www.springerlink.com/content/46322536602154p1/
http://www.springerlink.com/content/u2882206203n3788/

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APPENDICES

Figure 6.1: The Filmwise Condensation

Figure 6.2: The Dropwise Condensation

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CALCULATION:

Experiment 2:
1) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

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Heat transfer coefficient, U

2) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

15
Heat transfer coefficient, U

3) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

16
Heat transfer coefficient, U

4) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

17
Heat transfer coefficient, U

5) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

18
Heat transfer coefficient, U

6) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

19
Heat transfer coefficient, U

7) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

Heat flux,

20
Heat transfer coefficient, U

Experiment 3:

1) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

21
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

2) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

22
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

3) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

23
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

Experiment 4:
1) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

24
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

2) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

25
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

3) Volumetric flowrate. Q

Power,

Log mean temperature difference:

26
Heat flux,

Heat transfer coefficient, U

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Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient VS Temperature Difference
2500

2000
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient

1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature Difference

Graph 7.1: Surface Heat Transfer VS Temperature Difference at Constant Pressure for Filmwise

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Heat Flux VS Temperature Difference
70000

60000

50000

40000
Heat Flux

30000

20000

10000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature Difference

Graph 7.2: Heat Flux VS Temperature Difference at Constant Pressure for Filmwise

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Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient VS Temperature Difference
30000

25000
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

-5000
Temperature ifference

Graph 7.3: Surface Heat Transfer VS Temperature Difference at Constant Pressure for Dropwise

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Heat Flux VS Temperature Difference
1200000

1000000

800000

600000
Heat Flux

400000

200000

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

-200000
Temperature Difference

Graph 7.4: Heat Flux VS Temperature Difference at Constant Pressure for Dropwise

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Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient
1400

1200
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient

1000

800

600

400

200

0
22.8 23 23.2 23.4 23.6 23.8 24 24.2 24.4 24.6
Temperature Difference

Graph 7.5: Surface Heat Transfer VS Temperature Difference for Dropwise Condensation

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Heat Flux
35000

30000

25000
Heat Flux

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
22.8 23 23.2 23.4 23.6 23.8 24 24.2 24.4 24.6
Temperature Difference

Graph 7.6: Heat Flux VS Temperature Difference for Dropwise Condensation

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