Computer Science

UNIT 5: NETWORKING AND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE - 10 Marks
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Evolution of Networking: ARPANET, www, Internet, Interspace
Different ways of sending data across the network with reference to switching
techniques (Circuit, Message and Packet switching)
Data Communication terminologies:
Concept of Channel and Data transfer rate (bps, kbps, Mbps, Gbps,
Tbps) Transmission media:
Twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, infrared, radio link,
microwave link and satellite link
Network devices:
Modem, RJ11 and RJ45 connectors, Ethernet Card, Hub, Switch,
Gateway Network Topologies and types:
Bus, Star, Tree; PAN, LAN, WAN, MAN
Network Protocol:
TCP/IP, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), PPP, Remote Login (Telnet), Internet
Wireless/Mobile Communication protocol such as GSM, CDMA, GPRS, WLL,
Mobile
Telecommunication Technologies: 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G, Electronic mail protocols such as
SMTP,
POP3
Protocols for Chat and Video Conferencing
VOIP Wireless protocols such as Wi-Fi and
WiMax
Network Protocol: TCP/IP, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), PPP, Remote Login (Telnet),
Internet Wireless/Mobile Communication protocol such as GSM, CDMA, GPRS, WLL, 1G, 2G and
3G;
Electronic mail protocols such as SMTP, POP3;
Protocols for Chat and Video Conferencing VoIP
Protocols such as Wi-Fi and WiMax;
Network Security Concepts:
Threats and prevention from Viruses, Worms, Trojan horse,
Spams Use of Cookies, Protection using Firewall;
India IT Act, Cyber Law, Cyber Crimes, IPR issues,
Hacking. WebServices:
WWW, Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), eXtensible Markup Language (XML); Hyper
Text
Transfer Protocol (HTTP); Domain Names; URL; Protocol Address; Website, Web browser,
Web
Servers; Web Hosting, Web Scripting - Client side (VB Script, Java Script, PHP) and Server
side (ASP, JSP, PHP), Web 2.0 (for social networking)
Open Standards
Introduction to open standards and its advantage in development of inter-operable
environment. Open Source Concepts
Proprietary and Open Source Software, Freeware, Shareware, FLOSS/FOSS, GNU, FSF, OSI,
W3C Cloud Computing
Characteristics, layers-client, Application, platform and infrastructure, Deployment
modelsPrivate cloud, Public cloud, Community cloud and hybrid cloud, Issues-
Privacy, Compliance, Security, Sustainability and abuse.
Networking in computers is to enable its users to share resources and to access these
resources regardless of their physical locations, which may be a few feet or even thousands
of miles apart. Thus we can say that computer network creates a global environment
between its users and computers. It also provides communication links for distant places.
Computer network is defined as a set of interconnected autonomous systems
that permits distributed processing of information.

Need for networking:
 Resource sharing (Processing, Peripherals, Information and software) 
Personal or national or worldwide communication
 Information discovery and retrieval.

Computer Science
Evolution of Networking: The first computer network was jointly designed by
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and Department of Defence (DoD) of
United States in 1969 and was called ARPANET. It was an experimental project, which
connected a few computers from some of the reputed universities of USA and DoD.
ARPANET allowed access to computer resource sharing projects. This ARPANET was handed
over to Defence Communication Agency (DCA) for further development. As a result Defence
Data Network (DDN) was born in 1983.

Internet: A network of computer networks that share a common communication protocol
(Transfer Control Protocol - TCP/IP) that allows computers of different types to exchange
information. Since each computer often has more than a single user, it has been estimated
that more than 45 million people have Internet access. It is an interconnected system of
networks that connects computers around the world via the Internet Protocol.

Interspace: The Interspace is a vision of what the Internet will become, where users
crosscorrelate information in multiple ways from multiple sources The Interspace will
offer distributed services to transfer concepts across domains, just as Arpanet used
distributed services to transfer files across machines and the Internet uses distributed
services to transfer objects across repositories.

Network switching techniques: It provides communication between two computers.
There are three type of network switching techniques.
1. Circuit switching: This provides end-to-end connection between two computers. First,
physical connection between two computers is established and then data (message) is
directly transmitted from the source computer to the destination computer.
Node 1 Node 2

2. Message switching: The source computer sends data (message as a single file) to the
switching station, which stores data in a buffer. It then looks for a free link to another
switching station and sends data to that station. This process continues until data is
delivered to the destination computer. This type of switching technique is also known as
‘store and forward’ switching.

Node 1
Node 2
Switching Station Switching Station 2 Switching Station 3
1

3. Packet switching: In packet switching, the data (file) is broken down in fixed size of
small data packets and then these data packets are sent through switching stations to
the final destination. All the packets are stored in the main memory instead of disk. As a
result accessing time of packets is reduced.

Node 1
Node 2

Switching Station 1 Switching Station 2 Switching Station 3

reliable. Economic. no interference Wireless Technologies . convenient to lay down. usually expressed in bits per second (bps). The units used for it are Hz. Kilo bps (Kbps). Giga bps (Gbps). expensive. Wired Technologies Coaxial Cable Comparatively Slow. Mega bps (Mbps). used in Bus topology of networks. Computer Science Data Communication terminologies Data transfer rate: The amount of data transferred in one direction over a link divided by the time taken to transfer it. 103 KHz=Mega Hz (MHz) Communication/Transmission Medium: It is a means of communication or access (lines of communication) set up between the two firms/organizations to exchange data/information. 10 3 Hz=Kilo Hz (KHz). Tera bps (TBps)) Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be passed along a communications channel in a given period of time (1 Second). Optical Fibre Very fast.

RJ45 Connector: RJ45 is a standard type of connector for network cables. and has wide area coverage. The term microwave refers to electromagnetic energy having a frequency higher than 1 gigahertz (billions of cycles per second). Ethernet port is built into the computer. etc. which spreads outward from the antenna through free space. mountains. Hub It is multi-port and unintelligent network device. and RJ stands for "Registered Jack". Network Devices MODEM (Modulator Demodulator): It is a device used to convert the digital signals into analog signals and vice versa.  Satellite link: It is a link using radio frequencies relayed by satellite. . It is very expensive. fast. It is an 8-pin connector usually used with Ethernet cables. LAN adapter and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. Most of the new computers. and large human-made structures. Example: Mobile Phones.  Microwave: Very expensive.  Radio Link: It is a form of wireless communications in which the output of the transmitter takes the form of dissipating electromagnetic radiation. Infrared transmission is used for wireless LANs. They are not refracted or reflected by ionized regions in the upper atmosphere. Ethernet Card A network interface controller (also known as a network interface card. Computer Science  Infrared: Infrared electromagnetic waves have frequencies higher than microwaves but lower than the visible spectrum. as well as for point-to-point communications with portable devices. network adapter. works on line of sight principles. RJ45 connectors are most commonly seen with Ethernet cables and networks. whereas in the earlier computers it was available on an expansion cards that used to be plugged into the motherboards. faster than radio communication. Remote controls. which simply collects the data from one part of the network and delivers to other part of network. RJ11 Connector: RJ Ports RJ-11 is the standard connector utilized on 2-pair (4-wire) telephone wiring. It is mainly used to connect a telephone to a computer terminal. Microwave beams do not readily diffract around barriers such as hills.a physical connector interface most often used for telephone wire terminals. It is a Slow means of communication.

where they are known as translators or boosters. Often a gateway conceals the IP address of the specific user sending out information. etc. Gateway It is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network.. Repeaters are also used extensively in broadcasting. Tree: A tree topology may be defined as a group of bus or star topologies put together. but with some intelligence and so the data packets received from one part of network are refreshed and delivered to the other part of the network as if the switch is the original point (source) of delivery of data. Bus: It is characterised by common transmission medium shared by all the connected hosts. Computer Science Switch It is also a multi-port (similar to a hub). and outsiders can only see the IP address of the gateway itself. i. Examples: VSNL. Repeater It is a two-port network device that strengthens the signal intensity and connects two identical networks. 2. end points or user station attached to the network. such as the server through which people on a company's local area network access the internet. .e. 1. Network topologies: It is the physical make up of a network. managed by dedicated nodes. MIT. It offers simultaneous flow of data and control.

Bus Tree Star Advantages Bus Topology Tree Topology Star Topology  Economic as compared to  Faster as compared to Bus  Faster communication as other topologies of network Topology compared to Bus topology  Simple Architecture  Easier to set-up for multi-floor  Independent line of connection plans of network allows freedom of removing or adding nodes from the network Disadvantages Bus Topology Tree Topology Star Topology  Slower as compared to tree  Slower as compared to Star  Expensive as compared to and star topologies of network Topology Bus topology  Breakage of wire at any point  Expensive as compared to  Long wire length disturbs the entire network Bus Topology Types of Network Networks are classified in accordance with the amount of physical territory they encompass. Personal area networks typically involve a cell phone and palm devices/handheld computing devices. 1. 2. You can use these networks to transfer files including email and calendar appointments. 3. Localised systems such as teller machines within a single citywide area are . Star: It is characterised by central switching mode (communication controller) unique path (point to point link) for each host. LAN (Local Area Network): LAN interconnects a high number of access or node points or stations within a confined physical area within a kilometer. PAN (Personal Area Network): A personal area network . It is easy to add and remove additional hosts by upgrading the centralised node. PAN may be constructed with cables or wirelessly (usually Blue tooth). digital photos and music. An example is the territory covered in a single office building those houses various departments/offices. Computer Science 3.PAN . All these areas are interconnected using a LAN.is a computer network organized around an individual person. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) It is used to connect systems confined within a city/limited geographical area (20-30 Kilometers).

.interconnected using a MAN. A small bank with offices restricted to a city or a single state might also be interconnected through a MAN.

Protocols: It is the set of rules for governing communication between two communication devices. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a wide area wireless communications system that uses digital radio transmission to provide voice. Wireless/Mobile Communication is the communication using devices.Telnet is a program that allows user to establish a virtual terminal connection between two machines using TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). It is used to serve many locations distributed over a large geographical area. A system of overnight teller machines used by a banking organisation covering the North of India is an example of a WAN. WAN (Wide Area Network) Transmission Satellite A Satellite B Terminal 2 Terminal 1 VSNL MIT It is Used to connect systems with no limitation of geographical area. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): It is a primary method to transfer files over the Internet. Level-Remote Login (Telnet) or an Application Level-Remote Login . negotiations and establishment of rules. It also infers documentation. A GSM system coordinates the communication between mobile telephones (mobile stations). TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol): A protocol for communication between computers used as a standard for transmitting data over networks and is the basis for standard Internet protocols. Internet is also an example of the same. PPP also established a standard for assigning and managing IP addresses. data. Each . FTP transfers files to and from a remote network site. network protocol multiplexing. Computer Science 4. and multimedia communication services. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol): The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) originally emerged as an encapsulation protocol for transporting IP traffic over point-to-point links. It is a common method of moving files between two computers. and switching systems. base stations (cell sites). etc. which are not physically connected with each other by cable. for added networking capabilities.

GSM radio channel is 200 kHz wide that is further divided into frames each of which hold 8 time slots. .

It is a digital wireless telephony transmission technique. WLL is a system that connects subscribers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio signals as a substitute for cable for all or part of the connection between the subscriber and the switch. The GSM system includes mobile telephones (mobile stations). and interconnecting switching systems. and fixed cellular systems. The service is available to users in over 200 countries worldwide.CDMA) Mobile Broadband Broadband Approximate Speed 64 kbps 2 mbps 100 mbps 2. Tata and MTNL WLL (Wireless Local Loop) . Features Basic Voice Services Better Voice Services Improved Data IP based Protocols Analog-based Basic Data Services Services with (LTE) protocol First digital standards Multimedia True Mobile (GSM. It is patented by QUALCOMM. In India this technology is adapted by Airtel and Vodaphone. which allows multiple frequencies to be used simultaneously - Spread Spectrum. In India this technology is used by Reliance. proprietary fixed radio access.4 kbps . General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G mobile systems of GSM. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) . radio towers (base stations).Sometimes called as Radio In The Loop (RITL) or Fixed- Radio Access (FRA). This includes cordless access systems. Computer Science GSM was originally named Group Special Mobile.

. or a site on the Internet in real time by typing text. they hear each other's voices and see a video image of the other participant(s). which provides fixed and fully mobile Internet access. Internet Message Access Protocol (iMAP) is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e- mail retrieval. much like in an alphanumeric pager system. The network buffers the message until the phone becomes active. For receiving messages.g. VoIP are IP telephony. client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (iMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. Each user has a video camera. SMS (Short Message Service) Using SMS. microphone. Computer Science Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. In a way.16m update expected to offer up to 1 gbps fixed speeds. VoIP) is communication protocols and transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. abcd@gmail.com Chat: It is an application to communicate with a person. we can say. The POP protocol has been developed through several versions. a short alphanumeric message (160 alphanumeric characters) can be sent to a mobile phone to be displayed there. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a telecommunications protocol. and speakers mounted on his or her computer. The text appears on the screen(s) of all the other participants in the "chat". Also. user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. This is the most widely used service facilitating users to send and receive messages electronically in a store and forward manner. As the participants speak to one another. a group. Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP. E-Mail: Electronic mail. all modern e-mail clients and mail servers support both protocols as a means of transferring e-mail messages from a server. Video Conferencing It is a conference between two or more participants at different locations over the Internet or a private network. the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). with version 3 (POP3) being the current standard. POP3 is used for most webmail services such as Gmail and Yahoo! Mail. While electronic mail servers use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. Post Office Protocol (POP) is Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. Messages and letters that sent over the computer network to other people with the help of individual’s unique email addresses (email ids) e. The current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 mbps and with the IEEE 802. such as the Internet. Internet telephony and broadband telephony.

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21 of 2000) [9th June. spam in blogs. and file sharing network spam. Cookies: A small piece of information that a server sends to a client. At some later time (such as returning to the site the next day). the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam. which is stored on your hard drive as a text file. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user. Firewall: Any of a number of security schemes (hardware/software) that prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network or that monitor transfers of information to and from the network.11standards Network Security Concepts Threats and Prevention Computer Virus: A computer virus can spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to another computer. However. social networking spam. digital delivery systems) to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk. Computer Worm: A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. the server retrieves the cookie. CD. or public computer installs spy wares such as key loggers on purpose in order to secretly monitor other users. DVD. Usenet newsgroup spam. Unlike a virus. for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet. mobile phone messaging spam. wiki spam. the owner of a shared. Internet forum spam. its server sends certain information about you to your browser. spyware is secretly installed on the user's personal computer. it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. It's a way for the server to remember things about you. It is not a technical term. Web search engine spam. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. SPAM: Spam is the abuse of electronic messaging systems (including most broadcast media. SPYWARE: Spyware is a type of malware that is installed on computers and collects information about users without their knowledge. TROJAN HORSE: "Malware" computer programs presented as useful or harmless in order to induce the user to install and run them. corporate. Sometimes. 2000 (No. Typically. or USB drive. online classified ads spam. THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT. the Alliance has generally enforced its use to describe only a narrow range of connectivity technologies including wireless local area network (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam. junk fax transmissions. Computer Science Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. When you visit a Web site with cookie capabilities. however. 2000] .

which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of .An Act to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication. commonly referred to as "electronic commerce".

Under intellectual property law. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts.html. The part on the left is the most specific.in URL (Uniform Resource Locator): It is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. lawfully or otherwise.The protocol that allows use of HTML on the World Wide Web. symbols. The first part of the address indicates . trademarks. industrial design rights and trade secrets in some jurisdictions. 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. and jurisdiction. where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of a crime. Example: w3schools. owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets. particularly those surrounding hacking. Computer Science communication and storage of information. XML (eXtensible Markup Language): XML is a programming language that enables designers to create their own tags to indicate specific information. the Bankers' Books Evidence Act. phrases. copyright infringement. and words. literary. HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol . including intellectual property. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high profile. HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language): The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. etc. microsoft. privacy. such as musical. 1872. separated by dots (or periods). discoveries and inventions. and artistic works.co.htm or .nic. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted. Intellectual property (IP) . the Indian Evidence Act. cbse. It can be edited in any text editor.in. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code. It is the duty of an ethical hacker to inform the system administrator of the security flaw as soon as he/she identifies it. Domain Name: It is the unique name that identifies an Internet site. It is viewable in any Internet Browser. patents. and the part on the right is the most general. 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act. and designs. freedom of expression. Web Services Web page: It is a single document written in HTML having extension as . Common types of intellectual property include copyrights. Hacking: The process in which people break and enter a computer/network without having authorised access and with no malicious intent is known as hacking. Cyber-crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. Cyber law encompasses a wide variety of political and legal issues related to the Internet and other communications technology.com.

it is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource.what protocol to use. In other words. . and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.

A group of web pages that have been developed together to present information on specific subjects is also a Web Site Web Browser It is a Client software program that is used to access various kinds of Internet resources using HTTP. IP numbers are 32 bit addresses that consist of four octets. Computer Science For example.0. for example: 198.com/html/default. Technically speaking.41.com” IP Address: It is a unique. or individual on the World Wide Web.w3schools. Internet Protocol (IP) numbers are part of a global standardized scheme for identifying machines that are connected to the Internet. numeric identifier used to specify hosts and networks. Netscape Navigator.asp”. . separated by periods. and they are expressed as four numbers between 0 and 255. Safari etc.52 Website: It is a group of Web Pages that collectively represent information of a company. Internet Explorer. Opera. the domain name is “w3schools. Examples: Mozilla Firefox. in the URL “http://www.

FOSS) or Free/ Libre/ Open Source Software (FLOSS) is software that is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use. It is also called site hosting. Computer Science Web Server: It is a computer that stores Web documents and makes them available to the rest of the world.CLIENT and SERVER Side VB Script or Java Script codes are embedded in Web pages to be executed on the client’s computer. or non-dedicated. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both “individuals” and “corporate players”. and administrating the World Wide Web. Shareware . Video-sharing sites etc. whereas ASP.0 for Social Networking Web 2. Wikis. interoperability.0 include Social networking sites. The aim behind providing shareware software is to give users/buyers an opportunity to try the program and find its usefulness before buying the full version of the software. This makes the files available on the World Wide Web for viewing by the public. The opposite of Freeware is Payware. A Web 2. Freeware .Freeware (from "free" and "software") is computer software that is available for use at no cost or for an optional fee. user-centered design. meaning its sole purpose is to be a Web server. availability or convenience. Examples of Web 2. Web Hosting: It is a service that allows you to upload and store a site's HTML documents and related files on a Web server. . Shareware is commonly offered as a download from an Internet website or provided in a CD/DVD with a newspaper or a magazine. Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as consumers of user-generated content in a virtual community.The term shareware refers to proprietary software that is provided to users on a trial basis with no payment and is often limited by any combination of functionality. A server may be dedicated. JSP and PHP codes are embedded in the Web Pages to be executed on the Server. Blogs. Open Source Terminologies Open Source Software Free and Open Source Software (F/OSS. in contrast to websites where users are limited to the active viewing of content that they created and controlled.0 terms is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive systemic biases. Web Scripting . meaning it can be used for basic computing in addition to acting as a server. and improve its design through the availability of its source code. change. study.

In this sense it is also known as "non-free software" and is the opposite of free software. in contrast with "open source". which is neither free nor open source. or restrictions publishing of modified or unmodified versions. who can restrict the user’s control over the software. which has a copyright owner.Proprietary Software is often used to mean computer software. A literal meaning of "proprietary" in relation to software.Proprietary Software . These restrictions are placed on it by one of its proprietors. While most . We can also refer it as "closed-source software" which usually describes software whose source code is not published. generally speaking. its modification.

or networking resources. The FSF is incorporated in Massachusetts. USA. As per NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) definition of cloud computing. Application. but differs from Unix by being free software and containing no Unix code. OSI . This eliminates the need to procure and operate physical servers.. Computer Science proprietary software is closed-source. Development of GNU was initiated by Richard Stallman and was the original focus of the Free Software Foundation (FSF). mobile phones. Platform Layer (Platform as a Service PaaS): The platform layer rests on the infrastructure layer’s virtual machines. IaaS customers can create and remove virtual machines and network them together at will. Clients are billed for infrastructure services based on what resources are consumed. At this layer customers do not manage their virtual machines. It was developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative.Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model (or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. source-available proprietary software also exists. and active user accounts) Layers . FSF . . a copyleft-based (opposite of copy-right) movement.g. data storage systems. laptops.. and workstations)  Resource pooling  Rapid elasticity  Measured service (e. Instead of purchasing servers or even hosted services. storage. GNU is an Operating System composed entirely of free software. processing. Its name is a recursive acronym for “GNU's not Unix!” This name was chosen because GNU's design is Unix-like. they merely create applications within an existing API or programing language. GNU . There is no need to manage an operating system. let alone the underlying hardware and virtualization layers.Client. bandwidth. platform and infrastructure Infrastructure Layer (Infrastructure as a Service IaaS): The infrastructure layer builds on the virtualization layer by offering the virtual machines as a service to users. which aims to promote the universal freedom to distribute and modify computer software. tablets. the following are the 5 main characteristics  On-demand self-service  Broad network access (e. The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman in 1985 to support the free software movement. Some kinds of software (such as shared source and "public source")are neither "closedsource" nor "open source" according to narrow definitions of those terms.g. Cloud computing Cloud computing is a concept used to describe a variety of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication network such as the Internet.

customer relationship management.Clients merely create their own programs which are hosted by the platform services they are paying for. Application Layer (Software as a Service SaaS): Services at the software level consist of complete applications that do not require development. and other office productivity applications. Such applications can be email. Enterprise .

Hybrid Cloud: The hybrid cloud computing model employs aspects of all of the other cloud models and it is the most common method of cloud deployment within a large organization. web browsers. and computing resources that are utilized by multiple organizations. The client layer acts as the user interface to which cloud computing services are delivered. A company may use internal resources in a private cloud maintain total control over its proprietary data. Multiple clients (individuals or corporations) utilize these resources through the public Internet. The cloud computing resources may be situated on or off-site. Private Cloud: A private cloud describes computer services delivered to a single organization. and even telephones. . The community cloud model can provide greater cost savings than the private cloud while offering some of its security features. In this model. It can then use a public cloud storage provider for backing up less sensitive information. The secure processing of personal data in the cloud represents a huge challenge. data storage and computing services Public Cloud: This is the deployment model that most common and cost effective model of cloud computing. while software as service offered directly to consumers. such as email. it is an essential part of the model. Like a public cloud. Similarly to a private cloud. the hybrid model offers organizations the most flexibility. Where this model differs from the public model is that the infrastructure is only utilized by a group of known to each other organizations. the community cloud may contain software. and they can either be managed in-house or by a third party. is often provided for free. these organizations are responsible for the operation of their own infrastructure. This model is best suited for organizations that share common requirements such as security or legal compliance policies. By combining the advantages of the other models. data storage. Client layer hardware can include personal computers. Services can be dynamically provisioned and are billed based on usage alone. mobile devices. Computer Science services can be billed monthly or by usage. Cloud Computing Deployment models Cloud computing is a growing trend that offers an innovative way to deliver software. Cloud Computing Issues Cloud Privacy issue concerns are increasingly important in the online world. it might share computing resources with other organizations that have similar needs. all of the physical resources are owned and operated by a third party cloud computing provider. This model addresses the security and privacy concerns that are inherent in other cloud computing models. At the same time. Community Cloud: A community cloud contains features of the public and private cloud models. The Client Layer: While this layer is not a cloud computing service. It can be managed by the member organizations or by a third party provider.

It is important that it remains compliant with laws and industry regulations.Cloud compliance issue arise as soon as your data move from your internal storage to someone else’s cloud. .

Sample Case study based solved question Q Granuda Consultants are setting up a secured network for their office campus at Faridabad 4 for their day to day office and web based activities. Computer Science Cloud Security issue is considered one of the most critical aspects for cloud computing due to the sensitivity and importance of data stored in the cloud. Cloud as Abuse issue: As you buy hardware. since it contains maximum number of computers OR Building “Ganga”. which are given below. block) to house the server of this organization. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. you can also buy software/services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes.e. Ans . Ans Building “Jamuna”. Answer the questions (i) to (vi) after going through the building positions in the campus and other details. Also give a reason to justify your suggested location. since it is closest to the other two buildings “Jamuna” and “Ravi” ( ½ Mark for writing any correct place) ( ½ Mark for correct justification) Computer Science (ii) Suggest a cable layout of connections between the buildings inside the campus. (i) Suggest the most suitable place (i. They are planning to have connectivity between 3 building and the head office situated in Kolkata.

(ii) Repeater: Between buildings “Jamuna” and “Ravi”. (1 Mark for drawing /writing any valid connectivity or topology or diagram connecting various buildings inside the campus) NOTE: Ignore placement/order of buildings in the diagrammatic representation (iii) Suggest the placement of the following devices with justification (i) Switch (ii) Repeater Ans (i) Switch: In each of the buildings. since a network switch is a networking device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). MAN or WAN will be formed. when you will connect the 1 Faridabad Campus with its Kolkata office? Ans WAN ( 1 Mark for writing correct answer) (vi) What type of network out of LAN. MAN or WAN will be formed. according to layout drawn for ii) (iv) The organization is planning to provide a high speed link with its head office situated in the KOLKATA using a wired connection. when you will connect the 1 buildings of Faridabad Campus with each other? Ans LAN ( 1 Mark for writing correct answer) . since distance between these two buildings is greater than 70 m which will otherwise lead to loss of signal intensity for data to be transferred. ( ½ Mark for writing correct placement and justification of Switch) ( ½ Mark for writing correct placement and justification of Repeater. Which of the following cable will be most suitable for this job? (i) Optical Fibre (ii) Co-axial Cable (iii)E thernet Cable Ans (i) Optical Fibre ( 1 Mark for writing correct option) (v) What type of network out of LAN.