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102097 Al Amira Dounia Ayoubi 17631307

Assessment 2- Literature Review and Data Collection

Collaborative Learning playing a significant role in student learning- Survey

Part A-Literature Review

The educational approach of "Collaborative Learning" is a teaching methodology that

requires a different forms of group of learners to collaborate on a given task (Laal., Ghodsi,

2012, p.486). In classrooms, the teaching style of Collaborative Learning is an accustomed

and essential practice that engages students with content, knowledge, fellow students as well

as the teacher. The use of the various styles of collaborative learning within the classroom,

potentially caters to student and teacher development in diverse factors such as increase in

interpersonal skills (student/teacher relationships), active learning and achieving learning

outcomes.

The learning style of CL has the influence to highlight major benefits of social,

psychological, academic, and assessment (Laal et al., 2012, p.486). CL aims to achieve

multifaceted factors of a students ability to perform cohesively and academically in a

classroom with fellow peers and teachers. CL as a facilitator to student achievement, drives

crucial thinking as active involvement is required. (Laal., Khattami-Keranshahi., & Laal,

2014, p. 4057-4058). Laal et al. (2014) find that being able to successfully engage with CL

within the classroom requires positive interdependence, considerable interaction, individual

accountability, social skills and group processing which further enhance a students social,

academic, psychological and assessment advantages that were earlier stated (p.4061).

As the success of CL is stressed among the students abilities, it is also underlined that a

teacher demonstration and instruction is imperative (Hmlinen & Vhsantanen , 2011,

p.178). Hmlinen et al. (2011) underlines the theoretical and pedagogical perspectives on

successful CL. The theoretical factors that have been highlighted is that CL relies on the

educational psychology-oriented and sociocultural oriented and the theoretical views of


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sociocultural, social structures and meditational tools influence (p.171). By focusing on

creativity, social perspectives and theoretical sources, Hmlinen et al. (2011) were able to

identify and draw recommendations for the implications. It was stated that orchestrating,

scaffolding, supporting and structuring students shared knowledge construction processes

heighten student engagement to CL (p. 174). The research article further highlights how

structure and flexibility is essential to ensure a positive and creating CL environment. By

applying teaching methods and pedagogies to enhance student engagement and CL, pre- and

real-time activities to motivate students CL will play a significant role in student learning

(p.178). It is found that Social, Psychological and Academics factors will be enhanced as

there will be an improvement in classroom, results and critical thinking. (Laal & Ghodsi,

2012, p.487).

Student perspective on CL as a teaching strategy in the classroom is predominantly

supported. In Almajed, Skinnier, Peterson & Winnings (2016) findings found that the

theoretical elements of CL had underlined 4 main themes; context, group/learning

interactions, group and learning processes and outcomes (p.1541). Ultimately, with all these

themes in conjunction, the results highlighted those student perspectives on collaborative

learning that CL occurred and linked to the study aims. The students who participated in the

study, CL occurred best when certain group-facilitating contextual features were present or

absent (Almajed et al., 2016, p.1541). Students also believed that having a mixture of

students that shared similar and different attributes and behaviours allow positive interactives

and critical thinking. Students strongly believed that by engaging with the group enhanced

their social and knowledge skills as they had to manage conflict and implemented strategies

to overcome obstacles. The article also highlights that students responded well to having

deadlines and work-load as it inhibited their learning skills (Almajed et al., 2016, p.1555).
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Chandra (2015) conducted a study to underline the principles that are involved with CL.

Chandra (2015) states that the findings that students using CL opposed to Individual Learning

achieved higher scores in their final assessments (p.2). The aim of this study was to examine

and find the teaching method that enhances students academic performances. Chandra

(2015) also highlights that through her study she as able to identify principles of CL which

includes "the learner or student is the primary focus of instruction, Interactions and "doing"

are of primary importance and "working in groups is an important mode of learning" ( p.4).

Impacts and benefits that were also found in the study was that CL allows students to have

interpersonal development such as higher order of thinking and communication with peers.

Students were exposed to diverse perspectives that challenged and also enhance students

high-level thinking and an increase in student retention and responsibility as students were to

adopt leadership skills and responsibility which provided them more opportunities and

personal feedback (Chandra, 2015, p. 4-5). This study further supports that the teaching

strategy and pedagogy of using CL in the classroom is beneficial to student education.

To gain further insight on the effectiveness of CL is through student perspective. Student

engagement with the teaching style gives a personal insight on the relevance of CL. It has

been highlighted that the theoretical framework in the late 1800's that CL has been a powerful

tool within the classroom juxtaposed with students working individually (Osman, Duffy,

Chang, Lee, 2011). It was emphasized that students have positive effects by increasing their

understanding and academic achievement (p.548). A study based on student perspective on

collaborative learning supports the 1800's the theoretical framework (p.548). Results found

that 18 out of the 20 participants found that the best learning experiences were in forms of CL

(p.550). It was quoted from one of the students from the study that "Two students also
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reported that discussions usually made the class more engaging. Sally explained that the class

goes smoother because youre listening to a whole diverse peoples opinions." (p.550).

However, there were a contrast in the effectiveness of CL within the classroom as students

felt that they are likely to end up being distracted and that teachers play a major role in

making it "work" (Osman et al., 2015, p.554).

Rieger and Heiner (2014) observed students who participated in sitting two exams

individually compared the students working collaboratively before the exam (p.41). Results

highlighted that students as well as teachers supported the idea of CL within the classroom. It

was found that 76%of students had a positive experience and believe benefits learning.

Students perspectives further revealed that (Rieger & Heiner, 2014, p.41). Students felt it was

a good learning experience; students were able to share their knowledge and offer help and

understanding to their fellow peers as they received immediate feedback Reiger & Heiner,

2014, p. 46). Furthermore, another study on students perceptions was researched to find

whether CL has the ability to allow students to learn more and also minimise stress (Ioannou

& Artino, 2010, p,189). The article states that all group activities, tasks and group projects

are more effective than students working independently (p.189). Critical thinking, academic

achievement, social competence and well-being were enhanced (Ioannou & Artino, 2010,

p.199). The findings found many advantages of discussions improvement understanding,

improved performance and improved confidence (p. 193-194). Moreover, it is essential for

CL to be practiced in the classroom as it is highlighted that it also benefits teachers in

knowing where students may need further guidance and to address any implications (Laal &

Ghodsi, 2012, p.489).


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Ultimately, the articles that have been discussed show that using the pedagogy CL is positive

and engaging practice within the classroom. It addresses many students learning needs

academically and socially. Most importantly, a high number of the results tested that CL

should be used within the classroom for diverse teaching methods and content as it shows

that it does play a significant role in student learning.


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B: Data Collection
Protocol

Dear Potential Participant:

I am working on a project titled Engaging students in their learning for the class, Researching Teaching
and Learning 2, at Western Sydney University. As part of the project, I am collecting information to help
inform the design of a teacher research proposal.

This survey aims to identify the importance of using Collaborative learning as a teaching strategy within
classrooms. This study aims to highlight the effect this teaching strategy has had on students and the
success rate of this teaching pedagogy. I hope to find how the use of Collaborative Learning in the
classroom effects, opportunities and implications of the this method. The data collection will be collected
by a survey that included numerous closed and open-ended questions that hope to gather implicit
findings.

By signing this form, I acknowledge that:

I have read the project information and have been given the opportunity to discuss the
information and my involvement in the project with the researcher/s.
The procedures required for the project and the time involved have been explained to me, and
any questions I have about the project have been answered to my satisfaction.
I consent to allowing my answers to the survey to be private and confidentially and allowed to be
used for data research.
I understand that my involvement is confidential and that the information gained during this
data collection experience will only be reported within the confines of the Researching Teaching
and Learning 2 unit, and that all personal details will be de-identified from the data.
I understand that I can withdraw from the project at any time, without affecting my relationship
with the researcher/s, now or in the future.

By signing below, I acknowledge that I am 18 years of age or older, or I am a full-time university student
who is 17 years old.

Signed: __________________________________

Name: __________________________________

Date: __________________________________

By signing below, I acknowledge that I am the legal guardian of a person who is 16 or 17 years old, and
provide my consent for the persons participation.

Signed: __________________________________

Name: __________________________________

Date: __________________________________
102097 Al Amira Dounia Ayoubi 17631307

Topic: Collaborative Learning playing a significant role in student learning

Age:____________________________________________________________________________

Gender:_________________________________________________________________________

Date:____________________________________________________________________________

1. Using Collaborative Learning in the classroom creates better learning opportunities?


O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree
2. Collaborative Learning allows students to learn more content?
O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree

3. Collaborative Learning improves a students engagement with content/ increases thinking


skills?
O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree
4. Collaborative Learning improves students social skills (communication, well-being,
interaction)

O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree
5. Do you believe that Collaborative Learning should be practiced in the classroom?

O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree

6. Do you believe that teacher involvement is important for positive Collaborative Learning?

O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree
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7. Do you often partake in Collaborative Learning?

O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree

8. Do you feel that you had performed better in tasks, projects, activities when doing it in
groups?

O Agree

O Neutral

O Disagree

9. What kind of Collaborative Learning did you experience in school?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

10. What are the positive effects/ experiences you have gained from Collaborative Learning?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

11. What are the negative effects/ experiences you have gained from Collaborative Learning?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

12. What are your overall comments on Collaborative Learning? Please include perspectives,
alterations to the pedagogy, is it a positive strategy to use in the classroom etc
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
102097 Al Amira Dounia Ayoubi 17631307

Part C: Data Collection Protocol Explanation

The protocols used in the survey are based on the effects of CL if the teaching pedagogy is an

engaging practice within the classroom. The survey includes both structured (closed) and

non-structured (open) questions. The questions were created and aimed for students that have

worked in groups. The structures and non-structured questions are based on students

perspectives. The structure has been implemented to be able to collect the data efficiently.

The non-structured questions have been implemented to gain a further insight and perspective

on CL in the classroom and the personal negative and positive experiences that the students

have accounted. The survey is aimed to reveal whether the same effects that were earlier

discussed correlated. The findings in the literature were conducted in various methods of data

protocol thats assessed students through structure and non-structured questions. By

analysing the research and articles throughout the literature review, the questions in the

survey were created to have purpose and to gather data. The questions were based off the

research questions within the literature review to compare and contrast findings and to gain a

deeper insight in student perspectives and if CL does engage student learning.

The chosen collection tools of surveys were chosen as it provides substantial information.

Efron & Ravid (2013) state that it is the most common and efficient tool used to study and

gather information as it provides resourceful and easily analysed (p.107). In addition, using

survey for the research, it will provide a variety of qualitative and quantitate data as it gathers

peoples opinions, perceptions and attitudes as well stresses the area or factors that need to

be addressed how it can be mended (Efron & Ravid, 2013, p.107). The structured questions

give the participants to answer Agree, Neutral and Disagree. Efron & Ravid (2013) state

that the structured questions are focused on predetermined categories and checks are made
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to record specific measurable behaviour that result in numerical data which will make it

easier to record and analyse the data (p.129). It has been designed allow the data collection to

show specific ratings of the answers. Furthermore, by implementing non-structured questions

within the survey, participants are able to explain their perspectives in their own words and

help clarify their belief (p.121). Ultimately, the motivation of the survey is to research and

analyse how different methods and teaching pedagogies can engage student learning.

The ethical values regarding privacy and confidentiality will be practiced and reinforced to

participants doing the survey. Participants will be given a consent sheet that needs to be read

and signed.

References
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Almajed, A. , Skinner, V. , Peterson, R. , & Winning, T. (2016). Collaborative Learning:

Students Perspectives on How Learning Happens. Interdisciplinary Journal of

Problem-Based Learning, 10(2), 1541-5015. doi: https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-

5015.1601

Chandra, R. (2015). Collaborative Learning for Educational Achievement. Collaborative

Learning for Educational Achievement, 5(3), 04-07. doi: 10.9790/7388-05310407

Efron, S.E. & Ravid, R. (2013). Action Research: A practical guide. Guildford Press e-book

retrieved from:

http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/UWSAU/reader.action?docID=1137441.

Hmlinena, R., & Vhsantanen. K. (2011). Theoretical and pedagogical perspectives on

orchestrating creativity and collaborative learning. Educational Research Review,

6(3), 169-184. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2011.08.001

Ioannou, A, & Artino, A. R., Jr. (2010). Learn more, stress less: exploring the benefits of

collaborative assessment. College Student Journal, 44(1), 189+. Retrieved from

http://ezproxy.uws.edu.au/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/ps

/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=uwsydney&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA221092150&a

sid=a8d6f2a04f443c1746fe1f44d422abd8

Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S.M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Journal of Procedia -

Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 486 490. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.09


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Laal, M., Khattami-Kermanshahic, Z, & Laal, M. (2014). Teaching and education;

collaborative style. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4057-4061.

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.890

Laal, M., Naseri, A.S., Laal, M, & Khattami-Kermanshahic, Z. (2013). What do we Achieve

from Learning in Collaboration? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93,

1427-1432. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.057

Osman, G., Duffy, T. M., Chang, J., & Lee, J. (2011). Learning through collaboration:

Student perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 12(4), 547-558. doi:

10.1007/s12564-011-9156-y

Rieger, G., & Heiner, C. (2014). Examinations That Support Collaborative Learning: The

Students' Perspective. Journal of College Science Teaching, 43(4), 41-47. Retrieved

from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/stable/43632011