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## SUBJECT: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

FACULTY: MAHALAKSHMI.P

Objective

To perform the 4 point DFT and perform the convolution of the given
signal.

Concept/Theory

(1)
(2)

## Now consider generalization to the case of a discrete function, by

letting , where , with , ..., . Writing this out gives the
discrete Fourier transform as

(3)

## The inverse transform is then

(4)

Discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) are extremely useful because they reveal
periodicities in input data as well as the relative strengths of any periodic
components. There are however a few subtleties in the interpretation of discrete
Fourier transforms. In general, the discrete Fourier transform of a realsequence
of numbers will be a sequence of complex numbers of the same length. In
particular, if are real, then and are related by

(5)

for , 1, ..., , where denotes the complex conjugate. This means that
the component is always real for real data.

## As a result of the above relation, a periodic function will contain transformed

peaks in not one, but two places. This happens because the periods of the input
data become split into "positive" and "negative" frequency complex
components.

Circular convolution

## Methods of Circular Convolution

Generally, there are two methods, which are adopted to perform circular
convolution and they are

## Concentric circle method,

Matrix multiplication method.
Concentric Circle Method
Let x1(n)x1(n) and x2(n)x2(n) be two given sequences. The steps followed for
circular convolution of x1(n)x1(n) and x2(n)x2(n) are
Take two concentric circles. Plot N samples of x1(n)x1(n) on the
circumference of the outer circle (maintaining equal distance successive
points) in anti-clockwise direction.
For plotting x2(n)x2(n), plot N samples of x2(n)x2(n) in clockwise
direction on the inner circle, starting sample placed at the same point as
0thsample of x1(n)x1(n)
Multiply corresponding samples on the two circles and add them to get
output.

## Matrix Multiplication Method

Matrix method represents the two given sequence x1(n)x1(n) and x2(n)x2(n) in
matrix form.
One of the given sequences is repeated via circular shift of one sample at
a time to form a N X N matrix.

convolution.

Method/Procedure

## 1. Initially calculate the given sequence from the question.

2. And perform the DFT of that using built in function.
3. Perform convolution of question

Algorithm/MATLAB Code

clc
clear all
close all
t = 0:3;
% n=-3:3;
% x(n)=dirac(n)+2*dirac(n-2)+dirac(n-3);
x = [1 0 2 1];
figure(1)
stem(t,x);
title(' Input x(n)');
disp('DFT of x(n) is :');
dft = fft(x,4)
figure(2)
stem(t,dft);
title(' DFT of Input x(n)');

h = x ; % given
disp('Circular convolution is :');
circular = ifft(dft.*dft)
y = fft(circular,4)

figure(3)
stem(t,y);
title(' Circular convolution with same ');

H = [0 2 0 2];
H_dft = fft(H,4);
disp('The circular with given h(n) is:');
H_con = ifft(dft.*H_dft)
figure(4)
stem(H_con)
title(' Circular convolution with h(n)');

Output/Graphs

DFT of x(n) is :

dft =

## 4.0000 + 0.0000i -1.0000 + 1.0000i 2.0000 + 0.0000i -1.0000 - 1.0000i

Circular convolution is :

circular =

5 4 5 2
y=

## The circular with given h(n) is:

H_con =

2 6 2 6

Output graphs:
Inference

We have done the Discrete Fourier Transform for the given question and found
the convolution of the same.