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CHAPTER 6

HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
JJ619 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT

JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL


POLISAS
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES
Students should be able to :
1.0 Apply the basic concept of industrial
management system in industry.
TOPIC OUTLINE
Determine human resource management concepts
Identify psychology in industry
Identify types of morale
Understand motivation
HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
(HRM)
Definition 1Integration
HRM is a series of integrated decisions that form the
employment relationships; their quality contributes to
the ability of the organizations and the employees to
achieve their objectives.
Definition 2 Applicability
HRM is planning, organizing, directing and controlling
of the procurement, development, compensation,
integration, maintenance, and separation of human
resources to the end that individual, organizational and
social objectives are accomplished.
HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
(CONT.)
Definition 3 Influencing
HRM is concerned with the people dimensions
management. Since every organization is made up of
people, acquiring their services, developing their skills,
motivating them to higher levels of performance and
ensuring that they continue to maintain their
commitment to the organization are essential to
achieving organizational objectives. This is true
regardless of the type of the organization-government,
business education, health, recreational or social action.
CONCEPTS OF HRM
HRM is a strategic approach to the acquisition, motivation,
development and management of the organisations human
resources. It is a specialised field that attempts to develop an
appropriate corporate culture, and introducing programmes which
reflect and support the core values of the enterprise and ensure its
success.
HRM is proactive rather than reactive, i.e., always looking
forward to what needs to be done and then doing it, rather than
waiting to be told what to do about recruiting, paying or training
people, or dealing with employee relations problems as they arise.
The techniques for the application of HRM will include many
familiar functions of personnel managers, such as manpower
planning, selection, performance appraisal, salary administration,
training and management development.
FUNDAMENTAL HRM
Human resource management (HRM) is an
approach to the management of people, based on
four fundamental principles.
First, human resources are the most important
assets an organisation has and their effective
management is the key to its success.
Second, this success is most likely to be achieved
if the personnel policies and procedures of the
enterprise are closely linked with, and make a
major contribution to the achievement of corporate
objectives and strategic plans.
FUNDAMENTAL HRM (CONT.)
Third, the corporate culture and the values,
organisational climate and managerial behaviour that
emanate from that culture will exert a major influence
on the achievement of excellence. This culture must,
therefore, be managed which means that organisational
values may need to be changed or reinforced, and that
continuous effort, starting from the top, will be
required to get them accepted and acted upon.
Finally, HRM is concerned with integration - getting
all the members of the purpose organisation involved
and working together with a sense of common
purpose.
FEATURES AND IMPORTANCE OF
HRM
FEATURES OF HRM
Managing people.
People-oriented process
Develops employees potentialities
Integral part
Secures cooperation
Future oriented
IMPORTANCE OF HRM
Significance for an enterprise.
Professional significance
Social significance
National significance
CHARACTERISTIC OF HRM
Some Characteristics of a good Human Resources Strategy, three
key elements:
Diagnostic a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of
current practice and performance to identify both where
improvement is required and where policies and institutions are
working well.
Aspirational a vision of effective HR practices which produce
specific outcomes that contribute to achieving the institutions
strategy, underpinned by clear values and principles.
Developmental a plan for achieving progress and building
greater capacity to bring about change in the future (bearing in
mind that effective human resource management depends as
much on good quality line management as it does on skilled
human resource professionals).
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD HR
Planning-plan & research about wage trends,
labour market.
Organizing-manpower and resources.
Staffing-recruitment & selection.
Directing-issuance of orders and instructions
to follow plan of action.
Controllingto regulate the activities.
CHARACTERISTIC OF GOOD HR POLICY
Recruiting employees
Employment condition
Discharge
Training
Strategies and methods health standard
promotion
Safety practice
Financial aid
Separation
RECRUITING EMPLOYEES
The process of seeking and attracting a pool of applicants
from which qualified candidates for job vacancies within an
organisation can be selected.
Objectives in recruiting and selecting:
Identifying the right people.
Reducing the range of differences in performance from
least effective to most effective workforce.
Keeping turnover to a minimum.
Main forms of recruitment through advertising in
newspapers, magazines, trade papers and internal vacancy
lists.
TRAINING
Activities help employees learn how to perform their jobs,
improve their performance and prepare themselves for more
senior positions.
Importance of Training :
Managers: Importance to overall business strategy
Labour
leaders: Importance to collective bargaining issues
Benefits of Training :
Improved customer service and public relations
Fewer complaints
Better morale and attitudes
Less turnover and absenteeism
More involved and caring employees
Proactive vs. reactive employees
SAFETY PRACTICE
This guide provides general guidelines for integrating workplace
health and safety in human resources management practices
which include:
Preventing work related injuries and illnesses;
Fostering a workplace safety culture in which employees
and their supervisors work together to ensure workplace
safety;
Establishing administrative procedures that encourage
employees to report unsafe conditions and unsafe practices to
their supervisors without fear of being disciplined;
Developing appropriate hiring, training and performance
appraisal practices;
Recruiting and retaining the best employees who care about
their own well being and the well being of co-workers.
SAFETY PRACTICE (CONT.)
Ensuring that the health and safety policies and procedures conform
with the applicable occupational health and safety legislation and
accepted best practices in similar organizations;
Establishing procedures for enforcing company safety rules;
Helping reduce costs associated with losses due to absenteeism
injuries, Workers' Compensation, disability, and health care;
Maintaining records of injuries, illnesses and workers
compensation;
Coordinating first aid training and the provision of first aid to
employees;
Providing advice to employees and the employer in matters of
occupational health and safety.
We hope this guide will assist human resources professionals in
carrying out their OHS responsibilities effectively and in conformity
with the applicable health and safety legislation. The presentation of
the subject matter is in a non-technical and plain language.
STRATEGIES AND METHODS HEALTH
STANDARD PROMOTION
1. Written policies are available to staff on security, individual health, care and
support, health and safety.
2. Programme plans include written assessment of security, travel and health
risks specific to the country or region.
3. Briefings are updated when new equipment, procedures or risks are
identified.
4. Security plans, with evacuation procedures, are reviewed regularly.
5. Records are maintained of work related injuries, sickness, accidents and
fatalities, and are monitored to help assess and reduce future risk to staff.
6. Work plans do not require more hours work than are set out in individual
contracts. Time off and leave periods, based on written policies, are mandatory.
7. All staff have a debriefing or exit interview at the end of any contract or
assignment. Health checks, personal counselling and careers advice are
available. Managers are trained to ensure these services are provided.
8. In the case of staff on emergency rosters, managers should ensure that health
clearance, immunisations and procedures for obtaining the correct prophylaxes
and other essential supplies are arranged well in advance.
FINANCIAL AID
Financial aid programs are available through
a variety of methods :
as gift aid in the form or grants (money
that does not have to be repaid),
as self-help aid in the form of work, and
loans (money that must be paid back at
interest).
Home loan, car loan, computer loan.
EMPLOYMENT CONDITION
Working conditions: The conditions of work at
which the employees are required to work also
affect their morale. Providing safety measures,
hygienic facilities, clean workplace etc. give
them satisfaction and boost their morale.
Job Satisfaction: The morale of the employee
would be high if he is satisfied with his job.
Hence right men should be placed in the right
job to boost up their morale in their jobs.
DISCHARGE
Decision to discharge a staff member should be handled
in consultation with the employee relations office
prior to the actual discharge.
The discharge of a staff member is an action to be taken
with extreme care to ensure the protection of all parties
concerned.
Reason for discharge must be documented in writing,
with copies to :
The staff member,
The department file, and
Human resource records management.
SEPARATION
Caused by resignations, retirement, death, medical
reasons.
Procedure and guidelines :
Notice requirements two week notice.
To complete the exit checklist return keys to
facilities services, employee charges, loans, fees
and fines.
Ensure that the employee returns the completed and
sign exit checklist.
All records and appropriate paperwork related to
the employee separation will be mainted in human
resources.
PSYCHOLOGY IN INDUSTRY
Psychology is defined as the study of man and his
behaviour with the aid of scientific methodology.
Psychology uses many scientific methods to
collect facts about human behaviour and in its
attempt to understand man-methods like
experimentation, observation method, surveys
of various sorts, field studies, developmental
method, case study method and soon.
Psychology is concerned with the study of man-
and particularly behaviour in all its aspects and
directions.
PSYCHOLOGY IN INDUSTRY (CONT.)
Industry Psychology (IP) is the application and
extension of psychological facts and principles of the
problems concerning human beings working or
operating in industrial, business, service and research
organizations.
Industry includes all sorts of operating
organizations-business, educational, governmental
and religious.
Industrial psychology, or industrial organizational
psychology, focuses on workplace behavior and
advocates for creating work environments where
employees are satisfied.
BENEFIT INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
A few major benefits of industrial and
organizational psychology :
Lower employee turnover rates,

Decreased cost of overall production, and

Company-to-employee match.

Helps employers improve working conditions for


the benefit of employees and for heightened
organizational productivity.
Focus toward how to maximize human capital.
SCOPE OF INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
Industrial psychology is a branch of behavioural science that directs its
research and courses of study to business. It is not a new science. In
Fact one of the earlier books on the subject, Hugo Munsterbergs The
Psychology of Industrial Efficiency was published by Houghton
Mifflin in 1913. Departments of management, design, production,
pricing, Marketing and distribution all benefit from knowledge of
industrial psychology.

Organizational Development
Analyze organizations, culture/climate, develop interventions
> increase in efficiency.
- Deal with issues within the organization.
- Help the organization transition to a desired state.
- Includes people, structures, technology, etc..
SCOPE OF INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
Selection
Develop, validate, and administer psychological tests to
assess (measure) skills, abilities and interests as aids in
selection and placement and promotion.
Training
Analyze : First thing I/O dude does, is try to understand
nature of job-knowledge & task requirements.
Conduct training programs, and evaluate the effectiveness of
training.
Performance Appraisal
Develop rating scales, and other measures of
individual/organizational.
Determine how to measure employee performance.
Link appraisal with other organizational systems, such as
training, pay, promotion, termination and/or downsizing, etc..
SCOPE OF INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
Quality of Work-life
Previously, human workers were not viewed as human.
Develop surveys that assess employees satisfaction with their jobs
and commitment to the organization
Satisfaction : one of most common surveys.
Examine factors that contribute to healthy and productive workforce.
May include job design to increase employee motivation, satisfaction,
etc..
Work Behaviour
The psychology of work behaviour is one form of industrial psychology.
Attitudes of employees as related to their performance is a main theme.
Variables in employee personalities and abilities are listed and situational
and background differences are studied. The industrial psychologist also
studies human mental and physical abilities, administering tests and
assessing values and establishing job-related criteria. Human-error factors
also are monitored, as are costs and causes of accidents.
SCOPE OF INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
Management
Many management skills fall under the umbrella of industrial
psychology. Managers must be educated concerning the area of
employee supervision. Expertise in perception and assessment is
required in order to make proper decisions as to whether to promote or
admonish. Determination of training needs and abilities to resolve
conflict are skills that managers would learn in their study of industrial
psychology. Motivational tactics are imperative to the success of
industry, thus the industrial psychologist also may devise financial or
other incentives.
Environmental Design
Environmental design is another area of industrial psychology. The
psychology of the work space concerns the environment of the worker.
Performance can be affected adversely or positively depending upon
the employees surroundings. The industrial psychologist recommends
physical arrangements, colours, noise, lighting and ergonomics.
SCOPE OF INDUSTRY PSYCHOLOGY
Product Design
Product design is another avenue of industrial psychology
that is important to a successful business. A product that has
been designed bearing safety, efficiency and desirability in
mind may have a higher chance of being successful in the
marketplace. The industrial psychologist can collect data and
analyse buying trends to make recommendations for a
feasible, able design.
Organizational Studies
The overall function of the business may be evaluated by the
industrial psychologist. Data relating to job descriptions and
hierarchy may be studied and recommendations put forth.
THEORY X AND Y
The eminent psychologist Douglas McGregor has
given his theory of motivation called Theory X and
Theory Y. He first presented his theory in a classic
article titled 'The Human Side of Enterprise'. He
treated traditional approach to management as
'Theory X' and the professional approach to
management as 'Theory Y'. His theory refers to two
sets of employees based on the perception of
human nature. Here, theory X and theory Y are two
sets of assumptions about the nature of employees.
His theory is based on human behavior.
THEORY X
Theory X is based on traditional assumptions about
people (employees). Here, the conventional approach of
management is used as a base. It suggests the following
features of an average human being/employee
(assumptions about human nature):

Assumptions of Theory X
The average human being is inherently lazy by nature
and desires to work as little as possible. He dislikes the
work and will like to avoid it, if he can.
He avoids accepting responsibility and prefers to be led
or directed by some other.
THEORY X (CONT.)
He is self-centered and indifferent to organizational
needs.
He has little ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to
be led but wants security.
He is not very intelligent and lacks creativity in solving
organizational problems.
He by nature resists to change of any type.
In the case of such employees, self-motivation is just not
possible. They will work only when there is constant
supervision on them. A manager has to persuade, punish
or reward such workers in order to achieve
organizational goals.
THEORY Y
Theory Y is based on modern or progressive or
professional approach. Here, the assumptions about
people i.e. employees are quite different.

Assumptions of Theory Y
Work is as natural as play, provided the work
environment is favorable. Work may act as a source of
satisfaction or punishment. An average man is not
really against doing work.
People can be self-directed and creative at work if they
are motivated properly.
People have capacity to exercise imagination and
creativity.
THEORY Y (CONT.)
Self-control on the part of people is useful for achieving
organizational goal. External control and threats of
punishment alone do not bring out efforts towards
organizational objectives.
People are not by nature passive or resistant to
organizational needs. They have become so as a result of
experience in organisations.
An average human being learns under proper conditions.
He is also willing to accept responsibility.
The intellectual capacity of an average human being is
utilised partially under the conditions of modern
industrial life.
THEORY X AND Y (CONT.)
The assumptions in Theory X and Theory Y are
fundamentally distinct. Theory X is static, rigid,
conservative and pessimistic. Theory Y is
optimistic, dynamic, flexible and progressive. It
suggests self direction and the integration of
individual needs with organizational needs. On the
other hand, more importance is given to external
control imposed by the superior on the subordinate
in the Theory X.
DOUGLAS MCGREGORS THEORY X AND Y
THEORY X THEORY Y
People dislike work and will avoid it if they can. Work is necessary to everyones psychological growth.
People would rather be directed than accept any People wish only to be interested in work and, under
responsibility . the right conditions, they will enjoy it.
People will avoid responsibility and authority if People gain intrinsic fulfilment from it.
possible. They are motivated by the desire to achieve and realize
They have no creativity except when it comes to potential, to work to the best of their capabilities and
getting around the rules and regulations of the to employ the creativity and ingenuity with which they
organization. are endowed in the pursuit of this.
They will not use their creativity in the pursuit of People direct themselves towards given accepted and
the job, or the interests of the organization. understood targets.
People must be forced or bribed to put out the right People will seek and accept responsibility and
effort. authority and they will accept the discipline of
They are motivated mainly by money, which the organization in the pursuit of this.
remains the overriding reason why they go to work. People will impose self discipline on both themselves
The main anxiety concerns is personal security, and their activities.
which is alleviated by earning money.
People are inherently lazy and require high degrees
of supervision, coercion and control in order to
produce adequate output.
MORALE
Morale (also known as esprit de corps) is the capacity of
a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or
goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a
generic value judgment of the willpower, obedience, and
self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties
assigned by a superior.
According to Alexander H. Leighton,
Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull
together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a
common purpose.
MORALE (CONT.)
Morale is a state of mind or willingness to work which
in turn affects individuals and organizational
objectives. According to Flippo,
Morale is a mental condition or attitudes of individuals
and groups which determine their willingness to co-
operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee
enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulation and
orders, and a willingness, to cooperate with others in
the accomplishment of an organizations objectives.
Poor morale is evidenced by surliness, insubordination,
a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job,
company and associates.
CONCEPT OF MORALE
Moral concepts consist of values, virtues and ethics
that help individuals distinguish their actions as
being morally right or morally wrong. Used in
business and personal interactions, moral concepts
provide a guide for achieving strong bonds and
allowing positive, personal morality to prosper.
Within the three concepts, truth is a standard of
moral excellence necessary for positive morality to
thrive. Several fields of study focus on moral
concepts, including psychology, sociology and
religion.
CONCEPT OF MORALE (CONT.)
Morale is more of a group scenario.
High morale does not essentially result in greatly
motivated employees as to have a positive attitude
towards all factors of work situation may not essentially
force the employees to work more efficiently.
Morale is a group concept.
Morale of the employees can be increased by taking those
factors into consideration which influence group scenario
or total work settings.
Morale is a secondary phenomenon because high morale
may not necessarily lead to higher productivity.
Things tied to morale are usually things that are just part
of the work environment.
TYPES OF MORALE
Morale is generally referred to as high morale.
According to McFarland,
high morale exists when employee attitudes are
favorable to the total situation of a group and to the
attainment of its objectives low morale exists when
attitudes inhibit the willingness and ability of an
organization to attain its objectives.
There are two states of morale:
1) High morale
2) Low morale
1) HIGH MORALE
High morale is represented by the use of such term spirit,
zest, enthusiasm, loyalty, dependability and resistance to
frustration.
High morale implies determination at work- an essential in
achievement of management objectives. High morale results
in:
A keen teamwork on part of the employees.
Organizational Commitment and a sense of
belongingness in the employees mind.
Immediate conflict identification and resolution.
Healthy and safe work environment.
Effective communication in the organization.
Increase in productivity.
Greater motivation.
2) LOW MORALE
Low morale, on the other hand, is described by such words
and phrases as apathy, bickering, jealously, pessimism,
fighting, disloyalty to the organization, disobedience of the
orders of the leaders, dislike of, or lack of interest in, ones
job, and laziness.
Low morale has following features:
Greater grievances and conflicts in organization.
High rate of employee absenteeism and turnover.
Dissatisfaction with the superiors and employers.
Poor working conditions.
Employees frustration.
Decrease in productivity.
Lack of motivation.
INDUSTRIAL MORALE
It may be defined as the possession of a feeling on
the part of the employee of being accepted and
belonging to a group of employees through
adherence to common goals and confidence in the
desirability of these goals.
Feeling accepted by ones work group
Sharing common goals with ones work group
Having confidence in the desirability of these
goals
CHARACTERISTICS OF MORAL AND
INDUSTRIAL MORALE
The characteristics of morale :
* Morale is a state of mind.
* Morale is intangible.
* It is the aggregate of attitudes, feelings, emotions, sentiments .
* Morale influences human behavior and performance. .
* Morale is a relative term it may be high or low.
The characteristics of industrial morale :
It is dynamic
It is complex
It is an attribute of individual
It exists with reference to job situation
It is influenced by motivation
It is applicable to employees at all the job levels
It involves ego & its satisfaction
METHODS TO MEASURE MORALE

Morale is an intangible and subjective


concept. The following methods are used to
measure morale: -
* Observation
* Attitude or morale survey
1. Interview method
2. Questionnaire method
MEASURE MORALE BUILDING IN HRM
Job satisfaction
The personnel policy should make jobs as
interesting and satisfying as possible, it lends
to encourage a favorable & enthusiastic group
action.
Job training
Job training, orientation, education, apprentice
training and a broad variety of general
educational efforts will help in building up
employees morale.
MEASURES OF IMPROVING MORALE
Incorporate tangible factors like food and money as well as less
concrete facets such as time, learning, and culture.
Morale boosting techniques/methods can be implemented in almost
any aspect of the work environment.
Application of methods such as:
increasing employee recognition and involvement
fostering communication and a sense of belongingness and
ownership within the organization
providing opportunities for education and personal
development
creating a physically comfortable work environment
Make workers feel that the organization they work for
genuinely cares about them
Ask employees if they feel they are working to their potential
Cross-train employees
MEASURES OF IMPROVING MORALE
(CONT.)
Morale building is a difficult exercise as it involves
removing misconception, changing attitudes and dealing
with emotions. The following measures may be helpful
in improving employee morale: -
* Proper working condition.
* Job security.
* Sound compensation system.
* Sound promotion policy.
* Job enrichment.
* Sound procedure of employee grievances.
* Workers participation in management.
HOW TO IMPROVE MORALE?
High consideration for employee welfare policies.
Effective communication device system through
exchange of ideas, information and
knowledge.
Keeping open information policy about product,
services, background etc.
Information about policies and procedures
Service recognition certificates
Company subsidized cafeteria
Movies and entertainment
Festive occasions get togethers and parties
HOW TO IMPROVE MORALE? (CONT.)
Sports meet
Picnics and outgoings
Tournaments
Photo and other contests
Suggestion system
Educational programmes
Group health insurance
Touring and other plants
Housing facility and cooperative consumer stor
Library and reading rooms
In plant music
FACTORS INFLUENCING MORALE
The main factors influencing morale are as follows: -
* Nature of work: - Meaningful and satisfying job helps to
improve employee morale. Morale tends to be low when the job
provides no challenge and satisfaction and job standards are
considered very high.
* Working condition: - Physical work environment, job
security, wages and other allied factors exercise a significant
influence on employee morale.
* Supervision: - Competent, dependable and fair-minded
leadership can build and maintain high morale.
* Management policies: - The policies and attitudes of
management concerning, promotion, transfer etc. affect morale.
* Personal factors: - The age, education, occupation level and
family life of an employee, determine his morale.
FACTORS INFLUENCING MORALE (CONT.)
Group cohesiveness or feeling of togetherness
Need for a goal.
Observable progress towards the goal.
Specific meaningful tasks-individual in the group must
have (necessary to the achievement of the goal).
Staff feeling that their contribution is valued by their
employer.
Realistic opportunities for merit-based promotion.
The perceived social or economic value of the work
being done by the organization as a whole.
The perceived status of the work being done by the
organization as a whole.
Team composition.
The work culture.
MORALE

Low Morale; Low Productivity


Low Morale; High Productivity
High Morale; Low Productivity
High Morale; High productivity
MOTIVATION
Introduction :
Motivation is the fuel that drives people towards
achieving their goals and objectives. In fact, without
this fuel human beings would be inactive, leading a
mundane life. The very motivation within them
makes their lives as colorful as they wish to be. It
adds all the hues of existence.
According to the dictionary meaning of motivation,
it is an internal state or condition (sometimes
described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to
activate or energize behavior and give it direction.
DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is reflection of the reasons why people do
things. All behavior has a purpose, often several
purposes. People choose to do the things they do.
Motivation is a process that starts with physiological or
psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior
or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentives.
Motivation is some driving force within individuals by
which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to
fulfill some need or expectation.
Motivation is Extrinsic (related to tangible rewards such
as money) and Intrinsic (related to psychological
rewards such as sense of challenge, achievement).
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Achievement Motivation:
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual
with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives
and advance up on the ladder of success. Here,
accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for
the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to Kaizen
approach of Japanese Management.
Affiliation Motivation:
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons
with affiliation motivation perform work better when they
are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-
operation.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
Competence Motivation:
It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the
individual to perform high quality work. Competence
motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in
developing and using their problem-solving skills and
strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles.
They learn from their experience.
Power Motivation:
It is the drive to influence people and change situations.
Power motivated people wish to create an impact on
their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
Attitude Motivation:
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their
self confidence, their belief in themselves, attitude to life. It
is how they feel about the future and how they react to the
past.
Incentive Motivation:
It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an
activity. It is You do this and you get that, attitude. It is
the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a
little harder.
Fear Motivation:
Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is
instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in
the short run.
CHARACTERISTIC OF MOTIVATION
1.Personal and Internal Feeling
2.Art of Stimulating Someone Or One self
3.Produces GoalDirected Behaviour
4.Motivation can be either Positive or
Negative
5.The Central Problem of Motivation is HOW
6.Motivation is System Oriented
7.Motivation is different from Satisfaction
METHODS FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION
Motivation In Action: Ten Methods For Motivating
Employees
1. Set Goals
2. Use Pay for Performance
3. Improve Merit Pay
4. Use Recognition
5. Use Positive Reinforcement
6. Use Behavior Management
7. Empower Employees
8. Enrich the Jobs
9. Use Skill-Based Pay
10. Provide Lifelong Learning
METHODS FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION

Non financial methods of motivation


Job enlargement
Job rotation
Job enrichment
Team working and empowerment
Individual-based incentives: piece rate
Group-based incentives: gain sharing
Organizational-based incentives: profit
sharing,
METHODS FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION
Superior performance should be reasonably rewarded and should be duely
acknowledged. If the performance is not consistently up to the mark, then
the system must make provisions for penalties. The employees must be
dealt in a fair and just manner. The grievances and obstacles faced by them
must be dealt instantly and fairly.
Carrot and stick approach should be implemented to motivate both
efficient and inefficient employees. The employees should treat negative
consequences (such as fear of punishment) as stick, an outside push and
move away from it. They should take positive consequences (such as
reward) as carrot, an inner pull and move towards it.
Performance appraisal system should be very effective. Ensure flexibility
in working arrangements.
A sound motivation system must be correlated to organizational goals.
Thus, the individual/employee goals must be harmonized with the
organizational goals. The motivational system must be modified to the
situation and to the organization. A sound motivation system requires
modifying the nature of individuals jobs.
METHODS FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION
The jobs should be redesigned or restructured according to the
requirement of situation. Any of the alternatives to job specialization -
job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, etc. could be used.
The management approach should be participative. All the subordinates
and employees should be involved in decision- making process.
The motivation system should involve monetary as well as non-
monetary rewards. The monetary rewards should be correlated to
performance. Performance should be based on the employees action
towards the goals, and not on the fame of employees.
Motivate yourself to motivate your employees should be the
managerial approach. The managers must understand and identify the
motivators for each employee. Sound motivation system should
encourage supportive supervision whereby the supervisors share their
views and experiences with their subordinates, listen to the
subordinates views, and assist the subordinates in performing the
designated job.
THANK YOU

END OF CHAPTER
JJ619 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT