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Mates Orals Notes

Function - 2 Cargo
Table of Contents
Sr. Topic Pg #
1. Function - 2 Cargo Oral Exam Syllabus 1
2. Cargo Related Terminology General, Bulk, Ro-Ro, Container, Tanker 2
3. Cargo Documentation Terminology 30
4. Bill of Lading and its Types 33
5. Cargo Related Documents on Bulk Carrier 36
6. IMDG Code in Brief and its Contents 42
7. IMSBC Code in Brief and its Contents 45
8. Grain Code in Brief and its Contents 58
9. BLU Code in Brief and its Contents 59
10. Timber Code in Brief and its Contents 61
11. CSS Code in Brief and its Contents - Lashing Code 71
12. CSC Code in Brief and its Contents 74
13. ISGOTT Brief and its Contents 76
14. IBC Code in Brief and its Contents + BCH Code 79
15. IGC Code in Brief and its Contents 82
16. Some General Cargoes 85
17. Dry Bulk Cargoes 89
18. Pulp Cargo, Urea, Bauxite, MOP, Coal, Sulphur 92
19. Iron Ore, Sawn Timber, Stowage Factor 107
20. Testing and Certification of Lifting Appliances 115
21. Cargo Securing Manual 116
22. Ro-Ro Cargo 118
23. Chemical Tanker 131
24. Gas Carriers 141
25. Grain Cargoes 171
26. Heavy Lift Cargoes 183
27. Container Ships 191
28. IMDG Code in detail 203
29. Oil Tanker 213
30. Chain Register 221
31. Loadicator 223
32. Surveyor Questionnaire & Some general Oral Questions 225
Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo

Grade:-Chief Mate (FG) Orals
Function:- Cargo Handling and Stowage
Level:- Management

A. General
1) Knowledge of Cargo related technologically/load/destiny/stowage factor/angle of repose and
various plans used for cargo loading.

1-a) Knowledge and applications of International Regulations Codes concerning safe handling,
stowage, securing and transport of Cargoes,
Examples:- Bulk code, Grain code, Lashing Code, IMDG Code, Timber Code, ISGOT, etc.

2) Knowledge and application of the effect on Trim & Stability of Cargos and its operations.

3) Use of stability and Trim diagram and stress calculating equipment including Automatic Data
based equipment, hull, stress calculation within acceptable limits.

B. Dry Cargo Stowage

4) Stowage and Securing/Trimming of various types of cargoes on various ships i.e. General
Cargo (Steel plates, pulp, bagged cargo)/ Bulk(Urea, MOP, Coal, Sulphur, Iron Ore,
Concentrates / Container/Various types of Container including Refrigerated type, Passengers
(Duties relating to Passenger/Cargo) ,Timber ( Wood Pulp, Sawn Timber, Lumber) RO-RO
(Various types Light / Heavy vehicles and knowledge of Livestock/Pure Car Carrier,
Refrigerated cargo ship ).

5) Definition of Heavy Lifts Loading/Stowage & Securing of Heavy Lifts on a General

Cargo/Multi Container/Bulk Carrier.

C. Specialized Cargo Stowage

6) Knowledge of Oil/Chemical/LPG/Tanker Operations relating to Ship Operation, care of
personnel and stowage Tanker (Various types of heavy and Light Oil) Chemical (Various
types of Chemical as per chemical code ), LPG (Various types of gases as per gas code).

7) Carriage of IMDG/ Dangerous, Hazardous and harmful cargos.

D. Transit Care
8) Precautions during loading and unloading and care during voyage of said cargoes.

E. Documents
9) Knowledge and application of various cargo related documents such as stowage plan, shipping
list, boat note, Mates receipt, B/L, shipping documents DG Manifest.
10) Documents with regard to cargo claim, disputes, damage etc, note of protest and knowledge of
collection of evidence.

F. Crisis
11) Contingencies plan/remedial action during loading/unloading of cargoes. Example:- Cargo
gear Breakdown/Power failures/Oil Spillage, Bilge Leakages into hold with cargo,
concentrates becoming liquids.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo

Cargo Related Terminology

Load Density: Maximum weight that can be safely Loaded on a unit area.
Units are Tones /m2
Height up to which the cargo can be loaded will depend on the load
density of the deck and its stowage factor (SF)

Stowage Factor(SF): Volume occupied by unit weight of a cargo.

Units are m3/ton
its a reciprocal of Density of cargo.

Broken Stowage: Space between packages that remain unfilled. it is more when packages are large
and of irregular shape. its is expressed as % age of volume of the cargo
and NOT THE SPACE where cargo is stored.

it is defined as that space between packages which remains unfilled. The percentage
that has to be allowed varies with the type of cargo and with the shape of the ships
hold. It is greatest when large cases are stowed in an end hold or at the turn of a

Bale Capacity: is that cubic capacity of a cargo space when the breadth is measured from the inside
of the cargo battens (spar ceiling) and the measured depth is from the wood tank top
ceiling to the underside of the deck beams. The length is measured from the inside of
the fore and aft bulkhead stiffeners .It is a measurement of capacity for cargo in
bales, on pallets, etc. where the cargo does not conform to the shape of the ship.

Grain Capacity: is that cubic capacity of a cargo space when the length, breadth and depth are
measured from the inside of the ships shell plating, all allowances being made for the
volume occupied by frames and beams.
It is the maximum space available for cargo measured in cubic mtr
It is a measurement of capacity for cargo like grain, where the cargo flows to conform
to the shape of the ship.

Deadweight cargo: Cargo on which fright is charged according to its weight.

Measurement cargo: Cargo on which fright is charged according to volume occupied by the cargo.

While no hard and fast rules are in force, cargo stowing at less than
1.2m3/tonne (40 ft3/tonne) is likely to be rated as deadweight cargo.

Cargo Securing Manual: a manual that is pertinent to an individual ship, and which will show the
lashing points and details of the securing of relevant cargoes carried by the
vessel. It is a ships reference which specifies the onboard securing
arrangements for cargo units, including vehicles and containers, and other
entities. The securing examples are based on the transverse, longitudinal and
vertical forces which may arise during adverse weather conditions at sea. The
manual is drawn up to the standard contained in Maritime Safety Committee
(MSC) Circular of the Organization, MSC/Circ. 745.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
Floodable length : the maximum length of a compartment that can be flooded to bring a
damaged vessel to float at a waterline which is tangential to the margin line.
Note: In determining this length account must be taken of the permeability of
the compartment.

Gross tonnage is defined by the measurement of the total internal capacity of the ship. GT
being determined by the formula:
Ki =0.2 + 0.02 Log 10V
V =Total volume of all enclosed spaces in cubic meters

Luffing: a term which denotes the movement of a crane jib or derrick boom to move up
or down, i.e. luff up or luff down.

Permissible length: of a compartment having its centre at any point in the ships length is
determined by the product of the floodable length at that point and the factor
of subdivision of the vessel:
permissible length = floodable length x factor of subdivision.

Safe working load: an acceptable working tonnage used for a weightbearing item of equipment.
The marine industry uses a factor of onesixth the breaking strain (BS) to
establish the safe working value.

Subdivision factor the factor of subdivision varies inversely with the ships length, the number of
passengers and the proportion of the underwater space used for passenger/
crew and machinery space. In effect it is the factor of safety allowed in
determining the maximum space of transverse watertight bulkheads, i.e. the
permissible length.

Tomming off an expression that describes the securing of cargo parcels by means of baulks
of timber. These being secured against the cargo to prevent its movement if
and when the vessel is in a seaway and experiencing heavy rolling or pitching
motions (alternative term is shore).

Hatchwork and Rigging

(employed with heavy-lifts and cargo operations)

additional strength stays applied to the opposing side of a mast structure when making a heavy lift. These
stays are not usually kept permanently rigged and are only set as per the rigging plan when a heavy lift is
about to be made.

substantial baulks of timber, used to accept the weight of a heavy load on a steel deck. The bearers are laid
for two reasons:
1. To spread the load weight over a greater area of deck.
2. To prevent steel loads slipping on the steel deck plate.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
Breaking strength
defined by the stress necessary to break a material in tension or compression. The stress factor is usually
obtained by testing a sample to destruction.

a lifting arrangement that is secured to a heavy load to provide a stable hoist operation when the load is lifted.
Bridles may be fitted with a spreader to ensure that the legs of the bridle are kept wide spread so as not to
damage the lift and provide a balanced hoist operation.

Bulldog grip (wire rope grips)

screw clamps designed to join two parts of wire together to form a temporary eye or secure a wire end.

Bull wire
(i) a single wire, often used in conjunction with a lead block rigged to move a load sideways off the line of
plumb. An example of such a usage is found in dragging cargo loads from the sides of a hold into the hold
(ii) a wire used on a single span topping lift, swinging derrick, to hoist or lower the derrick to the desired
position. The bull wire being secured to a union plate to work in conjunction with the chain preventer and
the down haul of the topping lift span.

a lifting base manufactured usually in wood or steel, or a combination of both, employed to accept and
support a heavy load. It would normally be employed with heavy lifting slings and shackles to each corner.

Double gear
an expression used when winches are employed in conjunction with making a heavy lift. The purchase and
topping lift winches together with any guy winches are locked into double gear to slow the lifting operation
down to a manageable safe speed.

Double up
a term used with a derrick which allows a load greater than the safe working load (SWL) of the runner wire
but less than the SWL of the derrick, to be lifted safely. It is achieved by means of a longer wire being used
in conjunction with a floating block. This effectively provides a double wire support and turns a single whip
runner wire, into a gun tackle.

Jumbo Derrick
colloquial term to describe a conventional heavy-lift derrick.

Kilindo rope
a multi-strand rope having non-rotating properties and is a type employed for crane wires.

Lateral drag
the term describes the action of a load on a derrick or crane during the procedure of loading or discharging,
where the suspended weight is caused to move in a horizontal direction, as opposed to the expected vertical
direction. The action is often prominent when the ship is discharging a load.

As the load is passed ashore the ship has been caused to heel over towards the quayside. As the load is
landed, the weight comes off the derrick and the ship returns to the upright causing the derrick head to move
off the line of plumb. This change of plumb line causes the lifting purchase to drag the weight sideways,
e.g. lateral drag.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
Lead block
a single sheave block secured in such a position as to change the direction of a weight-bearing wire. Snatch
blocks are often used for light working engagement.

Lifting beam
a strength member, usually constructed in steel suspended from the lifting purchase of a heavy-lift derrick
when engaged in making a long or wide load lift. Lifting beams may accommodate yokes at each end to
facilitate the securing of the wire slings shackled to the load.

Limit switch
a crane feature to prevent the jib outreach from working beyond its operational limitations.

Load density plan

a ships plan which indicates the deck load capacity of cargo space areas of the ship. The Ships Chief Officer
would consult this
plan to ensure that the space is not being overloaded by very dense, heavy cargoes.

Maximum angle of heel

a numerical figure usually calculated by a Ships Chief Officer in order to obtain the maximum angle that a
ship would heel when making a heavy lift, to the maximum outreach of the derrick or crane, prior to the load
being landed.

(i) an expression used to describe the correct movement of a block and tackle arrangement, as with the lifting
purchase of a heavy-lift derrick. The term indicates that all sheaves in the block are rotating freely and the
wire parts of the purchase are moving without restriction.

(ii) this term can also be used to describe a maintenance activity as when stripping down a cargo block for
inspection and re-greasing. The block would be overhauled. (Note: the term overhauling is also used to
express a speed movement of one ship overtaking another.)

Plumb line
this is specifically a cord with a plumb-bob attached to it. However, it is often used around heavy-lift
operations as a term to express
the line of plumb where the line of action is the same as the line of weight, namely the line of plumb.

a general term to describe a strength, weight bearing wire, found in a Union Purchase Rig on the outboard
side of each of the two derricks. Also used to act as support for a mast structure when heavy lifting is
engaged. Preventor Backstays generally being rigged to the mast in accord with the ships rigging plan to
support work of a conventional Jumbo Derrick.

Proof load
that tonnage value that a derrick or crane is tested to. The value is equal to the SWL of the derrick/crane + an
additional percentage weight allowance, e.g. derricks less than 20-tonne SWL proof load is 25% in excess;
derricks 2050-tonne SWL proof load equals _5 tonnes in excess of SWL; derricks over 50-tonne SWL
proof load equals 10% in excess of SWL.

a term given to blocks and rope (Wire or Fibre) when rove together. Sometimes referred to as a block and
tackle. Two multi-sheave blocks are rove with flexible steel wire rope (FSWR) found in common use as the
lifting purchase suspended from the spider band of a heavy-lift derrick.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
Ramshorn Hook
a heavy duty, double lifting hook, capable of accepting slings on either side. These are extensively in use
where heavy-lift operations are ongoing.

Register of ships lifting appliances and cargo handling gear

the ships certificate and approvals record for all cargo handling and lifting apparatus aboard the vessel.

alternative name given to a collar arrangement set above the lifting hook. The function of the saucer is to
permit steadying lines to be shackled to it in order to provide stability to the load, during hoisting and
slewing operations. They can be fixed or swivel fitted.
(Note: The term is also employed when carrying grain cargoes where the upper level of the grain cargo is
trimmed into a saucer shape.)

Steadying lines
cordage of up to about 24 mm in size, secured in adequate lengths to the load being lifted in order to provide
stability and a steadying influence to the load when in transit from quay to ship or ship to barge. Larger,
heavier loads may use steadying tackles for the same purpose. However, these are more often secured to a
collar/saucer arrangement, above the lifting hook, as opposed to being secured to the load itself. Tackles are
rove with FSWR, not fibre cordage.

Stuelcken mast and derrick

trade name for a heavy-lift derrick and supporting mast structure. The patent for the design is held by Blohm
& Voss A.G. of Hamburg, Germany. This type of heavy lifting gear was extremely popular during the late
1960s and the 1970s with numerous ships being fitted with one form or other of Stuelcken arrangement.

a built bearing arrangement situated at deck level to accept the heel of a heavy-lift derrick. The tabernacle
allows freedom of movement in azimuth and slewing from Port to Starboard.

Optional cargo optional cargo is cargo which is destined for discharge at either one, two or even more
ports. Consequently, it should be stowed in such a position as to be readily available for discharge, once the
designated port is declared.

Overcarried cargo if cargo meant for discharge is not discharged it is said to be overcarried to the next
port. Such an event causes inconvenience, extra cost and additional paperwork. To this end hatches are
searched on completion of discharge to ensure that all the designated cargo for the port of discharge has
indeed left the ship a method of checking against the cargo plan and the cargo manifest and comparing
figures with the tallyclerks. It must be said, however, that this is not foolproof, especially if pressures are
being applied to finish cargo operations and sail, and possibly departing before the holds have been properly
examined for overcarried cargo pieces.

Pilferage certain cargoes always attract thieves. Notable items include spirits, beer, tobacco or high value
small items. To reduce losses such cargoes should be tallied in and tallied out. Lock-up stow should be
provided throughout the voyage from the onset of loading to the time of discharge. Shore watchmen and
security personnel should be used whenever it is practical and good watch-keeping practice should be the
order of the day.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo

Bulk cargoes
Angle of repose
the natural angle between the cone slope and the horizontal plane when bulk cargo is emptied onto this plane
in ideal conditions. A value is quoted for specific types of cargoes, results being obtained from use of a
tilting box. The angle of repose value is used as a means of registering the likelihood of a cargo shift during
the voyage.

An angle of repose of 35 is taken as being the dividing line for bulk cargoes of lesser or greater shifting
hazard and cargoes having angles of repose of more or less than the figure are considered separately.

Bulk density
is the weight of solids, air and water per unit volume. It includes the moisture of the cargo and the voids
whether filled with air or water.

Cargoes which may liquefy

means cargoes which are subject to moisture migration and subsequent liquefaction if shipped with a
moisture content in excess of the transportable moisture limit.

Combination carriers (OBO or O/O)

a ship whose design is similar to a conventional bulk carrier but is equipped with pipelines, pumps and inert
plant so as to enable the carriage of oil cargoes in designated spaces.

these are the materials that have been derived from a natural ore by physical or chemical refinement, or
purification processes. They are usually in small granular or powder form.

Conveyor system
means the entire system for delivering cargo from the shore stockpile or receiving point to the ship.

Flow moisture point

is that percentage of moisture content, when a flow state develops.

Flow state
is a state which occurs when a mass of granular material is saturated with liquid to such an extent that it loses
its internal shear strength and behaves as if the whole mass was in liquid form.

Incompatible materials
are those materials which may react dangerously when mixed and are subject to recommendations for

Moisture content
is that percentage proportion of the total mass which is water, ice or other liquid.

Moisture migration
is the movement of moisture contained in the bulk stow, when as a result of settling and consolidation, in
conjunction with vibration and the ships movement, water is progressively displaced. Part or all of the bulk
cargo may develop a flow state.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
means the quantity of cargo poured through one hatch opening as one step in the loading plan, i.e. from the
time the spout is positioned over a hatch opening until it is moved to another hatch opening.

Transportable moisture limit

the maximum moisture content of a cargo that may liquefy at a level which is considered safe for carriage in
ships other than those ships which, because of design features of specialized fittings, may carry cargo with a
moisture content over and above this limit.

a manual or mechanically achieved adjustment to the surface level of the form/shape of a bulk stow in a
cargo space. It may consist of altering the distribution or changing the surface angle to the point, perhaps of
leveling some or all of the cargo, following loading.

Specialist cargoes timber, refrigerated and livestock

as associated with timber deck cargoes, an allowance made for weight of water absorbed by timber on deck
which could have a detrimental affect on the ships positive stability.

means a log which is slab-cut; i.e. ripped lengthwise so that the resulting thick pieces have two opposing,
parallel flat sides and, in some cases, a third side sawn flat.

CSWP for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes (IMO 1991)

the Code of Safe Working Practice for the Carriage of Timber Deck Cargoes Aboard Ship.

Freon 12
is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used as a refrigerant in reefer ships. It is due to be phased out by the Montreal
Protocol and is expected to be replaced by a gas (R134a) which has less ozone depletion potential
(ODP) and a less greenhouse potential (Freon 22 has already been used in place of Freon 12).

a term which describes all types of domestic, farm and wild animals.

Pit props
are straight, short lengths of timber of a cross-section suitable for shoring up the roof in a coal mine.

is an expression meant to portray a refrigerated carrier.

should be taken to mean any sawn wood, or lumber, cants, logs, poles, pulpwood and all other types of
timber in loose or packaged forms. The term does not include wood pulp or similar cargo.

Timber deck cargo

means a cargo of timber carried on an uncovered part of a freeboard or superstructure deck. The term does
not include wood pulp or similar cargo.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo
Timber lashings
all lashings and securing components should possess a breaking strength of not less than 133 kN.

Timber loadline
a special loadline assigned to ships complying with certain conditions relating to their construction set out by
the International Convention on Loadlines and used when the cargo complies with the stowage and securing
conditions of this code.

Wood pulp
and similar substances are not included in the timber terminology as far as deck cargo regulations are
The air-dried chemical variety must be kept dry, as once it is allowed to get wet it will swell. This action
could cause serious damage to the ships structure and the compartment in which it is carried. To this end, all
and air pipes should be closed off to restrict any possibility of water entering the compartment (stowage
factor (SF) 3.06/3.34).

Timber Cargoes Example

Timber is loaded in various forms with differing weights and methods being employed. Package timber is
generally handled with rope slings while the heavier logs, depending on size, are slung with wire snotters or
chain slings.

sawn timber more than 10 cm thick and approximately 1518cm wide. Usually shipped in standardized
bundles and may be pre-slung for ease of handling.

sawn timber boards of less than 5 cm thick but may be of any width.

a volume of 128 ft3 _ 3.624 steres.

sawn timber of not less than 5 cm thick and up to about 25 cm in width. A Standard Deal is a single piece
of timber measuring 1.83m _ 0.08m _ 0.28 m.

(as a timber measure) equals 216 ft3 (6 ft _ 6 ft _ 6 ft).

large and heavy pieces of timber, hewn or sawn. May also be referred to as baulks. Stowed above and
below decks and individual logs may need to be considered as heavy lifts for the safe working load (SWL)
of the cargo-handling gear being used.

Pit props
short straight lengths of timber stripped of bark and used for shoring up the ceilings of mines. They are
shipped in a variety of sizes.

a measure of timber equal to half a fathom and equates to 108 ft3.
Note: The metric unit of timber measure is known as a Stere and is 1m3 or 35.314 ft3 or 0.2759 cords.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo

Ro-Ro Definitions & Terminology

Freight only Ro-Ro ship
a Ro-Ro vessel with accommodation for not more than 12 (driver) passengers.

High-speed craft
a craft capable of a maximum speed, in meters per second (m/s). Equal to or exceeding 3.7V _ 0.1667 where
V _ displacement corresponding to the design waterline (m3).

Passenger car ferry

a passenger or ferry ship which has Ro-Ro access of sufficient dimensions to allow the carriage of Ro-Ro
Trailers and/or Ro-Ro Passenger (Ro-Pax)/Ro-Ro Cars.

Reefer unit
a mobile/vehicle Ro-Ro unit, designed and capable of carrying refrigerated cargoes

Right of ferry
an exclusive right to convey persons or goods (or both) across a river or arm of the sea and to charge
reasonable tolls for the service.

Ro-Ro cargo space

a space not normally subdivided in any way and extending to either a substantial length or the entire length of
the vessel in which goods are carried (packaged or in bulk), in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including
road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets demountable tanks in or on similar stowage units or other
receptacles, can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.

Roll-on Roll-off vessel

a vessel which is provided with horizontal means of access and discharge for wheeled, tracked or mobile

Short international voyage

an international voyage in the course of which a ship is not more than 200 nautical miles from the port or
place in which passengers and crew could be placed in safety. Neither the distance between the last port of
call in the country in which the voyage begins and the final port of destination, nor the return voyage, shall
exceed 600 nautical miles. The final port of destination is the last port of call in the scheduled voyage at
which the ship commences its return voyage to the country.

Special category space

any enclosed space, above or below the bulkhead deck intended for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel
in their tanks for their own propulsion, into and from which such vehicles can be driven and to which
passengers have access

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Container Definitions and Terms

means that Government of a Contracting Party, under whose authority containers are approved.

means approved by the administration.

means the decision by the administration that a design type or a container is safe within the terms of the
present convention.

is defined by any goods, wares, merchandize and articles of every kind whatsoever carried in the containers.

defined by that space which could be occupied by a single vertical stack of containers aboard a container
vessel. Each stowage/hatch space would contain multiple cells, each serviced during loading/discharging by
cell guides

Cell guide
a vertical guidance track which permits loading and discharge of containers in and out of the ships holds, in a
stable manner.

is defined as an article of transport equipment:
(a) of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use;
(b) specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or more modes of transport, without
intermediate reloading;
(c) designed to be secured and/or readily handled, having corner fittings for these purposes;
(d) of a size such that the area enclosed by the four outer bottom corners is either:
(i) at least 14m2 (150 ft2) or
(ii) at least 7m2 (75 ft2) if it is fitted with top corner fittings.

The term container includes neither vehicles or packaging. However, containers when carried on chassis are

Container spreader beam

the engaging and lifting device used by gantry cranes to lock on, lift and load containers.

Corner fitting
is defined by an arrangement of apertures and faces at the top and/or bottom of a container for the purposes
of handling, stacking and/or securing.

Existing container
is defined as a container, which is not a new container.

Flexible boxship
a term which describes a container vessel designed with flexible length deck cell guides, capable of handling
different lengths of containers, e.g. 20, 30 and 40 ft units.

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Gantry crane
a large heavy-lifting structure found at container terminals employed to load/discharge containers to and
from container vessels. Some container vessels carry their own travelling gantry crane system on board

Hatchless holds
are defined as a container ship design with cell guides to the full height of the stowage without separate or
intermediate hatch tops interrupting the stowage.

International transport
means transport between points of departure and destination situated in territory of two countries to at least
one of which the present (CSC) Convention applies. The present convention will also apply when part of a
transport operation between two countries takes place in the territory to which the present convention applies.

trade name for a mobile ground-handling container transporter. There are many variations of these container
transporters found in and around terminals worldwide. Generally referred to as Elephant Trucks or
Straddle Trucks.

Lashing frame/lashing platform

a mobile, or partly mobile, personnel carrier which lashing personnel can work on twist-locks at the top of
the container stack without having to climb on the container tops.

Maximum operating gross weight

is defined by the maximum allowable combined weight of the container and its cargo.

Maximum permissible payload (P)

means the difference between the maximum operating gross weight or rating and the tare weight.

New container
is defined as a container the construction of which was commenced on or after the date of entry into force of
the present convention.

means the owner as provided for under the national law of the contracting party or the lessee or bailee, if an
agreement between the parties provides for the exercise of the owners responsibility for maintenance and
examination of the container by such lessee or bailee.

means a container representative of those manufactured or to be manufactured in a design type series.

Safety approval plate

is described as an information plate which is permanently affixed to an approved container. The plate
provides general operating information inclusive of country of approval and date of manufacture,
identification number, its maximum gross weight, its allowable stacking weight and racking test load value.
The plate also carries end wall
strength, the side wall strength and the maintenance examination date.

a term when referring to containers, which represents the deck stowage of containers in tiers and in bays

Tare weight
means the weight of the empty container including permanently affixed ancillary equipment.

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Terminal representative
is defined as that person appointed by the terminal or other facility where the ship is loading or unloading,
who has responsibility for operations conducted by the terminal or facility with regard to that particular ship.

twenty feet equivalent unit. Used to express the cargo capacity of a container vessel.

Type of container
means the design type approved by the administration.

Type-series container
means any container manufactured in accordance with the approved design type

Special cargoes, hazardous goods and deck cargoes

Auto-ignition temperature
is the lowest temperature at which a substance will start to burn without the aid of an external flame.
combustion begins, provided that conditions are right, when auto-ignition temperature is attained.

means any persons organization, or government, undertaking the transport of dangerous goods by any
means of transport. This includes both carriers for hire or reward (known as common or contract carriers) and
carriers on own account (known as private carriers).

Control temperature
means the maximum temperature at which certain substances (such as organic peroxides and self-reactive
and related substances) can be safely transported during a prolonged period of time.

are transportable pressure receptacles of a water capacity not exceeding 150 l.

Dangerous goods
means substances, materials and articles covered by the IMDG Code.

Defined deck area

means that area of the weather deck of a ship or of a vehicle deck of a Roll-on, Roll-off (Ro-Ro) ship which
is allocated for the stowage of dangerous goods.

Emergency temperature
means that temperature at which emergency procedures shall be implemented.

Flammable liquid
is a liquid having a flash point lower than 37.8C. A combustible liquid is a liquid having a flash point of
37.8C or above, e.g. gasoline is a flammable liquid, whereas kerosene is a combustible liquid.

Flammable range
the limits of flammable (explosive) range, in the range between the minimum and the maximum
concentrations of vapour in air which forms a flammable (explosive) mixture. Usually abbreviated to LFL
(lower flammable limit) and UFL (upper flammable limit). These are synonymous with the lower and upper
explosive limits.
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Flash point
is that lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture with air
near the surface of the liquid, or within the apparatus used. Flash point represents the change point from safe
to risk.

Harmful substances
are those substances that are identified as marine pollutants in the IMDG Code.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

a mandatory code for the carriage of dangerous goods at sea as adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee
(MSC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Effective from 1 January 2004 this code is
applicable to all ships to which the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention applies (Resolution MSC.

Medical First Aid Guide

a section of the supplement to the IMDG Code which details guidelines for the application of first aid to
persons exposed and affected by hazardous goods.

Packaged form
means the form of containment specified in the IMDG Code.

Settled pressure
means the pressure of the contents of a pressure receptacle in thermal and diffusive equilibrium.

Sift proof
is packaging which is impermeable to dry contents including fine solid material produced during transport.

means a portable tank (including a tank container) a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a receptacle with
a capacity of not less than 450 l to contain solids, liquids or liquefied gases.

Water reactive
means any substance which in contact with water emits flammable gas.

Working pressure
means the settled pressure of a compressed gas at a reference temperature of 15C in a full pressure

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Tanker cargoes
(within the understanding of MARPOL) and tanker operations (gas and chemical)

the Government of the State under whose authority the ship is operating.

Associated piping
the pipeline from the suction point in a cargo tank to the shore connection used for unloading the cargo and
includes all the ships piping, pumps and filters which are in open connection with the cargo unloading line.

Bulk Chemical Code

the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (ships must
have a Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemicals).

Cargo area
that part of a ship which contains cargo spaces, slop tanks and pump rooms, cofferdams, ballast and void
spaces adjacent to cargo tanks and also deck areas throughout the length and breadth of the part of the
ship over such spaces.

Centre tank
any tank inboard of a longitudinal bulkhead.

Chemical tanker
a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry a cargo of noxious liquid substances (NLS) in bulk and
includes an oil tanker as defined by Annex 1 of MARPOL, when carrying a cargo or part cargo of NLS in
bulk (see also Tanker).

Clean ballast
ballast carried in a tank which, since it was last used to carry cargo containing a substance in Category A, B,
C or D, has been thoroughly cleaned and the residues resulting therefrom have been discharged and the
tank emptied in accord with Annex II, of MARPOL.

an isolating space between two adjacent steel bulkheads ordecks. This space may be a void space or a ballast

Combination carrier
a ship designed to carry either oil or solid cargoes in bulk.

Continuous feeding
defined as the process whereby waste is fed into a combustion chamber without human assistance while the
incinerator is in normal operating condition with the combustion chamber operative temperature
between 850C and 1200C.

Critical structural areas

locations which have been identified from calculations to require monitoring or from service history of the
subject ship or from similar or sister ships to be sensitive to cracking, buckling or corrosion, which would
impair the structural integrity of the ship.

Crude oil
any liquid hydrocarbon mixture occurring naturally in the earth whether or not treated to render it suitable for
transportation and includes:

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(a) crude oil from which certain distillate fractions may have been removed and
(b) crude oil to which certain distillate fractions may have been added.

Dedicated ship
a ship built or converted and specifically fitted and certified for the carriage of:
(a) one named product and
(b) a restricted number of
products each in a tank or group of tanks such that each tank or group of tanks is certified for one named
product only or compatible products not requiring cargo tank washing for change of cargo.

Domestic trade
a trade solely between ports or terminals within the flag state of which the ship is entitled to fly, without
entering into the territorial waters of other states.

in relation to harmful substances or effluent containing such substances means any release howsoever caused
from a ship and includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting or emptying.

any release of substance subject to control by the Annex VI, from ships into the atmosphere or sea.

Flammability limits
the conditions defining the state of fuel oxidant mixture at which application of an adequately strong external
ignition source is only just capable of producing flammability in a given test apparatus.

Flammable products
are those identified by an F in column F of the table in Chapter 19 of the International Gas Code for ships
carrying liquefied gases in bulk (IGC).

Flash point (of an oil)

this is the lowest temperature at which the oil will give off vapour in quantities that, when mixed with air in
certain proportions, are sufficient to create an explosive gas.

all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste, excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during
the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically, except those
that are defined or listed in other Annexes to the present convention.

Gas carrier
is a cargo ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquefied gas or other products
listed in the table of Chapter 19 of the IGC Code.

Good condition
a coating condition with only minor spot rusting.

Harmful substance
any substance that, if introduced into the sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living
resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with legitimate use of the sea, and includes any
substance subject to control by the present convention.

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Hold space
is the space enclosed by the ships structure in which a cargo containment system is situated.

Holding tank
a tank used for the collection and storage of sewage.

IBC Code Certificate

refers to an International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, which
certifies compliance with the requirements of the International Bulk Cargo (IBC) Code.

IGC Code
refers to the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in

Ignition point (of an oil)

this is defined by the temperature to which an oil must be raised before its surface layers will ignite and
continue to burn.

any event involving the actual or probable discharge into the sea of harmful substance, or effluents
containing such a substance.

Instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content

the rate of discharge of oil in litres per hour at any instant divided by the speed of the ship in knots at the
same instant.

International trade
a trade which is not a domestic trade as defined above.

Liquid substances
are those having a vapour pressure not exceeding 2.8 kPa/cm2 when at a temperature of 37.8C.

is the maximum allowable relief valve setting of a cargo tank.

soluble with water in all proportions at wash water temperatures.

NLS Certificate
an international Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk,
which certifies compliance with Annex II, MARPOL.

Noxious liquid substance

any substance referred to in Appendix II of Annex II of MARPOL. Or, provisionally, assessed under the
provisions of Regulation 3(4) as falling into Category A, B, C or D.

NOx Technical Code

the Technical Code on Control of Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines, adopted by the
Conference, Resolution 2 as may be amended by the Organization.
petroleum in any form, including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge oil refuse and refined products (other than
petrochemicals which are subject to the provisions of Annex II).

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Oil fuel unit

is the equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil fired boiler, or equipment used for
the preparation for delivery of heated oil to an internal combustion engine and includes any oil pressure
pumps, filters and heaters with oil at a pressure of not more than 1.8 bar gauge.

Oily mixture
a mixture with any oil content.

Oil tanker
a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces and includes combination
carriers and any chemical tanker as defined by Annex II, when it is carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in

the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. The International Maritime Organization

Permissible exposure limit

an exposure limit which is published and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) as a legal standard. It may be either time weighted average (TWA) exposure limit (8 h) or a 15-min
short-term exposure limit (STEL), or a ceiling (C).

Primary barrier
is the inner element designed to contain the cargo when the cargo containment system includes two

Product carrier
an oil tanker engaged in the trade of carrying oil, other than crude oil.

any NLS which remains for disposal.

Residue/water mixture
residue in which water has been added for any purpose (e.g. tank cleaning, ballasting and bilge slops).

Secondary barrier
the liquid resisting outer element of a cargo containment system designated to afford temporary containment
of any envisaged leakage of liquid cargo through the primary barrier and to prevent the towering of
temperature of the ships structure to an unsafe level.

Segregated ballast
that ballast water introduced into a tank which is completely separated from the cargo oil and fuel oil system
and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast or to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than
oil or noxious substances.

(a) drainage and other wastes from any form of toilet, urinals and WC scuppers;
(b) drainage from medical premises (dispensary, sick bay, etc.) via wash basins, wash tubs and scuppers
located in such premises;
(c) drainage from spaces containing living animals and
(d) other waste waters when mixed with drainage as listed above.

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a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air
cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms
Shipboard incinerator
a shipboard facility designed for the primary purpose of incineration.

Slop tank
a tank specifically designated for the collection of tank drainings, tank washings and other oily mixtures.

Sludge oil
sludge from the fuel or lubricating oil separators waste lubricating oil from main or auxiliary machinery, or
waste oil from bilge water separators, oil filtering equipment or drip trays.

Oxides of sulphur (SOx) emission control area

an area where the adoption of special mandatory measures for SOx emissions from ships is required to
prevent, reduce and control air pollution from SOx and its attendant adverse impacts on land and sea areas.
SOx emission control areas shall include those listed in Regulation 14 of Annex VI.

Special area
a sea area where, for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological condition
and to the particular character of its traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of
sea pollution by oil is required. Special areas include Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea,
Gulf Area, Gulf of Aden, North Sea, English Channel and its approaches, The Wider Caribbean Region and

Substantial corrosion
an extent of corrosion such that the assessment of the corrosion pattern indicates wastage in excess of 75% of
the allowable margins, but within acceptable limits.

Suspect areas
are locations showing substantial corrosion and/or are considered by the attending surveyor to be prone to
rapid wastage.

an enclosed space which is formed by the permanent structure of the ship and which is designed for the
carriage of liquid in bulk.

Tank cover
the protective structure intended to protect the cargo containment system against damage where it protrudes
through the weather deck or to ensure the continuity and integrity of the deck structure.

Tank dome
the upward extension of a position of a cargo tank. In the case of below deck cargo containment system the
tank dome protrudes through the weather deck or through a tank covering.

an oil tanker as defined by the Regulation 1(4) of Annex 1, or a chemical tanker as defined in Regulation 1(1)
of Annex II of the present convention.
Threshold limit value (TLV)
airborne concentrations of substances devised by the American Conference of Government Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH). Representative of conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be
exposed day after day with no adverse effects. There are three different types of TLV, TWA, STEL and C.

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Note: TLVs are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards and are based on evidence from industrial
experience and research studies.

Time weighted average (TWA)

that average time over a given work period (e.g. 8 h working day) of a persons exposure to a chemical or an
agent. The average is determined by sampling for the containment throughout the time period and
represented by TLV - TWA.

Toxic products
are those identified by a T in column F in the table of Chapter 19 of the IGC Code.

that measured distance between the surface of the liquid in a tank and the underside decking of the tank.

Vapour pressure
the equilibrium pressure of the saturated vapour above the liquid expressed in bars absolute, at a specified

Void space
an enclosed space in the cargo area external to a cargo containment system, other than a hold space, ballast
space, fuel oil tank, cargo pump or compressor room, or any space in normal use by personnel.

Volatile liquid
a liquid which is so termed is one which has a tendency to evaporate quickly and has a flash point of less
than 60C.

Wing tank
any tank which is adjacent to the side shell plating.


For the purpose of this safety guide the following definitions apply:

Means the Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly.

Anti-static additive
A substance added to a petroleum product to raise its electrical conductivity to a safe level above 50
picoSiemens/metre (pS/m) to prevent accumulation of static electricity.

Approved equipment
Equipment of a design that has been tested and approved by an appropriate authority, such as a
government department or classification society. The authority should have certified the equipment as safe
for use in a specified hazardous atmosphere.

The ignition of a combustible material without initiation by a spark or flame, when the material has been
raised to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs.

The connecting together of metal parts to ensure electrical continuity.

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Brush discharge
A brush discharge is a diffuse discharge from a single blunt conductor that is more rapid than corona and
releases more energy. It is possible for a brush discharge to ignite gases and vapours.

Cathodic protection
The prevention of corrosion by electrochemical techniques. On tankers it may be applied either externally to
the hull or internally to the surfaces of tanks. At terminals, it is frequently applied to steel piles and fender

Oil remaining on the walls of a pipe or on the internal surfaces of tanks after the bulk of the oil has been

Cold work
Work which cannot create a source of ignition.

Combination carrier
A ship which is designed to carry either petroleum cargoes or dry bulk cargoes.

Combustible (also referred to as Flammable)

Capable of being ignited and of burning. For the purposes of this guide, the terms combustible and
flammable are synonymous.

Combustible gas indicator

An instrument for measuring the composition of hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures, usually giving the result as a
percentage of the lower flammable limit (LFL).

The owner of a ship or any other organisation or person such as the manager, or the bareboat charterer
who has assumed the responsibility for the operation of the ship from the owner of the ship. This includes
the duties and responsibilities imposed by the ISM Code.

Competent Person
A person who has been adequately trained to undertake the tasks they are required to perform within their
job description. For personnel in the shipping industry they should be able to demonstrate this competence
by the production of certificates approved by the vessels Administration.

A diffuse discharge from a single sharp conductor (less than 5 mm in diameter) that slowly releases some of
the available energy. Generally corona is incapable if igniting a gas like propane or vapours like those given-
off by gasoline. Corona may ignite vapours like hydrogen or acetylene, which require much lower energies
for ignition.

Dangerous area
An area on a tanker which for the purposes of the installation and use of electrical equipment is regarded as

Designated Person Ashore

Under the ISM Code, is a person or persons ashore within a ships managing office (Company) with direct
access to the highest levels of management, who has or have the responsibility and the authority to monitor
the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each ship, and to ensure that adequate
resources and shore-based support are applied, as required.

Dry chemical powder

A flame inhibiting powder used in fire fighting.

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Earthing (also referred to as Grounding)
The electrical connection of equipment to the main body of the earth to ensure that it is at earth potential.
On board ship, the connection is made to the main metallic structure of the ship which is at earth potential
because of the conductivity of the sea.

Enclosed space
A space which has the following characteristics:
Limited Openings for entry and exit;
Unfavourable natural ventilation; and
Is not designed for continuous worker occupancy.
This includes, but is not limited to, cargo spaces, double bottoms, fuel tanks, ballast tanks, pump rooms,
compressor rooms, cofferdams, void spaces, duct keels, inter-barrier spaces, engine crankcases and
sewerage tanks.

Entry permit
A document issued by a responsible person allowing entry into a space or compartment during a specific
time interval.

Explosion-proof (also referred to as Flame-proof)

Electrical equipment is defined and certified as explosion-proof when it is enclosed in a case which is
capable of withstanding the explosion within it of a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture or other specified flammable
gas mixture. It must also prevent the ignition of such a mixture outside the case either by spark or flame
from the internal explosion or as a result of the temperature rise of the case following the internal explosion.
The equipment must operate at such an external temperature that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will
not be ignited.

Flame arrester
A permeable matrix of metal, ceramic or other heat resisting materials which can cool a deflagration flame,
and any following combustion products, below the temperature required for the ignition of the flammable gas
on the other side of the arrester.

Flame screen
A portable or fitted device incorporating one or more corrosion resistant wire woven fabrics of very small
mesh which is used for preventing sparks from entering a tank or vent opening or, for a short time,
preventing the passage of flame. (Not to be confused with Flame arrester).

Flammable (also referred to as Combustible)

Capable of being ignited and of burning. For the purposes of this guide the terms flammable and
combustible are synonymous.

Flammable range (also referred to as Explosive range)

The range of hydrocarbon gas concentrations in air between the lower and upper flammable (explosive)
limits. Mixtures within this range are capable of being ignited and of burning.

Flashlight (also referred to as Torch)

A battery operated hand lamp. An approved flashlight is one which is approved by a competent authority for
use in a flammable atmosphere.
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture near the
surface of the liquid. It is measured in a laboratory in standard apparatus using a prescribed procedure.

Flow rate
The linear velocity of flow of liquid in a pipeline, measured in metres per second (m/s). The determination of
the Flow Rates at locations within cargo pipeline systems is essential when handling static accumulator
cargoes. (Also see Loading rate).

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Foam (also referred to as Froth)
An aerated solution which is used for fire prevention and fire fighting.

Foam concentrate (also referred to as Foam compound)

The full strength liquid received from the supplier which is diluted and processed to produce foam.

Foam solution
The mixture produced by diluting foam concentrate with water before processing to make foam.

Free fall
The unrestricted fall of liquid into a tank.

Gas free
A tank, compartment or container is gas free when sufficient fresh air has been introduced into it to lower
the level of any flammable, toxic, or inert gas to that required for a specific purpose, e.g. hot work, entry, etc.

Gas free certificate

A certificate issued by an authorised responsible person confirming that, at the time of testing, a tank,
compartment or container was gas free for a specific purpose.

A halogenated hydrocarbon used in fire fighting which inhibits flame propagation.

Hazardous area
An area on shore which for the purposes of the installation and use of electrical equipment is regarded as
dangerous. Such hazardous areas are graded into hazardous zones depending upon the probability of the
presence of a flammable gas mixture.

Hazardous task
A task other than Hot work which presents a hazard to the ship, terminal or personnel, the performance of
which needs to be controlled by a risk assessment process such as a Permit to Work system.

Hot work
Work involving sources of ignition or temperatures sufficiently high to cause the ignition of a flammable gas
mixture. This includes any work requiring the use of welding, burning or soldering equipment, blow torches,
some power driven tools, portable electrical equipment which is not intrinsically safe or contained within an
approved explosion-proof housing, and internal combustion engines.

Hot work permit

A document issued by a responsible person permitting specific hot work to be done during a specific time
interval in a defined area.

Hydrocarbon gas
A gas composed entirely of hydrocarbons.

Inert condition
A condition in which the oxygen content throughout the atmosphere of a tank has been reduced to 8 per
cent or less by volume by the addition of inert gas.

Inert gas
A gas or a mixture of gases, such as flue gas, containing insufficient oxygen to support the combustion of

Inert gas plant

All equipment fitted to supply, cool, clean, pressurise, monitor and control the delivery of inert gas to the
cargo tank systems.

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Inert gas system (IGS)
An inert gas plant and inert gas distribution system together with means for preventing backflow of cargo
gases to the machinery spaces, fixed and portable measuring instruments and control devices.

The introduction of inert gas into a tank with the object of attaining the inert condition.

Insulating flange
A flanged joint incorporating an insulating gasket, sleeves and washers to prevent electrical continuity
between ship and shore.

Interface detector
An electrical instrument for detecting the boundary between oil and water.

International Safety Management Code (ISM Code)

An international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The
Code establishes safety-management objectives and requires a "Safety Management System" (SMS) to be
established by the "Company".

Intrinsically safe
An electrical circuit or part of a circuit is intrinsically safe if any spark or thermal effect produced normally
(i.e. by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (e.g. by short circuit or earth fault) is incapable, under
prescribed test conditions, of igniting a prescribed gas mixture.

Loading over the top (also known as Loading overall)

The loading of cargo or ballast through an open ended pipe or by means of an open ended hose entering a
tank through a hatch or other deck opening, resulting in the free fall of liquid.

Loading rate
The volumetric measure of liquid loaded within a given period, usually expressed as cubic metres per hour
(m3/hr) or barrels per hour (bbls/hr).

Lower flammable limit (LFL)

The concentration of a hydrocarbon gas in air, below which there is insufficient hydrocarbon to support and
propagate combustion. Sometimes referred to as lower explosive limit (LEL).

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

A document identifying the substance and all its constituents, providing the recipient with all necessary
information to safely manage the substance. The format and content of an MSDS for MARPOL Annex I
cargoes and Marine Fuel Oils is prescribed in IMO Resolution MSC.150 (77).

A group of naturally occurring sulphur containing organic chemicals. They are present in some crude oils
and in pentane plus cargoes. They have a strong odour.
Mooring winch brake design capacity
The percentage of the minimum breaking load (MBL) of a new mooring rope or wire that a winch carries, at
which the winch brake is designed to render. Winch brakes will normally be designed to hold 80% of the
lines MBL and will be set in service to hold 60% of the mooring lines MBL. Brake holding capacity may be
expressed either in tonnes or as a percentage of a lines MBL.

Mooring winch design heaving capacity

The power of a mooring winch to heave in or put a load on its mooring rope or wire. Usually expressed in

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Naked lights
Open flames or fires, lighted cigarettes, cigars, pipes or similar smoking materials, any other unconfined
sources of ignition, electrical and other equipment liable to cause sparking while in use, unprotected light
bulbs or any surface with a temperature that is equal to or higher than the minimum ignition temperature of
the products handled in the operation.

Non-volatile petroleum
Petroleum having a flash point of 60C or above, as determined by the closed cup method of test.

Odour threshold
The lowest concentration of vapour in air which can be detected by smell.

Oxygen analyser/meter
An instrument for determining the percentage of oxygen in a sample of the atmosphere drawn from a tank,
pipe or compartment.

Packaged cargo
Petroleum or other cargo in drums, packages or other containers.

An electrical sensor unit fitted in a flammable gas detector for measuring hydrocarbon vapours and air
mixtures within the flammable range.

A document issued by a responsible person which allows work to be performed in compliance with the
vessels Safety Management System

Permit to work system

A system for controlling activities that expose the ship, personnel and the environment to hazard. The
system will provide risk assessment techniques and apply them to the varying levels of risk that may be
experienced. The system should conform to a recognised industry guideline.

Crude oil and liquid hydrocarbon products derived from it.

Petroleum gas
A gas evolved from petroleum. The main constituents of petroleum gases are hydrocarbons, but they may
also contain other substances, such as hydrogen sulphide or lead alkyls, as minor constituents.

Oil is considered to have three phases in which it can exist depending on the grade of oil and its
temperature. The three phases are the solid phase, the liquid phase and the vapour phase. The phases do
not exist in isolation and operators must manage the carriage of oil with an understanding of the
combinations of the phases of oil in the cargo being carried.

Pour point
The lowest temperature at which a petroleum oil will remain fluid.

Pressure surge
A sudden increase in the pressure of the liquid in a pipeline brought about by an abrupt change in flow rate.

Pressure/vacuum relief valve (P/V valve)

A device which provides for the flow of the small volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures caused by
thermal variations in a cargo tank.

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The introduction of inert gas into a tank already in the inert condition with the object of:
(1) further reducing the existing oxygen content; and/or
(2) reducing the existing hydrocarbon gas content to a level below which combustion cannot be supported if
air is subsequently introduced into the tank.

Pyrophoric iron sulphide

Iron sulphide capable of a rapid exothermic oxidation causing incandescence when exposed to air and
potential ignition of flammable hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures.

Reid vapour pressure (RVP)

The vapour pressure of a liquid determined in a standard manner in the Reid apparatus at a temperature of
37.8C and with a ratio of gas to liquid volume of 4:1. Used for comparison purposes only.
See True Vapour Pressure.

Relaxation time
The time taken for a static charge to relax or dissipate from a liquid. This time is typically one half minute for
static accumulator liquids.

Responsible officer (or person)

A person appointed by the employer or the master of the ship and empowered to take all decisions relating
to a specific task, having the necessary knowledge and experience for that purpose.

Equipment to assist or restore the breathing of personnel overcome by gas or lack of oxygen.

Safety Management System (SMS)

A formal documented system, required by the ISM Code, compliance with which will ensure that all
operations and activities onboard a ship are carried out in a safe manner.

Self stowing mooring winch

A mooring winch fitted with a drum on which a wire or rope is made fast and automatically stowed.

Settling time
The time it takes for tank contents to stop moving once filling has stopped. The movement can be because
of thermal currents, solids and/or water settling or of gas bubbles rising. Typically this time is 30 minutes.

Sounding pipe
A pipe extending from the top of the tank to the bottom through which the contents of the tank can be
measured. The pipe is usually perforated to ensure the level of liquid in the pipe is the same as the level of
liquid in the body of the tank and to prevent the possibility of spillages. The pipe should be electrically
bonded to the ships structure at the deck and at its lower end.

Sour crude oil

A crude oil containing appreciable amounts of hydrogen sulphide and/or mercaptans.

Spontaneous combustion
The ignition of material brought about by a heat producing (exothermic) chemical reaction within the material
itself without exposure to an external source of ignition.

Spread loading
The practice of loading a number of tanks simultaneously to reduce the velocity of the cargo in the pipelines
serving individual tanks to avoid static electricity generation when loading static accumulator cargoes.

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Static accumulator oil
An oil with an electrical conductivity less than 50 picoSiemens/metre (pS/m), so that it is capable of retaining
a significant electrostatic charge.

Static electricity
The electricity produced by dissimilar materials through physical contact and separation.

Static non-accumulator oil

An oil with an electrical conductivity greater than 50 picoSiemens/metre (pS/m), which renders it incapable
of retaining a significant electrostatic charge.

The final operation in draining liquid from a tank or pipeline.

A ship designed to carry liquid petroleum cargo in bulk, including a combination carrier when being used for
this purpose.

Tank cleaning
The process of removing hydrocarbon vapours, liquid or residue from tanks. Usually carried out so that
tanks can be entered for inspection or hot work.

Tension winch (automated or self tensioning mooring system)

A mooring winch fitted with a device which may be set to automatically maintain the tension on a mooring
line. The use of such an automatic system is not usually permitted on tanker berths.

A place where tankers are berthed or moored for the purpose of loading or discharging petroleum cargo.

Terminal representative
A person designated by the terminal to take responsibility for an operation or duty.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV)

Airborne concentrations of substances under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed
day after day with no adverse effect. TLV's are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are
based on industrial experience and studies.

There are three different types of TLV's:

Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) the airborne concentrations of a toxic substance
averaged over an 8 hour period, usually expressed in parts per million (ppm).
Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) the airborne concentration of a toxic substance
averaged over any 15 minute period, usually expressed in parts per million (ppm).
Ceiling (TLV-C) The concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working

Topping off
The operation of completing the loading of a tank to a required ullage.

Topping up
The introduction of inert gas into a tank which is already in the inert condition with the object of raising the
tank pressure to prevent any ingress of air.

The degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans or animals. Acute toxicity
involves harmful effects to an organism through a single short term exposure. Chronic toxicity is the ability

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of a substance or mixture of substances to cause harmful effects over an extended period, usually upon
repeated or continuous exposure, sometimes lasting for the entire life of the exposed organism.

True vapour pressure (TVP)

The true vapour pressure of a liquid is the absolute pressure exerted by the gas produced by evaporation
from a liquid when gas and liquid are in equilibrium at the prevailing temperature.

The space above the liquid in a tank, conventionally measured as the distance from the calibration point to
the liquid surface.

Upper flammable limit (UFL)

The concentration of a hydrocarbon gas in air above which there is insufficient oxygen to support and
propagate combustion. Sometimes referred to as upper explosive limit (UEL).

A gas below its critical temperature.

Vapour emission control system (VECS)

An arrangement of piping and equipment used to control vapour emissions during tanker operations,
including ship and shore vapour collection systems, monitoring and control devices and vapour processing

Vapour lock system

Equipment fitted to a tank to enable the measuring and sampling of cargoes without release of vapour/inert
gas pressure.

Volatile petroleum
Petroleum, having a flash point below 60C as determined by the closed cup method of testing.

Water fog
A suspension in the atmosphere of very fine droplets of water usually delivered at a high pressure through a
fog nozzle for use in fire fighting.

Water spray
A suspension in the atmosphere of water divided into coarse drops by delivery through a special nozzle for
use in fire fighting.

Work permit
A document issued by a responsible person permitting specific work to be done, in a defined area, during a
specified time period.
Bulk liquid chemical carriers
Phrases and terminology associated with the chemical industry

Adiabatic expansion
is an increase in volume without a change in temperature or without any heat transfer taking place.

chemicals that affect the nervous system and cause anaesthesia.

a compound within a water-based solution.

a chemical reaction of a compound causing combustion without a secondary source of ignition.

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Boiling point
that temperature at which a liquids vapour pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

a substance that will cause a reaction with another substance or one that accelerates or decelerates a reaction.

Critical pressure
that minimum pressure which is required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature.

Critical temperature
that maximum temperature of a gas at which it can be turned into a liquid by pressurization.

Filling ratio
that percentage volume of a tank which can be safely filled allowing for the expansion of the product.

Freezing point
that temperature at which a substance must be at to change from a liquid to a solid state or vice versa.

that process of splitting a compound into two parts by the agency of water. One part being combined with
hydrogen, the other with hydroxyl.

that ability of a substance to absorb water or moisture from the atmosphere.

a substance which, when introduced to another, will prevent a reaction.

a human state of insensibility resembling sleep or unconsciousness, from which it is difficult to arouse.

Oxidizing agent
an element or compound that is capable of adding oxygen to another.

a procedure of displacing air or unwanted gasses from tanks and pipelines with another compatible
substance, e.g. IG, cargo vapour or liquid.
that process which is due to a chemical reaction within a substance, capable of changing the molecular
structure within that substance, i.e. liquid to solid.

Reducing agent
an element or compound that is capable of removing oxygen from a substance.

Reid vapour pressure

is that vapour pressure of a liquid as measured in a Reid apparatus at a temperature of 100F expressed in

is that ability of a chemical to react without other influence which results in polymerization or

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that process of conversion from a solid to a gas, without melting (an indication that the flash point is well
below the freezing point).

Threshold limit value

is that value reflecting the amount of gas, vapour, mist or spray mixture that a person may be daily subjected
to, without suffering any adverse effects (usually expressed in ppm).

Vapour density
that weight of a specific volume of gas compared to an equal volume of air, in standard conditions of
temperature and pressure.

Vapour pressure
that pressure exerted by a vapour above the surface of a liquid at a certain temperature (measured in mm of
mercury, mmHg).

Cargo Documentation Summary

Ballast Management Record
the dangers to aquatic life have instigated the need for tighter controls on the movement and in particular, the
discharge of ballast waters. Positions of ballast change, dates, amount and tank location.

Bill of Lading (B/L)

are the consignees title to the goods which have been shipped or are about to be shipped. The B/L will
quantify the goods and refer their condition at the time of shipping and he/she would expect to
receive the goods at the port of discharge in the same good condition as when shipped. In the event that the
goods are damaged at receipt or in loading or discharging the B/L would be endorsed to specify the damage.

Such an endorsed B/L would be considered as a dirty or foul B/L, as opposed to a clean B/L which is without
endorsement. The B/Ls are usually drawn up by the shipping agent and signed by the Master of the Vessel.

Cargo manifest
the official listing of all cargo parcels carried on board the vessel. This document is what the master bases his
declaration on when entering port; all cargoes being officially declared on the manifest which is subject to
inspection by Customs Officers, and port security inspection.
Cargo Record Book
vessel engaged in the carriage of noxious liquid substances must carry a record of the cargo movements
affecting the ship. The same ships would also be expected to carry a Maritime and Coastguard Agency
(MCA) approved
Procedures and Arrangement Manual, reflecting the operational aspects of the vessel.

Cargo Securing Manual

a legal requirement for every ship other than those engaged in the carriage of solid or liquid bulk cargoes.
The purpose of the manual is to cover all relevant aspects of cargo stowage and securing. Securing devices
and methods must meet acceptable criteria for strength, applicable to relevant cargo units, inclusive of
containers and Ro-Ro transports. Each manual is prepared in a manner to reflect the individual ships needs,
relevant to the type of cargo parcels it is engaged to ship.

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Cargo stowage plan
a charted plan of the vessels cargo-carrying spaces which illustrates the type, tonnage and description of
goods for designated discharge in the various intended ports of call for the voyage. The plan is constructed by
the Cargo Officer and is meant to provide an overall illustration of the distribution of the ships cargo. The
plan is copied and despatched to the various ports of discharge prior to the ships arrival on the berth. It
allows relevant cranes to be ordered and stevedore gangs to be employed in advance which subsequently
speeds up the time of the vessel lying in port. It is considered essential for dry cargo vessels, tankers, bulk
carriers and container vessels to all carry stowage plans respective to their relevant cargoes.

Certificate of Fitness
is required by every UK tanker and gas carrier. These are issued by the MCA and are valid for a period not
exceeding five (5) years, being subject to initial, annual and intermediate surveys. This certificate cannot be

Charter party
is a private contract between the principal parties to an agreement and is evidence of who the operator of the
ship is. Charter parties are set in three categories: Time Charter, Voyage Charter or a Demise Charter (US
Bare Boat Charter). Variations of the three categories are drawn up based on the operational requirements of
the ship and the intended voyage.

Container Packing Certificate

the packing and unpacking of containers usually takes place at shore terminals or at the address of the
shipper or consignee. Prior to loading on board the vessel, a valid Container Packing Certificate must be
received as evidence that the goods have been packed in such a way as to withstand carriage at sea. It is also
a security check that the unit does not contain contraband goods and that the merchandise is as what is
described on the certificate. Container units are now electronically scanned at entry to many shipping

Document of Authorization
is a required certificate issued by a surveyor following survey of the ships cargo holds and its ability to carry
cargo safely. Unless the ship is in the possession of an Exemption Certificate, the Document of Authorization
would be an official requirement.

Document of Compliance (dangerous goods)

a certificate of compliance issued to a type of ship that is permitted to carry certain categories of
hazardous/dangerous goods. Not all ships can carry hazardous cargoes; for example, passenger vessels are
not allowed to carry Class 1, explosives.

Enclosed space entry permit

a work permit which is issued prior to entry into an enclosed space compartment. The permit is issued only
after all the required safety checks and inspections of the compartment have been made and the relevant
precautions have been taken.

Export licences
these are supplied by the shipper as required for certain specific cargoes: computers, foodstuffs, livestock,
armaments, etc. The export licence is required by Government/ State Officials for certain types of cargoes
which are subject to inspection by customs (e.g. armaments, drugs, etc.).

International Security Certificate

issued to a vessel by a recognized security organization confirming that the ship is compliant to the ISPS

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Mates Receipt
a receipt for goods received and delivered on board the vessel. As the name implies, it is signed and issued
by the Mate of the Ship, i.e. the Chief Officer. It may form the basis for the final B/L.

Note of Protest
is where the Master of a Ship makes a declaration of Protest under oath before a Notary Public, Magistrate
or British Consul. The declaration often affects cargo damaged or suspected of having damage due to a peril
of the sea. The main use of Protest in the UK is to support a cargo owners claim against his underwriters.
The Note of Protest is admissible as evidence before legal tribunals in many countries, but not in the UK
unless both parties agree. Masters should note Protest as soon after arrival in port and before breaking bulk.
The master may extend Protest once the situation has been further assessed and the full extent of damage is

Register of Lifting Appliances and Cargo-Handling Gear

a record of all the ships cargo-handling equipment, usually retained and updated by the Ships Chief Officer.
It contains all the certificates for such items as shackles, blocks, wires, derrick and crane tests, hooks, chains,
etc. The register is open to inspection by Port State Control Officers and would be required by the surveyor
when carrying out the Cargo-Handling Equipment Survey.

Rigging plan
a ships arrangement plan which illustrates the operational aspects of the ships lifting appliances. Safe
working loads and maximum permissible outreach limits would expect to be displayed alongside the related
positions of cargo stowage compartments.

Stability information booklet

the ships stability criteria may be in booklet format or in the form of a series of plans, or even carried in a
combination format of both. Either way the documents are in the control of the Ships Chief Officer and will
include the following: general particulars of the vessel; a general arrangement plan showing cargo
compartments and tank dispositions; special notes on the stability and loading procedures; hydrostatic
particulars; metric conversion table; capacity plan showing centre of gravity of cargo stowage compartments
(to include free surface moment of oil and water tanks); notes on the use of free surface moments; cross
curves of stability (known as KN curves) with examples of their use; deadweight scale; list of ship conditions
and typical condition sheets; statical stability curve for conditions; simplified stability information together
with damaged stability criteria.

Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) Certificate

a certificate issued within 7 days of measuring the moisture limit of the bulk product to be shipped.

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What Is A Bill of Lading?

A Bill of Lading, in its simplest form, is a receipt. The document states that the carrier has received the
shipment and contains information about the shipper and the receiver. There are several alternate names and
abbreviations for the term Bill of Lading:

Bill of Landing (Common misspelling.)

Waybill (Common alternate name in the US and Canada)

12 Common Types of Bill of Lading Forms & When To Use Them

1. Straight Bill of Lading: This is typically used when shipping to a customer. The Straight Bill of Lading
is for shipping items that have already been paid for.

2. To Order Bill of Lading: Used for shipments when payment is not made in advance. This can be shipping
to one of your distributors or a customer on terms.

3. Clean Bill of Lading: A Clean Bill of Lading is simply a BOL that the shipping carrier has to sign off on
saying that when the packages were loaded they were in good condition. If the packages are damaged or the
cargo is marred in some way (rusted metal, stained paper, etc.), they will need to issue a Soiled Bill of
Lading or a Foul Bill of Lading.

4. Inland Bill of Lading: This allows the shipping carrier to ship cargo, by road or rail, across domestic land,
but not over seas.

5. Ocean Bill of Lading: Ocean Bills of Lading allows the shipper to transport the cargo over seas,
nationally or internationally.

6. Through Bill of Lading: Through Bills of Lading are a little more complex than most BOLs. It allows for
the shipping carrier to pass the cargo through several different modes of transportation and/or several
different distribution centers. This Bill of Lading needs to include an Inland Bill of Lading and/or an Ocean
Bill of Lading depending on its final destination.

7. Multimodal/Combined Transport Bill of Lading: This is a type of Through Bill of Lading that involves
a minimum of two different modes of transport, land or ocean. The modes of transportation can be anything
from freight boat to air.

8. Direct Bill of Lading: Use a Direct Bill of Lading when you know the same vessel that picked up the
cargo will deliver it to its final destination.

9. Stale Bill of Lading: Occasionally in cases of short-over-seas cargo transportation, the cargo arrives to
port before the Bill of Lading. When that happens, the Bill of Lading is then stale.

10. Shipped On Board Bill of Lading: A Shipped On Board Bill of Lading is issued when the cargo arrives
at the port in good, expected condition from the shipping carrier and is then loaded onto the cargo ship for
transport over seas.

11. Received Bill of Lading: It is simply a Bill of Lading stating that the cargo has arrived at the port and is
cleared to be loaded on the ship, but does not necessary mean it has been loaded. Used as a temporary BOL

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when a ship is late and will be replaced by a Shipped On Board Bill of Lading when the ship arrives and the
cargo is loaded.

12. Claused Bill of Lading: If the cargo is damaged or there are missing quantities, a Claused Bill of Lading
is issued.


Amended B/L: B/L requiring updates that do not change financial status; this is slightly different
from corrected B/L.

B/L Terms & Conditions: the fine print on B/L; defines what the carrier can and cannot do,
including the carriers liabilities and contractual agreements.

B/Ls Status: represents whether the bill of lading has been input, rated, reconciled, printed, or
released to the customer.

B/Ls Type: refers to the type of B/L being issued. Some examples are: a Memo (ME), Original
(OBL), Nonnegotiable, Corrected (CBL) or Amended (AM) B/L.

Canceled B/L: B/L status; used to cancel a processed B/L; usually per shippers request; different
from voided B/L.

Clean B/L: A B/L which bears no superimposed clause or notation which declares a defective
condition of the goods and/or the packaging.

Combined B/L: B/L that covers cargo moving over various transports.

Consolidated B/L: B/L combined or consolidated from two or more B/Ls.

Corrected B/L: B/L requiring any update which results in money or other financially related

Domestic B/L: Nonnegotiable B/L primarily containing routing details; usually used by truckers
and freight forwarders.

Duplicate B/L: Another original Bill of Lading set if first set is lost. Also known as reissued B/L.

Express B/L: Nonnegotiable B/L where there are no paper copies printed of originals.

Freight B/L: A contract of carriage between a shipper and forwarder (who is usually a NVOCC); a
nonnegotiable document.

Government B/L (GBL): A bill of lading issued by the U.S. government.

Hitchment B/L: B/L covering parts of a shipment which are loaded at more than one location.
Hitchment B/L usually consists of two parts, hitchment and hitchment memo. The hitchment
portion usually covers the majority of a divided shipment and carries the entire revenue.

House B/L: B/L issued by a freight forwarder or consolidator covering a single shipment containing
the names, addresses and specific description of the goods shipped.

Intermodal B/L: B/L covering cargo moving via multimodal means. Also known as Combined
Transport B/L, or Multimodal B/L.

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Long Form B/L: B/L form with all Terms & Conditions written on it.Most B/Ls are short form
which incorporate the long form clauses by reference.

Memo B/L: Unfreighted B/L with no charges listed.

Military B/L: B/L issued by the U.S. military; also known as GBL, or Form DD1252.

B/L Numbers: U.S. Customs standardized B/L numbering format to facilitate electronic
communications and to make each B/L number unique.

Negotiable B/L: The B/L is a title document to the goods, issued to the order of a party, usually
the shipper, whose endorsement is required to effect is negotiation.Thus, a shippers order
(negotiable) B/L can be bought, sold, or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly used for
letterofcredit transactions. The buyer must submit the original B/L to the carrier in order to take
possession of the goods.

NonNegotiable B/L: See Straight B/L. Sometimes means a file copy of a B/L.

Onboard B/L: B/L validated at the time of loading to transport. Onboard Air, Boxcar, Container,
Rail, Truck and Vessel are the most common types.

Optional Discharge B/L: B/L covering cargo with more than one discharge point option

Order B/L: See Negotiable B/L.

Original B/L: The part of the B/L set that has value, especially when negotiable; rest of set are only
informational file copies. Abbreviated as OBL.

Received for Shipment B/L: Validated at time cargo is received by ocean carrier to commence
movement but before being validated as Onboard.

Reconciled B/L: B/L set which has completed a prescribed number of edits between the shippers
instructions and the actual shipment received. This produces a very accurate B/L.

Short Term B/L: Opposite of Long Form B/L, a B/L without the Terms & Conditions written on
it. Also known as a Short Form B/L. The terms are incorporated by reference to the long form B/L.

Split B/L: One of two or more B/Ls which have been split from a single B/L.

Stale B/L: A late B/L; in banking, a B/L which has passed the time deadline of the Letter of Credit
(L/C) and is void.

Straight (Consignment) B/L: Indicates the shipper will deliver the goods to the consignee.It does
not convey title (nonnegotiable).Most often used when the goods have been prepaid.

To Order B/L: See Negotiable B/L.

Unique B/L Identifier: U.S. Customs standardization: fouralpha code unique to each carrier
placed in front of nine digit B/L number; APLs unique B/L Identifier is APLU. Sealand uses
SEAU. These prefixes are also used as the container identification.

Voided B/L: Related to Consolidated B/L; those B/Ls absorbed in the combining process.
Different from Canceled B/L.

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Cargo documents in a bulk carrier

Documents which a Master may be required to hold, to issue or to receive in connection with the carrying of
dry bulk cargoes and other cargoes such as steel and forest products which may be carried by bulk carriers.

A Master should be aware that there is very often a complex financial background to the physical carriage of
the cargo with which he is concerned. There will be often a chain of sellers and buyers with many sale
contracts relating to the same cargo. Payments under such contracts will often be made by means of letters of
credit whereby banks will make payment against documents presented to them by the party seeking payment.
The documents presented will include many with which the Master has been directly concerned.

Because the actual documents presented to banks must comply strictly with the description of those
documents in the letter of credit, there may be intense pressure on the master to issue documents which
comply with the description of the documents in the letter of credit.

This situation arises where there is possibility of damaged cargo to be rejected .Issuing a clean bill of lading
for a clean cargo is the easiest option. Master must refuse to issue clean bill of lading, for example, when
damaged cargo has been tendered, which should lead to the clausing of mates receipts and bills of lading to
reflect the actual damage condition. Failure to observe this rule is likely to expose the owner to claims such
as for shortlanding or for cargo damage.

A Master should always consult his owner in such situations and should be aware of the dangers of signing
or issuing documents whose authenticity he doubts or whose contents he cannot verify.

Below is the list with short description of all the possible certificates and documents which are related to
cargo expected to be carried in a bulk carrier.

1. Hold inspection certificate: The hold or hatch inspection certificate, or preloading survey certificate, is
issued by a surveyor after inspecting the holds to ensure that they are suitable for the intended cargo.

A preloading survey is required when the local authorities at the loading port or the shipper demand it
or when it is a charterparty requirement. When a survey is required, loading cannot commence in a hold until
the surveyor has passed it. Often the vessel cannot present notice of readiness until the hold inspection
certificate has been issued. If any holds fail the survey, a vessel on time charter may be placed off hire and a
vessel on voyage charter may fail to start time running against charterers until such time as the holds have
been resurveyed and passed, although it may be possible to have some holds passed so that the vessel can
submit a valid notice of readiness and/or commence to load in suitable holds.

The surveyor will provide the hold inspection certificate for whoever instructs him, but a copy will
normally be given to the Master. The Master has no powers, except the power of reason, to require the
surveyor to alter a negative conclusion. But if the Master considers that the surveyors conclusions are
unreasonable and if the consequences are likely to be costly, the Master can set out his views in writing in a
letter of protest or he can obtain services of another surveyor, perhaps with the help of the ships P&I club. A
second surveyor cannot overrule the first, but can provide evidence of the facts for use in a dispute.

2. Mates receipt: A mates receipt is usually a printed form, often with handwritten entries which
acknowledges on behalf of the ship the receipt of the goods. It is evidence that the goods specified in it have
been delivered to and received by the ship (It is signed by chief officer of the receiving ship). Usually the
person to whom the mates receipt is given is the person entitled to a bill of lading in exchange for the return
of the mates receipt.

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When any damaged or deficient cargo is delivered to the ship it should immediately be brought to the
attention of the shippers or their agents so that it can be removed and undamaged cargo supplied in its place.
This requirement should be confirmed in writing to provide a record in the event of a dispute. Alternatively,
clausing (qualifying words) can be inserted to describe the condition of the goods at the time of delivery. As
it is a common requirement that bills of lading should be issued in accordance with mates receipts, if
damaged cargo is not removed it will be necessary to clause the mates receipt which will then lead to
clausing of the bill of lading.

3. Authorization to sign bills of lading: Under the terms of many time and voyage charterparties the owners
transfer the authority to sign bills of lading to the charterers or their agent, thereby cancelling the authority
normally held by the Master. In any case in which the agent will be signing bills of lading on behalf of the
Master, the master should ensure that the agent receives appropriate instructions in the form of authorization.
The wording of any such authorization is often dictated by owners or charterers voyage instructions.

4. Bills of lading : A bill of lading may perform three functions. (A)It is usually very good evidence of the
terms of the contract for the receipt, carriage and delivery of the cargo.(B)It is often a negotiable document of
title to goods carried, providing evidence of ownership of the cargo, and(C)it acts as a receipt of cargo loaded
aboard the vessel.

Before signing the bills of lading, the Master should ensure that:

i. The goods are actually aboard and the bill of lading is correctly dated.

ii. The description of the goods complies with the mates receipts, failing which the bill of
lading should be claused.

iii. That he only ever signs the same number of originals as is shown on the face of bill of

iv. The bill of lading contains a clause referring to any relevant charterparty, and includes the
protection clauses specified in that charterparty. Very specific wording is often required in
order to achieve the protection of all relevant charterparty provisions, and if in doubt the
master should consult the owners.

However, the Master is usually required to sign bills of lading as presented and there is little that he can do
except bring the matter to the notice of owners and charterers if the bills of lading do not contain the specific
clauses. The Master should not get persuaded to sign clean bill of lading against the offer of a letter of

5. Phytosanitary certificate: This certificate may be required during the carriage of plant or plant products
like, grain, seeds and fruits. Phytosanitary certificates are issued by inspectors in the exporting country to
certify the requirement of the plant health regulations of the importing country has been met.

6. Certificate of compliance with exemptions to trade sanctions: When trade sanctions have been imposed
on a country, it may still be allowed to import certain commodities such as food and medicines. Ships
carrying such exempted cargoes are required to produce a certificate of compliance to the authorities
enforcing the sanctions to demonstrate that cargo qualifies for the exemption. These are issued by the
exporting governments .A UN approval certificate is also required with this certificate.

7. UN approval certificate: It is a letter from a UN official to the government of a country which proposes
to export exempted goods to a country which the subject of UN sanctions. The letter states that the
prohibitions in respect of these shipments no longer apply and that the captains of the ships engaged in the

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trades should be provided with copies of the letter. This letter is provided so that it can be produced to the
naval ships operating the blockades against country against whom sanctions are in force.

8. Certificate of origin: It may be required for a cargo, when the authorities in the destination port are
applying against another country and require to be satisfied that the cargo does not originate there, or where
the origin of cargo must be documented as per the sale contract. This certificate is often issued by a
government department, stating the country of origin of the cargo. In some cases authorities will accept
ships cargo manifest as evidence of the origin of the cargo.

9. Declaration by shipper: It is made in compliance with the requirement of SOLAS that before loading
the shipper should provide to the Master details of any bulk cargo, so that Master can make decisions such as
trim of cargo and safety precautions to be observed with respect to the loading and carriage of the cargo.

10. Certificate of transportable moisture limits: The transportable moisture limit of the cargo which may
liquefy is the maximum safe moisture content of the cargo when carried in a bulk carrier. Practically, this
figure is normally included in the declaration by shipper.

11. Certificate of moisture content: The moisture content of a sample of cargo is the quantity of water, ice
or other liquid which the sample contains, expressed as a percentage of total wet mass of that sample. In
practice this figure is included in the shippers declaration. If the moisture content is higher than the
transportable limit, the cargo may liquefy and cause the ship to become unstable.

12. Masters response sheet: This document is issued by some coal shippers to encourage Masters to
comply with the General Requirement 15 of the coal section of IMSBC code. This states: If the behavior of
the cargo during voyage differs from that specified in the declaration by shipper, the Master should report
such differences to the shipper. Such report will enable the shipper to maintain records on the behavior of the
coal cargoes, so that the information provided to the Master can be reviewed in the light of transport
experience. The Masters are encouraged to complete and return these to report any unexpected experiences
with coal cargoes.

13. Certificate of lashing: The Master may be required to sign a certificate of lashing to state that the
securing of a timber deck cargo or a cargo steel coils or other cargo which requires lashing has been to his
satisfaction. After signing the certificate the Master retains one copy and other copies are given back to the
foreman responsible for the lashing.

14. Certificate of readiness to load: This certificate is issued by the marine authorities in respect of cargoes
of grain and concentrates and timber deck cargo, each of which has special loading requirements. The
certificate is issued after satisfactory inspections of cargo spaces and pr-loading calculations and contains
reminders of restrictions that must be imposed upon loading.

15. Certificate of fitness to proceed to sea: This follows the certificate of readiness to load, being issued by
the marine authorities after satisfactory completion of loading of a cargo of grain or concentrates, or a timber
deck cargo. As obvious this certificate records the manner in which the cargo has been stowed and provides
reminders of precaution which must be taken during the voyage. It also contains details of the vessels
draught, trim, weights carried and stability on sailing.

16. Certificate of Loading: A certificate of loading (bulk grain only)is issued in the USA by the National
Cargo bureau to certify that a cargo of bulk grain has been loaded as per USCG regulations. The document is
similar to the Canadian certificate of fitness to proceed to sea.

17. Certificate of fumigation: It is issued by the relevant agricultural or other responsible authority and
provides the details of the cargo(vegetation and its products cargoes , obviously). A certificate of fumigation

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is required for two reasons.(A) It will satisfy local the local department of agriculture that the cargo is free of
infestation, and (B) It provides the information which enables an authorized chemist to carry out a gas free
test. A clearance certificate is issued by the chemist when tests show that the residual fumigant has been
dispersed from cargo spaces. Such certificate is provided by a chemist in the discharge port to ensure that
cargo spaces can be safely entered.

18. Certificate of weight and quantity: A certificate of weight and quality is issued by suitably qualified
surveyors and samplers and testifies to the quantity of the cargo loaded and to its physical description and
analytical specification. In grain trades this is the document on which the mates receipt and bill of lading are

19. Stowage plan: Also known as Cargo plan or the hold distribution plan shows the commodity, tonnage
and/or measurement of cargo in each hold. The plan may be produced by one of the ships officers to provide
a record of the loading as observed and measured by ships personnel, in which case it may also provide
information about the bunkers carried and the vessels draught, trim and stability. Alternatively, stowage plan
may be produced by someone from the loading installation to record the quantities loaded in each hold. A
stowage plan provide by shore-based staff will normally show the shore values for the tonnages loaded,
regardless of whether or not these are the figures used in the bill of lading.

20. Cargo manifest: A cargo manifest is issued by the shippers in the loading port and is based upon the
information contained in the bills of lading. It provides brief details of the ship and the loading and discharge
ports and list details of the cargo carried. Details include the B/L numbers, contents, gross weight and freight.
Copies of the manifest, if available are retained by the master, who will give copies to the authorities in the
discharge port or ports visited en-route, if required.

21. Dangerous cargo manifest: It is issued by the shippers in compliance with the regulations which apply
at the loading port. The document states the quantity of hazardous material carried and certifies that it has
been properly named, prepared and otherwise in proper condition for bulk shipment. The name and
description of the hazardous material as given in the Dangerous cargo manifest should be used to confirm the
stowage requirements for the cargo, as stated in the IMSBC code and/or IMDG code. The document will be
presented to the Master for his signature, and before signing he should satisfy himself, that the stated
quantities and positions are correct and that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the requirements
of the codes.

22. Material safety data sheets: MSDS provide detailed information about hazardous cargoes and stores
carried on board. It is a must and is issued by the USA. The data includes the useful information about the
health hazards and the other dangers associated with the commodity, protective equipment to use, additional
precautions, and emergency and the first aid.

23. Health sealing certificate: Cargo hatches may be sealed to prevent theft of cargo or because the holds
have been fumigated and are unsafe to enter. When hatches have been sealed by a shore based organization a
certificate recording the fact is usually issued, listing the compartments which have been sealed and the type
and serial number of the seal used.

24. Statement of Facts: A statement of facts (SOF), sometimes known as a port log, is prepared by the
ships agents in each loading and each discharging port. It is intended to provide a full record of the times of
those events which may be required for the preparation of laytime statement and which may affect claims for
dispatch and demurrage or for offhire.

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Following things are detailed in the SOF:

Arrival of vessel at pilot station, the anchorage and the berth.

Time of pilot boarding and the arrival of tugs.

Tendering and receipt of notice of readiness.

Clearing of the holds by the pre-loading surveyor.

Periods of loading and discharging should be recorded.

Times of stoppages with their reasons.

Weather which interrupts cargo work and adverse weather noted at any other time.

Cargo tonnages, bunker figure and draughts

Time of fumigation, and any other delays.

Time of sailing.

The Master should check the accuracy of the SOF before he signs it. He should insist on correction of the
SOF when it is inaccurate, or should add remarks stating the correct facts if the agent refuses to amend the
document to his satisfaction. It is signed by the Master and sometimes the representative of all, owners and
charterers and shippers agents.

A trick sometimes used by unscrupulous agents is to present SOF top copy with the final details handwritten,
along with five copies with a blank last page on which the agent promises to type the manuscript entries
copied from the top copy. When the blank pages have been signed the agent discards the top copy and type
whatever suits him on the signed pages. Masters should avoid signing blank or incomplete SOFs whatever
the circumstances.

25. Letter of protest: It is a document used to provide a written record of dispute. The Master should write a
letter of protest whenever he considers that shippers, stevedores or any other parties are responsible for an
event or circumstance which will cause a loss to the ship. The Master is liable to receive a letter of protest if
vessel fails in some way to perform in accordance with charterparty. A letter of protest should be supported
by photographs when they are available.

26. Empty hold certificate: When there is any doubt as to the outrun of the cargo-for example, if the
receiver is claiming that the cargo has been short-landed, the Master can issue an empty hold certificate. Such
a certificate will say that all cargo has been discharged and that the holds have been emptied. The stevedore
supervisor will be asked to confirm that there is no cargo remained on board. The Master will keep the
original and can give copies to the stevedore who sign it and to the ships agent. Some owners instruct
Masters to obtain empty hold certificates for every cargo carried as it is considered a safe commercial

27. Trimming certificate/certificate of loading/Discharging: This is a document which the Master may be
asked to sign to confirm that he is satisfied with the manner in which the cargo has been trimmed.

The certificate of fitness to proceed at sea issued by port warden, coast guard or similar authority also
testifies the trimming of cargo, but the trimming certificate is issued by the Master, not the authorities.

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The certificate of loading/discharging goes further and requires the Master or chief mate to state that
the cargo has been properly loaded, stowed, trimmed and separations laid according to the signatorys

28. Stevedores time sheet: This normally shows the number of gangs employed, the hatches worked and
times and reasons for stoppages. If asked to countersign this document the Master should ensure that it is
correct. He should insist on the correction of stevedores time sheet when it is inaccurate. Alternatively he
can sign for receipt only.

29. Clean ballast discharge permit: This document is nowadays widely used in many parts of the world.
This certificate authorizes the vessel to discharge clean ballast in the port limits and stipulates the conditions
which must be observed whilst ballast is being discharged. The permit is issued by the port authority
following application from the ships agent and a copy has to be posted in ships gangway with a record of
checks and condition of discharge.

30. Paint compliance certificate: If holds have been repainted shortly before a cargo of grain or other
foodstuffs is to be loaded the shippers may demand to see a compliance certificate issued by an independent
laboratory, states that all the materials used to make the paint are approved for the use on surfaces which are
in contact with foods.

31. Stevedores damage form: These documents are issued by Master, to hold stevedores responsible for
damage to ship or cargo.

32. Certificate of IMO classification: A certificate of IMO classification of a cargo must be issued to the
Master by the shipper before shipment of a cargo which is listed in the IMDG code. This is essential so that
he can be ready for correct emergency procedures, if they be necessary. Such a certificate is in the form of
standardized dangerous goods bill of lading. Copies of the certificate of IMO classification may be required
by the receiver and by the port authority in the port of discharge or the ports visited en route.

33. Certificate of compliance/ IMSBS code fitness certificate: These certificates, issued by an
Administration or classification society on behalf of an administration to every ship constructed since 1st
September 1984, state the dry bulk cargoes that the ship is constructed, equipped and permitted to carry. In
addition to listing permitted cargoes the certificates or their supporting documents list the conditions that
must be satisfied and equipment that must be carried if the certificate is to remain valid. The certificate for
the carriage of dangerous goods must be renewed at each periodical survey.

34. Hatch closing certificate: This is issued by an attending surveyor, reports on hatch covers which appear
to be in good condition and which have been properly closed, and has provision for recording hatch covers or
fittings which appear to be defective, or which have not been properly closed. This appears to be a document
used by shippers or charterers who want to ensure that their cargoes are well protected. The Master or chief
mate, when countersigning the document can, if necessary, insert a remark rejecting the report.

35. No damage certificate: In some countries, particularly India, the Master will be required to sign a No
damage certificate releasing the stevedores from liability after completion of discharge. The ship may be
prevented to sail until the certificate has been signed, in that case Masters can sign the certificate with the
endorsement without prejudice.

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( IMDG Code) (2014 Edition)

The IMDG Code has undergone many changes over the years, in both format and content, in order
to keep up with the rapid expansion of the shipping industry. Amendment 37-14 includes revisions
to various sections of the Code and to transport requirements for specific substances. It was
adopted by IMOs Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) at its ninety-third session in May 2014.

The Code, as amended by Amendment 37-14, is mandatory as from 1 January 2016 but may be
applied by Administrations in whole or in part on a voluntary basis from 1 January 2015. The two-
volume Code is divided into seven parts:

Volume 1 (parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Code) contains sections on:

Part 1. General provisions, Definitions, Training
Part 2. Classifications
Part 4. Packing and Tank Provisions
Part 5. Consignment Procedures
Part 6. Construction and Testing of packagings, IBCs,
large packagings, portable tanks, MEGCs and road
tank vehicles
Part 7. Transport Operations.

Volume 2 contains:
Part 3. Dangerous Goods List, special provisions and exceptions,

A and B Generic and N.O.S. Proper Shipping Names, and glossary of terms

and Index.

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The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code relates to the safe carriage of dangerous
goods by sea, but does not include all details of procedures for packing of dangerous goods or
actions to take in the event of an emergency or accident involving personnel who handle goods at
sea. These aspects are covered by the publications that are associated with the IMDG Code,
which are included in this Supplement.

The Supplement also includes texts of the Medical First Aid Guide, descriptions of the reporting
procedures for incidents involving dangerous goods, harmful substances and/ or marine pollutants,
The International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and
High-Level Radioactive Wastes on board Ships and other appropriate Assembly resolutions,
resolutions and circulars of the Maritime Safety Committee and circulars of the Facilitation
Committee and of the Sub-Committee on Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and Containers.

The supplement contains the following texts related to the Code:

Emergency Response Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods
Medical First Aid Guide
Reporting Procedures
IMO/ ILO/ ECE Guidelines for Packing Cargo Transport Units
Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships
International Code for the Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and
High- Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships.

Table information in IMDG:

Column 1 UN Number Contains the United Nations Number assigned by the United Nations
Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN List).

Column 2 Proper Shipping Name (PSN) Contains the Proper Shipping Names in upper case
characters which may have to be followed by additional descriptive text in lower-case

Column 3 Class or Division Contains the class and, in the case of class 1, the division and
compatibility group.

Column 4 Subsidiary Risk(s) Contains the class number(s) of any subsidiary risk(s). This
column also identifies dangerous goods as a marine pollutant or a severe marine
pollutant as follows:
P Marine pollutant
PP Severe marine pollutant
Marine pollutant only when containing 10% or
more substance(s) identified with P or 1% or
more substance(s) identified with PP in this column or in the Index.

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Column 5 Packing Group Contains the packing group number (i.e. I, II or III) where assigned to
the substance or article.

Column 6 Special Provisions Contains a number referring to any special provision(s) indicated
in chapter 3.3.

Column 7 Limited Quantities Provides the maximum quantity per inner packaging.

Column 8 Packing Instructions Contains packing instructions for the transport of substances
and articles.

Column 9 Special Packing Provisions Contains special packing provisions.

Column 10 IBC Packing Instructions Contains IBC instructions which indicate the type of IBC that
can be used for the transport. A code including the letters IBC refers to packing
instructions for the use of IBCs described in chapter 6.5.

Column 11 IBC Special Provisions Refers to special packing provisions applicable to the use of
packing instructions bearing the code IBC in

Column 12 IMO Tank Instructions This column only applies to IMO portable tanks and road tank

Column 13 UN Tank and Bulk Container Instructions Contains T codes (see applicable
to the transport of dangerous goods in portable tanks and road tank vehicles.

Column 14 Tank Special Provisions Contains TP notes (see applicable to the transport
of dangerous goods in portable tanks and road road tank vehicles. The TP notes
specified in this column apply to the portable tanks specified in both columns 12 and

Column 15 EmS Refers to the relevant emergency schedules for FIRE and SPILLAGE in The
EmS Guide Emergency Response Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous

Column 16 Stowage and Segregation Contains the stowage and segregation provisions as
prescribed in part 7.

Column 17 Properties and Observations Contains properties and observations on the dangerous
goods listed.

Column 18 UN Number Contains the United Nations Number assigned to a dangerous good by
the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
(UN List).

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(2016 Edition)

The primary aim of the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code is to facilitate the
safe stowage and shipment of solid bulk cargoes by providing information on the dangers
associated with the shipment of certain types of solid bulk cargoes and instructions on the
procedures to be adopted when the shipment of solid bulk cargoes is contemplated.

This publication presents additional information that supplements the IMSBC Code, such as the
Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers (BLU Code). The
International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code and supplement is commended to
Administrations, ship owners, shippers and masters and all others concerned with the standards to
be applied in the safe stowage and shipment of solid bulk cargoes, excluding grain.

Table of Contents
Section 1 General provisions and definitions
Section 2 General loading, carriage and unloading precautions
Section 3 Safety of personnel and ship
Section 4 Assessment of acceptability of consignments for safe shipment
Section 5 Trimming procedures
Section 6 Methods of determining angle of repose
Section 7 Cargoes that may liquefy
Section 8 Test procedures for cargoes that may liquefy
Section 9 Materials possessing chemical hazards
Section 10 Carriage of solid bulk wastes
Section 11 Security provisions
Section 12 Stowage factor conversion tables
Section 13 References

Appendix 1 Individual schedules of solid bulk cargoes

Appendix 2 Laboratory test procedures, associated apparatus and
Appendix 3 Properties of solid bulk cargoes
Appendix 4 Index of solid bulk cargoes

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The IMSBC Code that was adopted by resolution [MSC.xx(85)] was recommended to
Governments for adoption or for use as the basis for national regulations in pursuance of their
obligations under regulation of the SOLAS Convention, as amended. The Code is mandatory under
the provision of the SOLAS Convention from [date of entry into force]. However, some parts of the
Code continue to be recommendatory or informative. It needs to be emphasized that, in the context
of the language of the Code: the words shall, should and may, when used in the Code, mean
that the relevant provisions are mandatory, recommendatory and optional, respectively.
Observance of the Code harmonizes the practices and procedures to be followed and the
appropriate precautions to be taken in the loading, trimming, carriage and discharge of solid bulk
cargoes when transported by sea, ensuring compliance with the mandatory provisions of the
SOLAS Convention.

The Code has undergone many changes, both in layout and content, in order to keep pace with the
expansion and progress of industry. Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) is authorized by the
Organizations Assembly to adopt amendments to the Code, thus enabling the IMO to respond
promptly to developments in transport.

Application Of IMSBC: Applies to all ships to which SOLAS Convention applies & carrying
Solid Bulk Cargoes as Defined in regulation 2 SOLAS Chapter VI.

Solid Bulk Cargoes: Any Cargo other than Liquid or Gas, consisting of Combination of
Particles, Granules or any Large Pieces of Material generally uniform in
composition & Loaded directly into the Cargo Space of a Ship without
any intermediate form of containment.

1.2 Cargoes listed in this Code
1.2.1 Typical cargoes currently shipped in bulk, together with advice on their properties and
methods of handling, are given in the schedules for individual cargoes. However, these schedules
are not exhaustive and the properties attributed to the cargoes are given only for guidance.
Consequently, before loading, it is essential to obtain current valid information from the shipper on
the physical and chemical properties of the cargoes presented for shipment. The shipper shall
provide appropriate information about the cargo to be shipped (see section 4.2).

1.2.2 Where a solid bulk cargo is specifically listed in appendix 1 to this Code (individual schedules
for solid bulk cargoes), it shall be transported in accordance with the provisions in its schedule in
addition to the provisions in sections 1 to 10 and 11.1.1 of this Code. The master shall consider to
consult the authorities at the ports of loading and discharge, as necessary, concerning the
requirements which may be in force and applicable for the carriage.

1.3 Cargoes not listed in this Code

1.3.1 If a solid cargo which is not listed in appendix 1 to this Code is proposed for carriage in bulk,
the shipper shall, prior to loading, provide the competent authority of the port of loading with the
characteristics and properties of the cargo in accordance with section 4 of this Code. Based on the
information received, the competent authority will assess the acceptability of the cargo for safe
shipment. When it is assessed that the solid bulk cargo proposed for carriage may present hazards as
those defined by group A or B of this Code as defined in 1.7, advice is to be sought from the
competent authorities of the port of unloading and of the flag State. The three competent
authorities will set the preliminary suitable conditions for the carriage of this cargo.

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Mates Orals Notes Function 2 - Cargo When it is assessed that the solid bulk cargo proposed for carriage presents no specific
hazards for transportation, the carriage of this cargo shall be authorized. The competent authorities
of the port of unloading and of the flag State shall be advised of that authorization.

1.3.2 The competent authority of the port of loading shall provide to the master a certificate stating
the characteristics of the cargo and the required conditions for carriage and handling of this
shipment. The competent authority of the port of loading shall also submit an application to the
Organization, within one year from the issue of the certificate, to incorporate this solid bulk cargo
into appendix 1 of this Code. The format of this application shall be as outlined in subsection 1.3.3.

1.4 Application and implementation of this Code

1.4.1 The provisions contained in this Code apply to all ships to which the SOLAS Convention, as
amended, applies and that are carrying solid bulk cargoes as defined in regulation 2 of part A of
chapter VI of the Convention.

1.4.2 Although this Code is legally treated as a mandatory instrument under the SOLAS
Convention the following provisions of this Code remain recommendatory or informative:
Section 11 Security provisions (except subsection 11.1.1);
Section 12 Stowage factor conversion tables;
Section 13 References to related information and recommendations;
Appendices other than appendix 1 Individual schedules of solid bulk cargoes; and The texts in the
PROCEDURES of individual schedules of solid bulk cargoes in appendix 1.

Regulation 2
Cargo information
1 The shipper shall provide the master or his representative with appropriate information on the
cargo sufficiently in advance of loading to enable the precautions which may be necessary for
proper stowage and safe carriage of the cargo to be put into effect. Such information** shall be
confirmed in writing*** and by appropriate shipping documents prior to loading the cargo on the

To enable the master to prevent excessive stresses in the ships structure, the ship shall be
provided with a booklet, which shall be written in a language with which the ships officers
responsible for cargo operations are familiar. If this language is not English, the ship shall be
provided with a booklet written also in the English language.

The booklet shall, as a minimum, include:

1 stability data, as required by regulation II-1/22;
2 ballasting and deballasting rates and capacities;
3 maximum allowable load per unit surface area of the tanktop plating;
4 maximum allowable load per hold;
5 general loading and unloading instructions with regard to the strength of the ships structure
including any limitations on the most adverse operating conditions during loading, unloading,
ballasting operations and the voyage;
6 any special restrictions such as limitations on the most adverse operating conditions
imposed by the Administration or organization recognized by it, if applicable; and
7 where strength calculations are required, maximum permissible forces and moments on the
ships hull during loading, unloading and the voyage.

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SECTION 4 - Assessment of acceptability of consignments for safe shipment

4.2 Provision of information

4.2.1 The shipper shall provide the master or his representative with appropriate information on the
cargo sufficiently in advance of loading to enable the precautions which may be necessary for
proper stowage and safe carriage of the cargo to be put into effect.

4.2.2 Cargo information shall be confirmed in writing and by appropriate shipping documents prior
to loading. The cargo information shall include:
.1 the BCSN when the cargo is listed in this Code. Secondary names may be used in addition
to the BCSN;
.2 the cargo group (A and B, A, B or C);
.3 the IMO Class of the cargo, if applicable;
.4 the UN number preceded by letters UN for the cargo, if applicable;
.5 the total quantity of the cargo offered;
.6 the stowage factor;
.7 the need for trimming and the trimming procedures, as necessary;
.8 the likelihood of shifting, including angle of repose, if applicable;
.9 additional information in the form of a certificate on the moisture content of the cargo and its
transportable moisture limit in the case of a concentrate or other cargo which may liquefy;
.10 likelihood of formation of a wet base (see subsection 7.2.3 of this Code);
.11 toxic or flammable gases which may be generated by cargo, if applicable;
.12 flammability, toxicity, corrosiveness and propensity to oxygen depletion of the cargo, if
.13 self-heating properties of the cargo, and the need for trimming, if applicable;
.14 properties on emission of flammable gases in contact with water, if applicable;
.15 radioactive properties, if applicable; and
.16 any other information required by national authorities.

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Interval between sampling/testing and loading for TML and moisture content determination
4.5.1 A test to determine the TML of a solid bulk cargo shall be conducted within six months to the
date of loading the cargo. Notwithstanding this provision, where the composition or characteristics
of the cargo are variable for any reason, a test to determine the TML shall be conducted again after
it is reasonably assumed that such variation has taken place.

4.5.2 Sampling and testing for moisture content shall be conducted as near as practicable to the
time of loading. If there has been significant rain or snow between the time of testing and loading,
check tests shall be conducted to ensure that the moisture content of the cargo is still less than its
TML. The interval between sampling/testing and loading shall never be more than seven days.

4.5.3 Samples of frozen cargo shall be tested for the TML or the moisture content after the free
moisture has completely thawed.

Section 5 - Trimming procedures

5.1.1 Trimming a cargo reduces the likelihood of the cargo shifting and minimizes the air entering
the cargo. Air entering the cargo could lead to spontaneous heating. To minimize these risks,
cargoes shall be trimmed reasonably level, as necessary.
5.1.2 Cargo spaces shall be as full as practicable without resulting in excessive loading on the
bottom structure or tween-deck to prevent sliding of a solid bulk cargo. Due consideration shall be
given to the amount of a solid bulk cargo in each cargo space, taking into account the possibility of
shifting and longitudinal moments and forces of the ship. Cargo shall be spread as widely as
practicable to the boundary of the cargo space. Alternate hold loading restrictions, as required by
SOLAS chapter XII, may also need to be taken into account.
5.1.3 The master has the right to require that the cargo be trimmed level, where there is any
concern regarding stability based upon the information available, taking into account the
characteristics of the ship and the intended voyage.
5.4.3 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose less than or equal to 30
5.4.4 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose greater than 30 to 35 inclusive
5.4.5 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose greater than 35

Section 6 - Methods of determining the angle of repose

6.1 General
An angle of repose of a non-cohesive solid bulk material shall be measured by a method approved
by the appropriate authority as required by section 4.1.4 of this Code.
6.2 Recommended test methods
There are various methods in use to determine the angle of repose for non-cohesive solid bulk
materials. The recommended test methods are listed below:
6.2.1 Tilting box method
This laboratory test method is suitable for non-cohesive granular materials with a grain size not
greater than 10 mm. A full description of the equipment and procedure is given in subsection 2.1 of
appendix 2.
6.2.2 Shipboard test method
In the absence of a tilting box apparatus, an alternative procedure for determining the approximate
angle of repose is given in subsection 2.2 of appendix 2.

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Section 7 - Cargoes which may liquefy

7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 The purpose of this section is to bring to the attention of masters and others with
responsibilities for the loading and carriage of bulk cargoes, the risks associated with liquefaction
and the precautions to minimize the risk. Such cargoes may appear to be in a relatively dry
granular state when loaded, and yet may contain sufficient moisture to become fluid under the
stimulus of compaction and the vibration which occurs during a voyage.
7.1.2 A ships motion may cause a cargo to shift sufficiently to capsize the vessel. Cargo shift can
be divided into two types, namely, sliding failure or liquefaction consequence. Trimming the cargo
in accordance with section 5 can prevent sliding failure.
7.1.3 Some cargoes which may liquefy may also heat spontaneously.

Section 8 - Test procedures for cargoes which may liquefy

8.1 General
For a Group A cargo, the actual moisture content and transportable moisture limit shall be
determined in accordance with a procedure determined by the appropriate authority as required by
section 4.1.4 of this Code, unless the cargo is carried in a specially constructed or fitted ship.
8.2 Test procedures for measurement of moisture content
There are recognized international and national methods for determining moisture content for
various materials. Reference is made to paragraph of appendix 2.
8.3 Methods for determining transportable moisture limit
The recommended methods for determining transportable moisture limit are given in appendix 2.
8.4 Complementary test procedure for determining the possibility of liquefaction
A ships master may carry out a check test for approximately determining the possibility of flow on
board ship or at the dockside by the following auxiliary method:

Half fill a cylindrical can or similar container (0.5 to 1 litre capacity) with a sample of the material.
Take the can in one hand and bring it down sharply to strike a hard surface such as a solid table
from a height of about 0.2 m. Repeat the procedure 25 times at one- or two-second intervals.
Examine the surface for free moisture or fluid conditions. If free moisture or a fluid condition
appears, arrangements should be made to have additional laboratory tests conducted on the
material before it is accepted for loading.

Section 9 - Materials possessing chemical hazards

9.1 General
Solid bulk cargoes which may possess a chemical hazard during transport, because of their
chemical nature or properties, are in Group B. Some of these materials are classified as dangerous
goods and others are materials hazardous only in bulk (MHB). It is essential to obtain current, valid
information about the physical and chemical properties of the cargoes to be shipped in bulk, prior
to loading.
9.2 Hazard classification
9.2.1 The classification of materials possessing chemical hazards and intended to be shipped in
bulk under the requirements of this Code shall be in accordance with 9.2.2 and 9.2.3.
9.2.2 Classification of dangerous goods
SOLAS regulation VII/7 defines dangerous goods in solid form in bulk. For the purpose of this
Code, dangerous goods shall be classified in accordance with part 2 of the IMDG Code

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Section 10 - Carriage of solid wastes in bulk

10.1 Preamble
10.1.1 The transboundary movement of wastes represents a threat to human health and to the
10.1.2 Wastes shall be carried in accordance with the relevant international recommendations and
conventions and in particular, where it concerns transport in bulk by sea, with the provisions of this
10.2 Definitions
10.2.1 Wastes, for the purpose of this section, means solid bulk cargoes containing or
contaminated with one or more constituents which are subject to the provisions of this Code
applicable to cargoes of classes 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, 8 or 9 for which no direct use is envisaged
but which are carried for dumping, incineration or other methods of disposal.

10.2.2 Transboundary movement of waste means any shipment of wastes from an area under the
national jurisdiction of one country to or through an area under the national jurisdiction of another
country, or to or through an area not under the national jurisdiction of any country provided at least
two countries are involved in the movement.
10.3 Applicability
10.3.1 The provisions of this section are applicable to the transport of wastes in bulk by ships and
shall be considered in conjunction with all other provisions of this Code.
10.3.2 Solid cargoes containing or contaminated with radioactive materials shall be subject to the
provisions applicable to the transport of radioactive materials and shall not be considered as
wastes for the purposes of this section.

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( International Grain Code)
(1991 Edition)

The Maritime Safety Committee, at its fifty-ninth session (May 1991), adopted a new International
Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk (International Grain Code). This replaced the original
chapter VI of SOLAS, which contained detailed regulations on the carriage of grain in bulk, with
more general requirements and placed the detailed provisions on grain in a separate mandatory

Application: Applicable to all ships carrying Grain in Bulk irrespective of size and tonnage.
as per SOLAS Ch VI part C carriage of Grain.

Definition: Grain: includes Wheat, Maze, Oats, Barley, Rice , Pulses, Seeds & Processed forms
of thereof whose behavior is similar to that of grain in its natural state.

SOLAS Ch VI Reg 9 :
DOA - Document of Authorization is mandatory for Ships carrying Grain in Bulk.

1. Settling.
2. Shifting.

Hold Cleaning - Hold Fitness inspection is carried out by the Surveyor.

=> Grain settles by about 2% of its Volume. This forms Small Void space on Top which
permits the Grain to Shift

Contents of Grain Code:

Part A - Specific Requirements.
Part B - Calculations of Assumed Heeling Moments & General Assumptions.

Appendix - SOLAS Ch VI Part C.

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(including BLU Manual)
(2011 Edition).

The Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers (BLU Code) was developed with
the aim of preventing accidents or loss of ships carrying solid bulk cargoes as a result of improper loading
and unloading practices. The Code was adopted by the Assembly on 27th November 1997 by resolution

The BLU Code provides guidance to ship masters of bulk carriers, terminal operators and other parties
concerned for the safe handling, loading and unloading of solid bulk cargoes and is linked to regulation VI/7
(Loading, unloading and stowage of bulk cargoes) of the 1974 SOLAS Convention

The provisions of the Code should be applied with due regard to the provisions of the International Maritime
Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code), where applicable. The Maritime Safety Committee, at its eightieth
session (May 2005), approved the Manual on loading and unloading of solid bulk cargoes for terminal
representatives (BLU Manual) and agreed that the application of the guidance contained therein would
address the concerns on risk control options and urged Member Governments, shipowners, ship operators
and terminals to apply the guidance contained therein.


Section 1: Purpose
Section 2: Scope
Section 3: Definitions

Schedule 1: Requirements in relation to the operational suitability of bulk carriers for

loading and unloading solid bulk cargoes.
Part 1: General
Part 2: Recommended layout for checklist

Schedule 2: Requirements in relation to the suitability of terminals

Part 1: General
Part 2: Requirements in relation to the suitability of terminals for loading
and unloading solid bulk cargoes.
Part 3: Terminal information books.

Schedule 3: Responsibilities of the master

Part 1: General
Part 2: Information to be provided by the master to the terminal
Part 3: Duties of the master prior to and during loading or unloading
Part 4: Form for required cargo information

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Schedule 4: Responsibilities of the terminal representative

Part 1: General
Part 2 : Information to be provided by the terminal to the master
Part 3: Duties of the terminal representative prior to and during loading
and unloading operations

Schedule 5: Procedures between bulk carriers and terminals

Part 1: General
Part 2: Loading or unloading plan
Part 3: Guidelines for completing the ship/shore safety checklist
Part 4: Ship/shore checklist for loading and unloading dry bulk cargo

Schedule 6: Repair of damage incurred during loading and unloading

Schedule 7: Role of Competent Authority

The purpose of this code is to enhance the safety of bulk carriers calling at terminals in the
Member States in order to load or unload solid bulk cargoes, by reducing the risks of excessive
stresses and physical damage to the ship's structure during loading or unloading, through the
establishment of:
1. harmonized suitability requirements for those ships and terminals, and
2. harmonized procedures for co-operation and communication between those ships and

The requirements in this document do not apply to ships which are:

not bulk carriers, by definition
carrying grain or;
loading or unloading using shipboard equipment only

The MCA considers that the requirements of this document will still not apply, when loading or
unloading bulk carriers using only shipboard equipment whether the cargo operations are
conducted by the ship's crew or shore personnel.

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(2012 Edition)
The Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes, 2011 (2011 TDC Code) was adopted at
the twenty-seventh session of IMO's Assembly in November 2011 by resolution A.1048(27). The 2011
TDC Code revises and updates the previous Code adopted in 1991, in order to reflect the capability of
today's ships and the equipment available on board and also taking expected future innovations in mind.

The 2011 TDC Code is non-mandatory and applies to all ships of 24 m or more in length carrying a timber
deck cargo. The Code aims to ensure that stowage and cargo securing arrangements for timber deck cargoes
enable a safe yet rational securing of the cargo so that it is satisfactorily prevented from shifting. The 2011
TDC Code also includes alternative design principles, taking into account the acceleration forces cargo may
be subjected to throughout the voyage.
More specifically, the 2011 TDC Code provides:

Practices for safe transportation

Methodologies for safe stowage and securing
Design principles for securing systems
Guidance for developing procedures to be included in ships' cargo securing manuals
Sample checklists for safe stowage and securing

The Code is designed to assist shipowners, charterers, operating companies, seafarers, port industries,
shippers, pre-packaging organizations (which are involved in preparation, loading, and stowing of timber
deck cargoes), Administrations, manufacturers, designers of ships and equipment associated with the
carriage of timber deck cargoes, and those developing cargo securing manuals for the carriage of timber deck

Contents Of Timber Code


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The Purpose of timber code is to make recommendations on stowage, securing and other
safety matters related to the carriage of timber on deck. The code applies to ships of
length greater than 24 meters.

Timber Deck cargo means a cargo of timber carried on an uncovered part of a freeboard or
superstructure deck.

Timber Load Line means a special load line assigned to ships complying with certain conditions
related to their construction as set out in the International Convention on
Load Lines. It is used when the cargo complies with the stowage and securing
conditions of the Code of Safe Practice for Ships carrying Timber Deck Cargoes.

Stability Requirements:
The ship should be supplied with comprehensive Stability Information that takes into account the timber
deck cargoes. This should enable the Master to quickly obtain accurate guidance as the stability of the ship
under varying conditions of service. Comprehensive rolling period tables or diagrams have proved to be a
very useful aid in verifying the actual stability conditions.

The stability at all times should be +ve and the following should be among the factors to be taken into
account. The increased weight of the timber deck cargoes due to:
Absorption of water in dried or seasoned timber
Ice accretion, if applicable
Variations in the consumables, such as oil or water
The Free Surface effect of Liquid in tanks
Weight of water trapped in broken spaces within the timber deck cargo and especially logs.

Before Proceeding to sea, the Master should ensure that:

Bridge visibility is unobstructed
The ship is upright
The ship has an adequate metacentric height(GM)
The ship meets the Stability Criteria
Wind heeling has been accounted for.

Loading should cease immediately if an unexplained list develops. The Load Line regulations allow an initial
GM of 0.05 meters, provided the timber is stowed and secured as per the code. This is because the
buoyancy of timber contributes to the reserve Buoyancy of the ship and so the ship can sail with lower
initial GM.

Excessive Stability(High GM) should also be avoided as this creates racking stresses and increase the
stresses on the lashing and securing system. The code recommends that GM should (preferably) not exceed
3% of the Beam of vessel, although this can vary from ship to ship.

Some Ships are allocated with Timber Load Lines. Such ships are ONLY allowed to load to this load line
provided that the lashing and securing requirements of the Timber Code and applicable regulations of Load
Line Convention are followed.

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Stowage Considerations:
The Timber Code Recommends the following to be Checked prior to loading timber on the weather
Hatch Covers and other openings to spaces below that area, should be securely closed
and battened down
Air pipes and ventilators should be efficiently protected and check valves or similar
devices should be examined to ascertain their effectiveness against the entry of water.
Accumulations of ice and snow on such areas should be removed
To have all deck lashings, uprights, etc in position before loading. There should be a
pre-loading examination of securing equipments required in loading port.
Ensure that access to all areas of the ship regularly used in the necessary working of
the ship is not impeded.
During Loading the Timber Deck Cargo should be kept free of any accumulations of ice and snow.
On completion of loading a thorough inspection of the ship should be carried out. Soundings
should also be taken to verify that no structural damage has occurred, causing ingress of water.
The Height of timber cargo should be restricted to ensure that:
Adequate visibility is assured
A safe margin of stability is maintained at all stages of the voyage.
Cargo does not overhang the ship side.
The weight of the timber deck cargo does not exceed the designed max permissible load on
the weather deck and hatches.
Every lashing should pass over the timber deck cargo and be shackled to eye plates and adequate
for the intended purpose and efficiently attached to the deck stringer plate or other strengthened
points. They should be installed in such a manner as to be, as far as practicable, in contact with the
timber deck cargo throughout its full height.
All lashings and components used for securing should:
possess a breaking strength of not less than 133 kN;
after initial stressing, show an elongation of not more than 5% at 80% of their breaking
strength; and
show no permanent deformation after having been subjected to a proof load of not less than
40% of their original breaking strength.

Every lashing should be provided with a tightening device or system so placed that it can safely
and efficiently operate when required. The load to be produced by the tightening device or system
should not be less than:
27 kN in the horizontal part; and
16 kN in the vertical part.

NOTE: 1 Newton equals 0.225 lbs. force or 0.1 kgf.

Upon completion and after the initial securing, the tightening device or system should be left with
not less than half the threaded length of screw or of tightening capacity available for future use.
Every lashing should be provided with a device or an installation to permit the length of the lashing
to be adjusted. The spacing of the lashings should be such that the two lashings at each end of

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each length of continuous deck stow are positioned as close as practicable to the extreme end of
the timber deck cargo.

If wire rope clips are used to make a joint in a wire lashing, the following conditions should be
observed to avoid a significant reduction in strength:
the number and size of rope clips utilized should be in proportion to the diameter of the wire
rope and should not be less than four, each spaced at intervals of not less than 15 cm;
the saddle portion of the clip should be applied to the live load segment and the U-bolt to the
dead or shortened end segment;
rope clips should be initially tightened so that they visibly penetrate into the wire rope and
subsequently be retightened after the lashing has been stressed.

Greasing the threads of grips, clips, shackles and turnbuckles increases their holding capacity and
prevents corrosion.

Uprights should be fitted when required by the nature, height or character of the timber deck cargo.
When uprights are fitted, they should:
be made of steel or other suitable material of adequate strength, taking into account the
breadth of the deck cargo;
be spaced at intervals not exceeding 3 m;
be fixed to the deck by angles, metal sockets or equally sufficient means; and
if deemed necessary, be further secured by a metal bracket to a strengthened point, i.e.,
bulwark, hatch coaming.

Loose or packaged sawn timber

The timber deck cargo should be secured throughout its length by independent lashings. The
maximum spacing of the lashings should be determined by the maximum height of the timber deck
cargo in the vicinity of the lashings:
1. for a height of 4 m and below, the spacing should be 3 m;
2. for heights of above 4 m, the spacing should be 1.5 m.
The packages stowed at the upper outboard edge of the stow should be secured by at least two
lashings each. When the outboard stow of the timber deck cargo is in lengths of less than 3.6 m,
the spacing of the lashings should be reduced as necessary or other suitable provisions made to
suit the length of timber. Rounded angle pieces of suitable material and design should be used
along the upper outboard edge of the stow to bear the stress and permit free reeving of the

Logs, poles, cants or similar cargo

The timber deck cargo should be secured throughout its length by independent lashings spaced
not more than 3 m apart. If the timber deck cargo is stowed over the hatches and higher, it should,
in addition be further secured by:
a system of athwarthship lashings (hog lashings) joining each port and starboard pair of
uprights near the top of the stow and at other appropriate levels as appropriate for the height
of the stow; and
a lashing system to tighten the stow whereby a dual continuous wire rope (wiggle wire) is
passed from side to side over the cargo and held continuously through a series of snatch
blocks or other suitable device, held in place by foot wires.
The dual continuous wire rope should be led to a winch or other tensioning device to facilitate
further tightening.

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The Basic Principle is that there should be a solid stow during all stages of loading process and
this can only be achieved by the constant supervision of responsible officers.
All Lashing and securing devices used must be tested and certified. A record must be tested and
certified. A record must be maintained of all certificates, testing and inspection dates. As per the
recommendations of the code, Lashing Plans must be provided to the ship and these must be
available for inspection.
Prior to sailing and immediately after sailing, All the lashings must be examined and tightened as
the vibration of the ship may have caused them to loosen. Records of all the checks and
adjustments to lashings must be maintained in the ships logbook.
The Master must ensure that proper weather routeing is carried out to avoid areas of bad weather
and high swells. If bad weather causes the jettisoning or loss of cargo, appropriate reports must be
made to the nearest coastal state as per Chapter V of SOLAS.
Calculating Bridge Visibility


1x4/3-4 - 2


1= KCKS Horizontal distance from conning position to position 'S'

2= KSKP Horizontal distance from position 'S' to position 'P'

3= AC Air-draft of conning position

4= AS Air-draft of position 'S'

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Hog Lashings

Wire Rope Lashings

Chain Lashings

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Wiggle Wire Securing Arrangement can be seen in above Picture.

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(CSS Code) (2011 Edition)
Also called Lashing Code by MMD Surveyors

This publication presents amendments to the CSS Code, as amended. The most recent
approved at the eighty-seventh session of the Maritime Safety Committee (12 to 21 May 2010),
include a new annex 14 on Guidance on providing safe working conditions for securing of
containers on deck.
Also included are:

Revised guidelines for the preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual approved in May 2010;
Elements to be taken into account when considering the safe stowage and securing of cargo
units and vehicles in ships, as amended in 2010;
Amendments to the guidelines for securing arrangements for the transport of road vehicles
on ro-ro ships, as amended in 2010.

The proper stowage and securing of cargoes is of the utmost importance for the safety of life at
sea. Improper stowage and securing of cargoes has resulted in numerous serious ship casualties
and caused injury and loss of life, not only at sea but also during loading and discharge. In order to
deal with the problems and hazards arising from improper stowage and securing of certain cargoes
on ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has issued guidelines in the form of either
Assembly resolutions or circulars adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC);
these are listed hereunder:
Safe stowage and securing of cargo units and other entities in ships other than cellular
containerships, resolution A.489(XII) [ appendix 1];
Guidelines for the preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, MSC/Circ. 745 [ appendix 2];
Elements to be taken into account when considering the safe stowage and securing of cargo
units and vehicles in ships, resolution A.533 (13) [ appendix 3];
Guidelines for securing arrangements for the transport of road vehicles on roro ships,
resolution A.581 (14), as amended [ appendix 4];
IMO/ILO/UN ECE Guidelines for packing of cargo transport units [see the Supplement to the
IMDG Code (sales number IH210E)];
Recommendations for entering enclosed spaces aboard ships, resolution A.864 (20)
[ appendix 5].

The accelerations acting on a ship in a seaway result from a combination of longitudinal, vertical
and predominantly transverse motions. The forces created by these accelerations give rise to the
majority of securing problems. The hazards arising from these forces should be dealt with by taking
measures both to ensure proper stowage and securing of cargoes on board and to reduce the
amplitude and frequency of ship motions.

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The purpose of this Code is to provide an international standard to promote the safe
stowage and securing of cargoes by:

drawing the attention of shipowners and ship operators to the need to ensure that the ship is
suitable for its intended purpose;
providing advice to ensure that the ship is equipped with proper cargo securing means;
providing general advice concerning the proper stowage and securing of cargoes to
minimize the risks to the ship and personnel;
providing specific advice on those cargoes which are known to create difficulties and
hazards with regard to their stowage and securing;
advising on actions which may be taken in heavy sea conditions; and
advising on actions which may be taken to remedy the effects of cargo shifting.

Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing

In providing such advice, it should be borne in mind that the master is responsible for the
safe conduct of the voyage and the safety of the ship, its crew and its cargo.
General principles
All cargoes should be stowed and secured in such a way that the ship and persons on board
are not put at risk. The safe stowage and securing of cargoes depend on proper planning,
execution and supervision. Personnel commissioned to tasks of cargo stowage and securing
should be properly
qualified and experienced. Personnel planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargo
should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of the Cargo Securing
Manual, if provided.

In all cases, improper stowage and securing of cargo will be potentially hazardous to the securing
of other cargoes and to the ship itself. Decisions taken for measures of stowage and securing
cargo should be based on the most severe weather conditions which may be expected by
experience for the intended voyage.

Ship-handling decisions taken by the master, especially in bad weather conditions, should take into
account the type and stowage position of the cargo and the securing arrangements.

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Contents of CSS Code:

Chapter 1 General

Chapter 2 Principles of safe stowage and securing of cargoes

Chapter 3 Standardized stowage and securing systems

Chapter 4 Semi-standardized stowage and securing

Chapter 5 Non-standardized stowage and securing

Chapter 6 Actions which may be taken in heavy weather

Chapter 7 Actions which may be taken once cargo has shifted.

Annex 1 Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not
specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers

Annex 2 Safe stowage and securing of portable tanks

Annex 3 Safe stowage and securing of portable receptacles*

* Where in this annex the term receptacle is used, it is meant to include both receptacles and cylinders.

Annex 4 Safe stowage and securing of wheel-based (rolling) cargoes

Annex 5 Safe stowage and securing of heavy cargo items such as locomotives,
transformers, etc.

Annex 6 Safe stowage and securing of coiled sheet steel

Annex 7 Safe stowage and securing of heavy metal products

Annex 8 Safe stowage and securing of anchor chains

Annex 9 Safe stowage and securing of metal scrap in bulk

Annex 10 Safe stowage and securing of flexible intermediate bulk containers

Annex 11 General guidelines for the under-deck stowage of logs

Annex 12 Safe stowage and securing of unit loads

Annex 13 Methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non-

standardized cargo

Annex 14 Guidance on providing safe working conditions for securing of containers on


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(CSC 1972) (2014 Edition)

The International Convention for Safe Containers, 1972 (CSC 1972) has two goals:

to maintain a high level of safety of human life in the transport and handling of containers by
providing acceptable test procedures and related strength requirements; and

to provide uniform international safety regulations, equally applicable to all modes of surface
transport, thereby avoiding the proliferation of divergent national regulations.

The amendments to CSC 1972 adopted by resolution MSC.355(92) entered into force on 1 July
2014 and include:

new definitions at the beginning of annexes I and II, along with consequential amendments
to ensure uniform usage of terminology throughout CSC 1972;

amendments to align all physical dimensions and units to the SI system;

the introduction of a transitional period for marking containers with restricted stacking
capacity, as required under the relevant standard; and

the inclusion in annex III of the list of deficiencies which do not require an immediate out-of-
service decision by the control officer but do require additional safety measures to enable
safe ongoing transport.

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Contents of CSC Code

2.1 General
2.2 Definitions
2.3 Application
2.4 Entry into force
2.5 Testing, inspection and approval
2.6 Approval of containers for foreign owners or manufacturers
2.7 Maintenance and structural modifications
2.8 Withdrawal of approval
2.9 Control
2.10 Safety Approval Plate
2.11 Maintenance and examination procedures
2.12 Records of examinations
2.13 Frequency of examinations
2.14 Modifications of existing containers
2.15 Test methods and requirements
2.16 Stacking test
2.17 Longitudinal Restraint (Static Test)

3.1 Objectives
3.2 Scope
3.3 Approval and testing of containers
3.4 Approval of Offshore Containers handled in open seas
3.5 Serious Structural Deficiencies in containers
3.6 Safety Approval Plates
3.7 Maintenance and examination procedures
3.8 Maintenance and Examination Scheme Approval and Control
3.9 Sale Containers
3.10 One-way trip containers
3.11 Ratification
3.12 Control
3.13 Disputes


Annex 2 Resolution A.737 (18) adopted on November 4th 1993

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ISGOTT - International Oil Tanker and Terminal Safety Guide

5th Edition
Author: ICS, OCIMF and IAPH

ISGOTT is the definitive guide to the safe carriage and handling of crude oil and petroleum
products on tankers and at terminals.

Safety is critical to the tanker industry. The International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and
Terminals, or ISGOTT as it is now widely known, has become the standard reference work on the
safe operation of oil tankers and the terminals they serve. To remain so, the Guide must keep
abreast of changes in vessel design and operating practice and reflect the latest technology and

In this Fifth Edition, account has been taken of latest thinking on a number of issues including
the generation of static electricity and stray currents; the use of mobile phones and pagers
which are now ever present but which did not warrant a mention in the Fourth Edition; the use of
new materials for mooring lines as emergency towing off pennants; the toxicity and the toxic effects
of benzene and hydrogen sulphide; and the introduction of the International Safety Management
(ISM) Code. The Ship/Shore Safety Check List has been completely revised to better reflect the
individual and joint responsibilities of the tanker and the terminal.

The Guide is now divided into four sections:

General Information;
Tanker Information;
Terminal Information and
The Management of the Tanker and Terminal Interface.

Care has been taken to ensure that where the guidance given in previous editions was still relevant
and fit-for purpose it has not been changed or deleted in moving to the new format. ISGOTT
continues to provide the best technical guidance on tanker and terminal operations. All operators
are urged to ensure that the recommendations in this guide are not only read and fully understood,
but also followed.


This Guide makes recommendations for tanker and terminal personnel on the safe carriage and
handling of crude oil and petroleum products on tankers and at terminals. It was first published in
1978 by combining the contents of the Tanker Safety Guide (Petroleum) published by the
International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and the International Oil Tanker and Terminal Safety
Guide published on behalf of the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF). In
producing this Fifth Edition, the content has again been reviewed by these organisations, together

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with the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH), to ensure that it continues to
reflect current best practices and legislation.
The scope has been extended by increasing the amount of information on terminal safety systems
and activities. This has been achieved, in part, by incorporating information from the OCIMF
publication Guide on Marine Terminal Fire Protection and Emergency Evacuation.

This latest edition takes account of recent changes in recommended operating procedures,
particularly those prompted by the introduction of the International Safety Management (ISM)
Code, which became mandatory for tankers on 1st July 1998. One of the purposes of the Guide is
therefore to provide information that will assist companies in the development of a Safety
Management System to meet the requirements of the ISM Code.

This guide does not provide a definitive description of how tanker and terminal operations are
conducted. It does provide guidance and examples of how certain aspects of tanker and terminal
operations may be managed. Effective management of risk demands processes and controls that
can quickly adapt to change. Therefore the guidance given is, in many cases, intentionally non
prescriptive and alternative procedures may be adopted by some operators in the management of
their operations. These alternative procedures may exceed the recommendations contained in this
guide. Where an operator has adopted alternative procedures, they should follow a risk based
management process that
must incorporate systems for identifying and assessing the risks and for demonstrating how they
are managed. For shipboard operations, this course of action must satisfy the requirements of the
ISM Code.

It should be borne in mind that, in all cases, the advice in the guide is subject to any local or
national terminal regulations that may be applicable, and those concerned should ensure that they
are aware of any such requirements. It is recommended that a copy of the guide be kept and
used on board every tanker and in every terminal to provide advice on operational procedures
and the shared responsibility for port operations.

Certain subjects are dealt with in greater detail in other publications issued by IMO or by ICS,
OCIMF or by other maritime industry organisations. Where this is the case an appropriate
reference is made, and a list of these and other related publications is given in the bibliography.

It is not the purpose of the guide to make recommendations on design or construction. Information
on these matters may be obtained from national authorities and from authorised bodies such as
Classification Societies.
Similarly, the guide does not attempt to deal with certain other safety related matters
e.g. navigation, helicopter operations, and shipyard safety
although some aspects are inevitably touched upon.

The guide does not relate to cargoes other than crude oil that is carried in oil tankers and
combination carriers and petroleum products that are carried in oil tankers, chemical tankers, gas
carriers and combination carriers certified for the carriage of petroleum products. It therefore does
not cover the carriage of chemicals or liquefied gases, which are the subject of other industry
guides. Finally the guide is not intended to encompass offshore facilities including FPSOs and
FSUs. Operators of such units may, however, wish to consider the guidance given to the extent
that good tanker practice is equally applicable to their operations.

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( IBC Code)(2016 Edition)

Carriage of chemicals in bulk is covered by regulations in SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of

dangerous goods and MARPOL Annex II - Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious
Liquid Substances in Bulk. Both Conventions require chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to
comply with the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code).

The IBC Code provides an international standard for the safe carriage in bulk by sea of dangerous
chemicals and noxious liquid substances listed in chapter 17 of the Code. To minimize the risks to
ships, their crews and the environment, the Code prescribes the design and construction standards
of ships and the equipment they should carry, with due regard to the nature of the products
involved. In December 1985, by resolution MEPC.19(22), the Code was extended to cover marine
pollution aspects and applies to ships built after 1 July 1986.

In October 2004, IMO adopted revised MARPOL Annex II Regulations for the control of pollution by
noxious liquid substances in bulk. This incorporates a four-category categorization system for
noxious and liquid substances and it entered into force on 1 January 2007.

Consequential amendments to the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code) were also
adopted in October 2004, reflecting the changes to MARPOL Annex II. The amendments
incorporate revisions to the categorization of certain products relating to their properties as
potential marine pollutants as well as revisions to ship type and carriage requirements following
their evaluation by the Evaluation of Hazardous Substances Working Group.

Ships subject to the Code shall be designed to one of the following standards:

.1 A type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with very
severe environmental and safety hazards which require maximum preventive measures to
preclude an escape of such cargo.
.2 A type 2 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with
appreciably severe environmental and safety hazards which require significant preventive
measures to preclude an escape of such cargo.
.3 A type 3 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with sufficiently
severe environmental and safety hazards which require a moderate degree of containment
to increase survival capability in a damaged condition.

Thus, a type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended for the transportation of products considered to
present the greatest overall hazard and type 2 and type 3 for products of progressively lesser
hazards. Accordingly, a type 1 ship shall survive the most severe standard of damage and its cargo
tanks shall be located at the maximum prescribed distance inboard from the shell plating.

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Table of Contents of IBC Code

Section 1 General, Character of Classification, Definitions, Surveys and

Section 2 Ship Survival Capability and Location of Cargo Tanks

Section 3 Ship Arrangements

Section 4 Cargo Containment

Section 5 Cargo Transfer

Section 6 Materials of Construction, Protective Linings and Coatings

Section 7 Cargo Temperature Control

Section 8 Cargo Tank, Venting and Gas-freeing Arrangements

Section 9 Environmental Control

Section 10 Electrical Installations

Section 11 Watertight Bulkheads

Section 12 Tank Structures

Section 13 Stem and Sternframe Structures

Section 14 Personnel Protection

Section 15 Special Requirements

Section 16 Superstructures and Deckhouses

Section 17 Summary of Minimum Requirements

Section 18 List of Products to which the Code does not apply

Section 19 Transport of Liquid Chemical Waste

Section 20 Requirements for Offshore Supprt Vessels Engaged in the Transport and
Handling of Limited Amounts of Hazardous and Noxious Liquid
Substances in Bulk

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(BCH CODE) (2008 Edition)

Under regulation 11 of Annex II to MARPOL 73/78, chemical tankers constructed before 1 July
1986 must comply with the requirements of the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships
Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) the predecessor of the IBC Code. The BCH
Code remains as a recommendation under the 1974 SOLAS Convention.

This publication contains the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) and information related to that Code. The Code was
originally adopted in 1971 and was altered by a series of amendments between 1972 and 1983
before an amended version was adopted by the Marine Environment Protection Committee
(MEPC) in 1985 and by the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) in 1986. There have been further
amendments, the most recent of which were adopted by the MEPC by resolution MEPC.144(54) in
March 2006 and by the MSC by resolution MSC.212(81) in May 2006. These came into force on 1
August 2007.

Chapters VI and VII of the BCH Code are now much shorter than in earlier editions because they
refer the user to chapters 17 and 18 of the IBC Code. Under the provisions of Annex II of the
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the
Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), chemical tankers constructed before 1 July
1986 must comply with this Code; those built on or after that date must comply with the
International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in
Bulk (IBC Code) for the purposes of MARPOL 73/78 and the International Convention for the
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 74).

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( IGC Code)(2016 Edition)

The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in
Bulk (IGC Code), adopted by resolution MSC.5(48), has been mandatory under SOLAS chapter VII
since 1 July 1986. The IGC Code applies to ships regardless of their size, including those of less
than 500 gross tonnage, engaged in carriage of liquefied gases having a vapour pressure
exceeding 2.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37.8C, and certain other substances listed in
chapter 19 of the Code. The aim of the Code is to provide an international standard for the safe
carriage by sea in bulk of liquefied gases and the substances listed in chapter 19, by prescribing
the design and construction standards of ships involved in such carriage and the equipment they
should carry so as to minimize the risk to the ship, to its crew and to the environment, having
regard to the nature of the products involved.

The basic philosophy is one of ship types related to the hazards of the products covered by these
codes, each of which may have one or more hazard properties. A further possible hazard may
arise owing to the products being transported under cryogenic (refrigerated) or pressure conditions.

Severe collisions or strandings could lead to cargo tank damage and uncontrolled release of the
product. Such release could result in evaporation and dispersion of the product and, in some
cases, could cause brittle fracture of the ship's hull. The requirements in the codes are intended to
minimize these risks as far as is practicable, based upon present knowledge and technology.

Throughout the development of the Code it was recognized that it must be based upon sound
naval architectural and engineering principles and the best understanding available as to the
hazards of the various products covered; furthermore that gas carrier design technology is not only
a complex technology but is rapidly evolving and that the Code should not remain static. Therefore,
IGC Code is kept under review, taking into account experience and technological development.
The latest comprehensive amendments of the IGC Code were adopted by resolution MSC.370(93),
expected to enter into force on 1 July 2016.

The purpose of this Code is to provide an international standard for the safe carriage, by sea in
bulk, of liquefied gases and certain other substances that are listed in chapter 19.
It prescribes the design and construction standards of the ships involved and the equipment they
should carry to minimize the risk to the ship, its crew and the environment.

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Table of Contents of IGC Code

Section 1 General, Character of Classification, Definitions, Surveys and Certification

Section 2 Ship Survival Capability and Location of Cargo Tanks

Section 3 Ship Arrangements

Section 4 Cargo Containment

Section 5 Process Pressure Vessels and Liquid, Vapour and Pressure Piping Systems

Section 6 Materials of Construction

Section 7 Cargo Pressure / Temperature Control

Section 8 Cargo Vent Systems

Section 9 Environmental Control

Section 10 Electric Installations

Section 11 Fire Protection and Fire Extinction

Section 12 Mechanical Ventilation in the Cargo Area

Section 13 Instrumentation (Gauging, Gas Detection)

Section 14 Personnel Protection

Section 15 Filling Limits for Cargo Tanks

Section 16 Use of Cargo as Fuel

Section 17 Special Requirements

Section 18 Operating Requirements

Section 19 Summary of Minimum Requirements

Appendix 1 IGC Code product data reporting form

Appendix 2 Model form of International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of
Liquefied Gases in Bulk
Appendix 3 Example of an addendum to the International Certificate of Fitness for the
Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk
Appendix 4 Non-metallic materials
Appendix 5 Standard for the use of limit state methodologies in the design of cargo
containment systems of novel configuration

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( IGC Code)
(1993 Edition)

The purpose of the IGC Code is to provide an international standard for the safe carriage by sea of
liquefied gases (and other substances listed in the Code) in bulk. To minimize risks to ships
involved in such carriage, to their crews and to the environment, the Code prescribes the design
and constructional standards of such ships and the equipment they should carry. This edition
incorporates amendments adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee at its sixty-first session
(December 1992) by resolution MSC.30(61).
This edition is valid and applies to all ships constructed before 1 January 2016.

Code for the Construction Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (GC Code)
and Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (EGC Code)

Gas carriers constructed before 1 July 1986 and after 31 October 1976 should comply with the
requirements of the Code for the Construction Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in
Bulk (GC Code),

while gas carriers that had already been trading prior to the application of the GC Code should
comply with the requirements of the Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk.

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General Cargoes
Bagged cargoes
There are many examples of bagged cargoes: fishmeal, grain, beans, cocoa, etc. to name but a few. They may
be packed in paper bags like cement, or Hessian sacks, as employed for grain or bean products, loading
taking place either in containers or on pallet slings. Size of bags tends to vary depending on the product, and
are seen as a regular type of package for general cargo vessels.
However, handling bagged cargo is expensive by todays standards and many of the products lend more
easily and more economically to bulk carriage or container stow. Where bags are stowed they should be on
double dunnage, stacked either bag on bag or stowed half bag.

When receiving bagged cargo the bags should be seen to be clean and not torn. Neither should they be bled in
order to get a few extra bags into the compartment. Such an action would only increase the sweepings after
discharge and lead to increased cargo claims. Slings should be made up, in or close to, the square of the
hatch. If they are made up in the wings, then bags are liable to tear as the load is dragged to the centre.
Stevedores should not use hooks with paper bags and bags should not be hoisted directly by hooked lifting

Shippers frequently provide additional unused bags to allow for residual sweepings. This allows for all bags
being discharged ashore, even torn bags, to ensure that a complete tally is achieved. Bags containing oil
seeds of any type must be stowed in a cool place as these are liable to spontaneous combustion.

Examples of products for bag stowage:

Bone meal other than keeping dry, no special stowage precautions are required.

Cattle food should be kept dry and away from strong smelling goods.

Cement paper bags require care in handling. Stow in a dry place and not more than fifteen (15) bags high.
Alternative carriage in bulk in specially designed ships for the task. Bilges should be rendered sift proof and
compartments must be thoroughly clean to avoid contamination which would render cement useless as a
binding agent.

Chemicals prior to loading check the IMDG Code and provide suitable stow.

Cocoa stow away from heat and from other cargoes which are liable to taint.

Coffee requires plenty of ventilation and susceptible to damage from strong smelling goods.

Copra dried coconut flesh. Liable to heat and spontaneous combustion. It could taint other cargoes and
cause oxygen deficiency in the compartment. Requires good surface ventilation.

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Dried blood used as a fertilizer and must be stowed away from any cargoes liable to taint (similar stow for

Expeller seed must be shipped dry. It is extremely high risk to spontaneous combustion and must not be
stowed close to bulkheads, especially hot bulkheads.

Fishmeal gives off an offensive odour and requires good ventilation. This cargo is liable to spontaneous
combustion and requires continuous monitoring of bags and surrounding air temperatures. Bags should not
be loaded in a wet or damp condition, or if they are over 35C or _ 5C above ambient temperature
whichever is higher.

Flour easily tainted. The stow must be kept dry and clear of smelly goods.

Potatoes loaded in paper sacks. Require a cool, well-ventilated stow.

Quebracho extract this is a resin extract used in the tanning industry. Bags are known to stick together and
should be separated on loading by wood shavings.

Salt requires a dry stowage area.

Soda ash should be stowed away from ironwork and foodstuffs, and must be kept dry.

Sugar also carried as bulk cargo. Bagged green sugar exudes a lot of syrup. Stowage should be kept clear
of the ships side as the bags are susceptible to tearing as the cargo settles. Dry refined sugar and wet or
green sugar must not be stowed together. Cover steelwork with brown paper for bulk sugar and keep dry.


Rice is considered as a grain cargo and would need to meet the requirements of the Grain Regulations
affecting stowage. A ships condition format would be required to show the cargo distribution and a curve of
statical stability for the condition would need to be constructed. Rice cargoes are now usually carried in bulk.
This eliminates the costs of handling bags for the shipping phase. It is more economical and common to bag
rice products at the distribution stage.

Rice contains a considerable amount of water and is liable to sweat. It must be well ventilated and not
allowed to become moist or it will start to rot and give off a pungent smell which could affect other rice
cargoes in the vicinity. It is also known to give off carbonic acid gas (a weak acid formed when carbon
dioxide (CO2) is dissolved in water). Ventilators should generally be trimmed back to wind, although
matured grain rice will require less ventilation than new grain rice. In any event, a void space between the
deck head of the compartment and the surface of the stow should be left bearing in mind the possibility of
cargo movement and the necessity to employ shifting boards. Surface ventilation should be ongoing to
remove warm air currents rising from the bulk stow.

Prior to loading rice, the compartments should be thoroughly cleaned, bilges sweetened and made sift free. A
lime coating is recommended, together with a cement wash. Their condition must be such to pass survey
inspection. The hold ceiling should be stain free and covered by a tarpaulin or separation cloth. To this end
an adequate supply of matting and separation cloths are to be recommended.

If compartments are only partly filled, then bagged rice with suitable separation cloths may be used to secure
the stow. Bags for rice are usually of a breathable man-made, interwoven fabric. A ship loading rice would
need a Certificate of Authorization, or alternatively the master would need to show that the vessel can

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comply with the carriage regulations to the satisfaction of an Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA)

Modern loading methods usually employ chutes, while pneumatic suction systems are often engaged for the
discharge process. Working capacity of distribution and suction units is up to about 15 000 tonne/h (stowage
factor for rice in bags =1.39m3/tonne, or bulk stow =1.20m3/tonnes).

Bale goods
Various types of goods are carried in bales, either in open stow or containerized. Bales in open stow are
normally laid on thick single dunnage of at least 50 mm in depth. Bales are expected to be clean with all
bands intact. Any stained or oil marked bales should be rejected at the time of loading. All bales should be
protected against ships sweat and the upper level of cargo should be covered with matting or waterproof
paper to prevent moisture from the deck head dripping onto the cargo surface.

Examples of bale cargoes:

Carpets a valuable cargo which must be kept dry. Hooks should not be used. More commonly carried in
containers these days.

Cotton/cotton waste bales of cotton are highly inflammable and stringent fire precautions should be
adopted when loading this cargo. A strict nosmoking policy should be observed. If the bales have been in
contact with oil or are damp they are liable to the effects of spontaneous combustion. Generally, a dry
stowage area is recommended.

Esparto grass these and products like hay and straw bales are high risk to spontaneous combustion
especially if wet and loosely packed. Poorly compressed bales should be rejected. If carried on deck these
bales should be covered by tarpaulins, or other protective coverage.

Fibres such as jute, hemp, sisal, coir, flax or kapok are all easily combustible. A strict no-smoking policy
should be observed at all stages of contact. Bales must be kept away from oil and should not be stowed in the
same compartment as coal or other inflammable substances or other cargoes liable to spontaneous

Oakum this is hemp fibres impregnated with pine tar or pitch. It is highly inflammable and strict no-
smoking procedures should be adopted. It is also liable to spontaneous combustion.

Rubber if packed in bales these give an unstable platform on which to overstow other cargoes, other than
more bales of rubber. Crpe rubber tends to become compressed and sticks to adjacent bales and talcum
powder should be dusted over the bales to prevent this stickiness between bales. Polythene sheeting with
ventilation holes is also used and is now in more common use for the same purpose. Up-to-date methods tend
to wrap the whole bales separately in polythene to eliminate the sticking element.

Tobacco usually stowed in bales in open stow. It is liable to taint other cargoes and is also susceptible to
taint from other cargoes in close proximity. The stowage compartment should be dry and kept well ventilated
or there is a risk of mildew forming.

Wood pulp must be kept dry. If it is allowed to get wet it will swell and could cause serious damage to the
steel boundaries of the compartment. Notice metacentre (M) 1051 recommends that care should be taken to
ensure that no water is allowed to enter the compartment. To this end all air pipes and ventilators should be
sealed against the accidental ingress of water.

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Wool can be shipped in either scoured or unscoured condition. The two types should not be stowed
together. Bales should be well dunnaged and provided with good ventilation. Slipe and pie wools are liable to
spontaneous combustion and should, if possible, be stowed in accessible parts of the hold.

Some General Precautions for Specific Type of Cargoes

A cargo of ingots Copper, lead or tin ingots are all very heavy concentrated cargo parcels and require
bottom stow, similar to the iron cargoes of castings, iron billets and long steelwork. Lighter goods may be
stowed on top of ingots but a secure separation
between cargoes is desired. Ingots cannot be stowed high and are difficult to work on top of the cargo
without a dunnage floor. Ingots are often baled and banded, but are sometimes shipped as single-bar elements
being floor stacked. Ingots can be considered a valuable cargo and are usually tallied in and tallied out at

Cable reels large wooden reels with power cable rove around a central core are carried as general cargo.
They are stowed in the upright position, on a firm deck and should be secured against any pitching or rolling
of the vessel when in a seaway. They can be quite, large, 34 m in diameter, and consequently may be
considered as a heavy load, especially if the cable contains a steel construction element. Designated Cable
Ships with telegraph cable tend to load the cable directly into specially constructed cylindrical tanks in
specialized cable holds. Such cables should not be confused with the Cable Reels discussed as general cargo.

Paper cargoes paper may be carried in many forms from waste paper to newsprint. The compartment, in
whatever form the paper is to be carried, must be in a dry condition and well ventilated. Newsprint is carried
in rolls which are normally stowed on their ends to avoid distortion, preferably on double dunnage. A ships
steelwork would normally be protected with waterproof paper to
prevent ships sweat from damaging the rolls. Hooks should not be used during the loading or discharge
periods. On occasions, like in tween decks, the rolls may be stowed on their sides. If this is done, they should
be chocked off to prevent friction burns and movement when the vessel is at sea. Rolls of paper should be
sighted as being unmarked by oil or other similar stains on loading. Once on board, the cargo should be kept
clean and not allowed to become contaminated by any form of oil or water.

Dried fruits these include: apricots, currents, dates, figs, prunes, raisins and sultanas. May be shipped in
cases, cartons, small boxes or even baskets. However carried, they must be stowed away from cargoes which
are liable to taint. Dried fruits tend to give off a strong smell and generally may contain drugs and insects
which could contaminate other cargoes, especially foodstuffs.
The fruit itself is liable to taint from other strong odorous cargoes and stowage should be kept separate in
cool well-ventilated compartments. Tween deck stowage is preferred, but if stowed in lower holds adequate
ventilation must be available throughout the course of the voyage. If in open stow, good layers of dunnage
are recommended to assist air flow and the cargo should not be overstowed.

Garlic and onions shipped in bags, cases or crates and these give off a pungent odour and must be stowed
clear of other cargoes liable to taint. It is essential that onions and garlic are provided with good ventilation,
similar to fresh fruit. Considerable moisture will be given off onions and adequate drainage facilities would
be expected.

Fresh fruit apples, apricots, pears, peaches, grapefruit, grapes, lemons and oranges can be carried quite
successfully in non-refrigerated compartments, the proviso being that adequate dunnage is used along with
good ventilation. In the event that mechanical ventilation is not used then hatches should be opened (weather
permitting). Fruit, especially green fruit, gives
off a lot of gas and extreme care should be exercised before entering any compartment stowed with fresh
fruit. Following the discharge of fruit the holds should be well aired and deodorized.

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Dry Bulk Cargoes

Stowing and securing steel slabs/plates
The P&I Committee has noted that losses of ships laden with steel cargoes continue to be
reported. Some of these losses involve steel slab cargoes. In some instances, such cargoes have
been known to shift in relatively moderate weather conditions, putting at risk the safety of the ship
and her crew. Not infrequently, cases arise involving heavy plates or steel slabs, where the
methods of stowage are criticised.

The correct and safest method of carrying steel slabs, and heavy steel plates, is to stow with the
longitudinal axis athwartships. This entails winging the stow out to the ships sides and results in
overlapping of horizontal layer ends. In the case of slabs, this method of stowage entails handling
each slab individually in the hatch, using a forklift truck. Similarly, steel plates, depending on their
weight per unit, can only be handled a few at a time.

The two Figures 1 and 2 show two satisfactory methods of stowage.

Fig 1 shows all slabs stowed athwartships.

In Fig 2 a variation of 1 is shown, which is useful when the complete tank top area is not to be
utilised. Slab 1 is stowed athwartships. Slabs 2, 3 and 4 are stowed longitudinally in order to
prevent movement of the stow.
It is essential that wooden dunnage be placed between plates or slabs, in order to correct
any tendency to shift. In some cases, consideration may be given to the lashing of such stows with
steel wires, preferably attached to steel eyepads. This applies particularly in the upper decks of
tween deck vessels

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BILL OF LADING Shall Have Such Comments if Steel Cargo is

Damaged Prior/During Loading.

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Pulp Cargo
Wood pulp from soft trees such as pine, larch, hemlock, fir and spruce is the most common
material used to make paper. The major hazard of wood pulp cargo is that it swells if it comes into
contact with water, exerting enormous pressure on the structure of the cargo hold and possibly
causing a structural failure. Additionally, this cargo depletes oxygen from the environment and
generates carbon dioxide, making the atmosphere in the hold unsuitable for entry.

Considerable attention is required to avoid contamination of the cargo by dirt or by residues of the
previous cargo. Wood pulp is typically carried in bales that have a protective covering to avoid any
contamination to the cargo. To assist in the protection of a wood pulp cargo, holds are frequently
repainted. Air bags are used to prevent the movement of bales in the hold.

In theory, localized wetting of paper pulp can result in mould growth on the surface. However, there
is normally sufficient moisture transfer through a bale to prevent this occurring particularly as
cellulose does not provide adequate nutrition for most mould species. There have been occasions
when the swelling of seriously wetted bales has resulted in structural damage to the ship.

Wood Pulp Bales Being Loaded in hold

Major Hazards & possible Precautions associated with Wood Pulp are:

1. Wetting & Swelling 2. Soiling & Tainting 3. Fire 4. Mechanical Damage.

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Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and
is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is solid, colourless, and
odourless (although the ammonia which it gives off in the presence of water, including water
vapour in the air, has a strong odour). It is highly soluble in water and non-toxic. Dissolved in water
it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen
excretion. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a convenient source of nitrogen. Urea is also an
important raw material for the chemical industry.

Urea is shipped in bags, drums or bulk and used as a fertilizer. Urea, grouped as a nitrogen giving
nutrient to soil, must not come into contact with alkaline materials such as basic slag or lime. If
heated significantly can give off toxic gases. Ensure cool stow in a GP container.

Contamination of bulk urea (granular and prilled) with flakes of hold paint is becoming more of a
common occurrence. The problem is not caused by the use of incorrect paints, but more by poor
condition or by the fact that paint has been improperly applied, with steel surfaces having not been
properly prepared.

This is not helped by the fact that urea is made from a synthesis of ammonia and carbon dioxide.
In transit some ammonia is vented and this can work its way under loose paint. Since ammonia is a
scourging/cleaning agent it attacks the bond between the paint and the steel surface.

This problem is made worse if the cargo is wet and/or there is water or condensation in the hold.
This is because the scourging effect of ammonia is much higher when it is in a water solution.

Recommendations are that ships carrying this type of cargo should not ventilate during the loaded

If ventilating does take place it will really only remove the ammonia at the top of the stow and could
increase the risk of an ingress of sea air with high moisture content which could increase the risk of
water condensation within the cargo.

No special hazards. Urea is non-combustible or has a low fire-risk. This cargo is hygroscopic and
will cake if wet. Urea (either pure or impure) may, in the presence of moisture, damage paintwork
or corrode steel.

Consult the IMSBC Code (International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code), the IMDG Code
(International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code) and applicable MSDS sheet for safe

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A brownish yellow claylike / earthy
mineral, it consists mainly of
hydrated alumina, mixed with silica
and iron hydroxide and is the most
important source of aluminum. It is
also known as aluminium ore and
usually obtained from open cast
mines. Bauxite is usually strip mined
because it is almost always found
near the surface of the terrain, with
little or no overburden.

On 1 January 2015, the bulk carrier Bulk Jupiter sank, resulting in the tragic loss of
18 of its 19 crew. The vessel was carrying a cargo of bauxite loaded at Kuantan,
Malaysia. This Accident leading to increased discussion of the dangers of
liquefaction associated with the carriage of bauxite.

Cargo classification
Bauxite is a cargo typically consisting of lumps with relatively low moisture content
and so is commonly classified as a group C cargo cargo not liable to liquefy,
as per the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code.

Appendix 1 of the IMSBC Code describes bauxite as a cargo with:

moisture content of between 0% and 10%;
70%-90% lumps varying in size between 2.5 and 500 mm; and
10%-30% powder.

If any of the properties listed in Appendix 1 of the IMSBC Code are not met, the
requirements of section 1.3 of the Code, Cargoes not listed in this Code, should be

Understanding the contents of the IMSBC Code

The IMSBC Code describes Bauxite as a brownish, yellow claylike earthy mineral with
a moisture content between 0 and 10% and with a particle size ranging from 2.5 to
500 mm for 70% to 90% of the cargo. The Group C classification is based on the
cargos description as stated in the Codes schedule.

If the actual cargo composition does not match the description in the schedule, the
cargos properties and behavior may not be consistent with those of the Code. It has
been reported that Bauxite cargoes shipped from Kuantan is sieved before shipping to
remove any large lumps from the shipment. The sieving process involves the use of
high pressure water jets to force the cargo into the rotary sieves. This process not
only removes the larger particles of the cargo, but also increases the moisture

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For bulk cargos with a high moisture content, Appendix 3, Art 2 of the Code states:

Many fine particle cargoes, if possessing a sufficiently high moisture content are liable
to flow. Thus any damp or wet cargo containing a proportion of fine particles should
be tested for flow characteristics prior to loading.

The exact definition of fine particle is not clear from the Code. However, if cargo
parcels are assessed solely based on the particle size, a number of cargoes may fall
into the fine particle category. Research which lead to the draft new schedule for
iron ore fines resulted in that cargo being categorised as Group A, where the particle
size distribution is a combination of 10% or more of fine particles less than 1 mm in
size, and 50% or more of particles less than 10 mm in size.

The P& I Clubs strongly recommends the appointment of a surveyor if the master
suspects that any Bauxite or other cargo declared by the shippers as Group C may be
prone to liquefaction, or if the master has any doubt as to the accuracy of moisture
content and TML certificates accompanying a Group A declaration. Depending on the
findings of the local surveyor, it may be necessary to seek expert advice and to have
cargo samples tested at an independent laboratory before the vessel loads any further
cargo and/or sails. In the case of the BULK JUPITER the laboratory analysis results
were received well after the vessel had been lost. It is worth emphasising that can test
results are only an indicator and as the Code itself states in Section 8.4 even if
samples remain dry following a can test, the moisture content of the material may still
exceed the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML). That said, cargo that fails a can-test
should not be loaded in any event.
The above
photograph taken
of the no. 4 cargo
hold on the
shows clear signs
of splatter on the
bulkheads. If
splatter is noted at
the time of loading,
the master should
immediately take
all necessary
actions to verify
the condition of the
cargo as the
splatter is an
indication that the
cargo may be
prone to

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MOP - Muriate of Potash

Potassium chloride (commonly referred to as Muriate of Potash or MOP) is the most common
potassium source used in agriculture, accounting for about 95% of all potash fertilisers used

Its nutrient composition is approximately:

Potassium: 50%
Chloride: 46%

MOP has a high nutrient concentration and is therefore relatively price competitive with other forms
of potassium. The chloride content of MOP can also be beneficial where soil chloride is low.
Recent research has shown that chloride improves yield by increasing disease resistance in crops.
In circumstances where soil or irrigation water chloride levels are very high, the addition of extra
chloride with MOP can cause toxicity. However, this is unlikely to be a problem, except in very dry
environments, since chloride is readily removed from the soil by leaching.

No special hazards. This cargo is non-combustible or has a low fire-risk. Potash is hygroscopic and
will cake if wet. Solutions are irritating to tissue.

For overseas carriage consult the IMSCB Code (International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code).

Even though this cargo is classified as non-hazardous, it may cause heavy corrosion when wet.
This cargo is non-combustible or has a low fire-risk.
This cargo is hygroscopic and will cake if wet.

Weather precautions
This cargo shall be kept as dry as practicable. This cargo shall not be handled during precipitation.
During handling of this cargo, all non-working hatches of the cargo spaces into which this cargo is
loaded or to be loaded shall be closed.

The cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall not be ventilated during voyage.

After the completion of loading of this cargo, the hatches of the cargo spaces shall be sealed to
prevent water ingress

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Coal Cargo
Risk factors
Coal : may create flammable atmospheres,
may heat spontaneously,
may deplete the oxygen concentration,
may corrode metal structures.
Can liquefy if predominantly fine 75% less than 5 mm coal.

Always consult the IMSBC Code, see under the headings General requirements for all coals
and Special precautions Selfheating coals.

Vessels shipping coal should at all times carry on board instruments for measuring methane,
oxygen and carbon monoxide gas concentrations, so that the atmosphere within the cargo space
can be monitored. The instrument should be regularly serviced and calibrated so that it can provide
the crewmembers with reliable data about the atmosphere within the cargo space. Care needs to
be exercised in interpreting methane measurements carried out in the low oxygen concentrations
often found in unventilated cargo holds.

The catalytic sensors normally used to detect methane rely on the presence of sufficient oxygen for
accurate measurement. This phenomenon does not affect the measurement of carbon monoxide
or measurement of methane by infrared sensor. However, additional guidance should be sought
from the manufacturer of the instrument.

Fig: Bulk Coal Discharging

An instrument required for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations
should be fitted with an aspirator, flexible connection and a length of tubing, thus enabling a
representative sample to be obtained from within the square of the hatch.

Stainless steel tubing approximately 0.5m in length and 6mm nominal internal diameter with an
integral stainless steel threaded collar is often preferred. The collar is necessary to provide an
adequate seal at the sampling point.

A suitable filter should be used to protect the instrument against the ingress of moisture as
recommended by the manufacturer. The presence of even a small amount of moisture would
compromise the accuracy of the measurement.

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Australia is the world's largest coal exporter with an estimated 240 million tonnes exported every
year. Other significant coal exporters include the USA, Canada and South Africa.

Major coal importing countries include Japan, Korea, the UK, Germany, India and Italy to generate

Coals may emit methane, a flammable gas. A methane/air mixture containing between 5% and
16% methane constitutes an explosive atmosphere which can be ignited by sparks or naked flame,
e.g. electrical or frictional sparks, a match or lighted cigarette. Methane is lighter than air and may,
therefore, accumulate in the upper region of the cargo space or other enclosed spaces. If the cargo
space boundaries are not tight, methane can seep through into spaces adjacent to the cargo
Coals may be subject to oxidation, leading to depletion of oxygen and an increase in carbon
dioxide in the cargo space.

Some coals may be liable to self-heating that could lead to spontaneous combustion in the cargo
space. Flammable and toxic gases, including carbon monoxide, may be produced. Carbon
monoxide is an odorless gas, slightly lighter than air, and has flammable limits in air of 12% to 75%
by volume. It is toxic by inhalation, with an affinity for blood hemoglobin over 200 times
that of oxygen.

Some coals may be liable to react with water and produce acids which may cause corrosion.
Flammable and toxic gases, including hydrogen, may be produced. Hydrogen is an odourless gas,
much lighter than air, and has flammable limits in air of 4% by 75% by volume.

It should be noted that even well fitted hatch covers may be weathertight to rain and seas
over the deck. However, with various rolling movements of the ship, the covers may not be
airtight. Leakage of air into the cargo space will then assist spontaneous heating of the
coal. Subsequent heating of the coal will set up thermal movements within the cargo space,
hot products of combustion out of the space and a fresh supply of oxygen into the space to
assist further oxidation and heating of the coal.

Recommendations for overseas carriage of coal

1) On completion of loading, the cargo should be trimmed to a level surface. Pyramid
stowage should not be permitted.
2) The water content of the coals should be checked during loading.
3) Bills of lading should be claused to reflect the condition of the coal.
4) Steam observed coming from the coal during loading is a warning of excess humidity and
temperature, and should give cause for similar steps to be taken as at 2).
5) Condensation forming beneath hatch panels and deck beams should be controlled.
6) Checks should be made to ascertain whether the coal has sulphur marks (yellow colour
spots), since sulphur may increase the risk of ignition.
7) If the temperature of the cargo increases to 90C, inject CO2 or inert gas into the hold.
8) Water should not be used in order to reduce the temperature. This may in fact increase
the temperature, and water spraying may additionally cause damage to the steel plating of
the vessel. Foam or sand should be used, where necessary, to reduce temperatures

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9) If temperatures increase to such an extent that the situation gets out of hand, coal
experts advise that one solution may be to fill the hold with water.

Types of coal
As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable
conditions it is transformed successively into:

Peat, considered to be a precursor of coal, has industrial importance as a fuel in some

regions, for example, Ireland and Finland. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly
effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water
Lignite, also referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost
exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is
sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper
Subbituminous coal, whose properties range from those of lignite to those of
bituminous coal are used primarily as fuel for steamelectric power generation.
Additionally, it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical
synthesis industry.
Bituminous coal, dense sedimentary rock, black but sometimes dark brown, often
with welldefined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam
electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power
applications in manufacturing and to make coke
Steam coal is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite, once widely used as a
fuel for steam locomotives. In this specialized use it is sometimes known as seacoal in
the U.S. Small steam coal (dry small steam nuts or DSSN) was used as a fuel for
domestic water heating
Anthracite, the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for residential
and commercial space heating. It may be divided further into metamorphically altered
bituminous coal and petrified oil, as from the deposits in Pennsylvania
Graphite, technically the highest rank, but difficult to ignite and is not so commonly
used as fuel: it is mostly used in pencils and, when powdered, as a lubricant.

Coal Slurry
This is a mixture of solid coal containing water and is obtained as a byproduct during
mining. The coal particle size is usually less than 1 mm. It is regarded as a cargo that may
liquefy due to its high moisture content.

Coal Duff
This is a mixture of coal and water with the largest coal particles around 7 mm. Less liable to
liquefaction than coal slurry, but does require its moisture content to be monitored.

Solid residues obtained by distillation of petroleum products, or half burnt coal with less gas
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content but with a tendency to absorb moisture at up to 20% by weight.

Small Coal
Contains particles of coal less than 7 mm in size; small coal is likely to develop a flow state
due to its high moisture content.

According to IMO classification, coal is considered MHB. Three characteristics of coal need
to be considered:

Methane Emission
Most coals emit methane, which is highly explosive if a gas concentration of 516% is present
in atmosphere. A naked flame or spark is sufficient to ignite it. Methane is lighter than air
and so it flows towards the top empty part of the cargo compartment and may even travel
to adjacent compartments, including a hatch top. Coals that emit methane should be
monitored carefully and, if the methane level becomes unacceptable, surface ventilation
should be carried out as recommended by the IMSBC Code.

Spontaneous Combustion
Some coals are liable to spontaneous combustion due to the presence of moisture that
causes exothermic oxidation (a reaction that results in production of heat) of coal at
ambient temperature. If this heat is not dissipated, the temperature rises and the coal may

Some types of coal react with water to produce acids that can cause excessive corrosion of
the ship's structure, known as `cargo corrosion'. As a result of the chemical reaction during
the process of forming acid and then corrosion, colourless and odourless gases such as
hydrogen are produced.

Precautions for Carriage of Coal

General precautions for the carriage of coal include:
1. The Master should be informed about the cargo in the `Cargo Information Form' ( ie.
Shipper's Declaration/Cargo Information ) and the material safety data sheet (MSDS)
prior to loading.

2. The precautions that need to be taken depend upon the information provided, eg if
the cargo is liable to emit methane, then the Master should refer to the IMDG Code to
obtain the loading, stowage and carriage information.

3. It is, therefore, imperative that the cargo information be supplied to the Master prior
to commencing loading, or they may not allow the operation.

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4. Before loading cargo:
o i) Bilge wells should be cleaned, residual cargoes removed, suction tested and
covered with taped down double wrapped burlap.
o ii) Hatch top wheels and associated equipment should be greased to ensure
that no sparks are caused during opening and closing.
o iii) Electrical cables, cargo hold lights and any other electrical instruments
within cargo holds should be checked for insulation damage to ensure that they
are safe for use in an atmosphere containing explosive gases. On bulk carriers,
as no lighting is needed, the fuses should be pulled to isolate electricity.
o iv) Ships that carry coal are required to carry instruments to measure:
a) Methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide levels in cargo holds
b) cargo hold temperature (between 0100C)
c) the pH of bilge water.

The installation of these instruments or the taking of measurements, should be

possible without entering the cargo space. Arrangements should also be made
to calibrate and test the instruments.

5. Extra monitoring should be implemented when coal is loaded in holds adjacent to hot
areas, such as heated fuel DB tanks and engine room bulkheads.

6. The ideal place to monitor the temperature of the load is the centre of the stow. If the
temperature is measured from the side, top or corners of the hold it must be
remembered that the temperature at the centre of the cargo will be several degrees

7. A no smoking policy should be fully implemented on the ship and hot work should not
be allowed, particularly in the vicinity of cargo compartments.

8. Except where the shipper provides specific instructions to ventilate the cargo,
compartments containing coal should only be ventilated for the first 24 hours after
departure from the loading port. There should be regular monitoring of atmosphere
to check the concentration of pH of bilge water. Ventilation should only be continued
if the amount of methane rises above the acceptable level. Coal should also be
ventilated prior to discharge owing to the danger of the buildup of gases that could
be ignited by a spark from the opening of the hatches.

9. The gases may escape the cargo compartment to adjacent stores, mast houses, etc.
These spaces should also be monitored on a regular basis.

10. A higher pH value reading indicates the likelihood of increased corrosion. In such
cases the bilges should be kept dry by pumping out any accumulated water. However,

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records should be kept in the deck logbook for the quantity of bilge water discharged
to justify any claims of cargo shortage.

11. If any suspected problem is observed during the passage the shipper should be
contacted, not only to update their information but also to seek any clarification.

Special Precautions for Coals Emitting Methane

If the shipper has declared that the cargo is liable to emit methane or the methane
concentration in the cargo compartment is above 20% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL),
the following additional precautions should be taken:
Surface ventilation should be maintained
hatch covers should not be opened until the accumulated gases have been removed.
Hatch covers should then be opened carefully ensuring no sparks are initiated
all enclosed spaces such as store rooms, tunnels and passageways, etc, should be
thoroughly monitored for methane
enclosed hatch covers should be ventilated.

Special Precautions for Self-Heating Coals

If the shipper has declared that the cargo is liable to selfheat, then the following additional
precautions should be taken:
If required, the Master should seek additional guidance from the shipper on the
adequacy of the existing precautions
if analysis of the atmosphere of the cargo compartment indicates an increased carbon
monoxide concentration, then

i) the hatch covers should be closed after loading and additional seals applied

ii) surface ventilation should be kept to minimum

iii) carbon monoxide concentration should be regularly measured and recorded

iv) if the hold temperature exceeds 55C or the carbon monoxide concentration rises
steadily, expert advice should be sought.

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Sulphur cargoes

Loading Sulphur Hold of a bulk Sulphur cargo

Sulphur has certain properties; corrosion and the emission of certain gases. A copy of the
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be requested from the shipper prior to loading
the cargo. This will outline the characteristics of the cargo as well as any specific precautions
to be followed during handling and carriage.

This makes it essential that proper precautions are taken regarding the safe handling and
carriage of this cargo. . All cargo holds must be suitably prepared prior to loading as follows:

All holds to be in a grain clean condition.

All residues of previous cargoes to be removed including from the undersides of the
All loose rust and scale are to be removed from all metal surfaces in the holds,
including the undersides of hatch covers.
All holds are to be washed down with fresh water and thoroughly dried before

Sulphur is a relatively cheap commodity, which is used in the manufacture of fertilizer. It is

not only a byproduct of the petrochemical industry, but also found in its natural form. After
processing, it is often shipped in prilled form. Substantial quantities of sulphur are produced
in the Alberta province of Canada, most of which is shipped from Vancouver. It is shipped
from other ports, including San Francisco, Long Beach, Aqaba and Jubail. Sulphur shipped
from Vancouver is generally described as Canadian bright yellow formed sulphur. The
sulphur suppliers warrant strict purity specifications to their customers and so are
concerned at the risk of contamination.

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Dry sulphur does not react with bare steel, but wet sulphur (sulphur containing free water)
is potentially highly corrosive. Cargoes of sulphur in bulk are normally afforded exposed
storage and are thus subject to inclement weather and consequent moisture content. The
stock will also include a percentage of
sulphur dust particles. In order to prevent contaminated air emissions, it is the practice,
especially in Canada and the USA, where loading wharves are situated in builtup areas and
the dust is considered to be a pollutant, for the environ mental authorities to insist upon
the use of a water spray during handling to keep down the dust.

This practice, now widely adopted in other loading ports, may lead to difficulties during and
after the period of ocean transportation. Despite the fact that very large quantities of
sulphur are carried annually by sea, the vast majority are carried without significant damage
to the carrying vessels.

When sulphur is loaded, any retained free water filters to the bottom of the holds during
the voyage. From there it is pumped out via the bilges. Some water remains on the tank
tops, and together with the fines, produces a sulphurous mud. A great deal of research has
been undertaken to understand and mitigate corrosion to vessels structures during the
handling and transportation of sulphur.

There are two processes whereby a corrosion reaction can occur, namely acidic and
electrochemical corrosion.

Acidic corrosion
This involves a reaction between an acid and elemental iron (steel). The acid involved is
sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Corrosion does not become significant until the acidity of the
solution increases to or below pH2.

Electrochemical corrosion
It has been established that the electrochemical reaction involves a redox
(reduction/oxidation) reaction between iron and sulphur. The specific requirements for this
reaction to take place are that sulphur and iron are in direct contact and that the sulphur
must be wet.

The following prudent measures, to preclude risk of damage as a result of loading sulphur,
should be adopted:
Make good all damages to paint coatings on hopper tank plating, bulkheads, bulkhead
stools, internal ships side plating frames and internals to the height to which the
cargo will be in intimate contact, and loose rust and scale removed from the
underside of hatchcovers. Aluminium or epoxy resin based paints appear to be most

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Whereas the current rules of Classification Societies do not require tank top plating to
be coated, it is important and accepted that paint coatings serve to provide
protection to the plates during the carriage of sulphur.

Lime wash as per owners/shippers/charterers instructions and to the satisfaction of

the preload surveyor.

Cover the bilge strainer plates with hessian.

During the loaded voyage, maintain bilge levels below tank top level. Keep a careful
bilge pumping record, which should also include estimates of the volumes of water
ejected from the holds.

Remove all residues of sulphur from the holds upon completion of discharge and
thoroughly wash down the holds with sea water and finally fresh water.

Should corrosion have occurred, it must be removed by chipping or shot blasting

before washing. The bare steel touched up with paint coatings.

Prior to loading sulphur, it is recommended that the receiving holds should be in a grain
clean condition, which requires:
Removal of all residues of previous cargoes, hard and loose scale from the holds.
Access to the upper regions of the holds should be gained by safe equipment.
Air wands should be used to dislodge residues of cargo from otherwise inaccessible
Thoroughly wash out the holds with sea water.
Thoroughly wash out the holds with fresh water.

Lime washing
It should be noted that applying lime wash to cargo hold structures does not totally
eliminate, but acts to slow or mitigate the corrosive reaction. Hence ideally, the lime wash
is, or should be, applied over existing sound paint coatings. The lime wash acts then in two
respects as an additional physical barrier and also as an alkaline neutralising barrier
between the wet sulphur and bare steel / painted surface.

The lime washs neutralising action will eventually result in it being consumed by the
sulphur once this happens, and in the absence of an intact paint coating, the sulphur is
once again in direct contact with the ships structure and the electrochemical corrosion
process can resume. Experience with Canadian sulphur has shown that the application of a

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single layer of lime wash can provide good protection to the steel for about 3040 days, and
in some cases even longer.
It is recommended that a mixture of approximately 60kg of lime to 200 litres of fresh water
should be used. The lime wash should also be allowed to dry before loading commences,
otherwise the protective glaze may not form properly.

Gas emissions
Hydrogen sulphide
There are circumstances during the passage and after discharge whereby bulk sulphur can
emit small quantities of hydrogen sulphide gas. All areas in which sulphur is stowed or used
or which require the presence of personnel should therefore be thoroughly ventilated.

Sulphur dioxide
Masters should also be aware of the possibility that sulphur dioxide may be generated
during repairs involving heating/welding in spaces previously exposed to sulphur.
Appropriate safety measures should be taken.

Masters should be aware that fire might occur when dry sulphur is being loaded as a result
of static electricity building up on the loading pipes. These fires can be extinguished by
dowsing with sulphur or by the use of a fresh water spray. Ferrous sulphide is pyrophoric
(may spontaneously combust on contact with air) and can cause fires near the tank tops
during discharge. Such fires maybe be controlled with the judicious use of a fine jet of fresh

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Iron Ore and other Iron Concentrates in Bulk

Iron Ore cargo in hold Discharging Iron Ore Final Stage

Handling iron ore in bulk carrier

The majority of incidents where bulk carriers have been lost were when carrying iron ore. In
the carriage of iron ore, the following precautions should be taken:
1. Ironn ores are heavy cargoes which occupy a small area for a large weight, ie they have
a low stowage factor (between 0.240.80
0.240.80 m3/tonne). It is therefore important that the
tanktop has sufficient strength to carry certain iron ores

2. trimming of these cargoes

es is generally required (even though their angle of repose is
mostly above 35) to spread their weight across the entire tanktop

3. the stability of vessels as iron ore is a high density cargo, when loaded on an ordinary
bulk carrier (not an ore carrier) it will increase the vessel's GM to make it a `stiff' ship.

4. dust iron ore is commonly loaded with conveyor belts, grabs, chutes and bucket belt
unloaders, causing significant quantities of dust during both loading and discharging.
However, enclosed conveyor
eyor belt systems generate less dust. The dust may damage
ship's machinery as well as the health of personnel.

5. moisture content iron ore is assumed to have a homogeneous moisture content

between 016%.
16%. However, if kept lying in the open, the moisture content
content may increase
due to absorption from air or rain. If the exact moisture content is unknown, a proper
laboratory test may be called for. The Master must also ask the shipper to detail the
cargo's moisture content and TML

6. In recent years an increase incidents

incidents attributed to carrying iron ore filings with
excessive moisture content, causing sloshing and adverse stability and in some cases
the rapid loss of the ship. During the monsoon season in the Indian sub
subcontinent iron
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ore filings are stored and transported open to the elements. It is worth remembering
that the cargo may remain stockpiled before being shipped later in the dry season

7. It is imperative that the cargo moisture content is tested prior to and monitored
during all stages of loading as, once onboard, cargo may be extremely difficult to

The shipper's test certificate should be presented before loading, be sound and no
more than seven days old. A good indicator during the load is the presence of splatter
marks of iron ore filings on the bulkheads. If splatter marks are evident, they should
be taken very seriously as an indication that the moisture content is above the TML
and the flow moisture point. If the Master is in any doubt, he should contact the
owners and the P&I Club correspondent.

8. stress monitoring stresses upon the ship, both in port and at sea, should be
monitored using an HSMS (Hull Stress Monitoring System) if fitted, and the movement
of cargo and ballast monitored using stress calculating software

9. alternate hold loading bulk carriers sometimes carried iron ore in alternate holds at
the request of charterers owing to the economic advantages of faster turnround and
raised centre of gravity. To do so ships must be specially strengthened. SOLAS Chapter
XII bans alternate hold loading for single skin ships of 150 m or more in length, built
before 1st July 1999, that carry cargo equal to 90% of the ship's deadweight.

10. the iron ore standard sampling procedure given in the IMSBC Code should be

Precautions for carriage of iron ore:

Iron concentrates
Concentrates of iron are produced by either:
1. the dry method, in which high grade ore is crushed to remove waste material, leaving
a low moisture content in the powdered ore. Iron concentrates obtained by the dry
method are susceptible to spontaneous combustion because of the air already
trapped within the concentrate during the crushing process.

Due to dampness within the cargo, the sulphur can react with the oxygen to produce
heat, resulting in spontaneous combustion. Therefore, for concentrates, the holds
should be kept closed and ventilation avoided. Additionally, due to sulphur and other
metallic contents within concentrates, these may emit poisonous/explosive gases.
The cargo spaces should be treated as enclosed spaces and appropriate entry
procedures followed

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2. the wet method, in which the crushed rock is washed in water to separate the
sulphides. The concentrate has a high moisture content that may liquefy and shift
onboard ship. The moisture content of these concentrates should therefore be
checked prior to loading and, if above TML, the cargo should be rejected

Shipment / Storage / Risk factors

Iron Ore (fines) (Liquefaction)

Fines is a general term used to indicate the physical form of a mineral or similar cargo and,
as the name suggests, such cargoes include a large proportion of small particles. The
transportation of iron ore fines by sea from the Indian subcontinent has proved problematic
in recent years when the moisture content has been too high at the time of loading. As a
consequence the solid cargo has behaved as a liquid, sometimes with alarming results. This
phenomenon is called liquefaction and leads to stability problems whereby the cargo can
shift at sea under the influences of the motion of the vessel and the effects of vibration.
Shifting can be sudden or progressive and lead to a ship developing a severe list, sometimes
resulting in a capsize.

Cargoes from the Indian subcontinent have been particularly prone to this phenomenon in
the monsoon season (June to September) because the fines are stored outside very often
with no protection from heavy rain. Also, cargoes transported long distances by rail from
mines to ports are prone to similar exposures. However, as explained below, such
problematic cargoes would never have been loaded if properly sampled, tested and
assessed before loading commenced. It is worth noting also that stockpiles can remain moist
if left out in the open after the monsoon season. As such, care needs to be taken at all times
and close attention paid to preloading test procedures. Liquefaction car occur in a cargo
that outwardly appears dry on the surface or essentially so; it does not have to be running
wet with water for it to have the propensity to liquefy.

In a dry, granular, welltrimmed cargo the individual particles are in contact with each other
such that frictional forces prevent them sliding over one another. However, if there is
enough moisture present then there is the potential for the cargo to behave like a liquid.
This is because settling of the cargo occurs under the influences of vibration, overstowage
and the motion of the ship. As such, the spaces between the particles reduce in size with an
accompanying increase in water pressure between the particles. This results in a reduction
in friction between the particles and can allow the cargo to shift suddenly.

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Testing the Fines
Obviously, before a cargo is loaded the owners and charterers need to be satisfied that it is
safe to carry. The International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code, published by the IMO,
addresses this by requiring that the shippers ensure it is properly sampled, tested and
assessed before it is loaded. Cargoes that are capable of liquefaction are classified Class A
cargoes. The Code is mandatory under the provision of the SOLAS Convention.

The Code requires that the cargo be assessed by determining a property known as the flow
moisture point (FMP). This is the lowest moisture content at which the material under test
begins to exhibit flow (liquefaction). The Code requires that whatever the value of the FMP,
it is reduced by 10% so as to incorporate a safety factor. This lower figure is then adopted as
the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) for the cargo; TML 90% of FMP.

As such, tests to determine the actual moisture content of the cargo must then be carried
out on a representative sample before it is loaded. If the moisture content is at the TML or
exceeds it then the cargo should be declared unsafe and rejected. It is important to note
that the moisture content determination on the cargo to be loaded must be carried out no
more than seven days before the loading commenced. Moreover, if there has been
significant rain between the time of testing and loading then further tests must be
conducted to ensure that the moisture content of the cargo is still less than the TML. The
IMSBC Code sets out the proper Laboratory Test Procedures, Associated Apparatus and
Standards. The test should be carried out by a competent laboratory.

The IMSBC Code requires that the shipper shall provide certification to the Master to
confirm the TML and actual moisture content of the cargo before loading can commence.
Only if the cargo has a moisture content that is less than the TML can it be offered for safe
carriage by sea. Masters should be vigilant and ensure that cargo is inspected for any signs
that it may be above the TML. For example, free standing surface water, or spattering of
cargo as it lands in the holds with resulting run marks are clear warning signs.
The IMSBC Code states that a Master may undertake his own check test, often referred to as
the can test. If he considers that the cargo may not be as dry as is being claimed then he
can adopt a complementary test procedure.

The test is to check for approximately determining the possibility of flow on board ship or at
the dockside by the following auxiliary method: Half fill a cylindrical can or similar container
(0,5 to 1,0 litre capacity) with a sample of the material. Take the can in one hand and bring it
down sharply to strike a hard surface such as a solid table from a height of about 0,2 m.
Repeat the procedure 25 times at oneortwosecond intervals. Examine the surface for free
moisture or fluid conditions. If free moisture or a fluid condition appears, arrangements
should be made to have additional laboratory tests conducted on the material before it is
accepted for loading. It is worthy of note that if the result of the can test is negative this is
not proof that the cargo is below the TML.

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Summary Advice for Masters)

Follows the IMSBC Code requirements in relation to Class A cargoes.

Ensure that certification showing the moisture contents of the cargo and the TML are
presented before loading commences.
The cargo shall only be accepted if the moisture content is below the TML.
Confirm that the certification is from a reputable laboratory and that the moisture
content determination was carried within a week of the start of loading. If it has
rained in that intervening period then further laboratory tests should be carried out
to establish the moisture content of the fines to ensure that it is still below the TML.
Be vigilant during loading and watch out for any signs of wetness in the cargo. If
unsure of the state of the cargo undertake a can test which may assist in
determining whether the cargo is at or above the TML. If any doubts remain then the
Master should seek advice from the responsible person ashore.
Once a cargo is on board it will be difficult to discharge at the load port as it will
almost certainly be regarded as having been exported from India.

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Sawn Timber & Lumber

Sawn Timber Lumber Logs

Commercial timbers fall into two main categories, softwoods and hardwoods. The
distinction is botanical and does not indicate hardness, e.g. Balsa is a hardwood. As a
generalization, softwoods are coniferous (evergreen) and hardwoods are deciduous (broad
leafed). There are exceptions. After conversion by sawing to useable sized, it is necessary to
remove the inherent moisture (seasoning). This makes the timber more stable, resistant to
decay and insect attack, lighter, stronger and easier to work and finish.

Wood is a hygroscopic material, which means it naturally absorbs and releases water to
balance its internal moisture content with the surrounding environment. The moisture
content of wood is measured by the weight of water as a percentage of the ovendry weight
of the wood fiber.

Loose sawn or round wood should as a general rule be longitudinally stowed and
supported on the sides by uprights to the full height of the stow.

Loose or packaged sawn wood

Uprights should be used for loose sawn wood. Uprights or stoppers (low uprights) should
also be used to prevent packaged sawn wood loaded on top of the hatch covers only from
sliding. The timber deck cargo should in addition be secured throughout its length by
independent lashings.

the maximum spacing of the lashings referred to above should be determined by the
maximum height of the timber deck cargo in the vicinity of the lashings:

.1 for a height of 2.5 m and below, the maximum spacing should be 3 m;

.2 for heights of above 2.5 m, the maximum spacing should be 1.5 m; and

.3 on the foremost and aftmost sections of the deck cargo the distance between the
lashings according to above should be halved.

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As far as practicable, long and sturdy packages should be stowed in the outer rows of the
stow and the packages stowed at the upper outboard edge should be secured by at least
two lashings each.

When the outboard packages of the timber deck cargo are in lengths of less than 3.6 m, the
spacing of the lashings should be reduced as necessary or other suitable provisions made to
suit the length of timber.

Rounded angle pieces of suitable material and design should be used along the upper
outboard edge of the stow to bear the stress and permit free reeving of the lashings.

Timber packages may alternatively be secured by a chain or wire loop lashing system, based
on the design principles contained in chapter 6.

Logs, poles, cants or similar cargo

The round wood deck cargo should be supported by uprights and secured throughout its
length by independent topover or loop lashings spaced not more than 1.5 m apart.

If the round wood deck cargo is stowed over the hatches and higher, it should, in addition to
being secured by the lashings recommended in 5.4.1, be further secured by a system of
athwartship lashings (hog lashings as described) joining each port and starboard pair of

If winches or other adequate tensioning systems are available on board, every other of the
lashings mentioned in 5.4.1 may be connected to a wiggle wire system as described.
The recommendation of 5.3.5 should apply to a timber deck cargo of cants.

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Stowage Factor Understanding

Stowage Factor : Its is Space Occupied by a Unit Weight of a cargo under normal Conditions. A ship has
a limited amount of space in which cargo is to be loaded. therefore SF (Stowage Factor) of the cargo will
allow Calculations of Space that will be occupied by that cargo (if Weight of that cargo is given). Similarly SF
can be used to calculate weight of cargo that can be loaded (given Space available for that cargo is known).

SF of cargo is reciprocal if its density. So if Density of cargo (Homogenous) is given SF can by

calculated by just reciprocating its Density. If SF of cargo is lower that means its density is high.
For Example: SF of Iron Ore = 0.28 m3 / ton
SF of Cotton Waste = 2.78 m3 /ton

Stowage Factor of same type of cargo vary depending upon nature of cargo and its origin. Where Bale
goods are concerned SF will depend upon wither Bales are compressed or uncompressed.

Compressed Bales of hemp have SF of 2.55 3.4 m3 /ton

Where as
Uncompressed Bales of hemp have SF of 7.3 m3 /ton

RELATION with Weight and Volume

Volume (m3) = Weight (Tons) x SF (m3/ton)

BROKEN STOWAGE (BS) is a Space lost due to uneven shape of the cargo or unavoidable gaps in cargo
Stowage such as dunnage or packing between cargoes. It is expressed as %age of Volume of the Cargo.

Some Calculations to understand the Usage of SF , BS, Density etc

Q. A Cargo Hold of Bale Capacity 1200 m3 is to be loaded with 250 tonnes of Cargo-A and remaining
hold with Cargo-B. Given that SF of Cargo-A = 1.8 m3/t and SF of Cargo-B = 1.3 m3/t. BS for both
cargoes is 5%.
Calculate the Volume occupied by Cargo-A and Weight of Cargo-B that can be loaded.

Ans. Cargo A
SF 1.8 means Vol. Occupied by 1 ton of cargo A = 1.8 m3
Vol. occupied by 250 ton = 250 x 1.8 = 450 m3

BS 5 % means 1 ton of cargo after loading will occupy space = 1.8 m3 + 5% of 1.8 m3
Therefore 450m3 of cargo will actually occupy space in the hold = 450 + 5% of 450
= 450 + 22.5 m3 = 472.5 m3

Now Space remaining within the hold after loading 250 tons of Cargo A
= 1200 m3 472.5 m3 = 727.5m3

1 ton of Cargo B will occupy 1.3 m3 + 5% of 1.3 m3 =1.365 m3

Space available for cargo B 727.5 m3 therefore
Weight of Cargo B that can be loaded =727.5 m3 1.365 =532.97 tons

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Testing and Certification of Lifting Appliances

The Merchant Shipping Act requires the following, in accordance with manufacturers instructions,
for testing & certification of Lifting Appliances:
A Test using an approved Proof load, Which may be greater than SWL of Lifting Appliance
and must be carried out
After Manufacture and installation of Appliance.
After Repair or Modification which is likely to affect SWL or Strength or Stability of
At Max intervals of 5 years.

A Thorough Examination in accordance with Manufacturers instructions must be carried out

by a competent person:
After installation and before being put into service for the first time.
After assembly at new site or location
In accordance with examination scheme
At least every 6 months for equipments lifting persons
At least every 12 months for equipments used for lifting other than persons
After a statuary test
Under any exceptional circumstances likely to jeopardise safety of the equipment.

A register of Lifting Appliances and Cargo Gear should be maintained in a form recommended by
ILO as shown in COSWP. The register may be in paper or electronic form.

Markings of Lifting Equipments

Each Lifting appliance and item of lifting gear is clearly marked with:

Its Safe Working Load

A means of identification.

Where the SWL of a crane varies with operating radius an indicator clearly showing the SWL at
any given radius must be fitted. The SWL of a appliance that is normally used with a specific
attachment for example a spreader or clamp, should specify whether the weight of the attachment
is included in the SWL. Any item of lifting gear weighing a significant proportion of te overall SWL
must be clearly marked with its weight in addition to its SWL. Slings supplied in batches must have
the same identification mark.

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Cargo Securing Manual

The CSS Code in line with SOLAS Chapter VI and VII, requires the carriage onboard of an
approved CARGO SECURING MANUAL. The cargo securing arrangements in this manual should
be based on the forces expected to affect the cargo carried by the ship, calculated either in
accordance with methods described in ANNEX 13 of CSS code, or an acceptable alternative.

CSM or Cargo Securing Manual is Ship specific manual and is approved by Flag state. It is
mandatory for all the ships engaged in carriage of cargoes other than ships carrying Solid Bulk
cargoes or Bulk Liquid cargoes. Cargo Units and cargo transport units must be loaded, stowed and
secured throughout the voyage in accordance with this Manual.

All crew engaged in the stowage and securing of cargo must be trained and instructed in the safe
and efficient operation of the lashing and securing devices.

Key Definitions:

Maximum Securing Load (MSL): is a Term used to define the allowable load capacity for a
device used to secure cargo to a ship.

Safe Working Load (SWL): may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes,
provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined
by MSL.

Standardised Cargo: means cargo for which the ship is provided with an
approved securing system, based upon cargo units of
specific types.

Semi-Standardised Cargo: means cargo for which the ship is provided with a securing
system capable of accommodating a limited variety of
cargo units, such as vehicles, trailers, etc

Non-Standardised Cargo: means cargo that requires individual stowage and

securing arrangements.

Chapter 1: contains general statements dealing with the requirements to practise good
seamanship and the requirement to maintain all securing devices to a good standard. It also
specifies a minimum quality of spares to be carried on board.

Chapter 2: provides details of the Specifications of fixed and portable securing devices and their
maintenance schemes. This should give as much as details as possible about the securing devices
in use on that ship. Plans or sketches can be used to illustrate the type, location and total number
of securing devices on board.

Chapter 3: Provides handling and safety instructions and an evaluation of the forces acting on
the cargo transport units using tables and diagrams of those forces acting on the cargo in relation
to the metacentric height. This chapter also draws the Masters attention to the correct application
of portable securing devices, taking into account factors such as:

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Duration of voyage
Geographical area of the voyage, with particular regard to minimum safe operational
temperature of the portable securing devices.
Sea condition that may be expected
Dimensions, design and characteristics of the ship
Expected static and dynamic forces during the voyage
Types and packing of cargo units, including vehicles
Intended stowage pattern of the cargo units, including vehicles mass and the dimensions of
the cargo units and vehicles.

Chapter 4: contains handling, safety, stowage and securing instructions for containers and other
standardised cargoes. It illustrates allowable stowage and securing both on deck and under deck.
Stowage and securing plans must be available illustrating, among other things, Stowage Patterns,
the Maximum Stack Weight limitations and Permitted Stack Heights.

It contains further information on the normal increase of forces or accelerations with

an increase of initial stability. Recommendations should be given for deck stowage by restrictions
to stack masses or stack heights where high initial stability cannot be avoided.

Inspection and maintenance schemes as required by the IMO guidelines, can be

contained in separate document provided this clearly referenced in the Cargo Securing Manual.
Ship specific handling and safety instructions must be included and these should contain the
results of a risk assessment, if one was carried out. The Shipper is also required to supply cargo
specific information to the Master so that he can evaluate the suitability of the cargo for the ship
and make decisions on the stowage and securing.

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Ro-Ro Ships
The roll-on/roll-off ship is one of the most successful types operating today. Its flexibility, ability
to integrate with other transport systems and speed of operation have made it extremely popular
on many shipping routes. The roll-on/roll-off ship is defined in the November 1995 amendments to
Chapter II-1 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 as being "a
passenger ship with ro-ro cargo spaces or special category spaces..."

One of the ro-ro ship's most important roles is as a passenger/car ferry, particularly on short sea
routes. But despite its commercial success, the ro-ro concept has always had its critics. There
have been disturbing accidents involving different types of ro-ro ship, the worst being the sudden
and catastrophic capsizing of the passenger/car ferry Herald of Free Enterprise in March 1987 and
the even more tragic loss of the Estonia in September 1994.

Ro Ro Cargoes
Roll-trailer means a low vehicle for the carriage of cargo with one or more wheel axles on the
rear and a support on the front end, which is towed or pushed in the port to and from its stowage
on board the ship by a special tow-vehicle.

Vehicle mean any road vehicle, rail vehicle or other wheel based cargo unit.

Vehicle securing point means the location of a lashing point on a vehicle suitably reinforced to
withstand the lashing forces.

General Recommendations
1. The cargo spaces in which Vehicles & Trailers are to be stowed should be dry, clean and
free form grease and oil.
2. Vehicles and Trailers should be provided with adequate and clearly marked securing points
or other equivalent means of sufficient strength to which lashings may be applied.
3. Vehicles and Trailers which are not provided with securing points should have those places
where lashings may be applied, clearly marked.
4. Vehicles and Trailers which are not provided with rubber wheels or tracks with friction-
increasing lower surfaces, should always be stowed on wooden dunnage or other friction-
increasing material such as soft boards, rubber mats etc.
5. When in stowage position, the brakes of a wheel based unit should be set.
6. Vehicles & Trailers should be secured to the ship by lashings made of material having
strength and elongation characteristics at least equivalent to steel chain or wire.
7. Where possible, Vehicles & Trailers, carried as part of cargo, should be stowed close to the
ships side or in stowage positions which are provided with sufficient securing points of
sufficient strength, or be block stowed from side to side of the cargo space.
8. To prevent any lateral shifting of Vehicles & Trailers not provided with adequate securing
points, such cargoes should, where practicable, be stowed close to the ships side and close
to each other, or blocked off by other suitable units such as loaded containers, etc.

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9. To prevent shifting, it is preferable to stow those cargoes in a fore- & aft direction rather than
athwart ships with space around them for inspection during the voyage. If they are inevitably
stowed athwart ships, additional lashing of sufficient strength may be necessary.
10. The wheels of vehicles should be blocked to prevent shifting.
11. Cargoes stowed on vehicles & trailers should be adequately secured to stowage platforms.
12. Lashings shall not be attached to lamp brackets, side guards or bumpers except those
specially designed for this purpose.
13. Lashings on vehicles shall be under equal tension.
14. Only one lashing shall be attached to any one aperture, loop or lashing ring at each vehicle
securing point.
15. Where practicable, the arrangement of lashings on both sides of a vehicle should be the
same, and angled to provide some fore & aft restraint with an equal number pulling forward
as are pulling aft.
16. The front ends of Roll trailers shall be placed on soft boards or rubber mats.
17. Caterpillar treaded vehicles such as bulldozers and cranes are prone to sliding when parked
on bare steel decks owing to the low degree of frictional resistance between the threads and
deck. Such vehicles shall be stowed on dunnage or soft boards before being secured.
18. Vehicles with engines should be left in gear during voyage.

Vehicle Lashings

Method of securing automobiles on board a ship

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Vehicles Lashed with Claspers

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Vehicles Blocked with Chokes

Vehicles Lashed with Chokes and Claspers

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Cargo securing is basically dependent upon the securing means, the weight and type of vehicle
and where it is stowed.

The means of transport must be equipped for lashing vehicles correctly (lashings, lashing points,
such as lashing rings and lashing pots and the like) When lashing belts are used care must be
taken to ensure that the same number of lashing belts are used at both front and rear. If no
specific loading instructions are available, such lashings are attached to special lashing rings or to
the vehicles towing gear.

Cargo securing examples

Ro-Ro ship, special Ro-Ro ship (Car carrier)

Use lashing belts (e,g special automobile lashing belts with lever ratchet tensioner) to absorb
horizontal forces in order to avoid slippage and tipping. In maritime transport, lashing belts should
be tight, but not highly prestressed. The vehicles are generally secured with 2 lashing belts in the
front and 2 to the rear.

On inclined surfaces (ramps) and in the case of stowage athwart ships, wheel chocks are
additionally used and the number of front and rear lashing belts must be increased appropriately.

Both when applying and subsequently removing cargo securing materials, appropriate care must
be taken to avoid damaging the vehicle.

Care must furthermore be taken to ensure that

a) Only wheel chocks or stirrups of sufficient height ( height between 1/8 and 1/6 of wheel
diameter ) which may be properly locked in place are used.
b) Hooks are only tensioned and not stressed to bending.
c) No damaged belts or the like are used, belts are not twisted.

If the vehicle is so equipped, its parking brake must be applied and 1st gear engaged or, in the case
of vehicles with an automatic transmission, park position selected. The steering lock must be

There must always be sufficient number of persons employed to enable the lashing operations to
be completed before the vessel proceeds to sea.


Before acceptance for loading, it is essential to ensure that

Doors, windows and tank fillers are securely closed,

The tyres are pumped up to a sufficient air pressure,
External damage has been recorded and shown on the shipping documents,
Installed or dismantled accessories (e.g radios, external mirrors) and spare parts are
complete and in good condition,
The fuel tank contains the appropriate quantity of fuel for cargo handling activities (no more
than 3 L),
The automobiles battery is functional and installed in an upright position,

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Or the car battery which had been disconnected for extended intermediate storage has been

During loading & unloading operations care should be taken to ensure that

The angle of the loading ramps is no more than 12 so that the vehicle under body not
damaged (if necessary, such sections should be approached at an oblique angle),
Experienced drivers are used,
Handling personnel wear special working clothes without metal fastenings or zips,
Right hand drive or left hand drive vehicles are appropriately stowed so that once the
vehicle has been parked the driver can get out on the still unobstructed side

The following general criteria should also be taken into account

Admissible deck and ramp loads must not be exceeded,

The storage spaces for maritime transport must be protected from direct ingress of seawater
and if possible low acceleration forces should apply, (e.g stowage spaces amidships),
Stowage spaces must be free from grease, oil and other friction reducing substances,
Stowage spaces in which the deck surfaces may permanently be at high temps (e.g due to
heated tanks) must be insulated with wooden dunnage to ensure that the tires suffer no
Vehicles are generally fitted with suspension, which means that they may vibrate in the
vertical and horizontal axes, so care must be taken to ensure that the spacing left between
the individual vehicles is sufficient to prevent them from damaging each other due to their
different vibration behaviour and to allow appropriate cargo securing to be applied. In
maritime transport, care must in particular be taken to ensure that the spacing to the front is
no less than 30 cms and that to the sides is no less than 10 cms.

Notes on Bow/Side opening doors on Ro-Ro Ships

Two types of bow door are provided for:
Visor doors opened by rotating upwards and outwards about a horizontal axis through two or more
hinges located near the top of the door and connected to the primary structure of the door by
longitudinally arranged lifting arms, Side-opening doors opened either by rotating outwards about a
vertical axis through two or more hinges located near the outboard edges or by horizontal
translation by means of linking arms arranged with pivoted attachments to the door and the ship. It
is anticipated that side-opening bow doors are arranged in pairs.
Precautions with side /bow doors - Side shell, bow and stern doors are to be fitted with adequate
means of securing and supporting so as to be commensurate with the strength and stiffness of the
surrounding structure.
Where packing is required, the packing material is to be of a comparatively soft type, and the
supporting forces are to be carried by the steel structure only. A means is to be provided for
mechanically fixing the door in the open position. Securing devices are to be simple to operate and
easily accessible
Securing devices are to be equipped with mechanical locking arrangement (self locking or

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separate arrangement), or are to be of the gravity type. The opening and closing systems as well
as securing and locking devices are to be interlocked in such a way that they can only operate in
the proper sequence.
Where hydraulic securing devices are applied, the system is to be mechanically lockable in closed
position. This means that, in the event of loss of the hydraulic fluid, the securing devices remain
The hydraulic system for securing and locking devices is to be isolated from other hydraulic
circuits, when closed position.
Separate indicator lights and audible alarms are to be provided on the navigation bridge and on
each operating panel to indicate that the doors are closed and that their securing and locking
devices are properly positioned. The indication panel is to be provided with a lamp test function. It
shall not be possible to turn off the indicator light.
For passenger ships, a water leakage detection system with audible alarm and television
surveillance is to be arranged to provide an indication to the navigation bridge and to the engine
control room of any leakage through the doors.
For cargo ships, a water leakage detection system with audible alarm is to be arranged to provide
an indication to the navigation bridge.
An Operating and Maintenance Manual for the side shell doors and stern doors is to be provided
on board and is to contain the necessary information

Need to monitor Atmosphere in RO RO ship cargo spaces

Exhaust gases from motor vehicles contain hazardous substances. Carbon monoxide from petrol
engines and nitric oxide (NO) & nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from diesel engines are released in the
cargo spaces

These hazardous substances can effect people in many different way. Certain substances have a
tangible, immediate effect, others only show injurious effects after a person has been exposed to
them for some time.

Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourless gas which, to a lesser or greater extent, inhibits
the ability of the blood to absorb and transport oxygen. Inhalation of the gas can cause headaches,
dizziness, and nausea and in extreme cases causes weakness, rapid breathing, unconsciousness
and death.

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are compounds of nitrogen and oxygen, together
commonly referred to as oxides of nitrogen or NOx. NO itself is not of great concern as regards
health effects; however a proportion of the NO formed will combine with oxygen to form NO2,
which is of concern from the point of view of human health.

NO2 is a brown gas which has a stinging, suffocating odour. It exerts a detrimental effect on the
human respiratory system. Asthmatics in particular are susceptible to exposure.

Therefore measures should be considered to minimize the health hazards. Such measures could
include :

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1. A reduction in exhaust gas emissions.
2. Provision of an adequate ventilation system
3. Prevention of exposure to the gases

To ensure the effectiveness of above recommended measures, it is essential that the atmosphere
in the RO RO vessels is monitored.

Additional Information
Ventilation system for ro ro cargo spaces on board ship generally operate according to the principle
of dilution ventilation, where by the supply air flow to the area is sufficient for the exhaust gases to
mix thoroughly with the air and be removed.

There are two main types of dilution ventilation: exhaust air ventilation and supply air ventilation.

In exhaust air ventilation, fans remove air from a ro-ro cargo space and this is then replaced by
outdoor air entering through open ramps, doors and other openings.

Exhaust air ventilation is employed when sub-atmospheric pressure is required in the ro-ro cargo
space. The sub-atmospheric pressure prevents the pollution from spreading to adjacent areas.

Supply air ventilation works in the opposite way. Fans deliver outdoor air into the ro-ro cargo space
and the air is then exhausted through ramps and other openings.

Supply air ventilation usually creates slight pressurisation of the ro-ro cargo space. If supply air
ventilation is used exclusively, pollutants may mix with the supply air, be pushed up the internal
ramps and contaminate other decks. However, if sufficient mixing with supply air does not occur,
contaminants may remain on the deck in question.

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Tanker Cargoes
Chemical Tankers
A number of Chemicals are used throughout the world and these chemicals may be
reactive, Corrosive, Flammable and Explosives. To Handle these Chemicals one should be
aware of the properties and hazards of these chemicals. Information about any chemical
to be carried on board should be comprehensive enough for an accurate assessment of
Corrosivity to equipments and tools
Fire and Explosion hazards

A reactive material is a substance that can liberate sufficient energy to initiate a
hazardous event. Initiation of a hazardous reaction can be spontaneous or occur as a
result of heat input, mechanical shock, friction or catalytic activity.
Substance or cargo may be
Self Reactive
React with Air
React with water or
React with other substance

And Result of Reaction may be

Exothermic reaction
Release of Vapour
Rise in Temperature in the tank
Affect the cargo quality
Increase the danger of explosion or fire.


Vigorous Polymerisation may occur: Polymerisation is a chemical reaction in which small
molecules (monomers) join together to form a large molecule (Polymer). The reaction
often produces heat and pressure. Vigorous polymerization is hazardous because the
reaction may get out of control. Once started the reaction is accelerated by the heat that
it produces. The uncontrolled build up of pressure and heat can cause fire or an explosion
or can rupture a cargo tank. Depending on materials increase in temperature or sunlight
or UV radiation or X-rays or contact with incompatible chemicals can trigger such reaction.
Many pure substances can undergo vigorous polymerization quite easily by themselves
when they are heated slightly or exposed to light. These include: Acrylic acid, acrylonitrile,
Styrene, Vinyl acetate.
Inhibitor is a chemical that is added to a material to slow down or prevent an unwanted
reaction to occur. Inhibitors are added to many materials that can polymerize easily when
they are pure. Inhibitor level may decrease during storage even at recommended

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Vigorous Decomposition: It is a chemical change in which a molecule breaks down into
simpler molecules. This reaction is potentially hazardous because large amount of heat
can be released very quickly. This could result in a fire or explosion or rupture a closed
container causing the release of dangerous decomposition products.
Some materials can react vigorously with water to produce gases which are deadly. For
example Sodium or potassium phosphides release phosphine gas when they come in
contact with water. Large amount of corrosive hydrogen gas is released when water reacts
with aluminium chloride. When water contacts thionyl chloride or sulphuryl chloride they
decompose to give sulphur dioxide gas and hydrogen chloride gas. Sodium or potassium
cyanide releases hydrogen cyanide when contact water.
Air reactive chemicals are those which react violently in contact with air or oxygen.
Sometimes air reactive chemicals are called spontaneously combustible or pyrophoric
materials. Pyrophoric materials burst into flame spontaneously upon contact with air or
oxygen. E.g. alkali metals react with oxygen to form monoxide and peroxide and reaction
proceeds with explosion. Phosphorous catches fire in moist air and produce white fumes.
Corrosion involves the destruction, dissolving or softening of any substance by chemical or
electrochemical reaction with its environment. It can be the gradual action of natural
agents such as air or salt water on metals. Presence of Corrosive materials creates two
particular Hazards
Corrosion of materials of construction
Contact of person with corrosive materials. E.g. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3.

Flammable materials include any solid, liquid or gas that will ignite and burn rapidly. E.g.
Benzene, Gasoline, Carbon monoxide, Acetylene
Explosives are compounds or mixtures that undergo rapid burning with the generation of
large amount of gas and heat and the production of sudden pressure effects e.g. Picric
acid, Nitro compound.
The ability to affect human tissues and toxicity of any cargo depends on its Threshold limit
Some examples of the possible hazardous outcomes that may accompany a chemical
reaction are:
Generation of heat Acid and water
Fire hydrogen Sodium and water
Explosion Picric acid and sodium hydroxide
Toxic gas production Sulphuric acid and plastic
Formation of product more toxic Chlorine and ammonia
than reactants
Flammable gas production Acid and metal
Violent polymerization ammonia and acrylonitrile

A brief Introduction to the BCH/IBC Code:

The BCH Code contains seven chapters whereas in IBC Code the same is covered in 21
chapters. The 1st Chapter of both the Codes covers general matters such as application,
definitions, surveys and certification.

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Chapter II of BCH Code deals with Cargo Containment. It covers the physical protection of
the Cargo tanks, tank types, ship arrangements, cargo transfer, tank vent systems, cargo
temperature control, materials of construction, environment control materials of
construction, environment control of cargo vapour spaces. These are covered in chapters
2 to 9 IBC Code. Damage assumptions and standard of damage is almost identical in both
the codes but the damage stability criteria are more stringent in case of IBC code.
Chapter III of BCH Code covers safety equipment and related considerations i.e.
ventilation in cargo handling spaces, electrical requirements, gauging, vapour detector,
fire protection and personnel protection. The same items are covered in chapters 10 to 14
of IBC code.
Chapter IV of BCH and Chapter 15 of IBC deal with Special requirements. These include
Chemicals that present particular problems. Carbon disulfide, Diethyl ether, motor fuel,
anti-knock compounds, yellow or white phosphorus and acids are some of those covered.
Operational requirements are dealt within Chapter IV/17 of BCH/IBC code. A new chapter
19 has been added giving the requirements for ships engaged in the incineration at sea of
liquid chemical waste.


The P & A manual as required by Annex II of Marpol 73/78 is a comprehensive ship
specific document that contains to the smallest detail; all the procedures arrangements on
board chemical tankers which carry substances identified in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code.
The procedures include cargo loading, unloading, transfer, cargo heating, agitation or
recirculation, tank cleaning, prewash operation, stripping requirements of cargo tanks,
discharge of tank washings to sea or reception facilities etc.
The arrangements include cargo piping, stripping system, cargo heating system, stripping
system, ventilation systems, tank washing system, cleaning machines, gauging, sampling,
padding, IG or nitrogen plant etc.
The manual is ship specific & is approved by the administration & is checked during class
surveys. Amendments are to be approved by the administration.

Categorization of Noxious Liquid Substances and Other substances:

Category X: NLS deemed to present a major hazard to either marine resources or
human health and therefore justify the prohibition of discharge into the marine
Category Y: NLS deemed to present a hazard to either marine resources or human
health and therefore justify a limitation on the quality & quantity of discharge into the
marine environment.
Category Z: NLS deemed to present a minor hazard to either marine resources or
human health and therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality & quantity of
discharge into the marine environment.
Other Substances: Substances indicated as OS in pollution category column of Ch-18
of IBC code have been found to fall outside Cat X, Y or Z as defined above and are
considered to present no harm to marine resources or human health. The discharge of
Other Substances shall not be subject to any requirements of Annex-II.
Special Areas: Antarctic Area south of 60 degrees south. The discharge of any NLS is
prohibited in the special area.
High Viscosity Substances (H.V.S.): A noxious liquid substance with a viscosity equal
to or greater than 50 mPa.s is a high viscosity substance.
Solidifying Substance means a NLS which in case of Melting Point < 15 C, is at a
temperature of less than 5 C above Melting Point at the time of Unloading or in case of
Melting Point 15 C, is at a temperature of less than 10 C above Melting Point at the
time of Unloading.

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Stripping Requirements of cargo tanks:

Cat X Cat Y Cat - Z

New Ships (post 2007) 75 Litres 75 Litres 75 Litres
IBC Ships (pre 2007) 150 Litres 150 Litres 350 Litres
BCH Ships 350 Litres 350 Litres 950 Litres

Prewash is mandatory for all Cat X substances and High Viscosity or Solidifying substances
of Cat Y. Prewash serves to reduce the residue quantities in tank to negligible . In
formulating prewash procedure consideration has been given to physical properties (e.g.
Viscous or Solidifying nature) of cargoes.

Prewash shall be carried out before the vessel leaves the port of unloading and residues
shall be discharged to a reception facility until the concentration of the substance in the
effluent is below 0.1% by weight. After prewash tank washing can be discharged to the sea
en route.

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TYPE 1 Ships are designed to transport products which require maximum
preventive measures to preclude the escape of such cargo. The ship
should be capable of sustaining collision or stranding damage anywhere
along her length.
Tanks intended for the carriage of cargoes should be located outside the
extent of the damage specified below and should nowhere be closer to the
ships shell than 760 mm
Transverse extent inboard from the ship side B/5 OR 11.5 metres
whichever is less
Vertical extent from the base line B/15 OR 6 metres whichever is

Maximum allowable quantity of cargo 1250m3 IN ANY ONE TANK.

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Type II ships are designed to transport products which require significant
preventive measures to preclude the escape of such cargo. Ship should be
capable of sustaining collision or stranding damage anywhere in her
length except involving either of the bulkheads bounding a machinery
space located aft, and surviving as specified.
Tanks containing cargoes which are required to be transported in a type II
should be located outside the extent of damage and should nowhere be
closer, to the ships shell than 760 mm
Vertical extent: from base line B/15 OR 6 m whichever is less.
Transverse extent: 760 mm
They are designed to transport products, which require significant
protection e.g. acrylonitrile, nitric acid, T.D.I., Ethylene chlorohydrin,
nitric acid solution, isopropyl amine.
Limitation of tank size: 3000 m3 (In practice 2000m3)

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TYPE III ship is a Chemical Tanker intended to transport products with
sufficiently severe environmental and safety hazards which require a
moderate degree of containment to increase the survival capability in
damaged condition.
1. MODERATE floatability and damage stability requirement.
2. No special requirements for cargo tank location.
3. Designed to carry products or sufficient hazard to require a moderate
degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged
4. No limit of quantity of cargo per tank.

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Cargo Record Book - Chemical


Entries are required only for operations involving Categories X, Y, Z substances.


1. Place of loading
2. Identify tank(s), name if substances(s) and category(ies)


3. Name and category of cargo(es) transferred
4. Identity of tanks
.1 From:
.2 To:
5. Was (were) tank(s) in 4.1 emptied?
6. If not, quantity remaining in tank(s)


7. Place of unloading
8. Identity of tanks unloaded
9. Was (were) tank(s) emptied?
.1 If yes, confirm that the procedure for emptying and stripping has been
performed in accordance with the ships Procedures and Arrangements
Manual (i.e. list, trim, stripping, temperature)
.2 If not, quantity remaining in tank(s).
10. Does the ships Procedures and ARRANGEMENTS Manual require a pre-wash with
subsequent disposal to reception facilities?
11. Failure of pumping and/or stripping system
.1 Time and nature of failure
.2 Reasons of failure
.3 Time when system has been made operational


12. Identify tank(s), substance(s) and category(ies)
13. Washing method:
.1 Number of washing machines per tank
.2 Duration of wash/washing cycles
.3 Hot/cold wash
14. Pre-wash slops transferred to:
.1 Reception facility in unloading port (identify port)
.2 Reception facility otherwise (identify port)

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1. State time, identify tank(s), substance(s) and category(ies) and state:

.1 Washing procedures used

.2 Cleaning agent(s) (identify agent(s) and quantities
.3 Dilution of cargo residues with water, state how much water used (only
Category D substances)
.4 Ventilation procedures used (state number of fans used, duration f
2. Tank washings transferred:

.1 Into the sea

.2 To reception facility identify port)
.3 To slops collecting tank (identify tank)


3. Identify tank(s)

.1 Were tank washings discharged during cleaning of tank(s)? if so, what

.2 Were tank washing(s) discharge from a slop collecting tank? If so, state
quantity and rate of discharge.
4. Time commenced and stopped pumping
5. Ships speed during discharge.


6. Identity of tank(s) ballasted
7. Time at start of ballasting


8. Identity of tank(s)
9. Discharge of ballast:

.1 Into the sea

.2 To reception facilities (identify port)
10. Time commenced and stopped ballast discharge
11. Ships speed during discharge


12. Time of occurrence
13. Approximate quantity, substance(s), and category(ies)
14. Circumstances of discharge or escape and general remarks


15. Identify port
16. Identify tank(s), substance(s), category(ies), discharged rate
17. Have tank(s), pump(s), and piping system(s) been emptied?

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18. Has a pre-wash in accordance with the ships Procedures and Arrangements
Manual been carried out?
19. Have tank washings resulting from pre-wash been discharged ashore and is the
tank empty?
20. An exemption has been granted from mandatory pre-wash.
21. Reasons for exemption.
22. Name and signature of authorised surveyor.
23. Organisation, company, government agency for which the surveyor works.


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Transportation of Liquefied Gases by Sea - General
For economical marine transportation, gas is carried in a liquefied state. As a liquid, the
volume to weight ratio at atmospheric pressure is in the range of 650 times less than in the
gaseous state. That means we can carry 650 times more cargo in liquid state as compared to
carriage in gaseous state.

The temperature at which a gas condenses is a function of its pressure. The combination of
pressurising and cooling is therefore fundamental to gas carrier design. Some ships carry
gases liquefied under pressure & others under refrigeration. The relative densities of gases
are low and vary between 0.42 (methane) and 0.97 (VCM). The cargo carrying capability is
therefore more related to volume capacity of the ship than deadweight capacity, and the
cargo capacity is usually quoted in cubic metres cargo tank volume.

The Cargoes
The most significant cargoes in terms of tonnages moved are methane/LNG, LPG (butane,
propane and mixtures of these), and ammonia. Other cargoes of commercial significance are
butadiene, butylene, ethylene, propylene, and vinyl chloride. Apart from ethylene and
methane/LNG, all these gases can exist as liquids at normal ambient temperatures. They
may therefore be transported in pressurised cargo containment systems at any temperature
up to the highest expected ambient temperature.

The critical temperatures for ethylene and methane/LNG are below normal ambient
temperatures. Above the critical temperature the gas cannot be transformed into a liquid at
any pressure and must therefore be refrigerated for shipboard carriage. Carriage of
ethylene, ethane and methane/LNG requires semipressurised or fully refrigerated cargo
containment. These considerations lead to the following options for carriage conditions:

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Materials exposed to liquefied gas cargoes should be resistant to any corrosive action of the
gases. For this reason, copper alloys (e.g. brass) have to be excluded from the cargo systems
of ships intended for the carriage of ammonia. Details of materials of construction which
should not be used for certain products are given in Chapter 17 of the IGC Code.

Some Basic Definitions

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), for the purposes of its Gas Carrier Codes has
adopted the following definition for the liquefied gases carried by sea:
Liquids with a vapour pressure exceeding 2.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37.8C

Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on its
surface (the boiling point varies with pressure)

Cargo Area
That part of the ship which contains the cargo containment system, cargo pumps and
compressor rooms, and includes the deck area above the cargo containment system. Where
fitted, cofferdams, ballast tanks and void spaces at the after end of the aftermost hold space
or the forward end of the forwardmost hold space are excluded from the cargo area.

Cargo Containment Systems

The arrangement for containment of cargo including, where fitted, primary and secondary
barriers, associated insulations, interbarrier spaces and the structure required for the
support of these elements.

Gas-Dangerous Space or Zone

A space or zone within a ship's cargo area which is designated as likely to contain flammable
vapour and which is not equipped with approved arrangements to ensure that its
atmosphere is maintained in a safe condition at all times.

Gas-Safe Space
A space on a ship not designated as a gasdangerous space.

Hold Space
The space enclosed by the ship's structure in which a cargo containment system is situated.

Interbarrier Space
The space between a primary and a secondary barrier of a cargo containment system,
whether or not completely or partially occupied by insulation or other material.

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This is the abbreviation for the Maximum Allowable Relief Valve Setting on a ship's cargo
tank as stated on the ship's Certificate of Fitness

Primary Barrier
This is the inner surface designed to contain the cargo when the cargo containment system
includes a secondary barrier.

Secondary Barrier
The liquidresisting outer element of a cargo containment system designed to provide
temporary containment of a leakage of liquid cargo through the primary barrier and to
prevent the lowering of the temperature of the ship's structure to an unsafe level

Tank dome
It is not permitted for a cargo pump room to be placed below the upper deck, nor may cargo
pipelines be run beneath deck level; therefore, deepwell or submersible pumps must be
used for cargo discharge. Pipelines to cargo tanks must be taken through a cargo tank dome
which penetrates the deck.

Personnel Hazards
Broadly, the personnel hazards of liquefied gases or their vapours may be fivefold. :
Toxicity (poisoning)
Asphyxia (suffocation)
Low temperature (frostbite)
Chemical burns
A liquefied gas cargo may react in a number of ways: with water to form hydrates, with
itself, with air, with another cargo or with other materials.
Reaction with Water- Hydrate Formation
Some hydrocarbon cargoes will combine with water under certain conditions to produce a
substance known as a hydrate resembling crushed ice or slush. The water for hydrate
formation can come from purge vapours with an incorrect dew point, water in the cargo
system or water dissolved in the cargo. Care should be taken to ensure that the dew point of

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any Purge vapour or inert gas used is suitable for the cargo concerned, and that water is
excluded from the cargo system.
Hydrates can cause pumps to seize and equipment to malfunction. Care should therefore be
taken to prevent hydrate formation. Certain cargoes, notably LPGs, may contain traces of
water when loaded. It may be permissible in such cases to prevent hydrate formation by
adding small quantities of a suitable antifreeze (e.g. methanol, ethanol) at strategic points
in the system. It is emphasised that nothing whatsoever should be added to any cargo
without the shipper's permission. For LPG mixtures a small dose of antifreeze may be
permissible, but for chemical cargoes such as ethylene the addition of even one liter per two
hundred tons could make the cargo commercially valueless.
In the case of inhibited cargoes the antifreeze could adversely affect the inhibitor. If
the use of antifreeze is permitted it should be introduced at places where expansion occurs
because the resultant lowering of temperature and pressure promotes hydrate formation.
Antifreeze additives are often flammable and toxic and care should be taken in their
storage and use.
Some cargoes may react with themselves. The most common form of selfreaction is
polymerisation which may be initiated by the presence of small quantities of other cargoes
or by certain metals. Polymerisation normally produces heat which may accelerate the
The IMO Codes require cargoes which may selfreact either to be carried under an inert
gas blanket, or to be inhibited before shipment. In the later case a certificate must be given
to the ship, stating:
the quantity and name of the inhibitor added;
the date it was added and how long it is expected to remain effective
the action to be taken should the voyage exceed the effective lifetime of the inhibitor;
any temperature limitations affecting the inhibitor.
Normally there should be no need to add any inhibitor to the cargo during the voyage.
If it should become necessary however, any such additions should be made in accordance
with the shipper's instructions.
Many inhibitors are much more soluble in water than in the cargo, so to avoid a
reduction in inhibitor concentration; care should be taken to exclude water from the
system. Similarly the inhibitor may be very soluble in antifreeze additives if these form a
separate phase and the shipper's instructions on the use of antifreeze should be observed.
If the ship is anchored in still conditions the cargo should be circulated daily to ensure a
uniform concentration of inhibitor.

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Certain cargoes which can selfreact (e.g ethylene oxide, propylene oxide), but which
cannot be inhibited, have to be carried under inert gas. Care should be taken to ensure that
a positive pressure is maintained in the inerted atmosphere at all times and that the oxygen
concentration never exceeds 0.2 % by volume.
Reaction with Air
Some cargoes can react with air to form unstable oxygen compounds which could cause
an explosion. The IMO Codes require these cargoes to be either inhibited or carried under
nitrogen or other inert gas. Care should be taken to observe the shipper's instructions.
Reaction with Other Cargoes
Certain cargoes can react dangerously with one another. They should be prevented
from mixing by using separate piping and vent systems and separate refrigeration
equipment for each cargo. Care should be taken to ensure that this positive segregation is
maintained. To establish whether or not two cargoes will react dangerously, the data sheet
for each cargo should be consulted.
Reaction with Other Materials
The data sheets list materials which should not be allowed to come into contact with
the cargo. The materials used in the cargo systems must be compatible with the cargoes to
be carried and care should be taken to ensure that no incompatible materials are used or
introduced during maintenance (e.g. gaskets).
Reaction can occur between cargo and purge vapours of poor quality: for instance, inert
gas with high CO2 content can cause carbonate formation with ammonia. Reaction can also
occur between compressor lubricating oils and some cargoes, resulting in blockage and
Some cargoes and inhibitors may be corrosive. The IMO Codes require materials used in
the cargo system to be resistant to corrosion by the cargo. Care should therefore be taken
to ensure that unsuitable materials are not introduced into the cargo system.
Corrosive liquids can also attack human tissue and care should be taken to avoid
contact: reference should be made to the appropriate data sheets. Instructions about the
use of protective clothing should be observed.
As liquefied gas cargoes are often shipped at low temperatures it is important that
temperature sensing equipment is well maintained and accurately calibrated.
Hazards associated with low temperatures include:

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Brittle Fracture
Most metals and alloys become stronger but less ductile at low temperatures (i.e. the
tensile and yield strengths increase but the material becomes brittle and the impact
resistance decreases) because the reduction in temperature changes the material's crystal
Normal shipbuilding steels rapidly lose their ductility and impactstrength below 0C.
For this reason, care should be taken to prevent cold cargo from coming into contact with
such steels, as the resultant rapid cooling would make the metal brittle and would cause
stress due to contraction. In this condition the metal would be liable to crack. The
phenomenon occurs suddenly and is called 'brittle fracture'.
However, the ductility and impact resistance of materials such as aluminium, austenitic
and special alloy steels and nickel improve at low temperatures and these metals are used
where direct contact with cargoes at temperatures below 55C is involved.
Care should be taken to prevent spillage of low temperature cargo because of the
hazard to personnel and the danger of brittle fracture. If spillage does occur/ the source
should first be isolated and the spilt liquid then dispersed.
If there is a danger of brittle fracture, a water hose may be used both to vaporise the
liquid and to keep the steel warm.
If the spillage is contained in a drip tray the contents should be covered or protected to
prevent accidental contact and allowed to evaporate. Liquefied gases quickly reach
equilibrium and visible boiling ceases this quiescent liquid could be mistaken for water and
carelessness could be dangerous.
Suitable drip trays are arranged beneath manifold connections to control any spillage
when transferring cargo or draining lines and connections. Care should be taken to ensure
that unused manifold connections are isolated and that if blanks are to be fitted the flange
surface is clean and free from frost. Accidents have occurred because cargo escaped past
incorrectly fitted blanks.
Liquefied gas spilt onto the sea will generate large quantities of vapour by the heating
effect of the water. This vapour may create a fire or health hazard, or both. Great care
should be taken to avoid such spillage, especially when disconnecting cargo hoses.
Cool down
Cargo systems are designed to withstand a certain service temperature; if this is below
ambient temperature the system has to be cooled down to the temperature of the cargo
before cargo transfer.

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For LNG and ethylene the stress and thermal shock caused by an overrapid cool down
of the system could cause brittle fracture. Cool down operations should be carried out
carefully in accordance with instructions.
Ice Formation
Low cargo temperatures can freeze water in the system leading to blockage of, and
damage to pumps, valves, sensor lines, spray lines etc. Ice can be formed from moisture in
the system, purge vapour with incorrect dew point, or water in the cargo.
The effects of ice formation are similar to those of hydrates, and antifreeze can be
used to prevent them.
Rollover is a spontaneous rapid mixing process which occurs in large tanks as a result of
a density inversion. Stratification develops when the liquid layer adjacent to a liquid surface
becomes denser than the layers beneath, due to boiloff of lighter fractions from the cargo.
This obviously unstable situation relieves itself with a sudden mixing, which the name
'rollover' aptly describes.
Liquid hydrocarbons are most prone to rollover, especially cryogenic liquids. LNG is the
most likely by virtue of the impurities it contains, and the extreme conditions of
temperature under which it is stored, close to the saturation temperatures at storage
If the cargo is stored for any length of time and the boiloff is removed, evaporation can
cause a slight increase in density and a reduction of temperature near the surface. The
liquid at the top of the tank is therefore marginally heavier than the liquid in the lower
levels. Once stratification has developed rollover can occur.
The inversion will be accompanied by violent evolution of large quantities of vapour and
a very real risk of tank overpressure.
Rollover has been experienced ashore, and may happen on a ship that has been
anchored for some time. If such circumstances are foreseen the tank contents should be
circulated daily by the cargo pumps to prevent rollover occurring.
Rollover can also occur if similar or compatible cargoes of different densities are put in
the same tank.

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Gas carriers can be grouped into five different categories according to the cargo carried and
the carriage condition. These are as follows:
Fully pressurised ships
Semi-pressurised ships
Ethylene ships
Fully refrigerated LPG ships
LNG ships
The first three ship types listed are most suitable for the shipment of smallersize cargoes of
LPG and chemical gases. This is normally accomplished on shortsea and regional routes.
Fully refrigerated ships are used extensively for the carriage of large size cargoes of LPG and
ammonia on the deep sea routes.
Fully pressurised ships
Fully pressurised ships are the simplest of all gas carriers. They carry their cargoes at
ambient temperature.
They are fitted with Type 'C' tanks (pressure vessels) fabricated in carbon steel having a
typical design pressure of about 18 barg. Ships with higher design pressures are in service
and a few ships can accept cargoes at pressures of up to 20 barg.
No thermal insulation or reliquefaction plant is necessary for these ships and cargo can
be discharged using either pumps or compressors.
Because of their design pressure, the cargo tanks are extremely heavy. As a result, fully
pressurised ships tend to be small having cargo capacities of about 4,000 to 6,000 m3, and
are primarily used to carry LPG and ammonia.
Ballast is carried in double bottoms and in top wing tanks. Because these ships are
fitted with Type 'C' containment systems, no secondary barrier is required and the hold
space may be ventilated with air.
Semi-pressurised ships
Semipressurised ships are similar to fully pressurised ships in that they have Type 'C'
tanks in this case pressure vessels designed typically for a maximum working pressure of
from 5 to 7 barg. Compared to fully pressurised ships, a reduction in tank thickness is
possible due to the reduced pressure but this is at the cost of refrigeration plant and tank
This type of gas carrier has evolved as the optimum means of transporting a wide
variety of gases such as LPG, vinyl chloride, propylene, and butadiene. They are most

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frequently found in the busy coastal trades around the Mediterranean and Northern
Europe. Today, this type of ship is the most popular amongst operators of smallersize gas
carriers due to its cargo handling flexibility.
Semipressurised ships use Type 'C' tanks and, therefore, do not require a secondary
barrier (cargo capacities can vary from 3,000 to 20,000 m3). The tanks are usually made
from low temperature steels to provide for carriage temperatures of 48C which
temperature is suitable for most LPG and chemical gas cargoes.
Alternatively, they can be made from special alloyed steels or aluminium to allow for
the carriage of ethylene at 104C (see also ethylene ships). The ship's flexible cargo
handling system is designed to load from (or discharge to) both pressurised and refrigerated
storage facilities.
Ethylene ships
Ethylene ships are often built for specific trades but will also operate carrying LPGs or
Chemical Gases. They normally have capacities ranging from 1,000 to 12,000 m3.
Ethylene is normally carried in its fully refrigerated condition at its atmospheric boiling
point of 104C. Normally Type 'C' pressure vessel tanks are used and no secondary barrier
is required. Thermal insulation and a highcapacity reliquefaction are fitted on this type of
Ballast is carried in the double bottom and wing ballast tanks.
A complete double hull is required for all cargoes carried below 55C, whether the
cargo tanks are of Type 'A', 'B' or 'C'.
Fully refrigerated ships
Fully refrigerated ships carry their cargoes at approximately atmospheric pressure and
are designed to transport large quantities of LPG and ammonia. Four different cargo
containment systems have been used for these ships. They are as follows:
Independent tanks with single hull but double bottom and hopper tanks
Independent tanks with double hull
Integral tanks (incorporating a double hull), and
Semimembrane tanks (incorporating a double hull)
For this class of ship, the tank itself is a Type 'A' prismatic freestanding unit capable of a
Maximum working pressure of 0.7 barg. The tanks are constructed of lowtemperature
steels to permit carriage temperatures of about 48C.
Fully refrigerated ships range in size from about 20,000 to 100,000m3. There are
relatively few fully refrigerated ships between 55,000 m3 and 70,000 m3.
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A typical fully refrigerated ship has up to six cargo tanks. Each tank is fitted with
transverse wash plates, while a longitudinal bulkhead on the centre line is provided to
reduce free surface so improving ship stability. The tanks are usually supported on wooden
chocks and are keyed to the hull to allow for expansion and contraction as well as to prevent
tank movement under static and dynamic loads. The tanks are also provided with anti
flotation chocks to avoid lifting in case of ballast tank leakage.
Because of the lowtemperature carriage conditions, thermal insulation and
reliquefaction equipment must be fitted.
To improve a fully refrigerated ship's operational flexibility, cargo heaters and booster
pumps are often fitted to allow discharge into pressurised storage facilities. This will
normally be accomplished at reduced discharge rates.
Where Type 'A' tanks are fitted, a complete secondary barrier is required
The hold spaces must be inerted when carrying flammable cargoes.
Ballast is carried in double bottoms and in top side (saddle) tanks or, when fitted, in side
ballast tanks.
LNG ships
LNG carriers are specialised types of gas carriers built to transport large volumes of LNG
at its atmospheric boiling point of about 162 C.
These ships are now typically of between 125,000 and 135,000 m3 capacity and are
normally dedicated to a specific project. Here they often remain for their entire contract life,
which may be between 2025 years or more.
The containment systems on these ships are mainly of four types:
Gaz Transport membrane
Technigaz membrane
Kvaerner Moss spherical independent Type 'B' , and
IHI SPB Tank prismatic

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All LNG ships have double hulls throughout their cargo length which provide adequate
space for ballast.
Ships fitted with the membrane systems have a full secondary barrier and tanks of the
Type 'B' design have drippan type protection.
A characteristic common to all LNG ships is that they burn cargo boiloff as fuel.
Hold spaces around the cargo tanks are continuously inerted, except in the case of
spherical Type 'B' containment where hold spaces may be filled with dry air provided that
there is an adequate means for inerting such spaces in the event of cargo leakage.
Most LNG carriers have steam turbine propulsion plants.
A cargo containment system is the total arrangement for containing cargo including, where
A primary barrier (the cargo tank),
Secondary barrier (if fitted),
Associated thermal insulation,
Any intervening spaces, and
Adjacent structure, for the support of these elements.
For cargoes carried at temperatures between 10C and 55C the ship's hull may act as the
secondary barrier and in such cases it may be a boundary of the hold space. The basic cargo
tank types utilized on board gas carriers are in accordance with the list below:
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Independent tanks
Independent tanks are completely selfsupporting and do not form part of the ship's hull
structure. Moreover, they do not contribute to the hull strength of a ship. As defined in the
IGC Code, and depending mainly on the design pressure, there are three different types of
independent tanks for gas carriers: these are known as Types 'A', 'B' and 'C'.

Type 'A' tanks

Type 'A' tanks are constructed primarily of flat surfaces. The maximum allowable tank
design pressure in the vapour space for this type of system is 0.7 barg; this means cargoes
must be carried in a fully refrigerated condition at or near atmospheric pressure (normally
below 0.25 barg).

Figure shows a section through this type of tank as found on a fully refrigerated LPG carrier.
This is a selfsupporting prismatic tank which requires conventional internal stiffening. In
this example the tank is surrounded by a skin of foam insulation. Where perlite insulation is
used, it would be found filling the whole of the hold space.
The material used for Type 'A' tanks is not crack propagation resistant. Therefore, in order to
ensure safety, in the unlikely event of cargo tank leakage, a secondary containment system
is required. This secondary containment system is known as a secondary barrier and is a
feature of all ships with Type 'A' tanks capable of carrying cargoes below 10C.
For a fully refrigerated LPG carrier (which will not carry cargoes below 55C) the secondary
barrier must be a complete barrier capable of containing the whole tank volume at a
defined angle of heel and may form part of the ship's hull, as shown in the figure. By this
means appropriate parts of the ship's hull are constructed of special steel capable of
withstanding low temperatures. The alternative is to build a separate secondary barrier
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around each cargo tank. The IGC Code stipulates that a secondary barrier must be able to
contain tank leakage for a period of 15 days.
On such ships, the space between the cargo tank (sometimes referred to as the primary
barrier) and the secondary barrier is known as the hold space. When flammable cargoes are
being carried, these spaces must be filled with inert gas to prevent a flammable atmosphere
being created in the event of primary barrier leakage.

Type 'B' tanks

Type 'B' tanks can be constructed of flat surfaces or they may be of the spherical type. This
type of containment system is the subject of much more detailed stress analysis compared
to Type 'A systems. These controls must include an investigation of fatigue life and a crack
propagation analysis. These tanks may be able to withstand pressures up to 2 barg. The
most common arrangement of Type 'B' tank is a spherical tank as illustrated in Figure. This
tank is of the Kvaerner Moss design. Because of the enhanced design factors, a Type 'B' tank
requires only a partial secondary barrier in the form of a drip tray. The hold space in this
design is normally filled with dry inert gas. However, when adopting modern practice, it may
be filled with dry air provided that inerting of the space can be achieved if the vapour
detection system shows cargo leakage. A protective steel dome covers the primary barrier
above deck level and insulation is applied to the outside of the tank. The Type 'B' spherical
tank is almost exclusively applied to LNG ships; seldom featuring in the LPG trade.
A Type 'B' tank, however, need not be spherical. There are Type 'B' tanks of prismatic shape
in LNG service. The prismatic Type 'B' tank has the benefit of maximising ship hull volumetric
efficiency and having the entire cargo tank placed beneath the main deck. Where the
prismatic shape is used, the maximum design vapour space pressure is, as for Type 'A tanks,
limited to 0.7 barg.

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A Spherical Tank IMO Type B

Type 'C' tanks

Type 'C' tanks are normally spherical or cylindrical pressure vessels having design pressures
higher than 2 barg. The cylindrical vessels may be vertically or horizontally mounted.
This type of containment system is always used for semipressurised and fully pressurised
gas carriers. Type 'C' tanks are designed and built to conventional pressure vessel codes and,
as a result, can be subjected to accurate stress analysis. Furthermore, design stresses are
kept low. Accordingly, no secondary barrier is required for Type 'C' tanks and the hold space
can be filled with either inert gas or dry air.
In the case of a typical fully pressurised ship (where the cargo is carried at ambient
temperature), the tanks may be designed for a maximum working pressure of about 18
barg. For a semipressurised ship the cargo tanks and associated equipment are designed for

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a working pressure of approximately 5 to 7 barg and a vacuum of 0.5 barg. Typically, the
tank steels for the semipressurised ships are capable of withstanding carriage temperatures
of 48C for LPG or 104C for ethylene. (Of course, an ethylene carrier may also be used to
transport LPG.)

Figure above shows Type 'C' tanks as fitted in a typical fully pressurised gas carrier. With
such an arrangement there is comparatively poor utilisation of the hull volume; however,
this can be improved by using intersecting pressure vessels or bilobe type tanks which may
be designed with a taper at the forward end of the ship.

A Type C Tank being installed.

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Membrane tanks (membrane - 0.7 to 1.5 mm thick)

The concept of the membrane containment system is based on a very thin primary barrier
(membrane 0.7 to 1.5 mm thick) which is supported through the insulation. Such tanks are
not selfsupporting like the independent tank & an inner hull forms the load bearing
structure. Membrane containment systems must always be provided with a secondary
barrier to ensure the integrity of the total system in the event of primary barrier leakage.
The membrane is designed in such a way that thermal expansion or contraction is
compensated without overstressing the membrane itself.

There are two principal types of membrane system in common use

Both named after the companies who developed them and
both designed primarily for the carriage of LNG.

Gaz Transport membrane system

Technigaz membrane system

Initially, the Moss system was more popular, but higher Suez toll fees due to their higher
gross tonnage made Moss vessels less attractive for trades involving the Suez Canal.
Recently Moss has staged a comeback and currently there are about 30 Moss vessels on
order against 100+ membrane vessels. A fourth LNG containment system joined the ranks of
the large marine LNG cargo tank designs in the early 1990's; the Japanese IHI SPB (Self
supporting Prismatic shape IMO typeB) system. With only two orders for LNG carriers in the
1990's, this system seemed to be inaccessible due to its high price. However, in 2014 four
vessels were ordered with the SPB system, bringing it back as a credible alternative to the
membrane systems and the Moss system.

Membrane systems

Technigaz designed a membrane type atmospheric LNG containment system with a

corrugated stainless steel primary membrane supported by wooden boxes filled with
insulation material. A secondary cryogenic barrier, also supported by wooden boxes filled
with insulation material provides containment of the cryogenic cargo in case the primary
membrane develops a leak. The characteristic corrugations in the primary membrane allow
for the shrinkage of metal under cryogenic temperatures. This design, identified as the Mk I
was soon superseded by improved versions and is currently available as the Mk III series
from a number of shipyards in Korea and Japan. Soon the Mk V series will be going into
production, which replaces the current Triplex secondary barrier with a corrugated stainless
steel secondary barrier.

Compatriot Gaztransport designed a rather similar system consisting of a primary

membrane supported by insulation in plywood boxes and a secondary membrane, also
supported by insulation in plywood boxes. This system was called the No 88 system and
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featured a primary and secondary membrane of a steel alloy with a negligible contraction
coefficient. Improvements have been over the years and the current system is the No 96,
which is being used in LNG carriers under construction in Korea and China.

After years of competition, Gaztransport and Technigaz merged to form GTT, which has
been developing and promoting both membrane type containment systems in parallel. GTT
has licensed these systems to all major LNG carrier builders around the world. The main
advantage of the membrane type containment systems is their prismatic shape, which
allows these systems to use the space available within the hull of the LNG carrier to a very
high degree. With the cargo tanks recessed deep inside the hull under a low trunk deck,
membrane type LNG carriers do not need a high deck house to have good visibility. This
results in the typical "squat" silhouette of this type of vessels. In France, GTT proposed
membrane type LNG fuel tanks for the proposed newbuilding ferry for Brittany Ferries.
Unfortunately this project was put on hold for the time being for nontechnical reasons.

Both membrane systems have one traditional weakness; their vulnerability for sloshing
damage. Sloshing is the motion of the LNG cargo in the tanks as a result of the motion of the
vessel due to the effect of waves and wind. In certain circumstances, waves occur in the LNG
cargo which upon impact on the tank walls can cause damage to the primary barrier and the
boxes supporting the primary membrane. To counter the risk of sloshing damage, GTT
advises the operators of membrane ships to operate their ships with tank levels of more
than 90% or less than 10%. For applications that require part load operations, such as LNG
Floating Storage and Regas Units (LNG FSRU), membrane systems with specially reinforced
boxes have been developed.

Gaztransport Designed Membrane Tank featured a primary and secondary membrane of a

steel alloy with a negligible contraction coefficient.

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Cross Section of a Technigaz showing each layer

Technigaz designed a membrane type LNG containment system with a corrugated stainless
steel primary membrane supported by wooden boxes filled with insulation material.

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Above Pictures: Prismatic Membrane Tank being installed into Ships Hold

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The Moss system

The Moss spherical LNG containment system does not have these sloshing issues. Its
aluminum spheres have sufficient structural strength to withstand LNG wave impact due to
the interaction between the cargo and the ship's motion. The Moss system doesn't need a
full secondary barrier like the membrane system; there is only a small drip tray below the
spheres to catch any liquid leaking. The design philosophy behind the Moss system is that
the tank should be designed to be strong enough so that cracks should not develop in the
tanks over the lifetime of the vessel. The structural strength of the containment system is
exactly the reason why old Moss vessels are very popular candidates for conversion to LNG
FSRU's or even floating LNG production plants.

The only true disadvantage of the Moss vessels is the fact that the containment system has
a very low hull space utilization rate. The sheers are mounted on the deck of the vessel by
way of an equatorial ring, which means that half the sphere protrudes above the deck.
While this makes for the characteristic silhouette of the Moss carrier, it also necessitates a
high deck house to ensure adequate line of sight from the bridge. The low hull space
utilization means that a Moss carrier has a higher GT rating than membrane carriers of
similar cargo capacity, which translates in higher port and fairway dues and higher tonnage

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The SPB system

The fourth LNG cargo containment system, the IHI (now JMU) SPB system manages to
combine the advantages of the membrane system and the Moss system and addresses the
disadvantages of both systems too. The prismatic shape of the tanks ensures a high hold
space utilization rate and a low air draft, while the solid aluminum construction with a
centerline bulkhead and transverse swash bulkheads reduces liquid motion in the tanks and
minimizes the risk for sloshing damage, even in part load conditions. The high price of this
system originally prevented wide spread adoption but in 2014 JMU, the successor to SPB
designer IHI, secured orders for tanks for four 165,000 m3 LNG carriers and it has been
addressing the only true disadvantage of this system; its price tag. With possible licensing
overseas, the SPB system could become a very serious contender in the LNG containment
system arena. In Japan, JMU has already carried out a study with a shipyard into the
feasibility of SPB tanks as LNG fuel tanks.

A SPB Tank designed by IHI Japan SPB Tank being installed into Ships Hold

IHISPB (Selfsupporting, Prismatic Shape, IMO type B) is Japanese own technology

developed by IHI Group while the competing technologies used for LNG floaters including
LNG carriers by Japanese and Korean shipyards are imported from Europe (Norwegian Moss
technology and French Membrane technology). IHISPB has unique features of No
Sloshing which enables any level loading of LNG inside the tank at offshore, Flat upper
deck which enables installation of the topside plants on upper deck, Less and Easy
Maintenance, etc. and is most suited to use in the LNG floaters including FLNG and FSRU
required to stay offshore and operate safely for long years without dry docking.

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MT Polar Eagle With SPB Tanks

Integral tanks
Integral tanks form a structural part of the ship's hull and are influenced by the same loads
which stress the hull structure. Integral tanks are not normally allowed for the carriage of
liquefied gas if the cargo temperature is below 10C. Certain tanks on a limited number of
Japanesebuilt LPG carriers are of the integral type for the dedicated carriage of fully
refrigerated butane.
Internal insulation tanks
Internally insulated cargo tanks are similar to integral tanks. They utilise insulation materials
to contain the cargo. The insulation is fixed inside ship's inner hull or to an independent
loadbearing surface. The nonselfsupporting system obviates the need for an independent
tank and permits the carriage of fully refrigerated cargoes at carriage temperatures as low
as 55C. Internal insulation systems have been incorporated in a very limited number of
fully refrigerated LPG carriers but, to date, the concept has not proved satisfactory in

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High Level alarm and automatic shut-down

With the exception of Type 'C' tanks having a capacity of
less than 200 cubic metres, every cargo tank must be
fitted with an independent high level sensor giving
audible and visual alarms. The float, capacitance or
ultrasonic sensors (as covered in 4.9.1) may be used for
this purpose. The highlevel alarm or other
independent sensor is required to automatically stop
the flow of cargo to the tank. During cargo loading, there
is a danger of generating a significant surge pressure if
the valve stopping the flow closes too quickly against a
high loading rate.

Deep Well Cargo Pump

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With the exception
ption of fully pressurised gas carriers, means must be provided to control
cargo vapour pressure in cargo tanks during cargo loading and on passage. In the case of
LPG and chemical gas carriers, a reliquefaction plant is fitted for this purpose. This
ment is designed to perform the following essential functions:
To cool down the cargo tanks and associated pipelines before loading;
To reliquefy the cargo vapour generated by flash evaporation, liquid displacement
and boiloff during loading; and
To maintainin cargo temperature and pressure within prescribed limits while at sea by
reliquefying the boiloff
off vapour.

Fully Refrigerated LPG ships Reliquefaction

Re Plant

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Assuming a gas carrier comes directly from a shipbuilder or drydock, the general sequence
of cargo handling operations is as follows.


Preparation for loading
Tank inspection
Before any cargo operations are carried out it is essential that cargo tanks are thoroughly
inspected for cleanliness; that all loose objects are removed; and that all fittings are
properly secured. In addition, any free water must be removed. Once this inspection has
been completed, the cargo tank should be securely closed and air drying operations may
Drying the cargo handling system in any refrigerated ship is a necessary precursor to
loading. This means that water vapour and free water must all be removed from the system.
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If this is not done, the residual moisture can cause problems with icing and hydrate
formation within the cargo system.
Tank atmosphere drying can be accomplished in several ways. These are described below.
Drying using inert gas from the shore
Drying using inert gas from ship's plant
On board airdrying systems
Inerting before loading
Inerting cargo tanks, cargo machinery and pipelines is undertaken primarily to ensure a
nonflammable condition during subsequent gassingup with cargo. For this purpose, oxygen
concentration must be reduced from 21 per cent to a maximum of five per cent by volume.
Neither nitrogen nor carbon dioxide, the main constituents of inert gas, can be condensed
by a ship's Reliquefaction plant. This is because, at cargo temperatures, each is above its
critical temperature and is, therefore, incondensable. Accordingly, removal of inert gas from
the cargo tank is necessary. This is achieved by gassingup, using vapour from the cargo to
be loaded at ambient temperature and venting the incondensable to atmosphere so that
subsequently the Reliquefaction plant can operate efficiently.
Cooling down is necessary to avoid excessive tank pressures (due to flash evaporation)
during bulk loading. Cooldown consists of spraying cargo liquid into a tank at a slow rate.
The lower the cargo carriage temperature, the more important the cool down procedure
becomes. Before loading a refrigerated cargo, ship's tanks must be cooled down slowly in
order to minimise thermal stresses. The rate at which a cargo tank can be cooled, without
creating high thermal stress, depends on the design of the containment system and is
typically 10C per hour. Reference should always be made to the ship's operating manual to
determine the allowable cooldown rate.
Cargo liquid from shore (or from deck storage) is gradually introduced into the tanks either
through spray lines, if fitted for this purpose, or via the cargo loading lines. The vapours
produced by rapid evaporation may be taken ashore or handled in the ship's reliquefaction
plant. Additional liquid is then introduced at a rate depending upon tank pressures and
Cooldown should continue until boiloff eases and liquid begins to form in the bottom of
the cargo tanks. This can be seen from temperature sensors Throughout the cool down,
deepwell pump shafts should be turned frequently by hand to prevent the pumps from

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freezing up. Once the cargo tanks have been cooled down, cargo pipelines and equipment
should be cooled down.
Loading preliminary procedures
Before loading operations begin, the preoperational ship/shore procedures must be
thoroughly discussed and carried out. Appropriate information exchange is required and the
relevant parts of the Ship/Shore Safety Check List should be completed.
Particular attention should be paid to:
The setting of cargo tank relief valves and high alarm pressures
Remotely operated valves
Reliquefaction equipment
Gas detection systems
Alarms and controls, and
The maximum loading rate.
The terminal should provide the necessary information on the cargo, including inhibitor
certificates where inhibited cargoes are loaded. Any other special precautions for specific
cargoes should be made known to ship personnel. The ballast system for gas carriers is
totally independent of the cargo system, deballasting can, therefore, take place
simultaneously with loading, subject to local regulations. Ship stability and stress are of
primary importance during loading
Trim, stability and stress
The cargo plan should allow for distribution within the ship in order to achieve acceptable
structural stress and the required ship trim to meet safe stability conditions when at sea.
A further point to be noted in respect of tank filling levels is that, large prismatic cargo
tanks, due to their width and shape, may suffer from substantial sloshing of cargo in heavy
pitching or rolling conditions. Such tanks, and particularly membranetype tanks which have
no centre line wash bulkheads, may have prohibited filling levels in order to avoid damage
to tank structures or internal fittings. Typical controls on such tanks are a prohibition on all
filling levels in the 10 to 80 per cent range.

LNG as a fuel
LNG carriers have long been using the boiloff gas from their cargo tanks as fuel for their
engines. In 2000, the Norwegian passenger ferry Glutra became the first nonLNG carrier to

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use LNG as fuel. LNG is a clean burning fuel, consisting of mostly methane and it allows the
vessels to comply with upcoming, stricter marine emissions legislation. Regular marine
diesel engines operating on residual marine fuels would require exhaust gas after treatment
in order to comply with the new emission standards. Dual fuel diesel engines emit hardly
any SOx, as there is no sulphur in LNG. Furthermore, they have lower NOx emissions due to
their combustion process and in addition the CO2 emissions are lower than those of the
regular diesel engines too.

Use of Cargo as fuel

Boiloff from LNG cargo may be burnt as fuel in the main propulsion system. Two factors
influence the sanctioning of this practice:
(1) LNG vapour, being mainly methane, is lighter than air at ambient temperatures. It is
therefore safe to be used because if it were to leak into the machinery space it would
escape through exhaust vents and not accumulate within the machinery space.
Consequently LNG is the only cargo vapour allowed to be used as fuel.
(2) It is possible to burn LNG vapour in boilers, diesel engines or gas turbines. In each case
cargo vapour is introduced into a space from which it is normally excluded, and the design
of the cargo vapourtofuel system is therefore subject to strict requirements. It is vital to
ensure that the integrity of the system is not impaired in any way.
LNG boiloff may be either vented or burnt (or both) to keep tank pressures at the required
level. The decision whether to vent or burn the boiloff depends on many factors, some
economic, some the result of regulations. Regulations may, for instance, either prohibit
venting or the use of cargo as fuel in certain places. Such regulations should always be

Note: Attention should also be paid to Chapter 16 of the IGC Code, Regulation II2/15.1 of
the SOLAS Convention, IMO recommendations concerning the use of low flashpoint cargoes
as fuel e.g. IMO Resolution A565(14), and to classification requirements.
On the high sea, cargo vapour may provide the main fuel, though oil pilot burners are also
required. In the case of steam plants, cargo vapour may also be burnt when propulsion
machinery is not in operation provided that means for steamdumping are installed.

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Grain Cargoes
Grains includes wheat, rye, maize, rice, oats, barley , pulses, seeds and their processed
forms whose behavior is similar to that of grain in its natural state
The carriage of grain is associated with two main hazards
1. Settling and
2. Shifting
There are other minor hazards associated with grain such as contamination, dust
explosion, fire, rotting due to ingress of water and consequent depletion of oxygen or
evolution of toxic vapours.
Hazard of shifting
A compartment may be full when the cargo is loaded but, due to ship's vibration and
other movements, the grain settles by about 2 % of its volume leaving space at the top of
the cargo. This space allows cargo to move from side to side in conjunction with the
rolling and pitching of the vessel.
As the cargo shifts the vessel lists to one side. The shifting of grain is the greatest hazard
involved in the carriage of grain and all regulations contained in the International code
for the safe carriage of grain in bulk are directed towards limiting this shift of grain to
within acceptable limits
Grain has a low angle of repose (15 18 deg depending on the type of grain) and this
results in its shifting very easily. As soon as the angle between the grain surface and the
horizontal exceeds the angle of repose, the grain will shift.
As shown in fig. next

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The heel is the result of heeling moment = w x d
Where w Weight of cargo shifted
d dist by which it shifts
These heeling moments in all holds add up, as cargo in all holds will shift to same side.
Total heeling moments w x d = W x GG1
Where W = displacement and
GG1 = shift in ships CG or heeling arm
When the ship heels it is the result of all the heeling moments put together
Tan = GG1 = w x d Where is the angle of heel
It can be seen that the angle of heel is directly proportional to the heeling arm or heeling
moments and inversely proportional to the metacentric height . If the heeling moments
are more, the heel will be more but if the GM is more the heel will be less
Allowable heeling moments
The ship is allowed a certain amount of heeling moments known as Permissible or
Allowable heeling moments based on her displacement and KG. As long as the heeling
moments are less than the Allowable heeling moments, the ship will suffer a heel and
loss of stability within allowable limits. The total heeling moments are not to exceed the
allowable heeling moments.
Thus the heeling moments for the ship are to be kept as small as possible
This is done by
1. Having maximum number of holds Completely filled with grain
2. Restraining or securing the grain surface to prevent shifting
Planning of Loading
1. Calculate maximum quantity that can be loaded taking into account the ships dead
weight, the load line zones she will pass through, the weights on board, draft limitations
2. Distribute this cargo into the holds so as to have the maximum no of filled holds
considering reqd draft, trim, stresses etc
3. From SF get the volume / depth of cargo in each hold
4. From heeling moment diagrams in grain loading booklet find out the Vol Heeling
Moments for each hold.
5. Multiply the VHM by appropriate factor to compensate for vertical shift of G
6. Divide the corrected VHM by SF to obtain Weight Heeling Moments. Add up all the
heeling moments for each hold to obtain Total H moments
7. Compare the total with Allowable from Grain stability booklet.
If Total heeling moments Allowable heeling go back to step2
If total heeling moments Allowable heeling proceed further to stability calcula ons.

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The International Grain Code was written at a time when grain was predominantly
carried onboard general cargo vessels, employing methods including saucering, bundling
and strapping. However, modern bulk carriers are designed and constructed taking the
problems of carrying grain into consideration. The BLU Code refers to loading and
discharging operations and develops an understanding of procedures.

Grain Loading Booklet

Above calculations would not be possible without the VHM being provided to the ship.
All this information must be provided by the shipyard and should include :
A) Curves or tables of volumes, vertical centres of volumes and assumed volumetric
heeling moments for every compartment.
B) Curves or tables of maximum permissible heeling moments i.e allowable heeling
moments for varying displacements and Varying KGs of the ship.
C) Details of scantlings of temporary fittings provided to meet the stability requirements.
D) A worked example for the guidance
E) Typical loaded arrival & departure conditions using SF 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 m3/t
F) Additionally the normal stability information should be provided which includes
a) Ships particulars
b) Light ship weight & KG
c) Tables of liquid free surface corrections
d) Capacities & CGs of all compts
e) Curves/tables of angle of flooding where less than 40, at all permissible displacments.
f) Hydrostatic properties for the range of operating drafts
g) Cross curves of stability which are sufficient to plot the GZ curve and which include
curves at 12 & 40

Document of Authorization
SOLAS regulation VI/9.1 (Requirements for cargo ships carrying grain) provides that a
cargo ship carrying grain must hold a Document of Authorization as required by the
International Grain Code, The Document of Authorisation certifies that a ship is capable
of loading grain in accordance with the requirements of the International Grain Code.
A document of authorization shall be issued for every ship loaded in accordance with the
regulations of this Code either by the Administration or an organization recognized by it
or by a Contracting Government on behalf of the Administration. It shall be accepted as
evidence that the ship is capable of complying with the requirements of these

The document shall accompany or be incorporated into the grain loading manual
provided to enable the master to meet the requirements mentioned in para A 7 of Grain

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A ship without a Document of Authorization must not load grain until the master satisfies
the flag State Administration, or the SOLAS Contracting Government of the port of
loading on behalf of the Administration, that the ship will comply with the requirements
of the International Grain Code in its proposed loaded condition (regulation 9.2).
The International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk is commonly called the
International Grain Code was adopted by the IMO Maritime Safety Committee by
resolution MSC.23(59). It applies to ships regardless of size, including those of less than
500grt, engaged in the carriage of grain in bulk, to which part C of chapter VI of the 1974
SOLAS Convention, as amended, applies (A 1.1).
Effective 1 January 1994
Terminology Used in the Carriage of Grain in Bulk Carrier
Type of compartments
A filled compartment, trimmed, is one in which the grain, after loading , is trimmed so as
to fill all spaces under the decks and hatch covers to the maximum extent possible, so
that the grain is at its highest possible level. Thus even after trimming there will still be
void spaces under the deck and hatch covers, although small, and there will still be
heeling moments for these compartments although small.

The term filled compartment, untrimmed, refers to a cargo space which is filled to the
maximum extent possible in way of the hatch opening but outside the periphery of the
hatch opening the grain will be at its natural angle of repose .

The grain surface in all compartments must be trimmed except in following cases:
a) The compartment is provided with feeder ducts, perforated decks or other similar
means or

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b) The compartment is specially suitable. In any case the heeling moments used must be
for filled compartments untrimmed Specially suitable compartment

Is one which has at least two, vertical or sloping, longitudinal, grain tight bulkheads,
coincident with the hatch side girder or so positioned as to limit the transverse shift of
grain, If sloping, the division shall be inclined at greater than 30 deg to the horizontal.
Specially suitable ships include bulk carriers with wing tanks forming self trimming
hatches or OBOs / tankers with longitudinal divisions.

The term partly filled compartment refers to any cargo space wherein the bulk grain is
at any level but is not filled whether trimmed or untrimmed.

Carriage of grain safe procedure

1. To avoid shifting of cargo, the grain surfaces must be reasonably trimmed:
a) Filled compartment, trimmed the cargo should be trimmed so that all spaces under
deck and hatch covers are filled to the fullest extent possible.

b) Filled compartment, untrimmed the cargo should be trimmed within the hatchway
but may be left at its natural angle of repose on the surrounding area of the hatchway.
The same can be applied for a filled compartment, trimmed if:

2. If the cargo is stowed only in the lower compartment, the lower compartment hatch
covers should be secured in the approved manner.

3. If the cargo is stowed in the upper compartment above a tween deck whose covers are
not grain tight, the covers should be made graintight using sealing tape, tarpaulins or
separation cloths

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4. In partly filled compartments, the surface of bulk grain should be secured by over
stowing except in cases where heeling moments due to grain shift have been calculated
and taken into consideration for stability of the vessel.
5. Longitudinal divisions may be fitted to reduce heeling moments due to shift of grain in
filled compartments, trimmed, filled compartments, untrimmed and partly filled
compartments, provided that each division:
a. Is made graintight.
b. Is constructed according to the Grain Code standards
c. Extends from deck to deck in tweendecks.
d. Extends downwards from the underside of the hatch covers.

6. The Master shall ensure that the ship:

a. Before loading, can comply with intact stability criteria at all stages of the voyage.
b. Is upright before proceeding to sea.
c. Has all the paperwork completed and onboard.

Fumigation requirement
Charterers and shippers may require the cargo to be fumigated. If this is to be done
during the voyage or before or after loading, full and clear instructions should be
received from the charterers and shippers. These instructions should refer to product
data sheets and the correct procedures and safety advice, application dangers, method
of handling, and requirements for personal protective equipment and monitoring
equipment. Refer to IMO Recommendations on the Safe Use of Pesticides on Ships.
Always carry out a risk assessment.
A qualified fumigator should be engaged by the charterers when fumigation is to be done
in port. All spaces should be padlocked and sealed to prevent anyone from entering the
space. Noone should enter a space that has been fumigated until after it has been
thoroughly ventilated. It is recommended that an expert chemist declares whether the
space is safe to enter. If the cargo requires ventilation after fumigation, advice should be
sought from fumigation experts in respect to crew safety.

Fuel oil tanks precautions

masters and officers must be aware of the location of the heated fuel oil tanks
masters and officers should monitor the tank top temperature above the fuel oil tanks as
this can affect the integrity of certain cargoes particularly grain cargoes
fuel oil temperatures can be monitored on the fuel oil transfer pumps
masters and chief engineers should manage the fuel oil onboard to reduce heat damage
to cargoes loaded in holds above heated fuel oil tanks heat only fuel oil tanks in use

Stability Criteria for Grain Cargo

1. The angle of heel due to an assumed shift of grain shall not be greater than 12

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or in the case of ships constructed on or after 1 January 1994 the angle at which the deck
edge is immersed, whichever is the lesser;
2. In the statical stability diagram the net or residual area between the heeling arm
curve and the righting arm curve up to the angle of heel of maximum difference between
the ordinates of the two curves, or 40 or the angle of flooding (), whichever is the least,
shall in all conditions of loading be not less than 0.075 metreradians; and
3. the initial metacentric height, after correction for the free surface effects of liquids in
tanks, shall be not less than 0.30 m.
Before loading bulk grain the master shall, if so required by the Contracting Government
of the country of the port of loading, demonstrate the ability of the ship at all stages of
any voyage to comply with the stability criteria required by this section.

After loading, the master shall ensure that the ship is upright before proceeding to sea

Stability requirements for a ship without DOA

Ships without DOA are most likely those not having Grain loading Booklet and heeling
moment information. In such cases
1. The weight of grain loaded cannot exceed 1/3rd deadweight. (This rule does not apply
to ships built before 25 May 1980Existing ships which can load grain without any
limitation on weight but must comply with other requirements.

2. All grain surfaces in filled compartments must be restrained by a centre line division
extending for the full length of the compartment from the underside of the deck or
hatch covers to a distance below the deck line of at least 1/8th of the maximum breadth
of the compartment or 2.4 m, whichever is greater. Alternately saucering or bundling
may be used, except for linseed or other seeds having similar properties.
Alternately saucering or bundling may be used, except for linseed or other seeds having
similar properties.

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3. All free grain surfaces in partly filled compartments must be trimmed level and
secured by over stowing, strapping, or lashing or by wire mesh.

4. All hatch covers of tween decks must be in place & battened

5. Throughout the voyage the GM(R) should be 0.3m or that given by the formula ,
whichever is greater
GM(R) = L x B x Vd (0.25B 0.645(Vd x B)
SF x W x 0.0875
L = Total combined length of all full compts.
B = Moulded breadth of vessel
Vd = Calculated average void depth
W = Displacement

6. The Master should demonstrate that the ship complies with these requirements prior
to loading.

Grain lashing methods

Shifting Board (F+P)
b) Over stowing (F+P)
c) Strapping and Lashing (F+P)
d) Bundling (F)
e) Saucering (F)
f) Feeders (F)
g) Securing with wire mesh (F+P)

(Ffilled, Ppartly filled)

Shifting Board
Longitudinal divisions (called shifting board), which must be grain tight may be fitted in
both "filled and "partly filled compartments to reduce the adverse heeling effect of a
grain shift.

In "filled compartments, they must extend downwards from the underside of the deck
or hatch covers, to a distance below the deck line of at least oneeighth the breadth of
the compartment, or at least 0.6m below the surface of the grain after it has been
assumed to shift through an angle of 15 deg

In a "partly filled compartment', the division, should extend both above and below the
level of grain, to a distance of oneeighth the breadth of the compartment.
The division should be grain tight and its strength should meet the requirements given in
part A11, 12, & 13 of the code. Ships that are suited for this method of securing may

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have vertical brackets inside the hatch coaming and F & A transverse bhds and lashing
eyes/material to support the division.

For a partly filled compartments topped off by loading bagged grain or other suitable
cargo. Surface to level off over and spread with separation cloth (gunny sack) or wooden

Overstowed with sound well filled bags to a height of 1/16th the maximum breadth of
the free grain surface, or to a height of 1.2 m whichever is greater

For reducing heeling moment a saucer may be used in place of longitudinal division in
way of hatch opening only in a Filled Trimmed Compartment. But not for linseed or
other seeds having similar properties.

The top (mouth) of the saucer is formed by the under deck structure in the way of the
hatchway, i.e, hatch side girders or coaming.
The saucer and hatchway above is completely filled with bagged grain or other suitable
cargo laid down on the separation cloth and stowed tightly against adjacent structures
and the hatch beams

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The depth of the saucer from bottom of saucer to the deck line shall be
For ship having moulded breath of upto 9.1 m not less than 1.2 m and moulded breath
of 18.3m or more not less than 1.8m. For ships with intermittent breath depth by

filled compartment", shifting prevented by bundling the grain cargo.
A bundle of similar bulk cargo is made by lining a saucer with tarpaulin or similar
materials with suitable means of securing. Athwartship lashings to be placed inside the
saucer formed in the bulk grain at interval not more than 2.4metres.

Dunnage of not less than 24mm x 150 to 300mm to be placed fore and aft over these
lashings to prevent the cutting or chafing of the material which is placed thereon to line
the saucer. The saucer is filled with bulk grain and secured at the top.Further dunnage to
be laid on top after lapping the material before the saucer is secured by setting
up the lashings. If more than one sheet of tarpaulin is used to line the saucer, they shall
be joined at the bottom either by sewing or double lap.

The top of the saucer should be made level with the bottom of the beams when these
are in place
and suitable general cargo or bulk grain may be placed between the beams on top of the

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Strapping & Lashing
The lashing material should be attached to the frames at a point approx 450 mm below
the anticipated final grain surface by means of shackles or a beam clamp of sufficient
strength. They will be led to the top of the grain surface and temporarily secured till
completion of loading. Surface of grain should be leveled but slightly crowned.

Surface covered with separation cloths or tarpaulins, whose joints overlaps at least
Two solid floors of dunnage 25mm x 150mm to 300mm to be laid athwartshipfirst
tier and F&A2nd tier.
Lashed with double steel strapping, wires with ends at a point approx 450mm
below the final grain surface.
Lashings should not be placed more than 2.4m apart.
During the voyage the lashings must be checked and tightened as necessary.

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Heavy Lift Cargoes

Heavy Lift Cargo heavier than the SWL of the vessels gear.
It cannot be lifted by the ships gear in the normal mode and requires special rigging.
Due care should be exercised during planning the stow, loading and securing so that the
safety of the personnel, cargo and vessel is not jeopardized.

When loading or discharging heavy-lifts Deck Officers should be aware of the following precautions
and procedures:

1. The stability of the vessel should be adequate and the maximum angle of heel should be
acceptable. All free surface effects (FSE) should be eliminated by either pressing up or
emptying tanks.

2. If a conventional Jumbo Derrick is employed, then the rigging plan should be referred to
with regard to the positioning of Preventer Backstays to support any mast structure.

3. A careful check on the condition of the derrick and associated gear should be made before
commencing the lift. Particular attention should be paid to the SWL of shackles, blocks and

4. Ensure all the ships moorings are taut and that men are standing by to tend as necessary.
Fenders should be pre-rigged and the gangway lifted clear of the quayside.

5. All cargo winches affecting the load should be placed in double gear.

6. The deck area where the load is to be landed should be clear of obstructions, and heavy
bearers laid to accept and spread the deck weight.

7. The ships deck capacity plans should be checked to ensure that the deck space is capable
of supporting the load.

8. The winch drivers and controller should be seen to be competent, and all non-essential
personnel should be clear of the lifting area.

9. Any ships side rails in the way of the load should be lowered or removed and any barges
secured to the ships side should be cast off.

10. Steadying lines should be secured to the load itself and to the collar of the floating block if

11. All relevant heads of departments should be advised before commencing the lift.

12. Use the designated lifting points and take the weight slowly. Stop, and inspect all round
once the load clears the deck, before allowing the lift to continue.

Note: If loading a weight by means of a floating crane, Chief Officers must check that the port of discharge
has equivalent lifting apparatus, on the basis that the ships gear will not be viable for discharge.

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Stability detail
It must be anticipated that the vessel will go to an angle of heel when making the lift with the
derrick extended. This angle of heel should be calculated and the loss of metacentric height (GM)
ascertained prior to commencing the lift. Clearly, any loss of positive stability should be kept to a
minimum and to this end any frees surface effects in the ships tanks should be eliminated or
reduced wherever possible.

Elements for consideration for heavy-lift transports:

1. Overall size-dimensions of the load
2. Weight of the load
3. Weight of lifting accessories
4. SWL of Lifting elements
5. Weather conditions
6. Positive stability of transporting vessel
7. Density of water in load and discharge ports
8. Ballast arrangements for trim and list of vessel
9. Passage plan of transport route
10. Fuel burn on route
11. Speed and ETA of passage
12. Loadline zone requirements not infringed
13. Method of discharge
14. Facilities of discharge Port
15. Manpower requirements for loading/shipping/and discharging
16. Documentation for the load
17. Specialist handling personnel
18. Communication facilities to accommodate loading/discharge
19. Securing arrangements for load on route
20. Load management on voyage.

Planning the stow

1. Nature of the cargo:

Stowage can be below deck or on deck, depending on the nature of the cargo.
If the cargo is unlikely to be damaged due to moisture and weather, then it can be
planned to be stowed on deck
If IMDG cargo, it may have to be stowed on deck
The dimensions of the cargo becomes a factor to decide if it can be stowed on deck
or under deck, as it may not fit under deck.
If it is decided to stow under deck, it has to be loaded on the square of the hatch,
and it cannot be moved to the fore and aft or the sides.
If the cargo is on wheels it can be loaded on the square of the hatch and then moved
to the sides.

2. Stability of the Vessel

If loaded on deck, ensure that departure stability condition of the vessel has been
calculated and checked to be within permissible limits.

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3. View from the bridge
Stowage and height of the cargo to be such that it does not obstruct the view from
the bridge.
IMO criteria View of the sea surface from the bridge should not be obscured by
more than 2 ships length or 500 mtrs whichever is lesser, forward of the bow to 10
deg on either side, irrespective of the ships draught or trim.

4. Access to important deck Machinery and safety equipments

Easy access to sounding pipes, air pipes, fire hydrants, emergency fire pump, booby
hatch entrance, entrance to hatches, forward stations and important deck
Also access to the top of the cargo may be necessary to tighten the lashings.

5. Vessels Lifting gear

Check if the vessels lifting gear can lift the cargo prior accepting the cargo. Consider
loading with shore crane.

6. Disport Facilities
Check if in the disport, has facilities to discharge the cargo. If vessel has loaded with
shore crane then it is important to check if the disport has the proper gear to
discharge the cargo.

7. Acceleration
Heavy lifts to be stowed in the place where the acceleration due to the motion of the
vessel is least.
Pitching and rolling results in change of direction during motion . This is called
Force= Mass X acceleration. Hence the total force acting on the lashings when the
ship is in motion is increased.
Choose a place where there is least acceleration. You will find the details in Chapter
5 of cargo securing manual.

8. Load density
The load density of the deck should be such that it will be able to carry the weight of
the cargo.
If load density is not sufficient, the weight can be spread by laying dunnage.
Allow for 5% weight for heavy seas that may be shipped on deck.

9. Use of dunnage
Dunnage can be used to spread the load and create friction between the deck and
the cargo.
Choose dunnage of max width and grains are straight .
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Lay the dunnage such that grains are parallel to the deck.
3 inch thickness dunnage may be used. If not available achieve the thickness by use 1
inch thick dunnage nailed together.
There have been instances where the cargo was well secured, but unfortunately the
dunnage was laid along the curved grains. During the voyage the dunnage gave way
and the lashings got slackened and the cargo was damaged.

10.Shoring up on Main deck

In exceptional circumstances, if the load is excessive then shoring up of the main
deck and tween deck has to be done.
The deck on which the cargo is loaded can be supported from below by means of
Shores are wooden planks of sufficient strength that are nailed togather.
The shores are made to fit the height of the deck, and placed at various intervals.

11.Securing Points
While planning the stowage of heavy lifts, the availability of securing points such as
deck eyes and eye pads to be considered.
Consult the cargo securing manual for designated securing points and strength of the
Also the securing points on the cargo should be identified and checked suitability.
The eye pads welded on the cargo should not be assumed to be the securing points
as they may be for road transportation.

Rigging of Heavy lift Gear- If the cargo loaded exceeds the SWL of the gear

Doubling up
If the cargo load exceeds the SWL of the derrick, then the runner can be doubled up.
The cargo runner after passing through the head block, is made fast to the head of
the derrick.

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The runner is made fast to the derrick head by means of a spider band. If spider band
is not available, then pad the derrick head with canvass and a half hitch of the runner
is taken around the derrick.
A snatch block of sufficient SWL is inserted in the bight thus formed.
The hook of the snatch block is used to lift the load.
Thus an arrangement of gun tackle is made so that the SWL is not exceeded.

Precautions prior to and during loading of heavy lift

The vessel must be upright

The stability of the vessel must be calculated taking into account the weight of the
cargo plus slings and the height of the derrick head.
All ballast tanks to be pressed up
All the moorings to be tended and tightened and barges alongside to be cast off.
The chosen place of storage to be cleaned and dried and clear of oil
Dunnage area calculated taking into account the load density of the deck and the
weight of the cargo + 5% of heavy seas.
Dunnage should be laid making sure that the grains are parallel to the deck
Ensure rigging is as per rigging plan
Winch drivers and signal man should be experienced
The area of operation to be cleared of persons not required for the operation
Slew the derrick to its full reach and back to ensure that the heel fittings are free and
the guy leads are clear
Check if the sling used is appropriate for the load being lifted
Verify the slinging points on the cargo
Connect up the sling to the cargo
Winches to be put on double gear where appropriate
Attach a steadying line to the heavy lift.

Procedure for lifting

Lift the cargo a few inches from the ground and hold it steady. Now check all the
riggings when the load is suspended
Hoisting should be done very slowly and there should be no jerks.
Slewing should not be done when hoisting. The forces on the guys place a great
strain on the goose neck when the boom is high. Slewing should be done at the
lowest possible position of the derrick boom.
The most dangerous part of the procedure is during lowering. If it is necessary to
stop and it is done with a jerky motion or too suddenly, the stresses on the gear may
be raised to a dangerous level and will contribute to the failure of some part of the

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Stresses are also increased if hoisted too rapidly.

The guys should never be slack during the operation
If due to some reason, if is not possible to lower the cargo in the designated place,
do not rest on the deck or keep suspended for long. Return it to the quay.
Use steadying line to guide the lift and align it
Ensure that the bedding of the heavy lift rests on the dunnage placed on the ear
marked area.

Securing of heavy lifts

Importance of securing
The heavy lift damage and loss overboard is caused due to the following reasons
Severe adverse weather conditions
Lack of appreciation of the various forces involved
Ignorance of the relevant rules and guiding recommendations
Insufficient time and personnel allowed to complete lashings prior departure
Dunnage not utilized and laid in proper manner
Inadequate strength and number of lashings
Incorrect methods of using bull dog grips
Taking lashing materials around unprotected sharp edges

While lashing you must take into consideration the motions of the vessel and the
consequent accelerations.
The rolling period of the vessel is an important indicator to plan the strength of lashing.
A stiff vessel will have violent roll and the accelerations generated will be enormous.

Guidelines for securing

The cargo should be secured under the supervision of an experienced and

knowledgeable person
Lashing s to the done assuming that the vessel is going to encounter severe weather
on the very night of departure
Vessels cargo securing manual to be consulted to plan the securing arrangement.
The lashings should be able to withstand a rolling of 30 deg in a 13 sec rolling period
The cargo shifts before it lifts. Hence tie it down well.
The lashings should be short and the tension should be equal in all the lashing wires
Do not mix different lashing materials for a single cargo.
Use bull dog grips rather than soft eyes. Ensure correct use of bull dog grips
Eye splices will be time consuming and the strength of the wire in the tucked area
will be reduced upto 80%. Bull dog grips can achieve upto 90% of the holding power.

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Use of bull dog grips
o Spacing of bull dog grips should be 6 times the diameter of the wire
o The saddle part of the grip should be on the live ( working / hauling ) part of the
wire. In other words, the U bolt should be on the dead end. Refer Code of safe
working practice for Merchant seaman.
o The grips should be greased to make it effective.
o While tightening the grips, you should be able to see the visible compression of the
wire by the grips
o It is advisable to make an eye and leave it overnight before use
o The number of grips should be as per the dia of the wire.
Upto 19 mm 3 grips
19 mm to 32 mm 4 grips
32 to 38 mm 5 grips
38 to 44 mm 6 grips
Over 44 mm 7 grips

Strength of Lashings:

The department of Transport UK has given the following instructions regarding

strength of lashings.
When severe weather conditions of wind force 6 and above and the associated wave
heights are encountered atleast for the part of the voyage, then

Lashings used to secure cargo or vehicles should have a breaking load of atleast 3
times the design load.
The design load = Total weight of cargo + acceleration of
0.7g athwartships
1.0 g vertically
0.3 g longitudinally

To put into practical terms means:

Vertical holding power:

The total holding power ( in tones) of all the lashings holding the cargo vertically down
on the deck shall be equal to 3 times the static weight of the cargo in tones.
i.e. for a 10 tonne cargo, the total holding power of the lashing shall be 30 tonnes

Athwartships holding power:

The holding power ( in tones) of all the lashings preventing the cargo moving from port
to starboard should be equal to 70% of the vertical holding power.
i.e. for 10 tonnes cargo athwartship lashings shall be 21 tonnes

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Longitudinal holding power:
The holding power ( in tones) of all the lashings preventing the cargo moving fore and
aft shall be 30% of the vertical holding power.
i.e. for a 10 tonnes cargo longitudinal holding power to be 9 tonnes.

Material MSL (SWL)

Shackles, rings, deck eyes,

turnbuckles of mild steel 50% of breaking strength

Fiber rope 33% of breaking strength

Web lashing 50% of breaking strength

Wire rope (single use) 80% of breaking strength

Wire rope (re-usable) 30% of breaking strength

Steel Band (single use) 70% of breaking strength

Chains 50% of breaking strength

Timber 0.3kN per cm2 normal

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Containerization resulted directly from the crisis that faced many of the world major liner
companies in the early 1960s. Liner shipping was increasingly suffering from the severe financial
burdens placed on it by the current technological state of cargo handling in port. The loading and
discharging of large numbers of individual packages,boxes,bags,crates etc.of bewildering varieties of
shapes and sizes caused long turnaround times in port and huge wastage in the capital invested in
In the USA and slightly later also in Australia ,whose shipping industries suffered from extremely
high cost levels as well as maritime union militancy , containers were introduced as a radical
measure to turn the tide. Instead of handling various differently sized parcels ships now loaded a
much smaller number of rectangular standard sized boxes that a crane could stack one top of
One of the pioneering companies named SeaLand rapidly expanded its network around American
coast In the process two standard size boxes emerged with dimensions 20 x 8 x 8 and 40 x 8 x 8

Container Ship (Cargo Operation)

Container Ship is a type of ship specially designed for carrying containerized cargo.
Cargoes are packed into huge, standardized containers for more efficient shipment.

A Freight container is an article of transport equipment having the following characteristics:
i) It is of permanent character and strong enough for repeated use
ii) It is designed to facilitate the transport of goods by more than one mode of transport viz. road,
rail, and sea.
iii) It is fitted with devices permitting easy handling especially when transferring from one to
another mode
iv) It is designed to be easy to fill and empty
v) It has an internal volume of 1 m3 or more

The dimensions of container have been standardized by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
ISO recommended dimensions are as follows:
Length 40 feet 12,192 mm
30 feet 9,125 mm
20 feet 6,058 mm
10 feet 2,991 mm
Height 8 feet 2,438 mm
8 6 2,591 mm
Width 8 feet 2,438 mm

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Container Identification & Markings
A container is marked on the side and end walls with the
Container No.
Container code
Gross weight
Net weight
Tare weight
Cubic capacity

Container Identification & Markings

The owner code must be unique and registered with the International Container Bureau (BIC
Bureau International des Containers
The container identification system specified in DIN EN ISO 6346 consists solely of the elements
shown, which can only be used together:
Owner code, consisting of three capital letters
Product group code, consisting of one of capital letters U, J or Z

Container No.
Consists of six digits followed by a check digit within a square
example MSCU 123456 0
check digit is a function of first six digits. If a container No. is entered into a computer with any
one digit including the check digit wrong the computer will not accept it.

Container code
Consists of four letters & four numerals e.g MSCU 2210
First three MSC Indicate owner,
U Product group code,
(Ufor all freight containers, J for detachable freight contr related equipment,& Z for trailers
& chasis)
Next is the size code whose
First digit indicates length, 220, 440
Second digit indicates height :
0 = 8 00
2 = 8 6 for 20 length
3 = 8 6 for 40 length
4 = more than 8 6
6 = 4 00
8 = 4 3
9 = less than 4 0
3 digit indicates the type of container
0 Closed container
1 Closed container, ventilated
2 Insulated and heated container
3 Refrigerated container
4 Refrigerated with removable equipment
5 Open top container
6 Platform

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7 Tank container
8 Bulk container & livestock. 9 Air container
The fourth digit specifies the precise sub category of container within the above types
The last two digits are known as the
Type code

Meaning of Code Markings on a Container

Safety Approval Plate
In addition, Every approved container must carry a permanently fixed
Safety Approval Plate in a readily visible place where it will not be easily damaged. On a closed
container this is normally on one of its doors
The Safety Approval Plate should be a permanent, noncorrosive, fireproof rectangular plate
measuring not less than 200 mm x 100 mm. The plate should be headed CSC SAFETY APPROVAL (A)
in letters at least 8 mm high and all other information on it should be in letters or figures at least 5
mm high. The information should be in at least the English or French language. The following
information should be included on the Safety Approval Plate:

Customs Plate
Another plate called the customs plate is fitted as part of or separate from CSC plate. It contains the
statement that the container is
Approved for Transport under customs seal
This approval is given when the locking and sealing arrangements and the container has passed the survey

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Diagrammatic Display Cellular Container Ship

Bay, Rows, Tiers

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Tier Numbering System

Numbering System of Bay, Row, and Tier

Cell positions are to be identified by the following three factors:

Bay: To be counted in the direction from fore to aft.

Row: To be counted in the direction from the ships centre line to portside or starboard side.

Tier:In the vertical direction from bottom to upward.

01 02 06
Bay Number Row Number Tier Number
Bay Numbering
Bay numbers are indicated by odd numbers starting from Fore to aft., for 20 foot containers.
01, 03, 05, 07, etc.
Bay Numbering
When a pair of 20 footer bays is used as a 40 footer bay (either fixed or convertible), this 40footer
bay is represented by an even number.
A 40footer bay, consisting of, or converted from, two 20footer bays, 05 and 07, is numbered 06.
Bay Numbering
Therefore, the bay numbers of 20 footer bays and 40 footer bays are as follows respectively:
20 footer bays: 01, 03, 09, 11, 29, 31, 33, 35

40 footer bays: 10 30 34
Row Numbering
Row numbers are to be countered from the centre line to portside or starboard side.
Portside: Even numbers 02, 04, 06, 08
Stbd side: Odd numbers 01, 03, 05, 07,

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Tier numbers start from 02, in the lowest, location of a bay.
Tier numbers of containers stowed on deck start from 82 and are counted from first tier to upward,
such as 82, 84, 86, etc.
Stowage Plan / Bay Plan
Tier Numbering
Tier numbers start from 02, in the lowest, location of a bay.
Tier numbers of containers stowed on deck start from 82 and are counted from first tier to upward,
such as 82, 84, 86, etc.
Abbreviations and Symbols Commonly Used
Stowage Plan (Bay Plan)

1 9
12 10 08 06 04 02 00 01 03 05 07 09 11
86 + + + + 2
84 9 + + + + 3.2

82 9 + + + + 6.1

16 Legend
12 1 TYO
10 2 NGO
08 3 UKB
10 08 06 04 02 01 03 05 07 09

2 1
12 10 08 06 04 02 00 01 03 05 07 09 11
86 e e e e 3
82 r r r r 4

16 e e
14 e e
12 e e
10 e e 5
08 e
10 08 06 04 02 01 03 05 07 09

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Types of containers
Containers fall into two broad categories
General Cargo and
Specific Cargo containers.


1. General purpose containers: A general purpose container is a container which is totally enclosed and
weatherproof, has a rigid roof, rigid side walls, rigid end walls at least one of which is equipped with doors,
and a floor. It is intended to be suitable for the transport of cargo in the greatest possible variety. A general
purpose container having an opening roof may be used for the same specific purpose as an open top
2. Specific purpose containers:
A specific purpose container is one which has constructional features specifically for the purpose of
facilitating packing or emptying the container other than by means of doors at one end of the
container, or constructional features, for other specific purposes such as ventilation. Closed vented
or ventilated containers, open top containers, platform containers and platform based containers
are all types of specific purpose containers.
2.1 Closed vented or ventilated containers:
A closed vented or ventilated container is a closed type of container similar to a general purpose
container but designed to allow air exchange between its interior and the outside atmosphere.
Vented containers are containers which have passive vents at the upper part of their cargo space.
Ventilated containers are containers which have a ventilating system designed to accelerate and
increase the natural convection of the atmosphere within the container as uniformly as possible,
either by nonmechanical vents at both the upper and lower parts of their cargo space, or by
internal or external mechanical means.
2.2 Open top containers: An open top container is similar to a general purpose container in all respects
except that it has no rigid roof. It may have a flexible and moveable or removable cover, e.g. of canvas,
plastic or reinforced plastic material. The cover is normally supported on movable or removable roof
bows. Open top containers may have movable or removable end transverse members (known as
removable headers) above their end doors.
2.3 Platform containers:
A platform container is a loadable platform that has no superstructure whatsoever but is the same length
and width as a container of the same series. It is equipped with top and bottom corner fittings which are
located in plan view as on series 1 containers so that the same securing and lifting devices can be used.
2.4 Platform based containers:
A platform based container is an open sided container with no side walls but has a base similar to that of a
platform container. It may have a complete superstructure with a permanent fixed longitudinal load
carrying structure between the two ends at the top or it may have an incomplete superstructure without
such a longitudinal structure at the top.
A platform based container which incorporates a complete superstructure may have a rigid roof and rigid
end walls, an open top and rigid end walls or an open top and open ends (a skeletal container). A platform

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based container which incorporates an incomplete superstructure may have fixed ends or folding ends.
The latter are often referred to as flatracks.


A specific cargo container is a container primarily intended for the carriage of particular categories of
cargo. Specific cargo containers include the following types:

3.1 Thermal containers:

A thermal container is a container that has insulating walls, doors, floor and roof. Thermal containers
may be: insulated with no device for cooling and/or heating, refrigerated using expendable
refrigerants such as ice, 'dry ice' (solid carbon dioxide), or liquefied gasses, and with no external power
or fuel supply,
.1 mechanically refrigerated served by a refrigerating appliance such as a mechanical
compressor unit or an absorption unit. These containers are often known as reefers,
.2 porthole refrigerated by cold air from an external source introduced through a porthole,
.3 heated served by heatproducing appliances, or,
.4 refrigerated and heated.

3.2 Tank containers: A tank container is a container which includes two basic elements, the tank
or tanks, and the framework.
3.3 Dry bulk containers: A dry bulk container is a container which consists of a cargo carrying
structure for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging and which is firmly secured
within an ISO series 1 framework.

3.4 Named cargo containers:

Named cargo types of containers are containers built in general accordance with ISO
standards either solely or principally for the carriage of named cargo such as cars or

Preparations for Entering Harbor
Harbor Circumstances
Adjust the ballast water to the optimum condition.
Unlocking of Hatch Covers
Confirm the Bay Plan, open hatch covers and make the necessary preparations
to unload.
Check the safety of the deck passageways and those between hatches to ensure
the safety of the cargo work.

Discussion before Cargo Work

Loading plan, crane to be used and cargo work sequence.
Change of Destination cargoes, and the re-handling plan.

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Dangerous cargoes and their stowage location.
Stowage location of reefer containers
Estimated time of completion of cargo operations.
Planned repairs which may affect cargo work.

General Precautions during Cargo Watch

Control of ship's draught, trim, list, etc.
Ample illumination of work place at night time.
Setting up of stanchions and ropes when hatch covers are opened etc.
Check of stowage locations of dangerous goods and refrigerated containers
Take note of cargo operation time and estimation of completion time.
Check of container lashing
Attendance at hatch opening and closing.
Adjust ballast as required
When gantry crane is traveling, be careful with the possible contact with masts,
funnel, gangways, etc.
Duties of OOW
Check the labels affixed on four sides of the container.
Stowage shall be in the planned location.
There shall be no leakage.
Containers shall not be damaged.
Prior loading ensure all emergency equipment is in readiness
Inform the charterer in the event of abnormality.

Precautions during Voyage

Watch out for leaking of dangerous cargoes.
Ventilate cargo hold before entering.
Any abnormal odor, check for safety by means of gas detectors

Precautions for Reefer Containers

Successful transportation is dependent on the carriage instructions, which define
the conditions in which the goods are to be carried. If these instructions are
incomplete, inadequate, contradictory, or wrong, then problems can be
expected. For the shipper, there is the risk of loss of cargo. For the carrier, there
is the risk of a claim even if the goods are undamaged.
Precautions for Reefer Containers
The responsibility for specifying carriage instructions is that of the shipper, the
owner of the goods. Only the shipper knows the full nature of the goods, their
prior history and their requirements.
Precautions for Reefer Containers
1. Shipper to provide the vessel at least following information through REEFER
Container number

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Commodity stuffed inside the container - Whether frozen or chilled
Temperature to be maintained
Precautions for Reefer Containers
Prior loading check that plug points are okay and sufficient spares are carried.
Position of reefer machinery and plug point to be informed to gantry operator
On loading, plug in the reefer and check working of machinery
Check temp reading and compare with set temp as mentioned in manifest
Check temp chart (Partlow chart) for any difference between the actual and that
being recorded. Check date,time and proper working of chart.
Precautions for Reefer Containers
New contrs have electronic data Recording which cannot be adjusted.
Once on board ensure container is lashed properly
Prior sailing, detailed list of reefers on board, their location and temp settings is
During sailing reefers are checked twice daily as per companys instructions.
On arrival, disconnect reefers prior discharge

Factors should be taken into account before accepting a containership cargo

stowage plan:
1. Stacking Weights
Prior loading cargo, stacking weights of containers must be checked against the
allowable stack weights on board the vessel both on deck and under deck. Neglecting
above may cause serious damage to ships structure, hull and eventually overall
stability of ship may get affected.

2. Dangerous goods stowage and segregation

After confirming acceptability of the DG cargo, the plan must be checked for proper
stowage and segregation. Although terminal and central planners should provide
proper stow of DG cargo, the final responsibility always lies with the Master.

3. Reefer Container Stowage

Stowage location of reefers must be checked against vessels reefer receptacle
locations. In case reefer containers must be loaded in irregular locations, it must be
confirmed that monitoring and repair will be possible during the voyage and that
vessel has sufficient extension cables for providing power.

4. Out of Gauge Container Stowage

Out of gauge containers are usually stowed underdeck and in case of an On Deck
Stow, careful consideration will be required. Local planner or agent may be requested
for such approval prior loading.

5. Special Container Stowage

When stowing high cube containers on deck, visibility from bridge must be considered
in case several high cube containers are in the same stack. When stowing these Under
Deck, Hatch cover clearance must be considered.

6. 20 or 40 or 45 feet Compulsory Stowage Locations

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7. How to check Irregular Stowage of Containers

Stacking Weights Lashing Strength Special Container Stowage Over-stow of
Containers Dangerous Cargo Stowage & Segregation 20 or 40 or 45 feet Compulsory
Stowage Locations.

8. Over-stow of Containers
The duty of the Terminal planner/ Central planner is to carefully plan the loading on
board so as to ensure minimum or no overstow of containers that will require to be re-
stowed at subsequent ports.

9. Hatch Cover Clearance (High cube containers Under Deck )

Hatch Cover Clearance (High cube containers Under Deck ) Hatch cover clearance
must be checked carefully in case of loading over height containers or high cube
containers underdeck.

10. Other matters regarding cargo stowage as necessary

If any other irregularities are found in the stowage plan they must be corrected by
liaising with Terminal planner / Central planner or local agent.

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Classes, divisions, packing groups
Substances (including mixtures and solutions) and articles subject to the provisions
of this Code are assigned to one of the classes 1 -9 according to the hazard or the
most predominant of the hazards they present. Some of these classes are
subdivided into divisions. These classes or divisions are as listed below
IMDG Code Classification System
Class 1 - Explosives
Class 2 Gases
Class 3 - Flammable liquids
Class 4 - Flammable solids
Class 5 - Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
Class 6 - Toxic and infectious substances
Class 7 - Radioactive material
Class 8 - Corrosive substances
Class 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

These 9 hazard classes have been established internationally by a United Nations

(UN) committee to ensure that all modes of transport (road, rail, air and sea)
classify dangerous goods in the same way.

Classes, divisions, packing groups

Class 1: Explosives
Division 1.1: substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2: substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a
mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor
blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion
Division 1.4: substances and articles which present no significant hazard
Division 1.5: very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.6: extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion

Class 2: Gases
Class 2.1: flammable gases
Class 2.2: non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Class 2.3: toxic gases

Class 4: Flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion;

substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Class 4.1: flammable solids, self-reactive substances and desensitized
Class 4.2: substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Class 4.3: substances, which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases

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Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides

Class 5.1: oxidizing substances
Class 5.2: organic peroxides

Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances

Class 6.1: toxic substances
Class 6.2: infectious substances

Packing, Marking, labelling and placarding

Meaning of
Effectively closed Liquid tight Closure
Hermetically closed- Gas tight Closure
Securely closed - Dry contents cannot escape during normal handling

Packing, Marking, labelling and placarding

1. Dangerous goods to be packed in good quality packings (free from
corrosion, rust, contamination or other damages)
2. Strong enough to withstand shocks / stresses experienced while loading &
normal transport taking into account all modes by which they may be
3. Packagings should be such that the contents of package do not get altered
due to vibrations, changes in temp, pressure or humidity
4. Provisions apply to new, reused, reconditioned, remanufactured, packings.
5. No dangerous material should adhere to out side of the packings.
6. Packings should be of approved design
7. Where necessary they should be provided with inner coating. The inside
must not get deteriorated due to contact with dangerous goods (nor
should it initiate a reaction with the dangerous goods
8. When packagings are filled with liquid, ullage space must be left to allow
for expansion of the liquid.
9. Cushioning material / Absorbent material used should be adequate for the
required purpose
10. Pkgs containg DG which emit gases should be hermetically sealed ( vent
may be fitted if reqd)
11. Inner pkgs (which have carried DG in past should be treated as if it still
contains that DG unless cleaned)
12. Leakproofness test for pkgs intended for liquids

Marking, labelling and placarding

Packages containing dangerous goods shall be durably marked with the correct
technical name; trade names alone shall not be used.
Packages containing dangerous goods shall be provided with distinctive labels or
stencils of the labels, or placards, as appropriate, so as to make clear the dangerous
properties of the goods contained therein.
The method of marking the correct technical name and of affixing labels or applying
stencils of labels, or of affixing placards on packages containing dangerous goods,
shall be such that this information will still be identifiable on packages surviving at
least three months immersion in the sea. In considering suitable marking, labelling
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and placarding methods, account shall be taken of the durability of the materials
used and of the surface of the package.
Packages containing dangerous goods shall be so marked and labelled EXCEPT
.1 packages containing dangerous
dangerous goods of a low degree of hazard or packed in
limited quantities or
.2 when special circumstances permit, packages that are stowed and handled in
units that are identified by labels or placards; may be exempted from labelling

Identification of Dangerous Goods by PSN and UN Number

The hazard presented by each class is identified by a internationally accepted
hazard warning label (diamond) and this appears on the dangerous goods when
they are being transported as a warning to all those working within the transport
chain or coming into contact with those goods.
These hazard warning labels are pictured inside the front cover of Volume 1 of the
Within each of the 9 hazard classes dangerous goods are uniquely identified by two
pieces of information:
1. A 4-digit
digit number known as the UN Number which is preceded by the letters UN;
2. The corresponding Proper Shipping Name (PSN).
For example, kerosene is identified in the IMDG Code by its PSN Kerosene and the
corresponding UN Number UN 1223.1223
Using a four-digit
digit number to identify dangerous goods enhances safety by:

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Overcoming language barriers - the four-digit number is easily understood in all
Avoiding confusing similar names - e.g. TITANIUM POWDER, WETTED UN 1352
which is a flammable solid in class 4.1 and has very different transport
requirements to TITANIUM POWDER, DRY UN 2546 which is spontaneously
combustible in class 4.2.

EmS Emergency Schedules

EmS Emergency Schedules
There are 10 Fire &
26 Spillage schedule
The Dangerous Goods List (column 15) in vol.2 contains references to the
emergency schedules for spillage or fire for individual UN numbers.
The first code is the fire schedule and
Second code is the spillage schedule
Fire schedule
There are 10 fire schedules including a general fire schedule (F-A) and nine further
schedules (F-B to F-J) dealing with particular group of hz goods. The schedule starts
with general comments on the danger of the cargo
Followed by sections dealing with cargoes on fire on deck, cargoes on fire under
deck and cargoes exposed to fire

Spillage schedule
The 26 spillage schedules start with S-A, toxic substances and end with S-Z, toxic
explosives. The sections generally correspond to the fire schedule ones but there is
more differentiation between small and large spillages

Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG)

In case of an emergency involving Hz goods the MFAG in the supplement to the
IMDG code should be reffered to this is arranged in three sections:-
A flowchart based emergency action and diagnosis
Tables giving brief instructions for special circumstances
Appendices giving comprehensive information. A list of medicines/drugs and a list of
chemicals referred to in the table.

MFAG Table No. The Medical first aid guide for use in accidents involving
Dangerous Goods is a supplement to the IMDG code. After looking up the MFAG
table no. ,see the table in the MFAG. It gives likely signs, symptoms, treatment and
other advice as per the effect of goods under that table. It suggests treatment in
case of skin contact, eye contact, inhalation and ingestion. The procedure for
treatment are also mentioned.

Dangerous goods belonging to different classes cannot be stowed together.
They have to be segregated from one another and the type of segregation depends
on the properties of substances in each class and the way they react with
substances in each classes. The extent of the hazard arising from the possible
reaction between incompatible dangerous goods may vary and so the segregation
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arrangements required may also vary as appropriate. Such segregation is obtained
by maintaining certain distances between incompatible dangerous goods or by
requiring the presence of one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them, or a
combination there of. Intervening spaces between such dangerous goods may be
filled with other cargo

Types of Segregation
1. Away from
2. Separated from
3. Separated by a complete compartment or hold from
4. Separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or
hold from

Segregation for containers

1 Away from:
Vertical : One on top of the other permitted
Fore & Aft: No restriction
Athwartship: No restriction

2 Separated from:
Vertical : Not in the same vertical line unless segregated by a deck
Fore& Aft : One container space on deck and one container or one
bulkhead when under deck
Athwartship : One container space

3 Separated by a complete compartment or hold from :

Vertical : Not in the same vertical line unless separated by a deck
Fore& Aft : One container space on deck and one bulkhead when under
Athwartship : Two container space or one bulkhead.

4 Seperated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from :

Vertical : Prohibited
Fore & Aft : Minimum horizontal distance of 24 meter on deck and 24
meter or one bulkhead under deck
Athwartship : Prohibited.

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1. Away From:-
May be carried in the same compt or on deck provided a minimum horizontal
separation of 3 m projected vertically is maintained.

2. Separated From:-
Can be carried in the same compartment if the intervening deck is resistant to fire
and liquids otherwise separate holds. On deck a horizontal separation of atleast

3. Separated by a complete compt. or hold:-

There must be either a vertical or longitudinal separation by a complete
compartment or hold and two bulkheads or decks resistant to fire and liquids.
On deck- a horizontal separation of 12m even if 0ne package is stowed below deck.

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4. Separated Longitudinally by an Intervening complete compt or hold
A vertical separation is not allowed. The packages must be horizontally separated
by a complete compartment.
On deck a horizontal separation of at least 24 mtr is required and between an on
deck and under deck package 24m + an intervening compartment.

Segregation Table

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1)Document of Compliance
Ships of the following descriptions:-
Passenger ships constructed on or after 1 sept 1984
All other ships of 500 tons or over constructed on or after 1 sept 1984
All other ships of under 500 tons constructed on or after 1 Feb 1992
that are intended, or that have cargo spaces intended for carriage of dangerous
goods on international voyages, must carry a Document of compliance.
The DOC will certify that the ship complies with Regulation 54 of chapter II-2 to the
international convention for the safety of Life at sea 1974 (SOLAS 74)
Limited to 5 years from the date of issue.
It is issued by the flag state after a survey.
This document is usually in the form of a diagram showing all the spaces on board
in which DG can be loaded. A table then sets out the classes of DG that the ship is
allowed to carry and the spaces in which these classes can be carried.
The document also states additional requirements that must be fulfilled prior to
carrying the DG or marine pollutants. This may include additional fire fighting
equipment or ventilation in holds required for certain classes of DG.
The appendix to this document contains information indicating class wise allowable
locations for stowage of dangerous goods on board.

2) Dangerous goods Manifest

Each ship carrying DG and marine pollutants shall have on board a special list or
manifest setting out the dangerous goods and marine pollutants on board and their
locations, instead of the manifest a detailed stowage plan, which identifies all DG by
classes and sets out their location may be used.
The DG declaration is used as a basis for making the manifest and shall contain at
least the information from DG declaration and, in addition, should contain the
stowage position and total quantity of DG or marine pollutants

3) Dangerous Goods Declaration

This is a signed certificate or declaration by shipper that the consignment, as
offered for carriage, is properly packaged, marked, labeled or placarded as
appropriate and in proper condition for carriage.

This declaration may be combined with the container packing certificate as required
by the pertinent regulation of SOLAS and MARPOL conventions and the IMDG code.
DG Declarations shall be filed on board and maintained discharge port wise.
The regulations governing the carriage of DG by sea casts a responsibility on the
shipper of goods to provide a DG declaration.
This should include the following details:-
a. Proper shipping name (PSN)
b. UN number
c. Hazard class
d. Packing group - Great danger PG-I, Medium danger PG II, Minor danger PG
e. Subsidiary Risk- this is an additional risk that may be present in certain
goods e.g. a corrosive substancemay also be flammable.

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f. Marine pollutant
g. No. of packages total no. of packages to be transported as a unit
h. Total Quantity total volume or mass in kilograms is stated for each item of
i. If the DG are transported according to the exceptions for DG packed in limited
quantities then the words Limited Quantities shall be included.
j. Flash point

Any other information required by the IMDG code or local regulation. This will
include additional information such as 24 hour emergency contact no.

4) Emergency response Information

May be in the form of separate documents, safety data sheets or the Emergency
Response Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods (EMS Guide) for use in
conjunction with the transport document and the Medical First Aid Guide for Use in
Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG

5) Updated dangerous cargo list

Where required for reporting to port authorities, the Chief Officer shall prepare an
updated dangerous cargo list.
This list shall contain at least the following information: Stow position, Container
number, Line operator, Port of loading / discharge, DG class, UN number, proper
shipping name, weight, flash point and EMS

6) Dangerous cargo stowage plan

(Indicating DG class & location) along with a dangerous cargo list (indicating
Location, Container number, DG class and UN number) &
These along with any special guidelines from shippers, shall be kept on Bridge (for
ready reference of the watch keeping officer) and in Fire wallets at gangways.

Precautions When loading / Unloading DG

1. Documentation in order (Shippers declaration, container packing cert.
Emgcy information)
2. All cargo operations supported by a responsible officer
3. Cargo handling equipment checked before use
4. No cargo handling under adverse weather conditions
5. Packaging and segregation as per IMDG code
6. All goods properly labeled, No labels defaced or removed
7. Cargo handled carefully by handling kept to minimum
8. Tanks not overfilled
9. Fire wires rigged if necessary
10. Emergency equipment available for fire/spillage
11. Suitable precautions against fire and explosion (e.g. sources of ignition,
repair work,warning notice, No smoking etc.)
12. Packages to be stowed in a location which ensures protection against
accidental damage or heating
13. Cargo space properly ventilated. Vents to have flame screen
14. Safe access to packages so that they may be protected or moved in the
event of fire, (away from accom.)
15. Electrical fittings in good condition(no sparking)
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16. Protective clothing, BA sets available ( additional)
17. Display B flag / Red light

Reporting of incidents involving dangerous goods

As per SOLAS chapter VII, part A regulation 6
When an incident takes place involving the loss or likely loss overboard of packaged
dangerous goods into the sea, the master, or other person having charge of the
ship, shall report the particulars of such an incident without delay and to the fullest
extent possible to the nearest coastal State. The report shall be based on the
guidelines and general principles adopted by IMO for dangerous goods, harmful
substances and/or marine pollutants.
In the event of the ship referred to in paragraph 1 being abandoned, or in the event
of a report from such a ship being incomplete or unobtainable, the owner, charterer,
manager or operator of the ship, or their agents shall, to the fullest extent possible,
assume the obligations placed upon the master by this regulation.
The duty officer when he discovers an incident or accident has to immediately raise
the alarm and inform the Master regarding the same. The crew on deck should be
the first to renders assistance as well as start the clean up operations as well as try
to minimise the incident under the supervision of the duty officer as per the
guidelines laid down for that cargo as per the IMDG code and the Dangerous cargo

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Oil Tanker
Loading procedural checklist
Company policy on loading procedures vary and Cargo Officers should adhere to the
company procedures and take additional reference from the International Safety Guide
for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT):

1. Complete and sign the ship/shore checklist

2. Establish an agreed communication network
3. Agree the loading plan by both parties and confirm in writing
4. Loading and topping off rates agreed
5. Emergency stop procedures and signals agreed
6. All effected tanks, lines, hoses inspected prior to commencing operations
7. Overboard valves sealed
8. All tanks and lines fully inerted
9. Inert gas (IG) system shut down
10. Pump room isolated and shut down
11. Ships lines set for loading
12. Off side manifolds shut and blanked off
13. All fire fighting and Ships Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP)
equipment in place
14. Notice of readiness accepted
15. First set of tanks and manifold valves open
16. Commence loading at a slow rate
17. Check and monitor the first tanks to ensure cargo is being received
18. Carry out line sample
19. Check all around the vessel and overside for leaks
20. Increase loading rate to full
21. Check ullages at half-hourly intervals and monitor flow rate to confirm
with shoreside figures
22. Check valves operate into next set of tanks prior to change over
23. Reduce loading rate when topping off final tank
24. Order stop in ample time to achieve the planned ullage/line draining
25. When the cargo flow has completely stopped close all valves
26. After settling time, take ullages, temperatures and samples
27. Ensure all log book entries are completed
28. Cause an entry to be made into the Oil Record Book.

Load on top
When a crude oil tanker completes discharge, a large quantity of oil (upto 2000 tonnes) may
be left adhering to the bulkheads. The load on top principle is a method designed to gather
all this oil and deposit it into a slop tank. Tank cleaning would be carried out in the normal
way drawing in sea water from either a ballast tank or directly from the sea suction. On
completion of tank cleaning the slop tank will contain all the tank washings, made up of a
mixture of oil and water (probably in the ratio of three parts water to one part oil). This
mixture will contain small particles of oil held in suspension in the water and water droplets

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will be suspended in the oil. For this reason the slop tank must be allowed to settle for up
to about 2 or 3 days. After this period of time the oil can be expected to be
floating on top of the water content.

Once settling out is completed the interface between the oil and the water levels must be
determined (usually carried out by an interface instrument). Once the level of water is
known, it is now possible to estimate the amount of water which can be discharged. The
pumps and pipelines would be cleaned of oil particles and the water in the tank can be
pumped out very carefully as the interface approaches the bottom. The main cargo pump is
stopped when the water depth is at about 1525 cm.

Alternative methods could be to pump the whole of the slop tank contents through an oily
water separator or the tank can be decanted from one tank to another. On arrival at the
loading port the new hot oil can be loaded on top of the remaining slops, which would have
been quantified prior to commencing loading of the new cargo. During the loaded passage
the old and new oils combine and any further water content sinks to the bottom of the tank.

On arrival at the discharge port, water dips are taken and the water quantity calculated. This
is then usually pumped direct to a shoreside slop tank. Once pure oil is drawn this can be
diverted to main shoreside oil tanks. The main purpose of load on top is to reduce the
possibility of oil pollution while the vessel is at sea while at the same time as carrying out a
full tankcleaning programme.

Aprocedure that is conducted during the discharge and which has positive advantages over
waterwashing methods. New crude oil carriers over 20 000 dwt tonnes must now be fitted
and use a COW facility. The method employs a highpressure jet of crude oil from fixed tank
cleaning equipment. The jet is directed at the structure of the tank and ensures that no
slops remain onboard after discharge, every last drop of cargogoing ashore. The advantages
are that tank cleaning at sea is avoided, with less likelihood of accidental pollution; less tank
corrosion is experienced than from water washing; increased carrying capacity is available
for the next cargo; full tank drainage is achieved; and time saved gas freeing for dry dock

Some disadvantages of the system include crew workload, which is increased at the port of
discharge; discharge time is increased; it has a high installation cost and maintenance costs
are increased, while crew need special training with operational aspects.

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Stage One: The limits to cover the top of the cycle would need to be adjusted to be pointing
upwards. Where portable drive units are employed these would have to be initially fitted
and limits set accordingly.

Stage Two: The second stage starts when onethird of the tank is discharged and the
washing jet will only be allowed to travel down to a point where the jet strikes the bulkhead
just above the level of the oil in the tank. At this stage the machine completes 112 cycles
and must therefore be adjusted, up again, before the start of the next stage.

Stage Three: The third stage is where the machine washes from where twothirds of the
tank has been discharged and between one and twothirds of the tanks structure is

Last Stage: The final stage washes the last third and the bottom of the tank with the jet
pointing in the downward position.

COW preparation and activities

Prior to arrival at the port of discharge:

1. Has the terminal been notified?
2. Is oxygenanalysing equipment tested and working satisfactorily?
3. Are tanks pressurized with good quality IG (maximum 8% oxygen)?
4. Is the tankwashing pipeline isolated from water heater and engine room?
5. Are all the hydrant valves on the tankwashing line securely shut?
6. Have all tankcleaning lines been pressurized and leakages made good?

In port:
1. Is the quality of the IG in the tanks satisfactory (8% oxygen or less)?
2. Is the pressure on the IG satisfactory?
3. Have all discharge procedures been followed and shiptoshore checklist completed?

Before washing:
1. Are valves open to machines on selected tanks for washing?
2. Are responsible persons positioned around the deck to watch for leaks?
3. Are tank ullage gauge floats lifted on respective tanks to be washed?
4. Is the IG system in operation?
5. Are all tanks closed to the outside atmosphere?
6. Have tanks positive IG pressure?

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During washing:
1. Are all lines oil tight?
2. Are tankwashing machines functioning correctly?
3. Is the IG in the tanks being retained at a satisfactory quality?
4. Is positive pressure available on the IG system?

After washing:
1. Are all the valves between discharge line and the tankwashing line shut down?
2. Has the tankwashing main pressure been equalized and the line drained?
3. Are all tankwashing machine valves shut?

After departure:
1. Have any tanks due for inspection been purged to below the critical dilution level prior to
introducing fresh air?
2. Has oil been drained from the tankwashing lines before opening hydrants to the deck?

The IG system
Tanker vessels have an inherent danger from fire and/or explosion and it is desirable that
the atmosphere above an oil cargo or in an empty tank is such that it will not support
combustion. The recognized method of achieving this status is to keep these spaces filled
with an IG. Such a system serves two main functions:
1. Use of IG inhibits fire or explosion risk
2. It inhibits corrosion inside cargo tanks.

As IG is used to control the atmosphere within the tanks it is useful to know exactly what
composition the gases are, not only from a safety point of view but to realize what affect
such an atmosphere would have on the construction of the tanks.

Boiler flu gas consists of the following mix (assuming a welladjusted boiler):

Component Percentage of IG
Nitrogen 83
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 13
Carbon monoxide 0.3
Oxygen 3.5
Sulphur dioxide 0.005
Nitrogen oxides Traces
Water vapour Traces
Ash Traces
Soot Traces

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Flu gases leave the boiler at about 300C, contaminated with carbon deposits and
sulphurous acid gas. The gas then passes through a scrubber which washes out the
impurities and reduces the temperature to within 1C of the ambient sea temperature. The
clean cooled gas is now moisture laden and passes through a demister where it is dried. It is
then fan assisted on passage towards the cargo tanks passing through a deck water seal and
then over the top of an oil seal to enter at the top of the tank. It is allowed to circulate and is
purged through a pipe which extends from the deck to the bottom of the tank.

There is a sampling cock near the deck water seal for monitoring the quality of the IG.
Individual tank quality is tested by opening the purge pipe cover and inserting a sample
probe. Excess pressure in the cargo tanks being vented through a pressure vacuum valve
(P/V valve) set at 2 psi, which is then led to a mast riser fitted with a gauze screen. The
excess is then vented to atmosphere as far from the deck as practicable

Requirements for IG systems

Additional reference should be made to the Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems
adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee, June 1983 (MSC/Circ. 353). In the case of
chemical tankers, reference, Resolution A. 567(14) and A. 473(XIII).

Tankers of 20 000 tonnes deadweight and above, engaged in carrying crude oil, must be
fitted with an IG system:

1. Venting systems in cargo tanks must be designed to operate to ensure that neither
pressure nor vacuum inside the tanks will exceed design parameters, for volumes of vapour,
air or IG mixtures.

2. Venting of small volumes of vapour, air or IG mixtures, caused by thermal variations

effecting the cargo tank, must pass through P/V valves. Large volumes caused by cargo
loading, ballasting or during discharge must not be allowed to exceed design parameters.
Asecondary means of allowing full flow relief of vapour, air or IG mixtures, to avoid excess
pressure buildup must be incorporated, with a pressure sensing, monitoring arrangement.
This equipment must also provide an alarm facility activated by overpressure.

3. Tankers with doublehull spaces and doublebottom spaces shall be fitted with
connections for air and suitable connections for the supply of IG. Where hull spaces are
fitted to the IG permanent distribution system, means must be provided to prevent
hydrocarbon gases from cargo tanks, entering doublehull spaces (where spaces are not
permanently connected to the IG system appropriate means must be provided to allow
connection to the IG main).

4. Suitable portable instruments and/or gassampling pipes for measuring flammable vapour
concentrations and oxygen must be provided to assess doublehull spaces.

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5. All tankers operating with a COW system must be fitted with an IG system.

6. All tankers fitted with an IG system shall be provided with a closed ullage system.

7. The IG system must be capable of inerting empty cargo tanks by reducing the oxygen
content to a level which will not support combustion. It must also maintain the atmosphere
inside the tank with an oxygen content of less than 8% by volume and at a positive pressure
at all times in port or at sea, except when necessary to gas free.

8. The system must be capable of delivering gas to the cargo tanks at a rate of 125% of the
maximum rate of discharge capacity of the ship, expressed as a volume.

9. The system should be capable of delivering IG with an oxygen content of not more than
5% by volume in the IG supply main to cargo tanks.

10. Flue gas isolating valves must be fitted to the IG mains, between the boiler uptakes and
the flue gas scrubber. Soot blowers will be arranged so as to be denied operation when the
corresponding flue gas valve is open.

11. The scrubber and blowers must be arranged and located aft of all cargo tanks, cargo
pump rooms and cofferdams separating these spaces from machinery spaces of Category

12. Two fuel pumps or one with sufficient spares shall be fitted to the IG generator.

13. Suitable shut offs must be provided to each suction and discharge connection of the
blowers. If blowers are to be used for gas freeing they must have blanking arrangements.

14. An additional water seal or other effective means of preventing gas leakage shall be
fitted between the flue gas isolating valves and scrubber, or incorporated in the gas entry to
the scrubber, for the purpose of permitting safe maintenance procedures.

15. A gasregulating valve must be fitted in the IG supply main, which is automatically
controlled to close at predetermined limits. (This valve must be located at the forward
bulkhead of the foremost gas safe space.)

16. At least two nonreturn devices, one of which will be a water seal must be fitted to the
IG supply main. These devices should be located in the cargo area, on deck.

17. The water seal must be protected from freezing, and prevent backflow of hydrocarbon

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18. The second device must be fitted forward of the deck water seal and be of a nonreturn
valve type or equivalent, fitted with positive means of closing.

19. Branch piping of the system to supply IG to respective tanks must be fitted with stop
valves or equivalent means of control, for isolating a tank.

20. Arrangements must be provided to connect the system to an external supply of IG.

21. Meters must be fitted in the navigation bridge of combination carriers which indicate
the pressure in slop tanks when isolated from the IG main supply. Meters must also be
situated in machinery control rooms for the pressure and oxygen content of IG supplied
(where a cargo control room is a feature these meters would be fitted in such rooms).

22. Automatic shutdown of IG blowers and the gasregulating valve shall be arranged on
predetermined limits.

23. Alarms shall be fitted to the system and indicated in the machinery space and the cargo
control room. These alarms monitor the following:

Low water pressure or low water flow rate to the flu gas scrubber.
High water level in the flu gas scrubber.
High gas temperature.
Failure of the IG blowers.
Oxygen content in excess of 8% by volume.
Failure of the power supply to the automatic control system, regulating valve and
sensing/monitoring devices.
Low water level in the deck water seal.
Gas pressure less than 100mm water gauge level.
High gas pressure.
Insufficient fuel oil supply to the IG generator.
Power failure to the IG generator.
Power failure to the automatic control of the IG generator.

Advantages and disadvantages of the IG system

1. A safe tank atmosphere is achieved which is nonexplosive
2. It allows highpressure tank washing and reduces tankcleaning time
3. It allows COW
4. Reduces corrosion in tanks with an efficient scrubber in the system
5. Improves stripping efficiency and reduces discharge time

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6. Aids the safe gas freeing of tanks
7. It is economical to operate
8. It forms a readily available extinguishing agent for other spaces
9. Reduces the loss of cargo through evaporation
10. Complies with legislation and reduces insurance premiums.

1. Additional costs for installation
2. Maintenance costs are incurred
3. Low visibility inside tanks
4. With low oxygen content, tank access is denied
5. Could lead to contamination of highgrade products
6. Moisture and sulphur content corrodes equipment
7. An established reverse route for cargo to enter the engine room
8. Oxygen content must be monitored and alarm sensed at all times
9. Instrumentation failure could affect failsafe devices putting the ship at risk through the
IG system
10. An additional gas generator is required in the system in the absence of waste heat
products from boiler flue gases.

Alarms on IG Panel:
blower failure,
high oxygen content alarm,
high and low gas pressure alarms,
high gas temperature,
low seawater pressure and
low level alarm in the scrubber and the deck water seal, respectively.

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Chain Register
A record of the particulars of test and examination of lifting appliances, loose gear and heat (annealing)
should be entered and maintained in the register of machinery, chains, wire ropes etc. called the Chain

It is a blue coloured booklet also referred to as Form 99. The chain register is divided into three parts:

1. Part 1 Initial and periodical load test of lifting appliances and their annual thorough examination
2. Part 2 Initial and periodical load test of loose gear and their annual thorough examination
3. Annealing of chains, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels (other than those that are exempted)

The ones that are exempted are as follows:

A) Chains made of cast iron

B) Plate link chain
C) Chains, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels made of steel
D) Pulley blocks
E) Hooks and swivels having screw threaded parts or ball bearings

The tests, examinations and inspections included in the Register are based on the requirements of the ILO
Convention No. 152 . The purpose of this is to ensure that the vessels lifting appliances are initially certified
by a competent person and also to establish periodically that they continue to be in safe working order.
Certificates shall be obtained from a competent person with respect to the tests and attached to the register.

No such appliances or gear shall be used for dock work unless the entries are made in the register along with
the certificates of test and examination to supplement them are attached. Each and every cargo gear just be
marked with their sage working load as per their certificate, conspicuously.

With respect to the testing of items such as chains, swivels etc., the term annealing has been mentioned
before. Annealing is the process of heating and subsequent cooling to achieve ductility, softness and to
relieve any internal stresses. The metal is heated to about 20-30 degrees above the critical point. After a
while at this temperature, it is cooled slowly at a gradual rate.

To sum it all up, the safety of machinery and gear used onboard is directly related to the maintenance of a
safe working practice onboard. As cumbersome as it may seem to keep documentation updated, testing of the
gear that are used regularly will only add to the optimum performance of the vessel as a whole.

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Register of periodical test and examination and certificates as per DgFasli -

(1) A register in Form II shall be maintained and particulars of test and examination of lifting
appliances and loose gears and heat treatment, as required by regulations 41, 47 and 49 shall be
entered in it,
(2) Certificates shall be obtained from competent person and attached to the register in Form II, in
respect of the following, in the forms shown against each:
(a) initial and periodical test and examination under regulations 41 and 47, for-
(i) winches, derricks and their accessory gear in Form III.
(ii) cranes or hoists and their accessory gear in Form IV;
(b) test, examination and re-examination of loose gears under regulation 47 in Form V;
(c) test and examination of wire ropes under regulation 48 in Form VI;
(d) heat treatment and examination of loose gears under sub-regulation (1) of regulation 49, in
Form VII;
(e) annual thorough examination of the loose gears under sub-regulation (2) of regulation 47 in
Form VIII, unless required particulars have been entered in the register in Form II.
(3) The register and the certificates attached to the register shall be,-
(a) kept on board the ship in case of ship's lifting appliances, loose gears and wire ropes;
(b) kept at premises of the owner in respect of other lifting appliances, loose gear and wire ropes;
(c) produced on demand before an Inspector; and
(d) retained for at least five years after the date of the last entry.
(4) No lifting appliance and loose gear in respect of which an entry is required to be made and
certificates of test and examination are required to be attached in the register in Form II, shall be
used for dock work unless and until the required entry has been made in the register and the
required certificates have been so attached.

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The requirement of loading instrument for bulk carriers comes under SOLAS chapter XII,
regulation 11. No statutory requirement for loading computer onboard other ships,
classification societies require all tankers of more than 100 meters to have type approved
loading instrument.

Documents required for Loadicator

There are three main documents ship should have for it to be actually complying with
Loadicator requirements. These are

Class certificate for Loadicator: This certificate is issued by the class and gives the details of
the loadicator software as well as the hardware on which it is installed, including the details
of the Make, model and serial number of the computer. Master and chief officer must
ensure that the approved loading computers details matches with the details in this
certificate. The certificate may even sometimes have the printers detail that is connected
with the approved loadicator.

If you do not find this certificate onboard, you should check in the class survey status report
if the loading computer is included in the list. If yes, the certificate can be asked from the
class through your office. If No, then shipping office need to consult ships classification
society for approval of loading computer.

Class approved Loadicator Manual: This is the user manual of the loadicator which is from
the maker of the loadicator software. A class approved copy of the user manual should be
onboard. If there was ever a class change associated with the ship, it is important to ensure
that approval stamp of the current classification society is endorsed on the manual.

Class approved Loadicator test conditions: To be very clear, these are not the conditions in
the stability booklet of the ship. The stability conditions in the stability booklet are made by
the yard and these are not the print outs from the loadicator software. These are also not
the test conditions stamped by the class during annual class surveys. These are usually in the
form of a booklet specifically titled test conditions for loadicator with class stamp. These
are usually provided during yard delivery of the vessel or after the loadicator is installed for
the first time and approved by the class.

Once you have these three documents / certificates, you are OK with the certification part.

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Testing requirements for the Loadicator

Testing by ship staff: The Loadicator is required to be tested periodically ( interval to be as

per SMS of the vessel) by ship staff for its accuracy. The test procedure includes choosing a
text condition from the approved test conditions, entering the exact same data in the
loadicator and comparing the results with the approved test conditions. The important point
to note is that the data need to be manually entered and not opened from a presaved file
as it is not acceptable to classification society as well as OCIMF to simply retrieve a stored
test condition and comparing it with approved test condition.

Annual testing of Loadicator in presence of Class : During annual class surveys, loadicator
need to be tested for its accuracy in presence of a class surveyor. The procedure of testing is
same as the quarterly testing but in here the class surveyor would ask for the print out of
the test condition and he would stamp it and give it to the ship for ships records.

New requirements for onboard stability instruments applicable to all tankers will be effective
from 1st January 2016. MARPOL Convention is amended by Res. MEPC.248(66) , the IBC/BCH
Code is amended by Res. MSC.369(93) and the IGC Code amended by Res. MSC.370(93)
requiring tankers to be fitted with an approved stability instrument capable of handling both
intact and damage stability cases. The new requirement is retroactive and applies to both
new and existing tankers at the first renewal survey on or after 1st January 2016, but not
later than 1st January 2021.

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Capt. Malik Questionnaire

Q 1. Load Density
Ans Discussed in Cargo Termenology (page no._______)

Q 2. Where will you get load density of your hold tank top.
Ans It is given in Ship's Stability Booklet.

Q 3. How will you load cargo exceeding Load Density

Ans Take for instance, a 200 tonne transformer with base dimensions of 5m x 3m (15
square metres) to be loaded into the hold. The spot load on the tank top would be 200/15 =
13.3 tonnes per square metre. This load would be excessive if the limit were 12 tonnes per
square metre. To spread the load and reduce the pressure to within the specified limits, it is
customary to build a gridlike timber frame on the tank top. The timber selected should
have its grain running the length of the timber, and be of uniform quality. The area over
which to apply the timber can be calculated by dividing the weight of the transformer by the
tank top limitation:

i.e. 200 tonnes/12 tonnes per square metre = 16.7 square metres. This would be the
minimum area to be covered by the frame. 2"x 2" and 3"x 3" timber is commonly used with
the loading of many cargoes, especially steel. Square timber of greater cross section is
extensively used for supporting heavy lifts.

Q 4. What is load density of a cargo tank ? What is its significance?

Ans Load density of a cargo tank defines how much cargo we can load in a tank. This
depends upon how strong the tank top is. The load density of a tank is provided by the class
during yard delivery of the ship.
For dry cargo ships the load density of the tank top is given in t/Sq Meter. That is how many
tonnes can be loaded in one square meter of tank top area.
Let us take a simple example. Say load density of tank top of a bulk carrier is 12 tonnes/sq
meter. The length of the cargo hold is 30 meters and breadth of the cargo hold is 20 meters.
So how much total cargo we can load in this tank.
Total cargo that can be loaded in this tank = Length x Breath x Load density
So Maximum cargo = 30 x 20 x 12 = 7200 Tonnes.
Now if the stowage factor of the cargo to be loaded is 0.9 m3/Tonne.
So the volume of the cargo that can be loaded in tank will be 7200 x 0.9 m3. That mean we
can load 6480 m3.
We know the length and breadth of the tank, so we can calculate the maximum height to
which this cargo can be loaded.
Maximum Height = 6480 / 600 = 10.8 Meters
So load density helps the ship staff to know to what height a cargo can be loaded.

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On tankers, load density is given as to the maximum density of the cargo that can be loaded.
For example, if load density of a tanker ship is given as 1.2 t/m3, it means that we can load
the tank to full if the load density is lesser than or equal to 1.2 t/m3.
Let us say that volume of the tank is 3000 m3. This means that in this tank we can load
maximum 3600 tonnes (3000 x 1.2 tonnes). Now it does not matter which cargo we load, we
can never load more than 3600 tonnes of cargo in this tank.
Now if we have to load a cargo of density 1.4 t/m3, we can load only 2571 m3 (3600/1.4 m3)
of this cargo. From the ullage table (or sounding table) we can calculate to what level we
have to load this cargo.

Q5. IMSBC Code Contents.

Ans Discussed under Publications (Page no.__________)

Q6. IMDG Code Amendments

Ans International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code (MSC.122(75))
Effective as from: 1 January 2004
2004 amendments (MSC.157(78)) 1 January 2006
2006 amendments (MSC.205(81)) 1 January 2008
2008 amendments (MSC.262(84)) 1 January 2010
2010 amendments MSC.294(87) 1 January 2012
2012 amendments MSC.328(90) 1 January 2014
2014 amendments MSC.372(93)2 1 January 2016
2016 amendments (MSC.406(96))3 [1 January 2018]

The IMDG Code is an international regulation which is continuously evolving and is

updated every two years to take account of:
A) New dangerous goods which have to be included;
B) New technology and new methods of working with/handling dangerous goods;
C) Safety concerns which arise as a result of human experience.
Updating the IMDG Code
Each version of the Code is given an Amendment Number to signify how many times it
has been updated. This number appears at the bottom of each page together with the
year of the amendment.

The Amendment cycle of IMDG Code

Although the Code is updated every two years, in general, the basic principles remain
constant and once you have understood them, you will be able to look up information
in future versions of the IMDG Code.
Each Amendment is valid for up to three years.
There are alternating years for implementation.
In January of the yellow years, a new Amendment is published and can be used
immediately, subject to the timing of National Competent Authority adoption.
During the yellow years, the preceding Amendment can also be used, so it is a
transition year. In the green years, only the current Amendment may be used.

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Main changes to the IMDG Code (Amendment 37-14)

Marking & Labelling
The dimensions for all labels, placards and marks have been clearly specified
specified. For
example, hazard labels must have a square shape with a 100 mm side, and the line
inside the edge forming the diamond must be at least 2 mm wide. However, the
provisions of the previous Amendment (36-12)
(36 12) of the IMDG Code concerning labels,
placards andd marks may continue to be applied until December 31st, 2016.
As of January 1st 2016, a new requirement will be added to OVERPACK and SALVAGE
markings, which will need to be 12 mm high.

Marine pollutants packed in single or combination packagings containi containing a net

quantity per single or inner packagings of 5 L (liquids) or 5 kg (solids) are not subject
to any provisions of IMDG Code other than Chapter 2.10 (Marine
(Marine pollutants
pollutants), provided
they meet the general packing provisions. However, if a marine pollutant meets the
criteria for the inclusion in another hazard class, the requirements relevant to this
additional hazard class continue to apply.

Main changes to the IMDG Code (Amendment 3

There are many changes to the 2016 edition of the International Mar
Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code). The significant changes are outlined

There have been significant changes in Part 2 Classification, to include: a method of

using test data to classify substances that are listed in the Dangerous Goods List
GL) but meet the classification criteria for a hazard class or division that is not
identified in the list; new criteria and documentation requirements for assigning
fireworks to hazard divisions; the addition of new criteria for determining viscosity in
lass 3 flammable liquids; the inclusion of polymerizing substances under Class 4.1;

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and new sections defining gases, flammable liquids, toxic substances, and corrosives
that are not accepted for transport.

New packing instructions have been added: P005 for the new Engine proper shipping
names under UN3528, UN3529 and UN3530; P412 for the new UN3527 POLYESTER
RESIN KIT, solid base material; and P910 for the prototype and low production runs
of lithium cells and batteries.

A new large packaging packing instruction LP200 for aerosols has been added.

A new Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods label has been adopted for use when
shipping lithium metal and lithium ion cells and batteries (new SP384).

The Overpack mark now has a 12 mm minimum height requirement.

New ISO standards have been incorporated into the applicable packing instructions for
gases and the design and construction criteria of UN pressure receptacles and
multiple-element gas containers.

Updates to the DGL:

The proper shipping name entries for Engines and Vehicles under UN3166 have
been separated. UN3166 now covers only Vehicle entries and Engines now
fall under new UN3528, UN3529, and UN3530 entries.
Polyester resin kits have been separated into two entries: UN3269 POLYESTER
RESIN KIT, liquid base material and new UN3527 POLYESTER RESIN KIT, solid
base material.
Polymerizing substances of Class 4.1 have been assigned to new entries
UN3531, UN3532, UN3533 and UN3534.
Special provisions for shipping certain common items have been added, revised, or
SP188 now requires a standardized lithium battery mark for excepted shipments
of lithium cells and batteries.
SP312, 363, 961 and 962 have been revised; SP380 and 385 have been added;
and SP970 has been removed due to the separation of the proper shipping name
entries for Engines and Vehicles.
SP236 now includes Class 4.1 solid base materials for polyester resin kits.
SP310 the lithium battery prototype and low production packaging requirements
have been moved to a new packing instruction (P910).

Q 6. When was IMDG Code Last published

Ans Last Date of publication is 4 August 2016, The IMDG Code, 2016 Edition comes into
force on 1 January 2018 for two years and may be applied voluntarily as from 1 January
2017. The IMDG Code, 2014 Edition came into force on 1 January 2016 for two years.

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Q 7. Securing of Heavy Truck on Deck

Ans Use CSS code Guidelines & Vessels Cargo Securing Manual

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Q 8. How to load cargo of more weight than the swl of lifting gear
Ans Rigging of Heavy lift Gear If the cargo loaded exceeds the SWL of the gear

Doubling up
If the cargo load exceeds the SWL of the derrick, then the runner can be doubled up.
The cargo runner after passing through the head block, is made fast to the head of the
The runner is made fast to the derrick head by means of a spider band. If spider band is
not available, then pad the derrick head with canvass and a half hitch of the runner is
taken around the derrick.
A snatch block of sufficient SWL is inserted in the bight thus formed.
The hook of the snatch block is used to lift the load.
Thus an arrangement of gun tackle is made so that the SWL is not exceeded.

Q 9. what is the rigging plan and what is the purpose of it?

Ans A booklet from official document, which gives detail of cargo gear and lifting alliances.
Every vessel with derrick and creams must have a rigging plan. The rigging plan consist of
following information
Position and size of the deep eye plate
Position of in bound and out bound booms
Maximum head room (the permissible height of cargo hook above hatch coaming)
Maximum angle between runners
Position, size and SWL of blocks
Length, size, and SWL of runners, topping lifts, guys and preventers
SWL of s hackles
Position of derricks producing maximum forces
Optimum position for guys and preventers to resist such maximum forces
Combined load diagram showing forces for load of 1 ton
Guidelines on the maintenance of the derrick rig

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Q 10. Hazards of coal and precautions

Ans Discussed under Bulk Cargoes (page no. _________)

Q 11. Mates receipt & B/L

Ans Discussed under Cargo Related Documents (page no. __________)

Q 12. Note of Protest (NOP)

And A solemn declaration, made under oath by master; a form of deposition. It should be
done soon as possible after arrival, always within 24 hours of arrival, and (where there may
be cargo damage) preferably before breaking bulk.
Procedure You note protest before a notary public, or some other person authorised under
local law to take sworn statements (depositions). Go to notary public or other appropriate
person with one or more witnesses from the crew who have knowledge of the facts. Take
Official Log Book, deck log and all other relevant information surrounding the event being
protested. Make sworn statement before notary, who enters it in Register of Protests.
Obtain at least 3 certified copies of protest (owners, adjuster and ship's file). Pay fee
(master's disbursement) and obtain receipt. If you wrote out your own 'sea protest', Have it
notarised by a notary public or a consul. Since it may be impossible to ascertain the full
extent of the loss or damage when first noting protest, always reserve the right to 'extend
protest at a time and place convenient.

(1 ) After every case of General Average;

(2) after wind and/or sea conditions have been encountered which may have damaged
(3) after wind and/or sea conditions have been encountered which caused failure to make a
cancelling date;
(4) after cargo is shipped in a condition likely to deteriorate during the forthcoming voyage
(also, bills of lading should be appropriately claused after consultation with the shipper and
P&l correspondent);
(5) after the ship has been damaged from any cause;
(6) after a serious breach of the charterparty by the charterer or his agent (e. g. undue
delay, refusal to load, cargo not of a sort allowed by the charterparty, refusal to pay
demurrage, refusal to accept bills of lading after signing because of clausing by master,
sending vessel to an unsafe port, etc. ); after the consignee fails to discharge or take delivery
of the cargo or fails to pay freight.

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1 Notes of Protest should be made when and if you consider it of utmost importance
and necessity, not for the sake of doing so. If for example there is a possibility of a claim
from another party to arise.

2 If you suspect that damage has been caused to the vessel only (i.e. through heavy
weather, touching bottom, striking locks etc.) there is no need for a Note Of Protest to be
issued same could be stated on a Statement of Facts.

3 When writing such a Note Of Protest bear in mind that you must stick to the FACTS
and only, keeping it as brief and as clear as possible. Same can be extended upon a later
date if required. Also do not express any opinions whatsoever. Such statement of opinions
may and do often lead to unnecessary complications and/or confusion in a later date.

Furthermore due to the fact that Notary Publics around the world use various types/forms
for Notes of Protest it is quite difficult to admit/provide you with any standard form, we
do however attach a most common form which you may alter where necessary.

Thus in the case that Note of Protest (or "Statement of Sea Protest) has been made and
notarized by Notary Public. Do not neglect to forward a copy to office at first convenient

Be sure to make all appropriate entries in your ship's logbook. The first thing to remember is
that a letter of protest, strictly speaking, is not a legal document but a paper containing an
account of the events or statement of facts, describing current situation or consequences of
some wrongful act or acts, which had happened usually contrary to masters or crew efforts.
For example, when during cargo operation something beyond the masters control has gone
wrong and the master is unable to make it right, like interruption from shore side of loading
or discharging operation, neglect cargo handling, violation of safe working practice, etc.

Obviously, The said act or occurrence should be of such importance that master feels
himself obliged to bring it to attention of all parties concerned, either for some immediate
action or for future reference, but it still lacks of any legal effect being a document produced
by one side to defence its own position.

Q 13. Letter of Protest (LOP)

Ans A letter of protest is a formal declaration whereby a person expresses a personal
objection or disapproval of an act. It may be a written statement, made by a notary, at the
request of a holder of a bill or a note that describes the bill or note and declares that on a
certain day the instrument was presented for, and (e.g.) refused, payment.

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In shipping there is a widespread practice of using letters of protest to record discrepancies
between ship and shore figures, suspected presence of water content, damage to or loss of
cargo, etc.

Protests are also made by the master against the charterers of the ship or the consignees of
the goods, for failing to load or unload the vessel pursuant to contract, or within reasonable
or stipulated delays;

On the other hand, the merchant may make a protest (i.e. Letter of Protest) against the
master, for misconduct, drunkenness, etc., for not proceeding to sea with due despatch, for
not signing bills of lading in the customary form, and other irregularities.


Reasons for issuing a Letter of Protest :
Delays/incidents during berthing/un berthing
Delays at loading/discharge terminal (e.g. delays due to waiting for customs or
immigration clearance ; waiting for pilot(s) , tug(s) ; waiting for orders to start loading
/discharging ; waiting for another ship to finish , waiting for daylight ; other)
Vessel overloaded/short loaded according to C/P
Difference between B/L and ships figure (quantity)
Bill of Lading does not contain C/P date; named discharge port; cargo quantity; other.
Slow loading at the request of the terminal

Q 14. LOI

Ans LOI Letter of Indemnity

A document which the writer issues to another party agreeing to protect them from liability
for the performance of certain acts.

1. In the case of international transportation when a negotiable bill of lading has been
issued but is not available for surrender to the carrier when it is desired to take delivery of
the shipment, a bank may issue a letter of indemnity to the carrier to persuade them to
release the cargo. (A Letter of Guarantee may also be used ). The bank will usually obtain a
similar letter from its client to protect itself against the liability it assumes on behalf of the

2. On export shipments, some carriers may permit shippers to issue letters of indemnity to
the carriers in order to secure from them clean bills of lading in place of foul, or to replace
lost original bills of lading.

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A letter of indemnity is a document which the shipper indemnifies the shipping company
against the implications of claims that may arise from the issue of a clean Bill of Lading when
the goods were not loaded in accordance with the description in the Bill of Lading.

There are two different letters of indemnity: letters of indemnity for quantitative clauses
and letters of indemnity for nonquantitative clauses. When the Bill of Lading forms the
basis of a documentary credit, the bank demands a clean Bill of Lading. This is a Bill of Lading
without reservations by the captain.

If for one reason or another, the goods were not loaded as prescribed, the captain may
want to put reservations on the Bill of Lading. By doing so, the Bill of Lading is no longer
clean and the bank will not give documentary credit. In order to remedy this, it is custom to
put the reservations not on the Bill of Lading, but on the mates receipt and to draw up a
letter of indemnity which the shipper indemnifies the captain (the shipping company)
against the potential implications thereof.

Q 15. If 500 ton of cargo difference in draft survey, action

Ans Check Calculation Mistake by recalculating.
Following are the reasons that could affect Cargo Calculation.
Mud and/or scale in ballast tanks
Bottom shell growth
Water disturbance: Inaccurate Draft readings
Variations in seawater density
Vessel squat: When a vessel is moored in a tidal stream or a fast flowing
current, in shallow water, it will squat in the water, i.e. its draft will increase
Asymmetrical hull deflections: If the mean draft midships differs from the mean
of the forward and after drafts, it is assumed that the deflection of the hull
shape takes the form of a parabolic curve. This assumption is inherent in the
twothirds and quartermean methods of correcting for hull deflection. If there
is no difference between the mean draft midships and the mean of the forward
and after drafts, it is assumed that the hull shape has not been deflected. Both
assumptions may be incorrect. In practice, the hull deflection may not be a
parabolic curve or there may be deflections between the ends of the vessel and
the midship points (i.e. as a modified sine curve). If the draft is not read at all
six draftmarks, the hull may be twisted without the fact being known.
Wrong Soundings of tanks or List and Trim corrections not applied while
calculating volume of liquid in tanks
Incorrect Constant Value used
If all things are rechecked and still there is difference then take hand lead line
soundings around the vessel it might be possible that ship has touched

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Q 16. When going from Australia to panama canal effect on draft and trim
Ans Draft will increase as ship moves from Salt Water to Fresh water, how much
increase in draft can be calculated by below formula:
Sea Water Density - Dock Water Density x Fresh Water Allowance
Sea Water Density - Fresh Water Density

This will give Bodily Sinkage

Regarding TRIM, vessel will trim by head if it was even keel after moving into FW from SW

When a ship passes from water of one density to water of another the hydrostatic draft
changes. Furthermore, the change in the position of the center of the buoyancy may cause
the trim to change.

Let the ship in above Figure float in salt water at the waterline WL. B represents the
position of the center of buoyancy and the G the center of the gravity. For equilibrium, B
and G must be in the same vertical line.

If the ship now passes into the fresh water, the mean draft will increase. Let W1L1 represent
the new waterline and b the center of gravity of the extra volume of water displaced. The
center of buoyancy of the ship will move from B to B1 in the direction directly towards b.
The force of buoyancy now acts vertically upwards through B1 and the ships weight acts
vertically downward through G. The ship will then change trim to bring the centers of gravity
and buoyancy back in to the same vertical line.

W: displacement G: center of gravity

B: center of buoyancy B1: shifted center of buoyancy
F: center of floatation q: density
q1: reduced density d: difference between LCB and LCF
V: underwater volume of the vessel v: increment of volume
Change of Trim = {W x BB1} / MCTC

Additionally cargo calculations to be done keeping load line zones & panama canal DW
density prior loading of cargo. Also heavy weather precautions to be taken during voyage.

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Q 17. Palm Oil Precautions


Palm oil requires particular temperature conditions (SC II) (storage climate conditions).

A written heating order must be obtained from the consignor before loading is begun. This
order must always be complied with during the entire transport chain. The solidification
temperature is of considerable significance in the transport of fatty oils and fats. They must
remain liquid during loading, during the voyage and during unloading. Chill haze (separation)
begins if cooling causes the temperature of the oil to approach solidification point, the oil
becoming ointmentlike and finally solid, such that it is no longer pumpable. Separation and
the associated change in consistency from liquid to solid occurs more readily upon cooling,
the higher is the solidification point.

Palm oil has a relatively high solidification point/range of 41 31C. In its native countries it
has a liquid consistency, but in temperate latitudes it is fatty and has to be heated. Palm oil
is thus also known as palm fat. The oils must only be heated by a few C per day, otherwise
the risk of rancidity and other negative changes arises. The rate of heating should be no
greater than 8C/day.


Fats and fatty oils are insoluble in water. However, contact with water may give rise to
soluble lower fatty acids and glycerol, which cause rancidity together with changes in color
(yellow to brown), odor and taste as well as gelling and thickening. For this reason, the tanks
must be absolutely dry after cleaning.


Ventilation must not be carried out under any circumstances, as it would supply fresh
oxygen to the cargo, which would promote oxidation processes and premature rancidity. In
this connection, care should be taken to ensure that the tank is filled as full as possible,
taking into consideration possible thermal dilatation, and immediately closed. Palm oil
bleaches on contact with air

Biotic activity
Palm oil displays 3rd order biotic activity. It belongs to the class of goods in which
respiration processes are suspended, but in which biochemical, microbial and other

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decomposition processes still proceed. Care of the cargo during the voyage must be aimed
at keeping decomposition processes to a low level.


Before anybody enters an empty tank, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried
out. Oxidation processes may lead to a lifethreatening shortage of O2.

What is sweeping in w.r.t. Palm oil

Sweeping in is the process in which ships crew goes into cargo tank when cargo is at
stripping level in that tank, Crew physically pushes the remaining palm oil towards the

Q 18. Steel coils loading and precautions


Steel coils are heavy cargo and when transporting such cargo one should be extra
careful to confirm the local strength of the tank top in the relevant cargo holds.
Steel coils should not be considered as an evenly distributed load unless the weight is
thoroughly distributed by strong steel beams and/or very (very!) thick pieces of wood,
as dunnage.
A good rule of thumb is that the steel coil weight should be limited to half the
allowable evenly distributed weight of a hold.
During loading operations of heavy cargo, the supervising crew members should be
aware of the hull structure under the tank top. Dunnage should preferably be placed
in transverse
direction of the vessel in order to land on several longitudinals.
The vessels class may be consulted for swift expert assistance in calculating tank top
strength for steel coil loading, in order to avoid damage to the hull structure, as
experienced in this case.

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Cargo Care
Before the shipment of steel it is important that a proper stowage plan has been agreed. In
situations where the vessels crew and stevedores are in a hurry to start loading a stowage
plan prevents further delays and avoids damage to the cargo. In case a loading surveyor is
appointed, he can assist in creating a stowage plan.
Loading wet steel
Loading wet steel will increase humidity in the cargo holds. Further high moisture content
on steel cargoes will accelerate its oxidisation. Wet cargo can also influence the moisture
content within the cargo holds and can affect parts of the cargo which were loaded in dry
Rain during loading
When it rains, the two different categories of steel cargo can be treated differently. Packed
or wrapped products should not be left uncovered on the quay, the loading operation
should be stopped and hatch covers should be closed. Non packed or nonwrapped steel
products are often stored on open quay and light rain must not stop the loading operation.
Having said that, it should always be borne in mind that light rain can easily turn into heavy
rain in which are the loading/discharging operation should be suspended. Care should be
taken that wet cargo is not stowed in the same cargo holds like dry cargo because as
mentioned earlier wet cargo in the holds can lead to moisture damage to dry cargo.
Should wet steel be loaded, a proper description in the Mates receipt and the Bills of Lading
is highly recommended (e.g. Wet before shipment). Hatch covers, and all other deck
openings should be closed in good time to stop rain getting into the cargo holds. It is
recommended that a record of the exact time when it rained is maintained in the log book
to see if they match with the figures of the Statement of Facts.
Incompatible cargoes
Some cargoes should not be loaded together with steel products, such as hygroscopic
cargoes, sulphurbearing materials, fertilisers and other chemicals.

Supervision of cargo handling

It is always the Master who is responsible for loading, stowing and discharging operation,
although a surveyor may have been assisting. The master has to take all measures possible
to protect the cargo while it is in his custody and if an incident occurs he may have to prove
Weather tightness
During rain and snow all loading and discharging operations shall be stopped and hatch
covers need to be closed, given that large moisture content on steel cargoes will accelerate
its oxidisation. Wet cargo can also influence the moisture content within the cargo holds
and can affect parts of the cargo which were loaded in dry condition. It is very important
that all hatches remain weather tight and all component parts of steel hatch closing
appliances are maintained to a high standard including all other main deck openings.
Monitoring the moisture content within the cargo holds and proper ventilation is therefore

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Cargo sweat and ship sweat are very often the reason for moisture damage and
subsequently rust damage to steel cargoes. Transiting different climatic zones, ships sweat
or cargo sweat may occur.

When heading towards a zone with cooler temperatures at the point where the
temperature of the ships hull falls below the dew point, ships sweat may occur. This can be
minimised by regular ventilation. When heading in the other direction, i.e. from a cold area
towards a warmer zone, condensation on the cargo may occur (cargo sweat). In this
situation, it is recommended not to ventilate the cargo holds and to let the cargo warm up

In addition, dehumidifiers are widely used in order to have the moisture and humidity under
control during the crossing through regions of different climates. It is important to maintain
temperature records from the commencement of loading up to completion of discharge to
enable the Carrier to prove that all necessary measures were taken care for the cargo during
the voyage. In case of a cargo claim those records are available to be able to reconstruct
proper cargo hold ventilation.

In cases where the cargo should not be ventilated, it should be made sure that all cargo
holds were sealed off from the outside atmosphere with the aim to make all holds as air
tight as possible. Should there be any leakage of hatches or the ingress or presence of free
moisture in the cargo hold, an increase in the relative humidity of the ambient air
surrounding the cargo may occur. This may result in cargo and ship sweat followed by
possible cargo damage.

Stowage and lashing

There are five general stowage rules that shall be followed to avoid shifting, chafing and
crushing damage to cargo and vessel. Specific guidelines for different types of cargo are
described below:
It should be checked whether there is enough suction on all bilge lines. The vessels
crew shall put a remark (date and time) in the logbook once the test was conducted.
Before commencement of loading, all cargo holds have to be inspected. The
inspecting officer shall enter the date, time and his name into the vessels logbook.
It is vital to not leave the loading port without having top horizontal tier of steel fully
Securing wires to the vessels side and / or dunnaging timber is not sufficient to
prevent the cargo from shifting. Therefore, the last tier should not be loaded if it
cannot be completed.
Steel cargo should never be stowed in contact to the vessels hull. Always ensure that
sufficient dunnage is used to prevent that.

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Under deck steel cargoes should not be secured to component parts of the vessels
structure. In certain circumstances, wire rods are an exception when half hatch
stowage was done.

Steel coils
As a rule of thumb, two double lines of 15cm x 2.5cm dunnage wood boards shall be used
for steel coils that do not exceed a weight up to 15 tons. Loading coils that exceed 15 tons,
three double lines shall be used. It is essential to prevent movement of the coils during the
voyage and in order to achieve that, wooden chocks shall be placed on top of the lines of
dunnage in the lower tier.

The correct way of stowing steel coils and to prevent them from shifting is to place them
with their centre core fore and aft. It becomes dangerous if coils are handled with wire rope
slings and it is recommended to use round steel poles through the centre when being lifted.

A lower ratio should be considered, if loaded on an older vessel with weaker strength of the
tank tops. Stowage shall be begin against the end bulkhead in the centre and the wings with
the gap between the wing and centre stowage closing to be able to have space to insert
locking coils. It should be avoided that the second tier locking coils protrude down into the
cant lines of the lower tier by more than onethird of the diameter of the locking coil, when
stowing is arranged.

For safety reasons, crewmember or stevedores should never use hand operated tools when
stowing steel coils. It is highly recommended to only use pneumatic tools to tighten steel
strapping bands. Metal strapping bands should ideally be used to secure steel coils, for the
following reasons:

Each coil can be efficiently secured through its core to the two coils beneath, this is
the safest method.
Using a pneumatic tightening tool is highly recommended.
Bands are applied singly, making it easier to handle them and pass them through.
Tension is uniformed throughout stow. (Do not use securing timbers, which defeat
this purpose).
If wire rope is to be used to secure steel coils, the following precautions should be
All bulldog grips should be properly fitted and adequately tightened.

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Three bulldog grips should be fitted either side of the spanscrew.
The turnbuckles should be extended to the maximum of thread before application of
the wires in order to ensure that after tightening not more than 1/3 of the thread is
used. This will allow for further tightening.

Group Lashing Olympic Lashing

Q 19. Chain register Contents and its Parts (as per ILO)
Ans Form No. 1: Identity of National Authority or Competent Organisation
Part 1: Thorough examination of lifting appliances and loose gear
Part 2: Regular inspections of loose gear

Form No. 2: Certificate of test and thorough examination of lifting


Form No. 2 (U): Certificate of test and thorough examination of derricks used
in union purchase.

Form No. 3: Certificate of test and thorough examination of loose gear.

Form No. 4: Certificate of test and thorough examination of wire rope.

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Q 20. Entries to be made by chief officer in Chain register

Ans As a Chief Officer, All loose gear should be inspected before use.
However, entries need only be made in Part 2 when the inspection discloses a defect.

Q 21. Minimum GM for all Ships

Ans: As per Timber Code 0.1 mtr
As per Grain Code 0.3 mtr
Rest all ships as per IMO Intact Stability Criteria 0.15 mtr

Q 22. ISGOTT Changes in new edition.

Ans This edition takes account of recent changes in recommended operating
procedures, particularly those prompted by the introduction of the International Safety
Management (ISM) Code, which became mandatory for tankers on July 1st, 1998.

Also, account has been taken of latest thinking on a number of issues including the
generation of static electricity and stray currents; the use of mobile telephones and pagers,
which are now ever present; the use of new materials for mooring lines and emergency
towingoff pennants; the toxicity and the toxic effects of benzene and hydrogen sulfide; and,
importantly, the introduction of the principles underlying the International Safety
Management (ISM) Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code.

The Ship/Shore Safety CheckList has been completely revised to better reflect the individual
and joint responsibilities of the tanker and the terminal.

The Guide is now divided into four sections:

General Information
Tanker Information
Terminal Information
Management of the Tanker and Terminal Interface

Q 23. Powers of Dock Labour Inspector.

(a) An Inspector may at any port for which he is appointed

enter, with such assistance, (if any), as he thinks fit, any ship, dock, warehouse or
other premises, where any dock work, is being carried on, or where he has reason to
believe that any dock work is being carried on;
make examination of the ship, dock, lifting appliance, loose gear, lifting device,
staging, transport equipment, warehouse or other premises, used or to be used, for
any dock work;

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require the production of any testing muster roll or other document relating to the
employment of dock workers and examine such document;
take on the spot or otherwise such evidence of any person which he may deem
take copies of registers, records or other documents or portions thereof as he may
consider relevant in respect of any offence which he has reason to believe has been
committed or for the purpose of any inquiry;
take photograph, sketch, sample, weight measure or record as he may consider
necessary for the purpose of any examination or inquiry;
hold an inquiry into the cause of any accident or dangerous occurrence which he has
reason to believe was the result of the collapse or failure of any lifting appliance loose
gear, transport equipment, staging noncompliance with any of the provisions of the
Act or the regulations;
issue showcause notice relating to the safety, health and welfare provisions arising
under the Act or the regulations;
prosecute, conduct or defend before any court any complaint or other proceedings,
arising under the Act or the regulations;
direct the port authority, dock labour board and other employers of dock workers for
getting the dock workers medically examined if considered necessary.

(b) A person having general management and control of the premises or the owner,
master, officerincharge or agents of the ship, as the case may be, shall provide such
means as may be required by the Inspector for entry, inspection, examination, inquiry,
otherwise for the exercise of his powers under Act and the regulations in relation to that
ship or premises which shall also include the provision of launch or other means of

Q 24. Contamination of oil cargo found in discharge port, action

Ans Through Master Inform your P&I Club, Charterer & Owner

Q 25. Loading heating crude from gulf to Baltic , action

Ans Temperature of cargo should always be 10 deg above its pour point
Maintain cargo temp as per voyage orders given by Charterer / Shipper

Q 26. BL will have which cargo figures, Shore or mates reciept?

Ans Shore Figures

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Q 27. How to load Locomotive / Rail Engine on a ship


Locomotives inside Hold Locomotive Secured on hath cover

Railway Engine is a heavy lift cargo, so all the loading procedures and precautions of heavy
lift should be followed

Q 28. Ballasting / deballasting Hazards

Deficient Stability due to
decrease in GM due to free surface effects
decrease in GM due rise to in KG of the ship
decrease in GM due to trims (long tanks)
heeling angle due to unsymmetrical arrangement of tank
heeling angle due to unsymmetrical cargo arrangement
stability in an intermediate stage misjudged
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Excessive hull girder bending moments or shear forces
Excessive torsional stresses due to Unsymmetric ballasting / deballasting
Structural Damage of BW tanks & ballast hold(s) due to Severe sloshing caused by
resonance with ship motion
Loss of manoeuvrability and/or ability to make headway : not sufficient draft required
for propeller immersion
Loss of bridge visibility due to excessive aft trim
Structural strength or stability problems due to incorrect filling levels
Structural damage to flat bottom forward caused by Slamming due to insufficient
forward draft, below permissible limits

Question & Answers

Question 1. What do you understand by the term loadicator and what information
would you obtain from it?
A loadicator is the term given to a cargo-loading computer, which is configured to suit
the ships loading programmes. The loadicator will provide the Cargo Officer with the
following information once the weight distribution is entered into the programme.
Distribution of weights or cargo units in the ships compartments, the status of
relevant tank weights and commodities, the sea-going shear force and bending
moment conditions, and the stability aspect with values for measured distance
between the keel and the centre of gravity (C of G) of the vessel (KG) and metacentric
height (GM). Ballast distribution and quantity would also be available. The loadicator is
often linked to a shoreside monitor to allow data transmission on unit weights for
cargo distribution and special stowage requirements. Particularly relevant to a Roll-on,
Roll-off (Ro-Ro) vessel engaged on fast turn round, short voyage trades.

Question 2. How would you load a bulk carrier with iron ore?
Ensure that the hold is clean and that bilge suctions are tested to satisfaction prior to
commencing loading. Draw up a pre-load plan and a ballast/ deballast plan calculating
the stress factors affecting the ship throughout the proposed loading programme. The
maximum angle of heel would also be calculated for a potential shift in the cargo
volume, bearing in mind that a moisture content is present in the cargo. The loading
rates for the cargo would commence slowly and gradually increase. Fast rates of
loading can cause serious damage by generating rapid stress values throughout the
ships length. The important aspect is that iron ore is a dense cargo and heavy. The
cargo compartments would only be about one-fourth full. The Chief Officer would
calculate the stability based on the load draughts. Condition formats for the bending
moment and shear force affecting the loaded condition would be drawn up (stowage
factor (SF) iron ore 0.34/0.50).

Question 3. What are the concerns for the Master of a Container Vessel, carrying
containers stacked on deck, engaged on the North Atlantic trade in winter?

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The Master, and his Chief Officer would be concerned about the positive stability of the
vessel, bearing in mind that the possibility of encountering sub-freezing air
temperatures on this trade route at this time is likely. Such conditions could lead to
ice accretion, and added weight from icing of the container stack could detrimentally
affect the stability of the vessel. Masters would monitor all weather reports and
consider re-routing farther south to warmer latitudes if practical. A reduction in speed
could also effectively reduce the rate of ice accretion occurring on the vessel. Where
possible, the crew should be ordered to make their best endeavours to remove ice
formations if safe to do so.

Question 4. When working as a Cargo Officer aboard an oil tanker, how would you
keep the tanks outside the flammable limit?
The introduction of inert gas into any tank containing hydrocarbon gas/air mixture will
decrease the flammable range until a point is reached where the lower flammable limit
(LFL) and the upper flammable limit (UFL) coincide. This point corresponds to the
oxygen content approximately 11% at which no hydrocarbon gas/air mixture can

Note: Additional reference should be made to the Flammability Composition Diagram

found in International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT).

Question 5. What and when is lateral drag evident and what can the Cargo Officer
do to reduce the effects?
Lateral drag is associated with heavy lifts causing the vessel to heel over as the
weight is taken up by the ships derrick/crane. It can occur during loading or
discharging of the load and is effectively a sideways movement of the load as the
vessel returns to the upright. If unprepared for, the lateral movement of the load can
be violent as the ship rolls against the angle of list. The effects of lateral drag can be
reduced by retaining the line of plumb of the derrick head above the point of landing.
This can be achieved by coming back on the topping lift and cargo hoist runner,
quickly. This action tends to reduce movement of the load when discharging. If
loading the weight a steady slow lifting operation should be carried out.

Question 6. When about to make a heavy lift by means of the ships heavy derrick,
how can the vessels stability condition be improved so that positive stability is
retained throughout the loading period?
The concern with loading a heavy weight is that the C of G of the weight effectively
acts from the head of the derrick. The GM of the ship should be increased by filling the
double bottom tanks before the lift is made. This will increase the GM value.
Additionally, eliminate any free surface moments in tanks, as this also will reduce the
GM value.

Question 7. How can the risk of a grain cargo shifting be reduced?

Grain should be loaded in accord with the Grain Regulations and the risk of shifting
of the cargo can be reduced by:
1. fitting of temporary longitudinal subdivisions (shifting boards)
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2. use of bagged cargo in a saucer formation
3. bundling in bulk.

Question 8. How would you describe the SF of a commodity?

The SF can be defined as that volume that is occupied by a unit weight of cargo and is
usually expressed in cubic metres per tonne (m3/tonne). For example, how much
cotton at a SF of 2.0m3/tonnes could be loaded into a tween deck space of 200m3

Question 9. When loading drop trailers and mobile units aboard a Ro-Ro ferry,
explain why it is essential that the vessel is kept in the upright position.
Ro-Ro ferries load their mobile units via vehicle ramps either at the bow or more often
through the stern door. These ramps are lowered onto link spans that provide the
landing connection between ship and shore. If the vessel develops a list the ramps
become angled to the flat shore connection and prevents the movement of vehicles to
and from the ships garage spaces. Most modern ferries will have automatic stabilizing
tank systems to counter any overload to Port or Starboard, so keeping the vessel
always in the upright position and vehicle ramps flush on the shore or the link span.

Note: Over-reliability on tank stabilizers should be avoided and safe practice is always
to load and discharge in an even manner to avoid any one side ever become adversely
affected by localized tonnage.

Question 10. When would it be considered appropriate to carry out a draught

The purpose of a draught survey being conducted would usually be to:
1. ascertain any bending along the length of the vessel, usually after the loading of a
bulk cargo
2. determine the exact displacement in order to calculate the total weight of cargo

Question 11. A vessel is scheduled to load sacks of mail. How would these be loaded
on a general cargo vessel if they are loose and not in a container, and what
precautions would a prudent Chief Officer take?
Mails are classed as a specialized cargo and as such would be given lock-up stow. The
bags would be tallied in and tallied out at the ports of loading and discharge,
respectively. Watchmen or responsible Ships Officers would monitor the movement of
the mails probably being loaded by means of cargo nets or cargo boxes.

Question 12. What cargo information would the Master of a Bulk Carrier pass to the
loading terminal when expecting to berth, to take a full cargo of coal?
1. In addition to passing the ships particulars, a pre-loading plan of cargo stowage by
hatch, together with the hatch loading order and respective quantities on each pour,
assuming that the vessel has sufficient information to prepare such a plan.
Confirmation that holds were in a state of readiness to load.

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2. The provisional arrival and departure draughts together with details of the ships
own cargo-handling gear and respective capacities of same; details of the ballast
capacity and the time required to de-ballast.
3. Additional ship-keeping details reflecting the gangway position, the number of
moorings, etc. would also be included as standard information.

Question 13. For what purpose would a Cargo Officer use the load density plan?
The Ships Chief Officer would use the load density plan to check the capacity of cargo
compartments to ascertain the volume of the space and consider the point loading
factor to ensure that the deck strength is adequate to accommodate the intended
cargo tonnage to be stowed in the space. Particularly useful with heavy lifts where a
concentrated weight over a small area may be seen to exceed the tonnage per square

Question 14. What is contained in the Register of Lifting Appliances and Cargo-
Handling Gear?
The Register is kept up-to-date by the Ships Chief Officer and contains all the
certificates for the lifting appliances, the wires, shackles hooks, chains, etc. used
aboard the vessel, for cargo operations.

Question 15. How could you separate similar cargoes but destined for different Ports
of discharge?
Answer: Depending on the nature of the cargo parcels would depend on the type of
separation that could be employed. Clearly the best form of separation is to stow
cargoes in alternative compartments. In the event that the loading plan does not
permit this, paint, paper, dye mark, dunnage, burlap or nets can be used on a variety
of general cargoes.

Question 16. What is the purpose of dunnage?

Answer: Dunnage is wood plank boards laid under cargoes to provide ventilation and
in some cases assist drainage of moisture from cargoes. Some cargoes require double
dunnage. All dunnage must be clean and free of oil or grease contamination as this
could spoil cargo quality. Dunnage can be used as a separation mode between cargo
parcels but its prime function is to separate cargo from the steel decks and avoid
cargo sweat.

Question 17. What are the main concerns for the Chief Officer if the vessel is
scheduled to carry timber as deck cargo?
Answer: When carrying timber as deck cargo there are two main concerns:
(1) the securing of the timber cargo,
(2) the absorption factor of timber, effecting the stability of the vessel.

Question 18. If your vessel is fitted with 5 ton safe working load (SWL) derricks
could you load a 4.5 ton weight?
Answer: Yes, the load could be lifted but not on the single whip, cargo runner.
Normal practice would dictate that the derrick is fitted with a 24 mm FSWR cargo
runner and the SWL of the wire would be exceeded. In order to lift this weight the
derrick would need to be doubled up, so providing a gun tackle (two parts of wire in
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the purchase). This would effectively place 2.25 ton on each part of wire, each under
the SWL.

Question 19. What alarms would you expect to find on an IGS?

Answer: All IGSs must carry the following alarms:
(a) Low water rate/pressure in the scrubber.
(b) High water level rate inside the scrubber.
(c) High gas temperature.
(d) Failure of inert gas blower.
(e) High oxygen.
(f) Power supply failure on automatic control.
(g) Low water level in the deck water seal.
(h) Low gas pressure.
(i) High gas pressure.

Question 20. How would you stow 500 drums of corrosive liquid as deck cargo?
Answer: It would be normal practice to check the product with the IMDG Code, to
ensure that it was not incompatible with any other deck cargo being carried. This
publication would also advise on any special stowage conditions.

Unless otherwise advised these drums would be stowed in small batches so as to allow
access to any leaking drums whilst in transit. In the event of a leaking drum
developing while at sea, it may become necessary to jettison the effected drum(s).
Each batch of drums would be lashed and netted against movement, alongside
protected bulwarks and/or ships rails. Securings would be inspected daily and re-
tensioned if found to be slack during the passage.

Question 21. What ventilation would you expect to provide to a full bulk cargo of
Answer: Coal gives off gas which rises through the cargo to the top surface and
therefore must be given, surface ventilation in order to clear gases. It is customary
to lift hatch edges on old ships, when in good weather to clear coal gases. However,
hatches should not be opened in adverse conditions that could in any way have a
detrimental effect on the watertight integrity of the ship.

Question 22. Can any vessel carry all classes of dangerous goods?
Answer: No, passenger vessels are not allowed to carry Class I (explosives)
dangerous goods.

Question 23. What do you understand by the term flashpoint?

Answer: Flashpoint is described as the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off
sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture with air, near the surface of the liquid.

Question 24. What goods require a magazine stowage?

Answer: Class I and II, explosive goods require a specially constructed magazine

Question 25. How would you stow 40 ft drop trailers in the vehicle deck of a Roll On
Roll Off Vessel?

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Answer: Vehicle decks on Ro-Ro vessels are fitted with star/dome lashing points.
Drop trailers would be stowed and lashed in accord with the Cargo Securing Manual
which would provide examples of securing methods.
This size of trailer would normally be secured by a minimum of six (6) chain lashings
each fitted with a tension load binding bar, the trailer being landed on a trestle at the
front end while the rear is balanced by back wheels. A manual brake system would
also be applied.

Question 28. What precautions would you take prior to loading chemicals?
Answer: I would be expected to check the IMDG Code with the correct name of the
commodity and note any stowage recommendations. It would also be prudent to note
the procedures to take in the event of spillage of the product, making any reference to
the Medical First Aid Guide. Documentation of hazardous goods would be supported by
emergency contact names and numbers for relevant shore side assistance. These
would normally be held on the bridge for immediate use.

Question 29. When would you expect a steel wire rope to be condemned?
Answer: In the event that 10% of the wires are broken in any 8 diameter lengths of
the wire, it should be condemned.

Question 30. What information is contained in the Cargo Securing Manual?

Answer: The Cargo Securing Manual provides details on the number of lashings and
securing points available on the vessel. The manual is respective to an individual
vessel and will specify the distribution of lashings required per cargo space and
specific weight load tests/ safe working load (SWL) applicable to lashing points, pad
eyes, ring bolts, etc.

Question 31. What is the Register of Cargo Handling and Lifting Appliances, and what
is kept in it?
Answer: The Register is a filing system for retaining the records and certificates of all
the ships lifting apparatus, including certificates for shackles, blocks, wires, derricks,
cranes, chains, hooks, etc.

Question 32. Who maintains the Register of Cargo Handling and Lifting Appliances,
and who would inspect it?
Answer: The Register is kept and maintained by the Chief Officer and is liable for
inspection by the cargo surveyor when carrying out a Cargo Equipment Survey. It is
also liable for inspection by the External Auditor when monitoring the ships
conformity to International Safety Management (ISM) Code.

Question 33. What information and details would you expect to find on the Anchor
Answer: The Anchor Certificate will contain the following information:
(a) The Certificate serial number.
(b) Name of the Certifying Authority.
(c) Name of the testing establishment.
(d) The mark or logo of the testing establishment, if any.
(e) Name of the Supervisor of Tests and their signature.
(f) Weight of the anchor.
(g) Type of anchor.
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(h) Length of the shank in millimetres.
(i) Length of arms in millimetres.
(j) Diameter of the trend in millimetres.
(k) Proof load applied, in tonnes.
(l) Weight of stock, if applicable.

Question 34. When advised of impending heavy weather, imminent, what actions
would you take as the Chief Officer of the vessel?
Answer: With a heavy weather warning issued, the Chief Officer would address the
following four areas: stability, cargo security, navigational safety and the overall
security of the deck.

Stability Issues to Address

(a) Improve the vessels GM, if possible.
(b) Remove any free surface moments if possible.
(c) Ballast the vessel down.
(d) Check the freeboard deck seals on hatches and other openings.
(e) Close watertight doors.
(f) Pump out swimming pool if carried.

Cargo Security
(a) Check and tighten all deck cargo lashings.
(b) Tighten up lashing on General Cargo below decks if appropriate.
(c) Trim cargo ventilation and shut down vents if not required.

Navigation Safety
(a) Consult an advise Master regarding the aspects of re-routing.
(b) Verify vessels position.
(c) Update weather reports.
(d) Plot storm position.
(e) Update vessels position and inform shore-side authorities.
(f) Engage manual steering.
(g) Revise Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA).
(h) Secure Bridge against heavy rolling.
(i) Reduce speed in ample time to prevent pounding.

Deck Security
(a) Rig lifelines.
(b) Check securing on, gangways, lifeboats, derricks/cranes, anchors, etc.
(c) Reduce manpower working on deck and start heavy weather work routine.
(d) Warn Heads of Departments of impending heavy weather.
(e) Clear decks of surplus gear.
(f) Close weather deck doors.
(g) Slacken down whistle lanyards.
(h) Check all Life Saving Appliances (LSA) equipment readily available.
(i) Organise meal reliefs, if appropriate.
(j) Organise watch structure to suit three-man watch system.
(k) Note all preparations in the Log Book.

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Question 35. While tied up alongside, working cargo, smoke is sighted coming out of
the No. 2 hatch of a General Cargo vessel. The Cargo Watch Officer has raised the fire
alarm. What would you do as the ships Chief Officer?
Answer: It would be normal practice to muster the fire party and proceed to the
scene of the fire. However, as the fire incident is in port, members of crew could well
be ashore and this could leave the fire party deficient.

The Chief Officer would be expected to take immediate control of the situation using
the manpower and the resources available and his orders and actions could expect to
include any or all of the following:

Once the Alarm Has Been Sounded

(a) Stop all cargo operations aboard the vessel.
(b) Call in the local fire brigade, via the port and harbour control on very high
frequency (VHF) radio, requesting immediate assistance.
(c) Remove all non-essential personnel from the ship, e.g. stevedores (check with
ships foreman that the workers are all clear).
(d) Batten down the cargo hatch which is seemingly on fire.
(e) Order the engineers to put water on deck and pressurise the fire main.
(f) Commence boundary cooling on as many sides of the cargo hatch as possible.
(g) Post a Chief Officers messenger at the head of the gangway to meet the local fire
brigade on arrival.
(h) Make ready a fire envelope to include the cargo plan and the ships fire
(i) Have the International Shore Connection readily available.
(j) Instruct Chief Engineer to make ready CO2 for cargo hold flooding.
(k) Carry out a head count of all ships personnel on board.
(l) Make notes of any injuries as they occur.
(m) Move up breathing apparatus to the scene, together with fire fighters.
(n) Tend fire wires fore and aft.
(o) Lift gangway clear of quayside.
(p) Place engine room on stand by.
Once the brigade has arrived it would be common practice to agree the desired
method of attacking the fire with the view to bring it under control. Appropriate
entries would be made into the ships Log Book as required.

Note: No emergency scenario can expect to take account of each and every detail
because each situation will be governed by a different set of circumstances.
The above answer is meant only as a general guide.

Question 36. What do you understand by the term proof load as applied to derricks?
Answer: The proof load is that tonnage which is applied during the testing of the
derricks capacity. Derricks are routinely tested at 5-year intervals by a cargo
surveyor. The test imposed on the lifting gear will be the proof load and for derricks
Less than 20 ton SWL Proof load 25% in excess of the SWL
Between 20 and 50 ton SWL Proof load 5 ton in excess of SWL
Over 50 ton SWL Proof load 10% in excess of SWL

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Question 37. Where would you find details of the ships cargo handling and lifting
Answer: Register of Cargo Handling and Lifting Appliances, the Rigging Plan and
marked on the appliance itself.

Question 38. What information is provided by the loadicator?

Answer: Following the input of cargo quantities and weights, the output from the
programme would supply stress values comparable against acceptable parameters.
These would include the bending moments, shear force and effects on the GM.

Question 39. When scheduled to load a heavy lift, what type of checks and
precautions would you make?
Answer: As the Chief Officer I would ascertain the total weight and overall size of the
load and ensure that it is within the SWL capacity of the ships heavy lift derrick/crane
(if the load is being made from a floating crane or shore side facilities over and above
the ships loading capability then it would be necessary to also check the facilities and
capability at the port of discharge).

Once the size and weight of the load are known the Load Density Plan would be
checked to ensure that the space for designated stowage is capable of accepting the
load with regard to both size and deck weight capacity. The stability checks would
include the calculation of the maximum angle of heel if using ships gear. The GM
would also be ascertained for all stages of the lift, from hoisting to landing.

The GM may need to be improved by adding water ballast to double bottom tanks, in
order to compensate for any expected loss of apparent GM. Slinging the load or any
special lifting apparatus which it is intended to use, would warrant inspection and may
become a consideration for leaving with the load for the purpose of discharge (often
heavy loads are incorporated with a raft or cradle for transportation purposes).

Question 40. If you were on a bulk carrier, loaded with iron ore what stresses would
you anticipate, which may occur during the passage?
Answer: Iron ore or other similar heavy cargoes must be loaded in proportion and in
a manner conducive to the fore and aft length of the vessel. The loading plan should
take account of the effects that may be incurred due to: racking stresses, bending
moments, shear forces and torsional stresses.

Question 41. What procedures would you adopt to load a full cargo of coal aboard a
bulk carrier?
Answer: Having obtained the cargo details (grades, quantities, voyage details, etc.)
from the Charterer, it would be usual practice to prepare a loading plan to take
account of the ports of discharge. The holds would be cleaned and inspected before
commencing any cargo operation.
The following points would then also be assessed:
(a) The stability criteria for all conditions of loading and discharging.
(b) The distribution of grades in specific holds.
(c) Shear force and bending moments are within permissible limits.
(d) Minimum trim and air draught maintained within acceptable parameters.
(e) Ballasting and deballasting sequence to suit loading schedule.

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(f) Safety procedures for coal checked and adhered to, i.e. explosion risk,
spontaneous combustion and gas accumulation.
(g) Final trimming of cargo to ensure that the vessel completes in the upright

Question 42. What are the main dangers associated with bulk cargoes?
Answer: Bulk cargoes depending on the type, have associated hazards from the onset
of loading. They include structural damage during loading and discharging periods as
well as during distribution and/or trimming, to prevent shifting in a seaway.

Incorrect distribution of bulk cargoes could incur dangerous bending moments and
excessive shear forces which could directly effect the ships structure. The reduction
and loss of positive stability during the voyage either by cargo shift or liquefaction is a
possibility with many types of cargoes, shifting being a result of bad weather and
improper trimming or securing.

While liquefaction of certain cargoes could be stimulated as a result of vibration and

ships motion, e.g. cargoes: fine grained materials, inclusive of fine coal if shipped in a
damp condition. Other dangers can arise from chemical reactions which may give
rise to either toxic or explosive gases. Other cargoes like coal, could also give rise to
spontaneous combustion.

Question 43. What precautions would be taken when loading and carrying a full
cargo of wood pulp?
Answer: A cargo of wood pulp would be loaded in accordance with the advice given
in MSN 107 which recommends that the cargo compartments are clean and dry.
Wood pulp expands considerably when wet and therefore all: air pipes and ventilation
shafts should be effectively blanked off to prevent any accidental admission of water.

Question 44. Where could you obtain information on specialist types of cargoes if you
lack any experience of the commodity?
Answer: Depending on the nature of the goods a variety of publications exist for
reference and I would first check these out inclusive of MGNs, MSNs, The International
Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, various IMO specified publications, Thomass
Stowage and other reputable cargo publications. Additional sources would be via the
ships agents, direct to the shipper, the manufacturer of the goods, the Port
Superintendent and the Departments of Health and Safety, and/or Environment.

Question 45. While engaged as Cargo Officer aboard a Ro-Ro vessel, a cargo tank
unit, identified as carrying a hazardous chemical is observed to be leaking. What
action would you take?
Answer: Emergencies of such a nature must be dealt with in accord with the IMO
publications Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods (only for
vessels carrying dangerous goods), and the Medical First Aid Guide contained in the
supplement to the IMDG Code. Assuming that the tank unit had been given a correct
stowage position it would be accessible to the actions of an emergency party. The
nature of the commodity would be checked to ascertain the correct chemical name,
UN Number and relevant associated dangers. The ships course may well need to be
altered to allow vapour emissions to be blown overside. The product may need
damping down with hose action or may not be compatible with water at all, so any
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action by hoses should be held off until confirmation of handling methods is
acknowledged. Communications with shore-side shippers, and/or manufactures may
be desirable.

Question 46. When loading deck cargo what references would you employ to ensure
that the safety of the vessel is not impaired?
Answer: Deck cargoes are loaded and shipped in many forms and the type of cargo
can reflect specific hazards. Generally, all cargo parcels must be adequately secured
against shifting in bad weather and reference should be made to any or all of the
(a) The Merchant Shipping (Load Lines) (Deck Cargo) Regulations 1968.
(b) Relevant MGNs and MSNs, especially M1167.
(c) MSNs relating to Timber Deck Cargoes, where relevant.
(d) Shippers and companies recommendations.
(e) The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code if appropriate.
(f) The Ships own Cargo Securing Manual.
(g) The Lashing and Securing of Deck Cargoes (Nautical Institute Publication) by
Captain J.R. Knott, BA FNI.

Question 47. What is the purpose and function of the construction of a cargo plan,
for a general cargo vessel?
Answer: The plan which is colour coded for the respective ports of discharge, will
identify respective cargo parcels for that specific port. It is meant to show the weight
of cargo and/or the number of units for discharge.
The plan clearly illustrates the cargo distribution throughout the vessel and allows the
allocation of labour to permit a balanced discharge procedure. The pictorial display
would expect to highlight incompatible cargoes and also show sensitive cargoes in the
event of a cargo hold fire occurring. Space allocation on the proposed plan, prior to
commencement of loading would permit hold, tween deck and deep tank spaces, to be
correctly prepared beforehand.

Question 48. What recording procedures should be followed by a tanker vessel

loading or transferring oil cargo?
Answer: In accordance with Marine Pollution (MARPOL) 73/78, Annex 1, Appendix III,
any loading of oil cargo must be supported by recording:
(a) The place of loading.
(b) The type of oil loaded and the identity of tank(s).
(c) The total quantity of oil loaded. State total quantity added and the total content of
When transferring oil cargo during a voyage, the movement of oil cargo must be
supported by recording:
(a) The identity of the tanks that the oil is being taken from.
(b) The identity of the tank that the oil is being transferred to.
(c) The total quantity of oil transferred.
(d) The total quantity of oil in tanks.
Whether the tanks of origin have been emptied or the quantity of oil which has been
retained within the tank from which it was transferred.

Question 49. What do you understand by the term special area?

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Answer: In accord with Regulation 10, of MARPOL, special areas are designated sea
areas where discharge of oil and garbage is prohibited or severely restricted by
specific provision. Such special areas include:
(a) The Mediterranean Sea.
(b) The Baltic Sea.
(c) The Black Sea.
(d) The Red Sea inclusive of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba.
(e) The Gulfs Area, between the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea.
(f) The Antarctic Area (Sea area South of Latitude 60S).
(g) North West European waters inclusive of the North Sea, The Irish Sea, the Celtic
Sea and the English Channel with the North East Atlantic, immediately to the West of

Question 50. You are expected to load coal on your bulk carrier. What types of coal
would you be concerned about and what are the particular hazards associated with
such a cargo?
Answer: There are various types of coal inclusive of anthracite, lignite, coal slurry or
duff, as well as the graded coals (coke is another form which the gases and benzol
have been removed). The main hazards are that most coals (other than coke) are
liable to spontaneous combustion and emit methane gas. Such gases must be vented.
The smaller particle coals are liable to shift and if the moisture content is high the
cargo could possible act as a liquid with any excessive ships vibration.

The cargo requires certain precautions and these could be referenced from the Code of
Safe Working Practice for Bulk Cargoes. Special equipment should be placed on board
in the form of methane detectormeters, cargo thermometers, extra SCBA, face
protector masks, etc.

Question 51. The vessel contains certain stability criteria, which may be in a stability
book form. Must this information and criteria be approved?
Answer: Yes. Such stability information must be approved by the Marine Authority of
the ships Flag State.

Question 52. What documentation would be required for your bulk carrier if you are
scheduled to load bulk grain?
Answer: As a dedicated bulk carrier the ship would require a Document of
Authorisation to load the grain cargo.

Note: Vessels other than dedicated bulk carriers would require approval by the
National Authority, in order to load a grain cargo.

Question 53. How would you draw up a loading plan for a bulk carrier?
Answer: The loading plan is based on company recommendation and the ship design.
The method employed is devised so as not to incurconcentration of stresses to any
particular part of the vessel and would inter-co-ordinated with prudent ballast and
deballasting operations. In parallel with the loading plan, the deballast sequence
would be worked to be compatible with the proposed cargo operation. Both the
sequential cargo loads and the ballast loads would be entered into the loadicator
(computerised loading data) to provide the GM, bending moments and shear forces
throughout the period of loading.
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Question 54. What fixed fire-fighting equipment would you expect to be carried on a
gas carrier?
Answer: Gas carriers employ a Dry Chemical Powder system as a fixed installation,
incorporating the requirements of the International Gas Code.

Question 55. When about to load bulk chemicals, what checks would you expect to
Answer: Ensure that correct information and data on the cargo type is available and
that suitable protective clothing and equipment is ready for use. Counter measures
against personnel contact would have been agreed together with the automatic shut
down procedures known. All alarm systems and gauges are correctly set and in good
order and portable vapour detection equipment is readily available. Full fire fighting
facilities are ready for immediate use and the transfer pipelines are in good order.

Question 56. When acting as Chief Officer aboard a tanker what preparations and
actions would you take, when receiving orders to load?
Answer: It is normal practice to cover the loading by taking account of the cargo
requirements: quantity, density, temperature and respective tank capacities. The
concern would then be towards the pumping arrangements for both the cargo and for
any ballast movement together with the associated deck equipment. Manifold
connections, etc. Such activity would be monitored under the loading checklist where
all safety precautions and specified safety equipment was seen to be in place.

The loading operation would be adequately covered by sufficient deck/engineering

personnel in place especially during the period of topping off. Particular items of
concern would be the preparation of a sequential loading plan. The oxygen content
inside tanks would be checked (to be less than 5%) and the overfill alarms tested
prior to commencing actual loading. Pumping into designated tanks being started
slowly and allowed to build up once the risk of back pressures are reduced.

Question 57. While alongside the oil terminal what safety precautions will be kept on
hand, during loading or discharging operations?
Answer: A secondary means of escape1 would be in place, in addition to the ship to
shore gangway. Fire wires would be rigged at the fore and aft ends of the vessel,
while respective fire extinguishers would be placed in the proximity of the manifolds. A
hose would be on stand-by, connected to the hydrant and fire main on the deck area
of the manifold position. A communication link between the pumping station, manifold
and the tank monitor would be established with emergency pump stopping capability
and communications confirmed.

All the SOPEP equipment would be in place and the emergency contact numbers of the
Designated Person Ashore (DPA) would be available. The offshore lifeboat would be
turned out and lowered to the embarkation deck.

Question 58. What type of fixed installation do tankers have for fighting fire on deck
and what maintenance would be applicable to this installation?
Answer: Oil tankers would carry a foam system for deck fires. The maintenance for
such a system is covered by the planned maintenance schedule of the vessel. This
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would include the inspection and check of all foam pumps and valve alignments.
General instructions for operations would be posted and a liquid level check would be
made on the foam tank.

Company manuals require a six (6) monthly foam discharge test and an annual foam
sample analysis would be made. Where foam monitors are covering a heli-deck such
monitors must be turned away from the landing operation area.

Question 59. What tankers are required to have a Crude Oil Washing (COW) system
and what additional system must they also be fitted with?
Answer: All tankers over 20,000 tons deadweight must have a COW system and they
must also be fitted with an inert gas system.

Question 60. Which Ships carry an Oil Record Book(ORB) and what entries are made
in this book?
Answer: Every oil tanker of 150 , and every ship of 400 or over, must carry an ORB.
In the case of a tanker, the vessel would be expected to carry two Record Books, one
for the oil cargoes, the other for recording bunkers.

Entries in the Oil Record Books are required to have a double signature, one of which
will be by the ships Master. Entries will record any movement of oil in or out of the
vessel either accidental or deliberate, inclusive of internal transfers.

Question 62. In general, what additional requirements are required by passenger

vessels over and above the life saving appliance requirements of a Class 7 vessel?
Answer: Passenger vessels must additionally have a double Public Address (P/A)
system, for advising all passengers and a separate system to advise crew on
emergencies and shipboard operations. They should further operate a fire patrol
system on board the passenger vessel and they will carry a designated rescue boat
either side with fixed radio facilities.

Question 63. As a Master of a container vessel, what would you see as being some of
the greatest problems of being in command?
Answer: From the seamanship point of view, ship handling with a large container
stack on deck, in strong winds could be a distinct problem, even with bow thrust and
tugs in attendance. Another concern would be in the winter season when in high
latitudes, where the danger of ice accretion is always present. Added weight on the
container stack could be detrimental to the ships positive stability. The third aspect of
a container ship is that the containers themselves are vulnerable to actions from
terrorists or illegal immigrants. These are anticipated problems over and above the
lashing of the containers, personnel problems and other routine tasks that form the
role of the shipmaster.

Compiled by : Gursimranjit Randhawa Page 258