Sie sind auf Seite 1von 44

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING

Principles of Ecology
What is Environmental
Engineering?

The application of scientific and


engineering principles to assess,
manage, and design sustainable
environmental systems for the
protection of human and
ecological health.
Environment

Physical and biotic habitat


which surrounds us; that which
we can see, touch, smell or taste
Ecology and Life

Ecology is the study of how


organisms interact with one
another and with their non-
living environment.

Ecology takes the entire


living world as its domain.
Ecology and Life
A species consists of all organisms which
can reproduce living offspring.
Populations consist of organisms of same
species living in same place at the same
time.
Several interacting populations
occupying the same habitat form a
community.
An ecosystem is the communities and
their non-living environment.
All earths ecosystems form the
ecosphere.
The Earth Support System
Atmosphere consists of
inner trophosphere and
outer stratosphere.

Hydrosphere is liquid,
solid, and gaseous water.

Litosphere is crust and


upper mantle.

Ecosphere is portion of
the earth where
organisms interact
(atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and upper
litosphere).
The Biosphere
Intersection between air, land, and water
Biomes
Broad terrestrial regions of the biosphere
Characterized by a particular climate and
specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Biomes contain many ecosystems
They differ in climate
Climate is weather over the long term, it
determines the type of life forms in the
biomes
Most important climatic factors are
precipitation and temperature.
Aquatic Life Zones
Freshwater zones
- Lakes
- Rivers

Oceans
- Estuaries
- Coastlines
- Coral reefs
- Continental shelves
- Deep ocean
Ecosystems

Consist of organisms, their


environment, and all of the
interactions that exist within.
- Simple
- Complex
Ecosystems
Biotic Factors - organisms
- Plants
- Animals
- Microorganisms
- Fungi

Abiotic Factors
- Water
- Air
- Nutrients
- Solar energy
Biotic Factors
Producers (autotrophs)
- Support the entire living world through
photosynthesis
- Nourish themselves by using sunlight
and atmospheric CO2 to make food
materials they need to survive.

Consumers (heterotrophs)
- Feed on plants and other organisms
Herbivores
Carnivores
omnivores
Tolerance for Abiotic Factors
Interaction among Organisms
Predation
Comensalism
Mutualism
Parasitism
Competition
Interaction between Biotic & Abiotic Factors
Interaction between Biotic & Abiotic Factors
Energy Flow
Energy is also cycled.
All energy in an ecosystem comes from
the sun.
However, only 1-2% is captured by
plants and stored as chemical bonds.
Only 1-20% is consumed by herbivores
and the loss of energy continues at
each tropic level.
Energy Flow
It is constantly transferred from one
tropic level to another
Energy passes from the producers to
the consumers and back to the
producers.
Energy is lost, however, at each tropic
level.
Energy Flow Through Food Chains

Conversion Efficiency =
ratio of net production at one
level to the next higher level
Example:
(67/1478)100 = 4.5%
(1478/8833)100 = 17%
Pyramid of Biomass

Actual number of organisms at the first tropic


level is often greatest and the fourth level often
has least
Energy Flow and Biomass Storage
Energy Flow
The loss of energy at each tropic level has
several reasons:
1. The energy is transformed into mechanical
energy or other forms.
2. Energy is lost during metabolic processes.
3. The organisms at one tropic level are not
completely utilized by those at the next
level.
4. Food passing through animals are not
completely digested.
Environmental phase Organismic phase
Nutrients become part of the organism

Nutrients
Nutrients in their
physical
environment
(air, water, and Producers
land

NUTRIENT
Primary consumers
CYCLE
Decay

Secondary consumers
Waste & remains
How do Ecosystems
Work?
Interconnected factors include:

- One-way flow of high quality


energy from the sun
- Cycling of matter and nutrients
through the ecosphere
- Gravity permits each to hold onto
all parts of the ecosphere
How do Ecosystems
Work?

Food Chains and Food Webs


conduits by which nutrients and
energy flow through an
ecosystem
Types of Food Chains

Grazer food chain start


with plants

Decomposer food chain


organic waste material
(detritus) is the major food
source
Classifying Consumers
Primary consumers herbivores

Secondary consumers feed on


primary consumers

Tertiary consumers feed on


secondary consumers
Trophic Levels
Third Tropic Level:
Secondary & Tertiary Consumers

Second Tropic Level:


Primary Consumers

First Tropic Level:


Producers
Recycling of Minerals
Plants, which are eaten by herbivores,
would be excreted later by these
consumers.
Scavengers consume the carcasses,
transferring some minerals to them.
The minerals in the plants are returned
to the soil by the bacteria and fungi that
consume fecal matter.
Recycling of Nutrients
Carnivores also help recycle the
minerals found in the bodies of
herbivores.
Some minerals, however, escape the
ecosystem and end up in the ocean.
Food Web
Ecosystem Services and Sustainability

Ecosystem services constitute earths natural


capital

Biological diversity
- Genetic diversity individuals in species
vary in genetic make up.
- Species diversity habitats contain a wide
variety of different species.
- Ecological diversity ecosystems contain
wide variety of communities.
Ecosystem Services and Sustainability

Ecosystem services provide recycling,


purification and natural pest control.

Each species results from many adaptations.

Each species provide raw materials for future


adaptation.

Two basic principles of natural ecosystem


sustainability:
- use renewable solar energy
- Recycle nutrients efficiently
Sustainable Ecosystem
Lives within the carrying
capacity of the environment.
It meets its needs without
impairing future generations
from meeting theirs.
Matter Cycles in Ecosystems
Hydrologic Cycle
Carbon Cycle

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6 O2


Nitrogen Cycle
Phosphorus cycle
H2S
Atmosphere + O2 Sulfur Cycle
SO2
+ H2 O Much sulfur are
Industries stored
Volcanoes & H2SO4 underground in
Hot springs
+ NH3
rocks and minerals

NH4SO4 Fog & pptn Sulfur enters


atmosphere as
Animals
H2S, SO2 and SO4.

Plants

Sulfate salts

Decaying
organisms Sulfur

H2S