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n

an an
P(A) R f ( ) { 1 x2 , ...}} R >/ P(A) R
+
f ( ) { 1 x2 + +

2 2
> >/ P ( A | ) p q Q + n( ) p q > >/ P ( A | ) p q Q + n
Fill-in proof 8 Deriving the scalar product
We are going to demonstrate that...
( 1b1 + 2b2 + 3b3 )
cos =
a| |

You need to know...


the geometric interpretation of vectors
the component form of vectors
the cosine rule:
a b2 c 2
cosC = (Theorem 1)
2ab
the modulus of a vector in component form:

a1
a = a2 + a2 + a2 (Theorem 2)
2 1 2 3
a3

Proof
Fill in the missing expressions and reasons to explain what is being done in each line. You may
refer to Theorem 1 or 2.

Approach Reasons
1 B Geometric property of vectors


C a A
   
CA = a, CB = b, so AB = b a.

a1 b1 b1 a1
2 If a = a2 and b = b2 then b a = b2 a2 .
Component property of vectors

a3 b3 b3 a3

3 In this triangle we have Theorem 1


2 2
a + b ba
2
cos =
2a b

4 a 2 = a12 + a22 + a32 Theorem 2


2
b = b12 + b22 + b32

b a =(
2
)2 + ( )2 + ( )2

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Cambridge Mathematics for the IB Diploma Standard Level Cambridge University Press, 2012 Fill-in proof: 8 Deriving the scalar product
1
n
an an
P(A) R f ( ) { 1 x2 , ...}} R >/ P(A) R
+
f ( ) { 1 x2 + +

2 2
> >/ P ( A | ) p q Q + n( ) p q > >/ P ( A | ) p q Q + n
2 2
5 a2 b b a = Algebraic simplification
a12 + a22 + a32 + b1 b2 b32
(b1 a1b1 b12 ) (b2 a2b2 b22 )
(b32 2 3 3 + 32 )
= 2( 1b1 + 2b2 + 3b3 )

2( 1b1b 3b3 ) Substituting into expression for


6 cos = 2 2

2a | | cos
( b b b)
= 11 2 2 3 3
a| |

Questions for reflection


1. Which would you say is the definition of the scalar product:

(a) a.bb b cos


ab
(b) = cos
a b
(c) a b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 ?

Is mathematics about defining something and then investigating its properties or defining
something because it has a use?

<
Cambridge Mathematics for the IB Diploma Standard Level Cambridge University Press, 2012
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