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This report deals with water resources in the southwestern part of coastal areas with special
attention on Khulna City Corporation (KCC) which is essential for human survival. This
study is mainly based on secondary data and reviews of literatures and a number of
publications from different Journals, and personal communication with some scientists. The
collected data are carefully reviewed and analyzed and incorporated in the report.

Climate (e.g.: rainfall, temperature, humidity etc.) are the important component of hydrologic
cycle and interconnected with both the surface water and groundwater of an area.

The nine basic geomorphological units namely the natural levee, floodplain-estuarine plain,
oxbow lake etc. of the Rupsa-Bhairab-Pasur Rivers on the east and flood plain, flood basin,
swamp, abandoned channel were introduced on the basis of geomorphology, relief and
drainage, sediment characteristics etc. The study area is in transition of the inactive Ganges
deltaic plain in north and estuarine plain in south of Recent or Sub-Recent alluvium. The
subsurface sediment composed of sand, silt and clay in various proportions with small
amount of coarse sand.

A detail study was done on surface water both flowing and stagnant water and for
hydrogeological aspects existing and abandoned channel system or drainage pattern were
also analyzed.

Tide is an important regulator of the study area and its surroundings as it controls physical
exchange of the soil water solution, Tidal flashing, vertical motion of the ground water table
and transport of oxygen to the root system.

The aquifer systems of Bangladesh are analyzed for determination of aquifer system in the
southwestern part of the coastal region. The south western aquifer system is complex because
of higher thickness of fine grain sediments and parched which is common in Khulna area.
The upper three meters of sediment are divided into two aquifer units by low permeability
horizons (probably mainly silty fine rather than tight clay layers) that may contain brackish
water. The recent sands forming the shallow aquifer are often contaminated by residual
salinity and generally contain high iron concentrations (Haskoning, 1981). Water supply in
the Khulna City Corporation (KCC) is adversely affected by the salinity and
deterioration of other quality parameters in the groundwater as well as surface water sources.
Different part of the Khulna were selected and samples were collected (e.g.: GW sample) on
a monthly basis for a period of eight months and were tested for pH, iron, chloride, TDS,
hardness, color, alkalinity, turbidity and electrical conductivity using standard testing
procedures. The analysis reveals that salinity varies from 1012 mg/L to 160 mg/L with an
average value of 556 mg/L and 76% of all samples exceeds BDS allowable limit for chloride.
45% and 17% of all samples exceed the BDS and WHO recommended iron limit for drinking
water. TDS of GW shows that maximum samples lie within good (300-600 mg/L) and fair
(600-900 mg/L). 58% samples exceed BDS allowable limit for hardness, which makes GW
unsuitable for public and industrial use. In addition about 57% samples exceed BDS
recommended value for EC. Other parameters such as pH, turbidity, color and alkalinity
of almost all samples satisfy the allowable limits recommended by WHO and BDS

The summarization of several surface water and ground water data suggests that Khulna city
and surrounding area has grave condition regarding water availability and its increasing day
by day. Ground water is non- renewable in character and may be termed as fossil
groundwater and groundwater mining may have to be done. Inconsistent supply of suitable
surface water due to salinity and turbidity content is an obstacle for its use. Conjunctive use
of water (e.g.: abstraction of surface water in the monsoon and pre monsoon season) from
Bhairab River with the Atharabanki, the Atai and the Majudkhali rivers should be
implemented. After augmentation of the Gorai River the supply of surface water would be
more suitable due to less salinity.