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Study

Target Student Portfolio

Name: Kim

Age: 17

Students Strength: Kim has strong numerical and graphical skills in mathematics

learning. He can solve the problems of algebra and calculus faster than other

students in the class.

Students Learning Needs: Kim has difficulties in understanding the instructions and

interpreting the results of linguistic mathematical problems. He needs explicit

instructions to follow in classroom activities, and effective development in

communication and interpersonal skills.

Part 1

In the recent decades, as the awareness and development of inclusive education,

students with disabilities and special learning needs are more and more involved in

regular classrooms (Loreman, Deppeler & Harvey, 2011). In order to include all

students in the classroom, teachers need to make reasonable adjustments in

teaching activities, such as using the framework of Universal Design for Learning

(UDL) (Poed and Elkins, 2012). UDL contains three elements, which are multiple

means of representation, multiple means of expression and multiple means of

engagement (Loreman, Deppeler & Harvey, 2011). UDL requires teachers to

recognise individual needs for every student, and seek alternative approaches to

assist students learning (Pisha and Coyne, 2001). In this justification, I will evaluate

Kims strength and learning needs based on my observation, and discuss the

adjustments of pedagogies according to UDL, so that Kims strength is manifested

and his learning needs are satisfied. I will also show the modifications to a

mathematics lesson plan (shown in blue colour) as an example of adjustments in

pedagogies.

claimed that Kim had strong numerical and graphical skills in mathematics learning.

He achieved good results in the topic exams of algebra and calculus, which

demonstrated his competence in numerical and graphical learning. However, his

overall mathematics achievement was still lower than his peers, especially, his

performance in statistics, probability and financial mathematics was relatively low.

My mentor teachers ascribed his underperformance in linguistic problems to his

drawback of understanding the instructions and expressing his ideas. This was

verified by his low marks in presentation and report writing assignments. From my

observation, he was usually disengaged in the classroom activities until I

demonstrated examples based on the instruction, and he had difficulties in

completing the tasks that involves verbal or written reasoning. Furthermore, he was

isolated in the classroom, as his classmates believed that he was not willing to share

his authentic ideas, and hard to communicate with.

mathematics learning, his linguistic disability still hindered him from achieving

expected learning outcomes. As discovered by Koponen, Mononen, Rasanen and

Ahonen (2006), students with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) has lower

performance in both verbal and nonverbal mathematics. However, the researchers

also find that students with SLI can perform calculations as accurately as other

students, but with slower calculation strategies. In the article, the researchers

identify that heterogeneity in numerical skills of students with SLI is one of the

possible reasons for that result. Kims scenario is consistent with this research, he

demonstrates adequate numerical skills in some aspects of mathematics learning,

however his skills in linguistic problem solving is effected by his disability. Another

research demonstrates that students with SLI perform significantly lower in timed

calculation than in untimed calculation (Fazio, 1999). It implies that Kims difficulty in

completing tasks on time can be ascribed by his disability. Fazio also provided some

suggestions to foster the learning of students with SLI. First, teachers can encourage

multiple strategies and solutions in mathematical problems, for example, visual

aids such as tallies can be used in calculation. Second, teachers can provide

additional instructions to students with SLI. Third, teachers can emphasis the

interaction between knowledge of arithmetic procedures, mathematical

vocabulary, and mathematical concepts. After incorporating the two research and

my observation, I conclude that Kim has strength on numerical skills, but needs

additional support in linguistic instruction and reasoning, task completion, and

engagement in activities and with peers. UDL can be adopted to assist Kims learning

in mathematics by adjusting the pedagogies in delivering the knowledge to him,

assessing his understandings, and engaging him into learning activities.

The first element of UDL is multiple means of representation, which means teachers

are expected to provide multiple methods for students to obtain information and

knowledge (Loreman, Deppeler & Harvey, 2011). For Kims scenario, adjustments in

content delivery must break the linguistic barrier that hinders him from mathematics

learning, and take his advantage of numerical and graphical skills. The Teaching for

Inclusion Student Profile Builder (2017) provides suggestions that I can use clear and

explicit linguistic expression to cope Kims difficulty in receiving and processing

verbal and written language. For example, according to the Profile Builder, I can

include word banks, glossaries and highlighted key terms, issue materials prior to

the lesson for student to review, redesign worksheets to clearly identify answer

spaces and working-out areas, arrange for rest breaks to include opportunities for

individualised teacher attention, or colour-code key terms and concepts, so that

he can receive and process linguistic instructions and knowledge easily. Another

literature claims that UDL could be implemented by the use of digital technology and

multiple media (Meyer, Rose and Gordon, 2016). The book suggests that digital

technology, such as calculator, software and internet, will provide alternative

resources for learners with diverse learning needs, it can be considered as an

extension to paper-based resources. Also multiple media resource incorporates

multiple methods of expression, such as sound, texts and images, so that different

types of learners can access the resource and receive information from it. Also Goos

et al (2007, p.78) suggests that technology can help students connect between

multiple representations, such as the symbolic, numerical and graphical expression.

The ideas from the literature are consulted in making UDL adjustments to the

mathematics lesson plan. In the introduction stage of the lesson, I will play a

YouTube video to recall students previous knowledge and concept, as well as make

up the lag of financial mathematics knowledge for Kim, as it is effective and efficient

for Kim to obtain knowledge from the numerical graphical demonstration. I will also

hand out work sheets that contain definitions of terminologies in financial

mathematics, such as future value, in order to assist Kim in understanding the

concept. In the work sheets, I will use different colours for each row, in order to

make Kim aware that for different periods he need to apply different formulas. I will

also demonstrate how to apply the formulas for the interest rate of 1% to provide a

more explicit instruction to him.

approaches for students to demonstrate their knowledge (Loreman, Deppeler &

Harvey, 2011). As claim by Meo (2008), instead of adopting only one assessment

method, providing the choices of multiple assessment methods to students can help

them demonstrate their knowledge. Kim has disability in linguistic expression, thus

teachers must provide opportunities for him to demonstrate his understandings in

numerical or graphical response. Two suggestions from the Teaching for Inclusion

Student Profile Builder (2017) is considered to be useful for Kim. The first suggestion

is including collaborative activities, which means Kim can express his knowledge by

contributing his strength to the collaborative work, instead of exposing his weakness

of linguistic expression in assessments. However, this strategy cannot be effectively

implemented unless he is effectively engaged in the group works. The second

strategy is arranging for choice in assessment and presentation of information,

which mean Kim can be provided with opportunities to demonstrate his knowledge

in the methods other than linguistic response. Furthermore, Meyer, Rose and

Gordon (2016) suggests that students can express their knowledge by the use of

technology. It provides an idea that teachers can involve technology in the

assessments of Kims class. For example, teachers can allow submission of Excel file

and presentation with PowerPoint slides in statistics topic, so that Kim can express

his knowledge numerically, graphically or visually. In the lesson plan, the adjustment

in the final discussion provides Kim with the opportunity to demonstrate his

understanding of the differences between compound interest and annuity

calculation using a numerical tables.

with diverse learning needs, interest and styles (Loreman, Deppeler & Harvey, 2011).

As investigated by Lein et.al (2016), students performance in mathematics is

significantly influence by the level of engagement. In order to engage Kim in

classroom activities, teachers must motive him by breaking the barriers that hinder

him from participation, and providing opportunities for him to engage with peers.

Some appropriate strategies are suggested by the Teaching for Inclusion Student

Profile Builder (2017). First, it suggests teachers to use visualised resources. Second,

teachers can provide materials to students prior to the lesson. Third, teachers can

include collaborative activities, provide explicit group roles in the collaborative

learning, and establish a peer mentor program. One specific strategy of

collaborative learning is jigsaw cooperation, which is justified to be effective in

increasing the level of engagement in mathematics classrooms (Sengul and Katranci,

2013). In addition to the Teaching for Inclusion Student Profile Builder, Meyer, Rose

and Gordons book (2016) also suggests that teachers can develop multiple means of

engagement by developing students self-regulation and providing students with

autonomy. In teaching practice, teachers can develop more student-directed

learning activities and self or peer assessment. For Kims scenario, I will design more

group works to develop his communication and interpersonal skills. However, in

order to break the barriers that hinder him from sharing his ideas in the group, the

activities must manifest his strength in numerical and graphical skills. In the lesson

plan the original jigsaw collaboration activity is adequate to engage Kim, as it can

provide an opportunity for him to share his numerical findings in constructing the

Future Value Interest Factor table. Also the Travel Game activity can make him been

mentored and monitored by peers. The only adjustment in the activity is that I will

walk around in the classroom to monitor the effectiveness of collaborative work for

Kim as well as the whole class.

The use of UDL framework if effective to assist learnings for students with

disabilities. Instead of one-size-fit-all pedagogies, UDL encourages multiple means of

representation, expression and engagement, so that all students can manifest their

strength, and achieve the learning goals of themselves. For Kim, who is a students

with expression language disorder, the UDL adjustments provides opportunities for

him to demonstrate his strength in numerical and graphical competence, and breaks

the barriers that hinders him from being included in the classroom activities. Not

only for Kim, will UDL also create an inclusive environment for students with and

without disabilities.

Year 11 Financial Mathematics Lesson

Plan

Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred

T/S

mathematics by asking questions. the revision for

previous

UDL: play the YouTube video of Compound Interest

knowledge

Explained to recall students previous knowledge and

5 mins concept, as well as make up the lag of financial UDL: Play the

mathematics knowledge for Kim. The video link is video and hand

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wf91rEGw88Q&t=7s. out work sheets.

Hand out the work sheets that contains all the material in Student: recall

the Resources. Add the definitions of the key words their knowledge

simple interest, compound interest, future value,

present value, annuity and mortgage on the top of UDL: Watch the

the work sheets. video and recall

previous

knowledge.

Resources:

UDL: Laptop,

Projector and

work sheets.

Body Activity 1. Construct the future value interest factor Teacher: T and S

table. demonstrate

example,

This activity involves jigsaw collaborative learning construct the

strategy. Students form five groups, and calculate the future value

10-15 mins value interest factor at 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% interest factor

respectively for different periods. Then teacher lead table

students to put all the information into a table.

The formulas for annuity calculation are:

Student: work

1 Period: FV = 1.

out the future

2 Periods: FV = (1 + r%) + 1 value interest

factors table in

3 Periods: FV = (1 + %)2 + (1 + r%) + 1 groups

4 Periods: FV = (1 + %)3 + (1 + %)2 + (1 + r%) + Resources:

1

Teacher demonstrate the calculation of future value

interest factor at 1% for 1, 2, 3 and 4 period on the broad.

Students form four groups, and calculate the value interest

factor at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% respectively for different

periods. Then teacher lead students to put all the

information into a table.

value interest factors table. examples to

students

Show students example about calculation of annuity

value, remaining value of an annuity loan, and

contribution amount superannuation and home loan.

Student: get the

10 min idea of

calculation using

future value

interest factors

table

Resources:

calculation). out resources,

walk around to

Students form groups of 3 or 4 according to the class size. assist students if

Each group is provided with the Travel Game board, a needed

question sheet, a pack of cut Opportunity Cards sheet,

and a pair of red and blue dice.

Each student put an indicator at the START cell, and Student: Play the

take turns to act clockwise. In one turn, the current person game

roll two dices, the student on the right hand side hold the

Question Sheet, and ask the current person to calculate the

annuity value in the corresponding row and column Resources:

shown on the two dices. For example, if the red die shows Travel Game set,

a 2 the blue die shows a 3, the current person have to dices

calculate The future value of $800 contributions for 2

periods at 2% interest.

If the current persons answer is correct, he/she move the

20-25 mins indicator one step forwards, otherwise the indicator stay in

the current cell. Then the dices and the Question Sheet are

passed to the next person clockwise.

If the indicator is moved to the Opportunity cell, the

person must draw an opportunity card, and answer the

question according to the card. If the answer is correct, the

indicator can be moved one step forwards. Otherwise, the

indicator must be moved one step backwards.

The person who arrive the FINISH cell first win the

game.

UDL: Hang around to monitor and assist each group,

including Kims group.

Conclusion Have student discuss about the common mistakes they Teacher: listen to S and T

made in the game, lead their discussion to the difference students discuss,

between annuities and compound interest loans. lead the discuss

5-10 mins UDL: Lead students to construct a future value table of

compound interest loans in groups using the formula

FV = (1 + %) , and make them discuss the difference Student:

between the tables for compound interest loan and participate in

annuity. Hang around to collect response from each discussion

group, including Kims group.

1% 2% 3%

1 1.0100

2 1.0201

3 1.0303

4 1.0406

Resources

Period Interest

1% 2% 3% 4% 5%

1 1.0000

2 2.0100

3 3.0301

4 4.0604

Travel Game Board

FINISH FINISH FINISH FINISH

Opportunity Opportunity

Opportunity

Opportunity

Opportunity Opportunity

Opportunity

Opportunity

Opportunity

Opportunity Opportunity

Opportunity

Question Sheet

Red Dice

1 2 3 4 5 6

Interest-

1% 2% 3% 4% 5%

free

The future

value of

1 $500 $ 2,030.20 $ 2,060.80 $ 2,091.81 $ 2,123.23 $ 2,155.06 $2000

contributions

for 4 periods

The

contributions

2 to achieve $ 1,231.41 $ 1,213.12 $ 1,195.14 $ 1,177.45 $ 1,160.06 $1250

$5000 in 4

periods

The future

value of

Blue 3 $800 $ 1,608.00 $ 1,616.00 $ 1,624.00 $ 1,632.00 $ 1,640.00 $1600

contributions

for 2 periods

The

contributions

Dice 4 to achieve $ 1,980.13 $ 1,960.53 $ 1,941.18 $ 1,922.09 $ 1,903.25 $2000

$6000 in 3

periods

The future

value of

5 $1000 $ 3,030.10 $ 3,060.40 $ 3,090.90 $ 3,121.60 $ 3,152.50 $3000

contributions

for 3 periods

The

remaining

amount for a

$10000 loan

6 $ 8,191.00 $ 8,384.00 $ 8,579.00 $ 8,776.00 $ 8,975.00 $8000

after 2

periods with

contributions

of $1000

$5202 $2040

$3000 $9600

Opportunity Cards

taken at 2% interest at 4% interest per

per annum, what is its annum, what is its

value after 2 years? value after 6 months?

If a $25000 load is

If a $1000 yearly taken at 3% interest

contribution is paid at per annum, the

4% interest per annum, monthly contribution is

what the total amount $800, what the total

paid after 3 years? amount paid back

during the first year?

References

Performance in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A 5-Year Follow-

Up. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 420-431.

Retrieved from

http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewe

r?sid=9ef331ed-8d42-482d-9b71-

2176ac26f629%40sessionmgr4008&vid=1&hid=4112.

Goos, M., Stillman, G., & Vale, C. (2007). Teaching secondary school mathematics:

Research and practice for the 21st century. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen &

Unwin.

Koponen, T., Mononen, R., Rasanen, P. & Ahonen, T. (2006). Basic Numeracy in

Children with Specific Language Impairment: Heterogeneity and Connections

to Language. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(1), 58-

73. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2006/005).

Lein, A. E., Jitendra, A. K., Starosta, K. M., Dupuis, D. N., Hughes-Reid, C. L. & Star, J.

R. (2016). Assessing the Relation between Seventh-Grade Students

Engagement and Mathematical Problem Solving Performance. Preventing

School Failure, 60(2), 117-123. DOI: 0.1080/1045988X.2015.1036392.

Loreman, T., Deppeler, J., & Harvey, D. (2011). Inclusive education: Supporting

diversity in the classroom (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Meo, G. (2008). Curriculum planning for all learners: Applying universal design for

learning (UDL) to a high school reading comprehension program. Preventing

School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 52(2), 21-30.

DOI: 10.3200/PSFL.52.2.21-30.

Meyer, A., Rose, D. H. & Gordon, D. (2016). Universal Design for Learning: Theory

and Practice. Wakefield: CAST Professional Publishing. Retrieved from

http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uwsau/reader.action?docID=4603679.

Pisha, B., & Coyne, P. (2001). Smart from the start: The promise of universal design

for learning. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 197205. DOI:

10.1177/074193250102200402.

Poed, S. & Elkins, J. (2012). Chapter 2: Legislation, policies and principles. Education

for inclusion and diversity (4th ed., pp. 39-60). Frenchs Forest, Australia:

Pearson Education Australia.

Sengul, S. & Katranci, Y. (2013). Effects of Jigsaw Technique on Seventh Grade

Primary School Students Attitude towards Mathematics. Procedia - Social

and Behavioural Sciences, 116, 339 344. DOI:

10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.218.

Teaching for Inclusion (2017). Individualised Planning Document. Retrieved from

http://web1.modelfarms-

h.schools.nsw.edu.au/learningtraits_pdf.php?prepname=&name=&selections

%5B%5D=academic-low-engagement&selections%5B%5D=academic-

problems-with-task-completion&selections%5B%5D=communication-

difficulty-expressing-ideas&selections%5B%5D=communication-speech-

impairment&selections%5B%5D=communication-difficulty-following-

instructions&selections%5B%5D=communication-receptive-language-

problems&selections%5B%5D=development-socially-

isolated&selections%5B%5D=development-difficulty-working-with-

others&disabilities%5B%5D=expressive-language-

disorder&download=false&generatepdf=Generate+PDF.

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