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Deptt. of ECE, Deptt. of ECE,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

mayank2780@gmail.com dprasad@jmi.ac.in

Mamta

Deptt. of ECE,

ABES Engineering College,

Ghaziabad

Abstract This paper proposes a new lossless current-mode one active element (ii) use of more than one passive element

(CM) integrator employing one VDTA and single grounded (iii) use of floating capacitors which occupy large chip area in

capacitor. The single active element based configuration has low monolithic integration.(iii) lack of electronic control(iv)

power dissipation and less requirement of chip area and the use requirement(s) of external passive component matching

of grounded capacitor is favorable from monolithic integration constraints (v) degraded performance under non ideal

point of view. The advantageous feature of proposed integrator conditions(vi)unavailability of explicit current output at high

are; (i) purely a resister-less realization (ii) facility of electronic impedance terminal (in case of CM integrator).

control (iii) availability of explicit current output at high

impedance port and (iv)very good non-ideal performance. The Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a lossless CM

workability of proposed CM integrator is demonstrated by integrator configuration with following positive features:

SPICE simulations with TSMC CMOS .18 m process

parameters

(i) Use of only one VDTA

Keywordsvoltage differencing transconductance amplifie

(VDTA); Integrator; grounded capacitor,electronic tunability. (ii) Use of only one capacitor

(iii) Purely resistor-less realization

I. INTRODUCTION

(iv) Use of grounded capacitor

Active RC Integrator is a very useful circuit configuration,

finds applications in Synthesis and development of several (v) Electronically tunable gain

analog signal generation and signal processing circuits such as

(vi) Improved non-ideal performance

quadrature oscillators, active filters, waveform generators

etc. Many current/voltage mode lossy/lossless integrator (vii) Availability of explicit current output signal at high

circuits based on different active components such as impedance port.

operational amplifiers (OP-AMP)[1], second generation

current conveyors (CCII) )[2, 3, 12, 13, 15], differential The VDTA is a popular active building block proposed in

voltage current conveyor (DVCC) )[4], differential difference [16] finds several applications in analog filter designing [17-

current conveyor (DDCC) [8], multiplication mode current 19], oscillators [20-22] and inductor simulators [21]. A single

conveyor (MMCC)[6], current follower transconductance VDTA based trans-admittance mode integrator has been

amplifier(CFTA)[10], current feedback amplifiers(CFOA) proposed in [23] but there is no current-mode integrator

[14], current controlled current conveyor transconductance employing VDTA is available in literature. So, This

amplifier(CCCCTA)[11], current differencing communication is an effort to fill this void.

transconductance amplifiers (CDTA)[9], and current Fig. 1 shows the symbolic representation VDTA, where N

differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA) )[5] and current and P are input ports and X-, Z and X+ are output terminals.

controlled current differencing buffered amplifier All the ports of VDTA are at high impedance levels.

(CCCDBA)[7] have been proposed in the literature.

Unfortunately these available circuit configurations bear

one or more of following disadvantages:(i) use of more than

The proposed integrator circuit is shown in Fig. 3. A

straightforward analysis of this circuit yields the following

expression for output current;

gm

I out = 1 I in (7)

sC0

Fig. 1 Symbolic representation of VDTA From equation (7), it is clear that gain of proposed

integrator is electronically tunable by gm1 and the value of gm1

The terminal current -voltage relationships of VDTA can can be adjust by bias currents of VDTA. Fig. 3 shows that

be given by following set of equations: output current Iout is explicitly available at high impedance

I z = g m1 (V p Vn ) (1) Z port. Hence, no additional current follower is required to

use this output.

I x + = g m2 V z (2) The current transfer function achieved from equation (7)

is;

I x = g m2 V z (3)

I out g m1

The CMOS implementation of VDTA [17] is shown in = (8)

Fig. 2. I in sC0

For sinusoidal steady state

I out ( j ) g m1 j 900 (9)

= e

I in ( j ) sC0

From equation (9) it is clear that phase difference between

Iout and Iin is -900.

Fig. 2 CMOS implementation of VDTA [16]

Under the influence of VDTA non-idealities, the defining

The trans-conductance gains gm1 and gm2 of CMOS VDTA equations of VDTA are modified as

shown in Fig 2 are given as

I z = z g m1 (V p Vn ) (8)

g3 + g 4 (4)

g m1 =

2 I x + = x + g m2 (Vz Vv ) (9)

g 5 + g8 or g + g7 I x = x g m2 (Vz Vv ) (10)

g m2 = g m2 = 6 (5)

2 2

Where z, x+ and x- are the trans-conductance error gains

Where, gn is the transconductance of nth MOS transistor and there values are very slightly less than unity.

given as

The output current transfer of proposed configuration

W (6) under non ideal conditions is found as

g n = I Bn n COX

L n

gm z

where, n is carrier mobility, COX is capacitance of gate- I out = 1 I in (11)

oxide layer per unit area, W is MOS transistorss effective sC0

channel width, L is effective channel length and IBn is bias It is clear from equation (11) that even under the non-ideal

current of nth transistor. conditions, the proposed configuration simulates an ideal CM

integrator with electronically tunable gain. So, the behavior of

II. PROPOSED CURRENT-MODE INTEGRATOR proposed circuit does not effected in non-ideal environment.

by employing CMOS VDTA shown in Fig. 2 with gm1 = gm2 =

636.3A/V. the value of capacitor C0 is 10nF.

A rectangular current signal Iin with swing from -1.0 mA to

+1.0 mA and time period of 4 s is used as an input signal

(shown in Fig. 4). The output current signal (Iout) is shown in

Fig. 5, is a triangular signal, which confirms the workability of

Fig. 3 Proposed CM Integrator presented circuit.

V. CONCLUSION

-3

x 10

1.5

1

A VDTA based CM lossless integrator circuit employing

Current(amp)

0.5

-0.5 The proposed circuit is a resistor-less realization and offers

-1 electronic control of gain by VDTA transconductance, explicit

-1.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 CM output available at a high impedance port which is suitable

Time(sec)

for cascading and no requirement of any component matching

-5

x 10

Fig.4 Input Current (Iin)

ideal behavior and even under the influence of VDTA non-

idealities, it simulate a lossless CM integrator. The theoretical

5

x 10

-5

analysis has been confirmed by SPICE simulation with TSMC

CMOS .0.18m process parameters

0

Current(amp)

-5

REFERENCES

-10

[1] Sanyal, S. K., Sarker, U. C. and Nandi, R., Increased Time-Constant

-15 Dual-Input Integrators IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And

0 0.5

Time(sec)

1 1.5

-5

x 10

Measurement, vol. 39, no. 4, 1990, pp. 672-673.

[2] Abuelmaatti, M.T., On the realization of current-mode Integrator using

current conveyors Active and Passive Electronic Component, vol. 17,

Fig. 5 Output Current (Iout) 1994, pp. 79-82.

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Using Single DVCC and Grounded Passive Elements IEEE

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Frequency(Hz) Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 52, 2014, pp. 767-775.

[9] Biolek, D., Keskin, A. U. and Biolkova, V., Quadrature oscillator

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[10] Uttaphut, P., Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode

Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators using CFTAs World Academy of

To demonstrate the electrol control of proposed integator the Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 9, 2012, pp. 643-646.

output current is plotted for different values of bias current Ib. [11] Uttaphut, P., New current mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators

where Ib = Ib1 = Ib3. Fig. 7 shows the electronic tunability of Based on CCCCTA-based Lossy Integrators PRZEGLD

presented integrator where output current(Iout) is plotted for ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electrical Review),2012, pp.291-295.

following values of bias current; Ib = 150A, 170 A and190 [12] Lee, J. Y. and Tsao, H. W., True RC Integrators Based on Current

Conveyors with Tunable Time Constants Using Active Control and

A. Modified Loop Technique IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And

Measurement, vol. 41, no. 5, 1992, pp. 709-714.

-5

x 10

5 [13] Liu, S. L. and Hwang, Y. S., Dual-Input Differentiators and Integrators

with Tunable Time Constants Using Current Conveyors IEEE

0 Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, vol. 43, no. 4,

Current(amp)

Ib=150 uA

1994, pp. 650-654.

-5 Ib=170 uA

[14] Lee, J. L. and Liu, S. H., Integrator and differentiator with time

-10 constant multiplication using current feedback amplifier Electronics

Ib=190 uA Letters, vol. 37, no. 6, 2001, pp. 331-332.

-15

0 0.5 1 1.5 [15] Sedra, A. and Smith. K. C., A Second-Generation Current Conveyor

Time(sec) x 10

-5

and Its ApplicationsIEEE Transactions on circuit theory, 1970, pp.

132-134.

Fig. 7 Demonstration of electronic control [16] A. Yesil, F. Kacar and H. Kuntman, New simple CMOS realization of

voltage differencing transconductance amplifier and its RF filter

application Radioengineering, vol.20, no.3, 2011, pp. 632-637.

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Biquad Filter using a VDTA Circuits and Systems, vol. 4, no. 1, 2013,

pp. 32-36

[18] Prasad, D., Bhaskar, D. R.and Srivastava, M., Universal voltage-mode

biquad filter using voltage differencing transconductance amplifier

Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 12, 2013, pp. [21] Srivastava, M., Prasad, D. and Bhaskar, D.R., New Parallel R-L

864-868. impedance using single VDTA & its high pass filter applications, In

[19] Prasad, D. ,Srivastava, M. and Bhaskar, D.R., Transadmittance - Type Proc. of International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated

Universal Current-Mode Biquad Filter using Voltage Differencing Networks-SPIN-2014,Noida (India), pp. 535-537.

Transconductance Amplifiers International Scholarly Research [22] Srivastava, M., Prasad, D. and Bhaskar, D.R., Voltage mode quadrature

Network, vol. 2014, 4 pages. oscillator employing single VDTA and grounded capacitors

[20] Prasad, D., Srivastava, M. and Bhaskar, D.R. Electronically Contemporary Engineering Sciences, vol. 7, no. 27, 2014, pp. 1501-

controllable fully uncoupled explicit current mode quadrature oscillator 1507.

using VDTA and grounded capacitors Circuits and Systems, vol. 4, no. [23] M. I. Shaktour, Unconventional circuit elements for ladder filter

2, 2013, pp. 169-172. design PhD. Thesis, Brno Univ. Tech.

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