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Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is a corporate-level maintenance

strategy that is implemented to optimize the maintenance program of a
company or facility. It is generally used to achieve improvements in fields such
as the establishment of safe minimum levels of maintenance. Successful
implementation of RCM will lead to increase in cost effectiveness, reliability,
machine uptime, and a greater understanding of the level of risk that the
organization is managing.
The principles of RCM: The RCM analysis process centres on the functions of
plant and equipment, the consequences of failure and measures to prevent or
cope with functional failure. The process must establish answers to the
following questions and an effective response to them:-
What are the functions and performance standards of the plant?
In what ways does it fail to fulfil its functions?
What causes each functional failure?
What happens when each failure occurs?
In what way does each failure matter?
What can be done to predict or prevent each failure?
What should be done if a suitable proactive task cannot be found?

RCM Process: RCM is a process to ensure that systems continue to do what
their users require in their present operating context. It is generally used to
achieve improvements in fields such as the establishment of safe minimum
levels of maintenance.
RCM Analysis: A rigorous RCM analysis is based on a detailed Failure Modes
and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and includes probabilities of failure and system
reliability calculations. The analysis is used to determine appropriate
maintenance tasks to address each of the identified failure modes and their
Identification of System Functions
System Functional failure analysis Equipment identification
Reliability and Performance Data collection
Identification of failure modes
Identification of failure effects
Determination of Component Criticality
RCM growing expectations of maintenance:
First Generations Second Generation Third Generations
Fix it when it Higher plant Greater safety
broke availability Better product
Longer quality
equipment life No damage to the
Lower cost environment
Greater cost
Hazard studies
Failure modes
and effect
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000





REACTIVE MAINTENANCE: Reactive maintenance (also known as
breakdown maintenance) refers to repairs that are done when
equipment has already broken down, in order to restore the equipment
to its normal operating condition. Rapid repair of equipment that has
broken down is critical to ensure uninterrupted operations, minimal
downtime and optimal production. Company provide you with the
assurance that a site support specialist will be available when needed
with the backing of PEMEs extensive engineering knowledge and
support network. Our service optimises asset availability and provides
you with a reduction in labour costs, overtime hours and productivity

Advantages of Reactive Maintenance-

Lower start-up cost the first main advantage to running a reactive
maintenance system is the lack of initial cost involved. When only
reacting to a problem, as long as there is a point of contact and the
relevant contractors are known to contact, there is very little to actually
do before a problem occurs. Therefore, investment systems, procedures,
pre planning and organisation time is greatly reduced, along with the
start-up cost required to begin the operation.
Limited personnel requirement Due to the reduced planning,
management and organization time involved with reactive maintenance,
the approach requires fewer staff to manage a portfolio or client. This
can offer management companies the opportunity to save on payroll
and either increase profit margins.
Reduced maintenance costs A reactive maintenance approach sits in
line with a run until it fails concept, whereby equipment is used as
much as possible without spending any further money that its cost price.
Maintenance is avoided, servicing and checks are not ordered and
temporary repair or quick fixes are made in order to reduce ongoing
maintenance costs and spend only when absolutely necessary.
Potentially increased margins Depending on the type of Management
Company, some operations will prefer to deal with reactive maintenance
for the potential of higher profit margins. Those operations that charge a
percentage of job prices will often prefer an emergency call out or and
out of hours attendance due to the opportunity to charge more for the
repair, especially when the client is desperate for the repair to be
completed and is not in the position being able to negotiate or get a
second opinion.

Disadvantages of Reactive Maintenance:

Equipment not maximised Reactive maintenance doesnt protect or
look after equipment and therefore reduces the lifespan of the unit.
Unpredictability One of the main disadvantages of reactive
maintenance is the unpredictability of when issues may occur. This lack
of knowing may well result in either labour or materials being
unavailable immediately and therefore delay the time taken for a repair,
increasing equipment downtime.
Indirect costs Further indirect costs are found with reactive
maintenance with equipment downtime or unreliable equipment
causing negative effects on reputations, safety and the ability to run a
business efficiently and productively.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: Preventive maintenance is

maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to
lessen the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed
while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down
Two type of Preventive Maintenance:
1) Time Based Maintenance- Time-based maintenance (TBM) is
maintenance performed on equipment based on a calendar schedule.
This means that time is the maintenance trigger for this type
of maintenance. Time-based maintenance is planned maintenance, as it
must be scheduled in advance.
2) Condition Based Maintenance- Condition based maintenance (CBM) is a
maintenance strategy that monitors the actual condition of the asset to
decide what maintenance needs to be done. CBM dictates
that maintenance should only be performed when certain indicators
show signs of decreasing performance or upcoming failure.
The benefits of implementing CBM include:
Increased system availability
Increased system reliability
Reduced maintenance costs
Reduced inventories

Advantage of Preventive Maintenance:

Less risk factor- Because the equipment and your building are being
regularly checked, they are at less risk to breaking down without notice.
Less energy wasting- In general when equipment is not kept in the best
conditions possible, it will drain more energy, hiking up your utilities bill.
With properly maintained equipment, it will be saving you energy and
Less disruptions- With regular checks, you wont be surprised when
something goes wrong. It will be a quick fix because you will know what
needs to be done.
Longer equipment/building life- When equipment is being checked and
maintained, it will be kept in its best shape, therefore extending its
Disadvantage of Preventive Maintenance:
More money upfront- When initially starting a preventative
maintenance plan, it will cost you more to regularly maintain equipment
and the building, than it would be if you waited for things to simply
break down.
Over maintenance- Because there is a regular plan, sometimes items
may not need to be checked as often as planned.
More workers- Preventative maintenance require more workers
because regular checks are a must. When compared to reactive

PRIDICTIVE MAINTENANCE: Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques

are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in
order to predict when maintenance should be performed. This approach
promises cost savings over routine or time-based preventive
maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted.
Type of predictive Maintenance:
1) Run-to-Failure (RTF) Maintenance- RTF is running an asset to failure. A
simple example would be replacing a burned out light bulb. An
important goal of CMMS usage is to reduce run-to-failure maintenance
in favour of a more proactive maintenance plan.
Advantage of Predictive Maintenance:
Provides increased component operational life and availability
Safety, reliability and availability increases
Results in decrease in equipment and/or process downtime
Cost of maintenance is less.
Provides better product quality
Improves worker and environmental safety
Increases energy savings

Disadvantage of Predictive Maintenance:

Increases investment in diagnostic equipment
Requires skilled personnel.
Savings potential is readily seen by management

PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE: Proactive maintenance is a

preventive maintenance strategy for maintaining the reliability of
machines or equipment. The purpose of proactive maintenance is to
view machine failure and similar problems as something that can be
anticipated and dealt with before they occur.

Proactive maintenance consists of:

Preventive maintenance
Predictive maintenance
Proactive maintenance focuses primarily on determining the root causes
of machine failure, and dealing with those issues before problems occur