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PIPING ELEMENTS

September 2006
PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

PIPING ELEMENTS
PIPES

FITTINGS

FLANGES

GASKETS

BOLTING

VALVES

SPECIALITIES

Page 2 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

PIPES

MANUFACTURING
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
PROCESSES


MATERIAL
MATERIAL SELECTION
SELECTION


MATERIALS
MATERIALS


PIPE
PIPE SIZING
SIZING CALCULATION
CALCULATION


END
END CONNECTION
CONNECTION

Page 3 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BASED ON MANUFACTURING


SEAMLESS
SEAMLESS

WELDED
WELDED
ELECTRIC
ELECTRIC RESISTENCE
RESISTENCE WELDING
WELDING
SPIRAL
SPIRAL WELDED
WELDED
ELETRIC
ELETRIC FUSION
FUSION WELDING
WELDING
FURNACE
FURNACE BUTT
BUTT WELDED
WELDED
DOUBLE
DOUBLE SUBMERGE
SUBMERGE ARC
ARC WELDED
WELDED

FORGED
FORGED AND
AND BORED
BORED

Page 4 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

CORROSION
CORROSION PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES

PRESSURE-TEMP
PRESSURE-TEMP CONDITION
CONDITION OF OF THE
THE SERVICE.
SERVICE.

MECHANICAL
MECHANICAL CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS

Yield
Yield strength
strength

Ultimate
Ultimate strength
strength

Percentage
Percentage ofof elongation
elongation

Impact
Impact strength
strength

Fatigue
Fatigue -- endurance
endurance strength
strength

DESIGN
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
CONSIDERATION

1.Design
1.Design pressure
pressure 10%
10% more
more than
than operating
operating pressure
pressure

2.Design
2.Design temperature
temperature 25O
25O cc more
more than
than operating
operating temperature.
temperature.

3.If
3.If operating
operating temperature
temperature is
is less
less than
than 150c.
150c. Design
Design temperature
temperature is
is
anticipated
anticipated minimum
minimum operating
operating temperature.
temperature.

Page 5 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

PIPE SIZING CALCULATIONS


MAJOR
MAJOR CONSIDERATION
CONSIDERATION

BASIS
BASIS

FACTORS
FACTORS

STEPS
STEPS

CALCULATION
CALCULATION

POINTS
POINTS TO
TO REMEMBER
REMEMBER

Page 6 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
PIPING MATERIALS
ASTM
ASTM AA 5353 Welded
Welded & & Seamless
Seamless pipe
pipe
ASTM
ASTM AA 106
106 Seamless
Seamless Carbon
Carbon Steel
Steel pipe
pipe for
for high
high
temperature
temperature services
services
ASTM
ASTM AA 120
120 -- Welded
Welded &seamless
&seamless pipe
pipe for
for ordinary
ordinary uses
uses
ASTM
ASTM AA 135
135 Electric
Electric resistance
resistance welded
welded pipe
pipe
ASTM
ASTM AA 333
333 Seamless
Seamless and and welded
welded pipes
pipes for
for low
low
temperature
temperature services.
services.
ASTM
ASTM AA 335
335 Seamless
Seamless alloy
alloy steel
steel pipe
pipe for
for high
high
temperature
temperature services
services
ASTM
ASTM AA 424424 Seamless
Seamless carbon
carbon steel
steel pipe
pipe for
for processing
processing piping
piping
IS
IS 1239
1239 -- General
General purpose
purpose
IS
IS 1978
1978 Pipe
Pipe line
line
IS
IS 3589
3589 Steel
Steel pipe
pipe for
for general
general services
services

Page 7 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

FACTORS


THE QUANTITY OF FLOW


THE ALLOWABLE OR RECOMMENDED PRESSURE
DROPS


THE VELOCITY OF FLOW

Page 8 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
STEPS

Find out the minimum diameter required.

For the corresponding nominal bore, find the standard wall


thickness.

Find out the pressure drop for the selected size using DARCYs
formula for the recommended velocity.

Check if the pressure drop is within the allowable limits.If not repeat
the calculation

Page 9 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

DIAMETER OF PIPE
Diameter of pipe calculated from,
Q=AxV
Which is rearranged as below

4xQ
D= xv
where,
where,
Q
Q == Flow rate(m33\\ sec)
Flow rate(m sec)
V
V == velocity
velocity of
of flow(m\
flow(m\ sec)
sec)
dd == Diameter
Diameter of of pipe
pipe (m)
(m)

Page 10 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
Pipe wall thickness calculations
ASME B31.1
The pipe wall thickness can be calculated using the equation

Tm = PxD
2(S x E+P x y)
Where the following are
P=given working pressure
D=outside diameter of the pipe
S=maximum allowable stress of the material of pipe at working temperature
E=joint efficiency factor =1 for seamless pipes
Y=co-efficient

Page 11 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
Pipe wall thickness calculation
IBR(1950)regulation_ 350


The pipe wall thickness calculation for a given operating
conditions,
PxD
Tm =
Where, +c
2 x f xinternal
P= working e +P pressure of the
pipe(N\m2)
D= out side diameter of pipe(m)
f = allowable stress(N\m2)
e= weld efficiency factor(1.0 for seamless
steel pipe)
c = Corrosion allowance ( for corrosion, wear
and bending)

Page 12 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION
f ll v2 z v22
v2
PRESSURE
PRESSURE DROP (Kg\m2) == W
DROP (Kg\m2) W ++
22 gg dd
+ 2g

Where,
Where,
w-
w- mean
mean sp.weight
sp.weight of of fluid (Kg\m22))
fluid (Kg\m
vv mean
mean velocity
velocity ofof fluid(m\sec)
fluid(m\sec)
gg -- gravitational constant(m\sec22))
gravitational constant(m\sec
ff co-efficient
co-efficient of
of friction
friction (friction
(friction factor)
factor)
ll pipe
pipe length
length (m)(m)
dd bore
bore diameter
diameter (m)(m)
zz sum
sum of
of co-efficient
co-efficient ofof fluid
fluid resistance
resistance of
of
each
each fittings
fittings

Page 13 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
SERVICE VELOCITY(m\sec)

Cooling water 1.5 2.5

Boiler feed water. suction 0.5 1.0

Boiler feed water.discharge 1.5 3.0

Condensate 1.0 2.0

Saturated steam (H.P) 25 40

Saturated steam(M.P) 30 40

Superheated steam 40 60

Exhaust steam 20 30

Combustion air ducts 12 20

Compressed air pipe 20 30

Vacuum cleaning pipe 8 - 15

Page 14 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
POINTS TO REMEMBER

Pressure drop is,

1. Inversely proportional to the pipe size.

2. Directly proportional to velocity.

3. Directly proportional to the friction in the


piping system..

Page 15 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 16 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 17 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 18 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
PIPE FITTINGS


Elbows

Tees

Reducers

Couplings

Unions

Caps

Page 19 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
ELBOWS

Page 20 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
TEES

Page 21 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

REDUCERS

Page 22 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

CAPS

Page 23 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 24 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 25 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
FLANGES

Page 26 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

COMPONENTS

Separate, Independent and interrelated component


FLANGE
GASKETS
BOLTING

Page 27 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BASED ON PIPE ATTACHMENT


SLIP ON

SOCKET WELD

SCREWED

LAP JOINT

WELDING NECK

BLIND

INTEGRAL

Page 28 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 29 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 30 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 31 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 32 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 33 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 34 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 35 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

FLANGE FACING

FLAT FACE

RAISED FACE

TONGUE AND GROOVE

MALE ANE FEMALE

RING TYPE JOINT

Page 36 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Flat Face Flanges

Cross section of Flat Face flange

Page 37 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Raised Face Flanges

Cross section of Raised Face flange

Page 38 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Ring Joint Face Flanges

Cross section of Ring Joint Face flange

Page 39 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Male & Female Joint

Cross section of Male & Female Joint

Page 40 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BASED ON PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE
RATING


150#

300#

600#

900#

1500#

2500#

Page 41 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

FACE FINISH
SMOOTH FINISH
SERRATED FINISH

FLANGE MATERIALS
ASTM A 105 - Forged Carbon steel
ASTM A 181 - Forged Carbon steel for general purpose
ASTM A 182 - Forged alloy steel and stainless steel
ASTM A 350 - Forged alloy steel for low temperature
services
ANSI B 16.47/API 605 Higher sizes(above 3)
BS 10
IS 6392

Page 42 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 43 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 44 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Page 45 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
FLANGE LEAKAGES

Uneven bolt stress


Poor flange alignment
Off-center gasket installation
Dirty & damaged flange faces
Thermal shock
Incorrect gasket size
High vibration

Page 46 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

BOLTING


MATERIAL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BOLTING


DIMENENSINAL STANDRADS FOR BOLTS

Page 47 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
MATERIALS


ASTM A 307 - Low carbon steel bolting material

ASTM A 320 - Alloy steel bolting material for low

temperature

ASTM A 193 - Alloy steel bolting material for
high temperature

ASTM A 194 - Alloy steel nut material for high
temperature service

IS 1367 - Threaded steel fasteners

Page 48 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
STANDARDS

ANSI B 18.2.1 - Square & Hex. Head bolts


ANSI B 18.2.2 - Square & Hex. Nuts
BS 916 - Black bolts & nuts
IS 1367 - Threaded steel fasteners

Page 49 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

GASKETS
SELECTION

1. Compatibility of
gasket material
with the fluid
2. Ability to
withstand
pressure and
temperature of
the system
3. Corrosion of
fluids flowing
through the
flanges

Page 50 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

CLASSIFICATIONS

Full face
Inside bolt circle
Spiral wound metallic
Ring type
Metal jacketed

Page 51 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

MATERIAL STANDARDS

IS 2712,GrW11,W/2,W/3:
For steam, alkali & general applications

IS 2712 ,Gr All:


For acid applications

IS 2712 Gr OIL 0/2,0/3:


For oil applications

Page 52 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS

API 607 : Metallic gaskets for refinery


piping
API 3381 : Metallic spiral wound
gaskets
ANSI B 16.20: Metallic gaskets for pipe
flanges
ANSI B 16.21: Non Metallic gaskets for pipe
flanges

Page 53 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
VALVES

Page 54 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Ball
Ball valves
valves

Gate
Gate valves
valves Butterfly
Butterfly
valves
valves

ISOLATION

Diaphragm
Diaphragm
Plug
Plug valves
valves
valves
valves

Page 55 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Globe
Globe valves
valves

Needle Butterfly
Butterfly
Needle valves
valves REGULATION valves
valves

Diaphragm
Diaphragm
valves
valves

Page 56 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

Non-return

Lift check valve Swing check valve

Safety

Special purpose

Float valve Foot valve

Page 57 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

GATE VALVE

Page 58 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
GATE VALVES

They function as block valves


Gate valves are not suitable to throttle flow, because it will pass
maximum flow even when it is partially open.
The end flanges could be integrally cast into the body. (Refer
ANSI B16.5 for flanged connection)
There are two types of Port Designs.
Full Port Design Net area of the bore through the seat be nearly
as equal to the pipe size.
Regular Port Design Port Diameter is normally one size less
than the size of the pipe.

Page 59 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BALL VALVES

They function as block valves and flow regulating (special


design) valves.
Quarter turn positive shut- off valves.
Suited for conditions where quick on / off / bubble tight shut
off is required.
Soft seats are usually used only for low temperature
Metal seated ball valves are used for high temperature services.
Soft seats are not normally used for throttling because of erosion
or distortion / displacement caused by fluid flow.

Page 60 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BALL VALVES

Page 61 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

BUTTERFLY VALVES

Seats are made of PTFE with certain reinforcement.


Valves upto 12 NB are operated with Lever
Higher Diameter valves are provided with gear unit and hand
wheel.
These valves are wear resistant
Elastomers have higher life expectance than conventional metallic
seated valves when used in high density mineral slurry services.
Generally used for line sizes > 8.

Page 62 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
BUTTERFLY VALVES

Page 63 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

GLOBE VALVES

Globe valves are mainly used to throttle the fluid flow.


Smaller sizes are hand controlled.
Application of larger size valves are limited to bypass control valve
stations.
Provide relatively tight shut off.
Valve patterns involve change in flow directions.
The discs of globe valves shall be flat-faced type,plug type,ball
type,needle type,port type.
Commonly used for pipe sizes up to 8
High pressure drop across valve.

Page 64 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
GLOBE VALVES

Page 65 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
CHECK VALVES

Check valves prevent flow reversal.


Typical check valve applications are in pump and compressor discharge
piping.
Valves with discs provide lower resistance to flow of working fluid than
those that contain balls or pistons.
The later are often used where there is an angular change in flow stream.

Ball and lift check valves are used for sizes 2 and smaller.
Swing check and Plate check valves are used for higher pipe sizes.

Page 66 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

SWING CHECK VALVE

Page 67 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
LIFT CHECK VALVE

Page 68 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
SPECIAL FITTING

OLETS

E XPANSION BELLOWS

STEAM TRAPS

STRAINER

Page 69 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
OLETS

WELDOLET

SOCKOLET

THREADOLET

SWEEPOLET

ELBOLET & LATROLET

Page 70 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
WELDOLET

They are
economical
butt welded 90o
branch connections
with integral
reinforcement

Page 71 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
SOCKOLET

Sockolet utilizes basic weldolet


design configuration and
incorporates a socket welded
outlet but is usually used in
less critical services.

Page 72 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS

ELBOLET

Page 73 Sep 2006


PIPING ENGINEERING ELEMENTS
LATROLET

Latrolets are used for 45 lateral reducer connections.


Butt welding

Page 74 Sep 2006