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Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

For Internal Use Only

Product Name

Confidentiality Level

WCDMA RNP

For Internal Use Only

Product Version

1.0

Total 83 Pages

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

(For Internal Use only)

 

Brainstorming

and

Case

Prepared by:

Group

Date:

August 28, 2006

Reviewed by:

Date:

Reviewed by:

Date:

Approved by:

Date:

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only Product Name Confidentiality Level WCDMA
Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

For Internal Use Only

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd

All Rights Reserved

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

For Internal Use Only

Revision History

 

Revision

Date

Version

Description

 

Author

August 28,

 

2006

1.00

First draft is finished.

 

Zuo Yanzhong

   

Some errors

are

revised and subsequent

 

optimization parts are simplified according to review

September

1.1

comments. The emphasis is to find problems.

 

He Fengming

24, 2006

 

Analysis based

on

observation

points

and

 

subsequent analysis data requirements are added.

October 20,

1.2

The document is revised according to the review

 

He Fengming

2006

comments of the CCB.

 

October 28,

2006

1.3

Alarm analysis is added.

 

He Fengming

2008-11-29

1.31

Review yearly

Xiao Zhao

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

For Internal Use Only

Contents

  • 1 Overview........................................................................................................................................8

    • 1.1 Purpose of the Document.....................................................................................................8

    • 1.2 Users of the Document.........................................................................................................9

  • 2 Necessary Conditions of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning........................10

    • 2.1 Creating Network Planning and Network Optimization Parameter Archives.......................10

    • 2.2 Signaling Flows of UTRAN and Basic Principles of WCDMA.............................................11

      • 2.2.1 Mastery of Signaling Flows and Basic Principles.....................................................11

      • 2.2.2 Fast Makeup of Knowledge Points..........................................................................12

  • 2.3 Familiarization of UTRAN PIs.............................................................................................12

  • 2.4 Use of the Nastar Tool........................................................................................................13

    • 2.4.1 Relations between Traffic Statistics PIs and Network Problems..............................14

    • 2.4.2 Mastery of Advanced Functions of the Nastar Tool..................................................15

  • 2.5 Summary............................................................................................................................16

  • 3 Three Steps of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning.........................................17

    • 3.1 Step 1: Knowledge of Network Conditions.........................................................................17

      • 3.1.1 Historic Performance Index of Network...................................................................18

      • 3.1.2 Parameter Revision History.....................................................................................21

      • 3.1.3 Network Operation History.......................................................................................24

  • 3.2 Step 2: Preparations for Performance Analysis..................................................................24

    • 3.2.1 Starting Time of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning..........................24

    • 3.2.2 Preparation of Master Data......................................................................................25

  • 3.3 Step 3: Ideas and Methods of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning...............27

    • 3.3.1 Conventional Methods of Performance Analysis......................................................27

    • 3.3.2 Analysis Method of Alarm Data................................................................................28

    • 3.3.3 Quick Analysis of Some PIs.....................................................................................34

    • 3.3.4 Commonly Seen PIs and Corresponding Analysis Idea...........................................34

    • 3.3.5 General Idea of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning..........................35

    • 3.3.6 Procedures and Methods of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning.......36

  • 4 Observation Point and Analysis Examples of Typical Problems............................................50

    • 4.1 Observation Points of Typical Problems.............................................................................51

      • 4.1.1 RRC Establishment Analysis Observation Point......................................................51

      • 4.1.2 RAB Establishment Analysis Observation Point......................................................54

  • Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 4.1.3 Call Drop Analysis Observation Point......................................................................57

    • 4.1.4 Soft Handover Analysis Observation Point..............................................................60

    • 4.1.5 CS/PS Intersystem Handover Analysis Observation Point......................................61

    • 4.1.6 Traffic Analysis Observation Point...........................................................................66

    • 4.1.7 Key Interface Flow Analysis Observation Point........................................................68

    • 4.1.8 HSDPA Analysis Observation Point.........................................................................72

    • 4.2 Example of Analysis Based on Observation Point..............................................................72

    • 4.3 Summary............................................................................................................................77

    • 5 Closing of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning................................................78

      • 5.1 Basic Requirements for Analysis Conclusion.....................................................................78

      • 5.2 Output Analysis Report.......................................................................................................79

      • 5.3 Summary............................................................................................................................79

  • 6 References...................................................................................................................................80

  • Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Figures

    Figure 1 Measurement of performance index........................................................................13 Figure 2 Trend figure of call drop rate....................................................................................20 Figure 3 Revision history of baseline parameters..................................................................23 Figure 4 History of network operations...................................................................................24 Figure 5 Alarm analysis processing flow................................................................................29 Figure 6 Performance analysis flow.......................................................................................37 Figure 7 Performance analysis flow (Continued)...................................................................38 Figure 8 Performance analysis of RRC establishment success rate......................................45 Figure 9 Performance analysis of RAB establishment success.............................................47 Figure 10 Special topic analysis.............................................................................................51 Figure 11 General information about RRC setup...................................................................73 Figure 12 Distribution of RRC setup scenario........................................................................74 Figure 13 Comparison of RRC setup scenario success rate..................................................74 Figure 14 Analyzing the cause of RRC rejection....................................................................75

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    Keywords

     

    Performance analysis, quality early warning, KPI, Nastar tool

    Abstract

    Network performance analysis and quality early warning aim to accurately and effectively find network performance and quality problems and give early warnings. This document describes the general ideas, methods and procedures of UMTS network performance analysis and quality early warning. It is intended to provide reference for analysis operations and early warning actions of various regional divisions and representative offices and to improve the efficiency of UMTS network performance analysis and quality early warning.

    Acronyms and Abbreviations

    Abbreviation

    Full Spelling

    ALCAP

    Access Link Control Application Part

    APS

    ATM Protection Switching

    CCP

    Communication Control Port

    CDL

    Call Detail Log

    CDR

    Call Drop Rate

    CE

    Channel Element

    CHR

    Call History Record

    CHR

    Calling History Record

    CN

    Core Network

    GPS

    Global Positioning System

    IOS

    Intelligent Optimization System

    KPI

    Key Performance Index

    MSP

    Multiplex Section Protection

    MTP3B

    Message Transfer Part

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Abbreviation

    Full Spelling

    NCP

    NodeB Control Port

    NEMU

    NodeB Environment Monitor Unit

    NMON

    NodeB Monitor Unit

    NodeB

    NodeB

    PI

    Performance Index

    RAB

    Radio Access Bearer

    RF

    Radio Frequency

    RNC

    Radio Network Controller

    RRC

    Radio Resource Control

    RRU

    Radio Remote Unit

    SAAL

    Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer

    SCCP

    Signaling Connection Control Part

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    1

    Overview

    A commercial network requires regular performance analysis and observation of QoS and running status, together with a timely early warning of abnormal or potential risks. Network performance analysis and quality early warning offer direct guidance to network optimization and expansion.

    Performance analysis and quality early warning aim to accurately and effectively find network performance and quality problems and give early warnings. What skills must network optimization engineers and network maintenance engineers master to monitor a network effectively? What principles, flows and procedures must be followed in performance analysis and quality early warning to ensure the accuracy and timeliness of analysis results? Based on Huawei's performance analysis practice in multiple commercial UMTS networks and the analysis experiences of the Performance Dept. and the Tool Dept., this document expounds the flows and procedures of performance analysis and quality early warning, together with other related precautions.

    In this document:

    • Version of the performance analysis tool: NastarV400R001C03B020

    • RNC version: BSC6800V100R006C01B071

    • NodeB version: BTS3812EV100R006C02B040

    • 1.1 Purpose of the Document

    In network performance analysis, engineers often encounter the following problems:

    1)

    How to start network performance analysis? What skills are prerequisite to

    2)

    effective network monitoring? How to make performance analysis? How to make a fast, effective analysis by using so many performance indexes (PIs) provided by traffic statistics tools? Is there any reasonable flow?

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    3)

    “I do not know much about internal implementation of product modules, nor can I

    4)

    understand many CHRs. Can I make performance analysis? ”To what extent does performance analysis depend on a mastery of CHR? For multiple abnormal KPIs, the Nastar tool offers the causes such as

    5)

    RF.RLCRst, RF.ULSync and UuNoReply. How to make further analysis? If the call drop rate of a network PS is 5%, is any early warning needed? What are the early warning principles?

    Some other questions are not listed here.

    In the first performance analysis, engineers tend to make a mistake: They expect to find the one-to-one correspondence between traffic statistics PIs and causes of problems. They first export a large quantity of traffic statistics indexes in analysis. For example, they export WCDMA Performance Monitoring Report from the Nastar tool once every week and pick out abnormal PIs. Then, they expect to find out the causes of those abnormal PIs from an encyclopedia.

    The causes of some problems, such as cell power resource congestion (Power.Cong) and IUB bandwidth restricted (IUB.Band), can be directly found from the PIs of the Nastar tool. But it is very hard to find out the causes of many network problems simply by querying PIs. The complexity of a UMTS network determines that performance analysis and quality early warning are comprehensive and systematic. These jobs require that analysts should master necessary skills and use normalized methods to analyze network performance while getting familiar with current network conditions.

    This document does not aim to provide a valuable book, through which performance analysts can easily analyze the running quality and performance of a network simply by querying traffic statistics KPIs. Instead, by expounding the general ideas and necessary procedures of performance analysis, the document normalizes network analysis and early warning actions and corrects network monitoring mistakes, to improve the efficiency of performance analysis and quality early warning.

    • 1.2 Users of the Document

    This document is directly intended for the network optimization engineers and network maintenance engineers of regional divisions and representative offices. Performance analysis and quality early warning require a good knowledge of on-site network conditions and network operations, and fast analysis and location of changes in performance indexes.

    This document can also be used for reference by other network monitoring engineers. In remote network performance analysis, the engineers in the Headquarters or other engineers need to get the latest traffic statistics data and know about the recent network operations. “To gain a decisive victory a thousand miles away”, the first and

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    foremost prerequisite is to acquire a good knowledge of the “war situation” a thousand miles away.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 2 Necessary Conditions of

    Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning

    The necessary skills of performance analysis and quality early warning include being familiar with signaling flow and basic principles, knowing about traffic statistics PIs of product implementation, and mastering each function of the Nastar tool. The following expounds these skills one by one, but the emphasis is laid on the extent of mastery and the methods of a quick mastery.

    • 2.1 Creating Network Planning and Network Optimization

    Parameter Archives

    Parameter monitoring is an important task of network monitoring as well as an important means of knowing about network performance transition. For every monitored network, we should first create initial network planning and network optimization parameter archives. Then, we should make timely maintenance to keep them consistent with actual system configuration. For a network managed by Huawei, we may set up a flow or a mechanism to notify customers before changing any parameter to synchronously update both parties’ parameters. Practice proves that this may greatly reduce performance hazards caused by human factors. For other networks, customers may maintain networks themselves by updating regularly, or updating parameter archives in case of any big change in networks, such as upgrade and problem optimization. For specific templates and parameter values, see Guide to WCDMA Parameter Setting of the corresponding on-site RNC version. In actual operations, we should keep complete operation records. For details, see 3.1.2“Parameter Revision History”.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 2.2 Signaling Flows of UTRAN and Basic Principles of

    WCDMA

    • 2.2.1 Mastery of Signaling Flows and Basic Principles

    Case: In several cells of a site, traffic statistics analysis shows that the success rate of RRC connection establishment decreases and that the cause of RRC connection failure is mainly RRC.Fail.ConnEstab.NoReply. In the performance analysis of this problem, engineers wonder whether too small CCP bandwidth configuration of this site makes RNC unable to receive any Complete response from UE. May I ask whether the Complete message is related to restricted CCP bandwidth? How is an RRC connection established based on the protocol stack of the Uu interface and the Iub interface? When RRC is set up on dedicated channels and common channels respectively, what are the differences in the signaling flow and protocol stack implementation?

    The Nastar tool provides the query of numerous indexes oriented to service process, algorithm process and resource use. The counter implementation of these indexes in a product is based on the following:

    6)

    Signaling flows of the UTRAN, such as RRC connection establishment flow, RAB

    7)

    establishment flow, and soft handover flow. Specific statistics in protocol modules, such as counter statistics in RLC/MAC/PDCP protocol modules and link measurement counter statistics in SAAL/MTP3-B modules. We can achieve an accurate understanding of these statistical points only if we have mastered the basic principles of WCDMA network planning and got familiar with protocol stacks of standard interfaces.

    A good knowledge of the protocol stacks and service flows of WCDMA enables performance analysis to have a definite object in view. The Nastar template provides the query functions oriented to basic PIs, but an analysis of these PIs alone cannot easily help find network problems. If you are familiar enough with signaling flows and basic principles, you can skillfully pick out other PIs from traffic statistics indexes and make an auxiliary analysis. You can better understand the internal relations between abnormal KPIs and coverage, uplink interference, load or transmission. This makes your analysis go in a right direction.

    Some engineers who have just come into contact with performance analysis say that when they see some abnormal indexes from the daily report of the Nastar tool, they do not know how to make an in-depth analysis. In this case, first ask yourself whether you are familiar enough with basic signaling flows of the UTRAN and protocol stacks of WCDMA. If no, you cannot but be at a loss and need to take this lesson as soon as possible. If you have mastered related knowledge points, you may participate in the discussion of performance analysis methodology. The prerequisite to Chapter 3 of this document is engineers’ mastery of basic flows and principles.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    To sum up, the mastery of signaling flows and basic principles is necessitated by the following:

    1)

    Abnormality location and analysis can have a definite object in view. We can quickly search for other related indexes based on flows and basic principles and make an auxiliary analysis.

    2) Getting familiar with flows and principles helps associate abnormal PIs with

    3)

    network problems (such as coverage and interference) and roughly determine the nature of problems according to abnormal PIs, to select corresponding special topic functions (coverage and interference) of the Nastar tool for an in- depth analysis. The mastery of signaling flows and basic principles helps analyze CHR. Although CHR is the implementation of product internal modules, a good knowledge of signaling and basic principles helps quickly get involved in CHR analysis.

    • 2.2.2 Fast Makeup of Knowledge Points

    Performance analysis requires that engineers should master basic signaling flows, get familiar with protocol stacks of standard interfaces and know about related algorithms for product implementation. For numerous RRM algorithms, engineers need to know about their concepts even if they cannot acquire a good knowledge of them. If the analyzed commercial networks contain some algorithms, engineers need to learn them well.

    Those engineers unfamiliar enough with flows and principles are suggested to learn the following slides to acquire a quick knowledge of signaling flows of basic services get familiar with protocol stacks of various WCDMA standard interfaces and know about basic functions of various protocol modules.

    4)

    Advanced Training for W Network Planning----Signaling Flow.ppt

    5)

    Advanced Training for W Network Planning ----WCDMA Handover Principles.ppt

    If a network to be analyzed involves DCCC, HSDPA or CMB, you need to obtain related information to form a basic concept of these algorithms or services before making any performance analysis.

    • 2.3 Familiarization of UTRAN PIs

    After you have mastered basic signaling flows, you need to know about the statistics of the performance indexes of the current product. Performance analysis is directly based on these PIs provided by the product. For example, the product version RNCV100R006B071 does not make statistics of the causes of RB configuration and RB reconfiguration failure of CMB service. Therefore, we cannot make an in-depth analysis of the cause of RB failure during CMB performance analysis.

    In performance analysis, engineers need to keep querying Performance Index Reference Help and HUAWEI RAN KPI for Performance Management of a corresponding version. We must be familiar with common performance indexes and

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    measurement points. Only in this way can the second query of traffic statistics or auxiliary query of PIs have a definite object. At present, the common analysis indexes include “RNC integrated performance measurement” and “cell measurement” shown in the following figure. Performance analysis engineers first need to get familiar with the PIs of both. They also need to know as much about other PIs as possible to broaden the vision of performance analysis.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only measurement points. Only in this

    Figure 1 Measurement of performance index

    • 2.4 Use of the Nastar Tool

    The most essential functions of the Nastar tool are performance query and performance report. Both of the functions do not need separate training. After the Nastar tool is installed, nearly everyone can use them. Performance analysts’ tool skills should not always remain at the use of both the functions because that is far from enough.

    Performance analysts’ mastery of the Nastar tool includes the following three levels:

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    6)

    Provide performance analysis results at the level of traffic statistics PIs. Make a special topic analysis of each service flow based on the familiarization of signaling flows and the UTRAN KPI, and find out abnormal observation points in a network. Some abnormal observation points correspond to problem causes such as Power.Cong while most cannot such as RLCRst, ULSync, UuNoReply,

    7)

    and so on. Analysis examples are shown in 4.2“Example of Analysis Based on Observation Point”. Analyze the relations between traffic statistics PIs and network problems. Define the nature of such problems.

    8) Analyze real network problems by combining the advanced functions of the Nastar.

    • 2.4.1 Relationship Between Traffic Statistics PIs and Network Problems

    Through observation point analysis, we have been able to make a preliminary analysis of network performance. According to observation point indexes such as power resource congestion, restricted transmission resource, and insufficient code resource, we can give a simple quality early warning. But there are still many other performance problems from which we cannot conclude directly.

    For example, call drop analysis shows that many causes of call drop are RLCRst, ULSync, and UUNoReply. How can we make an in-depth analysis? As shown in the following table, the learning of signaling flows and basic principles, and topical analysis practice may help summarize and analyze possible causes of abnormal PIs.

    Table 1 Relationship between traffic statistics PIs and causes of call drop

    Actual Cause of Call Drop

    RF Cause

     

    Overload

     

    E i t Transmission

    Abnormal

    OM Operation Abnormal Mobile

     

    Traffic Statistics PIs for Call Drop

    Uplink

    VS.RAB.RelReqCS.OM

    VS.RAB.RelReqCS.RABPreempt

     

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.RLCRst

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.ULSync

     

     

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.DLSync

     

     

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.UuNoReply

     

     

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Aal2Loss

     

    VS.Call.Drop.CS.Other

     
    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Other special topics, such as RRC access, soft handover, and CS foreign handover, can also be summarized and analyzed similarly. Performance analysis itself is a process of continuous experience summarization. We can directly find out the causes of some PIs, but we can only define the scope of problems for some others and determine the idea of subsequent analysis according to the scope. If you are not so skilled in summarizing the relationship between traffic statistics PIs and network problems, you may make a classified analysis as described in the above table. When experience is accumulated to some extent, you can “govern by doing nothing that goes against nature”. That is, upon seeing any abnormal PI, you can naturally determine the scope of the problem, have a clear idea of next step and judge what advanced function of the Nastar tool should be selected for an in-depth analysis (The next section describes the advanced functions of the Nastar).

    2.4.2 Mastery of Advanced Functions of the Nastar Tool

    Problems: What functions does the Nastar for WCDMA tool have? Can you really skillfully use the Nastar tool? Consultation to many performance analysis engineers shows that not many of them can skillfully use each function of this tool. Many people use the Nastar tool only for simple query of traffic statistics indexes and fast output of reports.

    The Nastar for WCDMA tool integrates years of Huawei’s experiences in network optimization of WCDMA. It uses the method of data analysis and data mining by discarding the dross and selecting the essential and eliminating the false and retaining the true. Fast and effectively, it analyzes network performance and locates network fault. The Nastar tool is the crystallization of the wisdom of the R&D, Performance Dept., Maintenance Dept. and Network Planning and Optimization Dept. of Huawei. Powerful enough, this tool is not used only for fast output of reports and customized query of traffic statistics indexes. Performance analysts must master each function of the Nastar tool.

    In an in-depth analysis of network performance, we need to use various functions of the Nastar tool flexibly. To sum up, performance analysis is how to determine the scope of problems from the whole to the part, how to define the nature of problems from traffic statistics PIs and how to properly select related functions of the Nastar for an in-depth analysis. Chapter 3 describes how to determine the scope and nature of problems, but a skillful use of various functions of this tool is the basis for performance analysis.

    In an in-depth performance analysis, the following functions of the Nastar tool need to be used:

    9)

    Customization and second query of PI

    10) Optimization solution to Intra-frequency adjacent cell

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    11)

    Pilot pollution solution. In pilot pollution analysis, no IOS data needs to be imported, but CHR, PERF/engineering parameters and configuration files should be imported.

    12) Coverage analysis solutions. When traffic statistics analysis shows that there is the problem of coverage within a cell, we need to make IOS tracing and import the traced IOS data to Nastar for coverage analysis. This coverage analysis includes common downlink pilot channel coverage analysis, link quality analysis, and overshoot analysis. 13) Interference analysis solutions. Interference analysis helps effectively find out external interference or internal problems of equipment. By means of main- diversity signal strength analysis and according to certain algorithms, we can locate multiple possible causes of radio interference or abnormal signal. Interference analysis is a small but practical function. It helps on-site engineers find problems. The master data of interference analysis includes RTWP data, configuration data, and engineering parameters.

    14)

    Configuration verification

    15)

    CHR analysis means

    The advanced functions of the Nastar will not be described further in this document. If you need them, please query the Help of the Nastar tool and master each function through repeated practices.

    2.5 Summary

    Chapter 2 mainly describes the knowledge and skills required for performance analysis and quality early warning. It includes the understanding of UTRAN signaling flow and basic principles, the familiarization of the UTRAN KPI and the mastery of the functions of the Nastar tool. These three parts are associated with each other. Signaling flow and principles are the very basis. We can understand each PI of a product only when we have mastered signaling flow and principles. Based on the familiarization of each PI, we can gradually master each function of this tool through special topic practice of the Nastar.

    Having laid a solid foundation, we can effectively make network performance analysis and quality early warning by combining the methodology described in Chapter 3.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 3 Three Steps of Performance

    Analysis and Quality Early Warning

    In reality, performance analysis and quality early warning include three steps:

    knowledge of network conditions, preparations for performance analysis, and methods and flows of performance analysis. Among the steps, there is a definite sequential relationship. Each step helps gradually determine the scope and nature of network problems. Then, we analyze, conclude and judge whether an early warning to network quality is needed.

    • 3.1 Step 1: Knowledge of Network Conditions

    Case: An engineer undertook responsibility for the performance analysis of a network. Two weeks later, I consulted him about the trend of voice call drop rate of this network last month and difference between the call drop rate of workdays and that of holidays. He answered he did not know. When I asked him what operations of upgrade or cutover were made in this network last month, he answered he did not know. When I asked him what modifications were made to the parameters of this network in the past month, he answered he did not know. This engineer makes network analysis in the following way: He exports the traffic statistics PIs of this network from the Nastar tool once a week. Then, he browses various indexes, and gives an analytical conclusion to those apparently abnormal PIs, such as transmission restricted and power congestion. For those cells with abnormal PIs and with cause value equal to other, he browses CHR to look for any clue.

    Apparently, such performance analysis is too casual. An analysis and comparison of performance indexes should be based on early records of this network. We should not simply make a lateral comparison with other networks or apply baseline indexes mechanically. The baseline indexes defined by Huawei are only for reference or final standard requirements. At present, each network has respective coverage and

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    capacity. Accurate analysis and high-quality early warning must be based on the present conditions of this network.

    Before making performance analysis, we need to acquire a good knowledge of present network conditions, including early network performance indexes, modification records of network parameters, and operation history of networks.

    • 3.1.1 Historic Performance Index of Network

    Network performance analysis includes normal performance analysis and specific performance analysis. Generally, a commercial network focuses on normal performance. As shown in the following table, normal performance includes traffic analysis, call completion rate analysis, handover analysis, and call drop rate analysis.

    Table 1 Normal performance KPI of network

    Traffic Access AMR DL12.2 Erlang VP DL Erlang CS Erlang PS UL Erlang PS DL Erlang
    Traffic
    Access
    AMR DL12.2 Erlang
    VP DL Erlang
    CS Erlang
    PS UL Erlang
    PS DL Erlang
    PS UL Throughput
    PS DL Throughput
    RRC Connection Setup Success Rate (service) (>98%)
    RRC Connection Setup Success Rate (other) (>95%)
    AMR RAB Assignment Success Rate (>98%)
    Video Call RAB Assignment Success Rate (>98%)
    PS RAB Assignment Success Rate (>97%)
    Soft Handover Factor based on Radio Link Number (<50%)
    Soft Handover Success Rate (>99%)
    Inter-Freq Hard Handover Success Rate (>95%)
    HO
    CS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM)
    (>96%)
    R99
    PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM)
    (>92%)
    CDR
    CS AMR Call Drop Rate (<1.5%)
    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Traffic Access VP Call Drop Rate (<3%) PS Service Drop Rate (<5%) HSDPA RLC Traffic Volume
    Traffic
    Access
    VP Call Drop Rate (<3%)
    PS Service Drop Rate (<5%)
    HSDPA RLC Traffic Volume (MBytes)
    HSDPA Mean UE
    HSDPA RLC Throughput (Mbps)
    HSDPA RAB Setup Success Rate (>97%)
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change Success Rate (with SHO)(>99%)
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change Success Rate (with Intra HHO)
    (>95%)
    HO
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change Success Rate (with Inter HHO)
    (>95%)
    CDR
    HS-DSCH to DCH Handover Success Rate (>95%)
    DCH to HS-DSCH Handover Success Rate (>95%)
    HSDPA Service Drop Rate (<5%)
    HSDPA:

    Specific performance analysis means that this network has specific functions or algorithms and that specific attention should be paid to these functions or algorithms. For example, if network provides HSDPA, HSUPA, and MPMS services, records of performance indexes must contain corresponding KPI.

    For each normal or specific performance which requires continuous observation and analysis, engineers must keep history. They had better archive them in the form of visual figures or trend tables (also save corresponding DATA), and update them anytime. Keeping a record of performance indexes helps an overall observation of the running quality of a network within a period of time, and makes engineers more acute to analyze network indexes and judge whether any in-depth location analysis is needed.

    The following trend figure shows the voice call drop rate and VP call drop rate of a network in a period of time.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only Figure 2 Trend figure of

    Figure 2 Trend figure of call drop rate

    The trend figure clearly shows the call drop trend of this network in the past months. When we get any new data of call drop rate, we need to compare it with the recent indexes in this figure to judge whether the call drop rate is abnormal.

    In the early days of network commercialization, when indexes were not stable enough, more information should be recorded for comparison. For example, when analyzing call drop rate, we may record top 10 cells of a certain day or week. In a subsequent comparative analysis of call drop rate, we have more pertinent information.

    The following table shows the PS call drop analysis of TOP10 cells in a network on a certain day.

    Table 1 PS call drop analysis of top 10 cells

    PS Call Drop(2006-08-18) PS Call Drop Rate(2006-08-18) PS Call PS Call CellId CellName CellId CellName Drops
    PS Call Drop(2006-08-18)
    PS Call Drop Rate(2006-08-18)
    PS Call
    PS Call
    CellId
    CellName
    CellId
    CellName
    Drops
    Drops rate
    22192
    KingNamH_CDE
    116
    58681
    MKK_A
    90.27%
    58681
    MKK_A
    102
    16181
    Ellen_AB
    35.39%
    14282
    EHTunnl_B
    83
    16351
    ManHong_ABE
    40.96%
    16351
    ManHong_ABE
    77
    16352
    ManHong_CD
    35.68%
    16352
    ManHong_CD
    71
    22191
    KingNamH_AB
    61.54%
    22191
    KingNamH_AB
    64
    22192
    KingNamH_CDE
    18.38%
    16181
    Ellen_AB
    63
    44441
    TsLokEst_AD
    36.59%
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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    PS Call Drop(2006-08-18) PS Call Drop Rate(2006-08-18) PS Call PS Call CellId CellName CellId CellName Drops
    PS Call Drop(2006-08-18)
    PS Call Drop Rate(2006-08-18)
    PS Call
    PS Call
    CellId
    CellName
    CellId
    CellName
    Drops
    Drops rate
    44461
    UWTSEst_A
    56
    44461
    UWTSEst_A
    30.11%
    58111
    DyPlzCi_A
    40
    58111
    DyPlzCi_A
    90.91%
    44441
    TsLokEst_AD
    30
    14282
    EHTunnl_B
    41.50%

    In subsequent analysis of PS call drop rate, we may make a comparative analysis of top ten cells and observe whether any change has taken place, whether the PS call drop indexes of these cells rise abnormally. Based on recent network parameter modifications and network operations, we judge whether any in-depth performance analysis is needed.

    Other KPIs that need a careful observation, such as call completion rate and foreign handover success rate, need to be similarly recorded as described above.

    • 3.1.2 Parameter Revision History

    Parameter revision during network optimization requires clear records. The impact of parameter revision on networks can be analyzed by combining revision history and performance indexes of traffic statistics. If traffic is not heavy, the impact of regional parameter revision on KPI may be unapparent, nor can it be easily observed. But when traffic rises suddenly some day, if early parameters are unreasonable, the bad impact of parameter revision on KPI will be clearly seen. A complete record of parameter revision may contribute to network performance analysis.

    For example, the following table shows the revision history of a network. When creating a parameter revision history table, performance analysis engineers may give flexible consideration, but the general principle is visual. Thus, query can be made in the order of revision time. If the revision history involves any specific region, they must be clearly marked.

     

    Revision of On-Site Baseline Parameters

    NO

    Date

    Problem Description

     

    Change the maximum permissible uplink transmit power to 24 because some mobile phones support the maximum transmit

    1

    2006.01.02

    power of 24 dBm. Increase this parameter to improve restricted uplink coverage. See the tables “Cell_SelReselParas_CR” and “Cell_CACParas_CR”.

    2

    2006.01.03

    Adjust the maximum and the minimum downlink power of

    voice, VP, PS64, PS144, and PS384 according to on-site

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Revision of On-Site Baseline Parameters

    NO

    Date

    Problem Description

     

    optimization to improve network quality and call drop. See the table “Cell_TrafficPower_CR”.

    3

    2006.02.04

    Change the intra-frequency rerouting starting threshold to -4 dBm. See the table “Cell_SelReselParas_CR”.

     

    Change the admission and congestion parameter settings of

    4

    2006.02.05

    Hong Kong Island. For details, see CELL_CACPara and CELL_LCCPara.

    5

    2006.02.06

    Change intra-frequency measurement parameters including Layer 3 filtering coefficient, 1A1B relative threshold, and delay trigger time and so on. See the table “Cell_IntraFreqHOMrParas_CR”.

    6

    2006.02.07

    For some cells to tunnels and underground 3G-2G handover and change of inter-RAT measurement starting threshold and decision threshold, see the table “Cell_IntraFreqHOMrParas_CR”.

     

    Turn on the common channel flow control switch of the IUR

    7

    2006.02.08

    interface because an IUR interface is configured between the RNC1 and RNC2 of the current SUNDAY.

     

    Adjust the inter-frequency power of some cells from 33 dBm to a smaller value. The reasons are as follows:

    NodeB is a 10 W base station and its inter-frequency power is 30 dB.

    8

    2006.03.09

    Share indoor distribution system and RF requirements with other operators.

    In network optimization, the inter-frequency power of some cells is adjusted to 30 or 28 dBm.

    9

    2006.03.10

    Turn on the UE state transition switch.

     

    The static transition switch is turned off to avoid the possible

    10

    2006.03.11

    call drop caused by some mobile phones not supporting static transition.

     

    The downlink blind detection switch is turned off to avoid one-

    11

    2006.03.12

    way audio caused by some mobile phones not supporting blind detection.

    12

    2006.04.13

    T314 and T315 are set to RLFAILURE.

    0. Disable Cell Update caused by

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Revision of On-Site Baseline Parameters

     

    NO

    Date

    Problem Description

     
    • 13 2006.04.14

    Change the number of continuous synchronization indication to 1. See the table “CellBasicInfo”.

    • 14 2006.04.15

    Change the minimum access quality to -20 dB. See the table “Cell_SelReselParas_CR”.

    • 15 2006.04.16

    Change times of random access preamble retransmission to 20 times. See the table “CellPrachParas”.

    • 16 2006.05.17

    To avoid poor streaming quality caused by code transmit power limit, the maximum service code transmit power of PS 144 is increased by 2 dB and is the pilot channel power +2 dB. See the table “Celltrafficpower”.

     

    To check the adjacent cells that miss configuration or potential

    • 17 2006.05.18

    adjacent cells, turn on the monitoring set reporting switch. See the table “SWITCH”.

     

    The uplink BE service rate negotiation threshold is 8K and the

    • 18 2006.05.19

    downlink BE service rate negotiation threshold is 64K. See the table “SWITCH”.

     

    Add cell location configuration information. The maximum

    • 19 2006.06.20

    coverage distance of a cell antenna is 500 m. Activate the AGPS location activation identifier. See “CellSMLCParas”.

    • 20 2006.06.21

    The maximum retransmission times of location measurement can be set to 0. See the table “SWITCH”.

    • 21 2006.07.22

    The hard handover hysteresis is 6 (3 dB). 2D trigger time is 640 ms.

    • 22 2006.07.23

    NBMULCACALGOSELSWITCH uplink admission switch is turned off. See the table “SWITCH”.

     

    Change

    inter-RAT

    cell

    reselecting

    starting

    threshold

    (Ssearchrat) to 3, inter-frequency cell reselecting starting

    • 23 2006.07.24

    threshold (Sintersearch) to 5 and intra-frequency cell reselecting starting threshold (Sintrasearch) to 8.

    Figure 3 Revision history of baseline parameters

    Baseline parameter records may as well indicate known defects and patches of the current version. There is no product version without any defect. Sometimes there is a product BUG. Sometimes there may be restricted algorithm function. The network

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    analysis of a certain version demands a good knowledge of the known defects of a product.

    • 3.1.3 Network Operation History

    Network operation records include the cutover of NodeB, the upgrade of RNC and NodeB, and transmission expansion. They aim to help a comparative analysis of traffic statistics index and a quick analysis of network performance.

    Refer to the following network operation records.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only analysis of a certain version

    Figure 4 History of network operations

    When engineers start performance analysis, they must get related network operation records. Generally, customers or on-site customer service will maintain a related record table.

    • 3.2 Step 2: Preparations for Performance Analysis

      • 3.2.1 Starting Time of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning

    3.2.1.1 Periodic Analysis

    In a stable commercial network, performance analysis and quality early warning are periodic. It generally includes daily report analysis and weekly report analysis. Daily report analysis ensures timely network monitoring. It helps quickly find and eliminate any burst KPI deterioration. In daily report analysis, users’ distribution (workdays and holidays) and their calling habits (commuter time and working time) may cause small KPI fluctuation in the observed time period. For a region with small traffic, call drop rate, call completion rate, and handover success rate are of no statistical significance. We should not analyze network performance problems according to them alone.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    With a week as the unit, weekly report analysis has more statistical sample points. According to one-week statistics, we may give an accurate early warning to traffic change, transmission, power, and code resource. Thus, we can more easily find network problems such as coverage, interference, and pilot pollution.

    Performance monitoring requires that the same emphasis should be laid upon daily report analysis and weekly report analysis. Daily report analysis helps eliminate burst influence, such as base station reset and intermittent transmission failures. Weekly report analysis helps locate network coverage problems and interference problems.

    Quality early warning actions include comparative check of whole-network parameters, check of whole-network unidirectional adjacent cells, and check of whole-network missing adjacent cells and pilot pollution. These actions are periodically executed. The period can be flexibly set according to the frequency of network parameter modifications or operations. Quality early warning actions may be fully executed once a month or a quarter.

    3.2.1.2 Trigger Analysis

    Normal performance monitoring period takes day as the minimum unit. Use the Nastar tool to output Daily report to observe network KPI and judge whether an in- depth analysis is needed. Several scenarios are triggered by events. When a corresponding event happens, we need to get traffic statistics data and make a detailed analysis. The granularity of traffic statistics data is generally less than 24 hours. We may need to analyze the traffic statistics data for half a day (or a whole day) or several hours. In the following cases, traffic statistics KPI needs our major concern.

    16) Important holidays: During important holidays, such as the Spring Festival, Christmas Day, Buddha’s Birthday, and Pilgrimage to Mekka, the network traffic of this region will climb to a new high. As to whether product equipment and network design can withstand large-scale traffic shock, we need to upload traffic statistics data hour by hour and monitor network performance at any moment. 17) Equipment upgrade and major parameter modification: For general upgrade and parameter modification, we may analyze the network KPI by observing Daily report. For highly risky upgrade and parameter modification, we need to get traffic statistics data quickly and make an analysis with the granularity of 12 or six hours. 18) Natural disaster: Earthquakes or typhoon may have a direct impact on networks. To avoid affecting network communication, we need to analyze traffic statistics data as soon as possible and observe the extent of the damage to networks.

    • 3.2.2 Preparation of Master Data

    The master data of performance analysis must be accurate, timely and integral. Accuracy means that Nastar engineering parameters must be very accurate and will be updated along with RF adjustment of network. Timeliness means that traffic

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    statistics data of network needs to be uploaded as soon as possible. Data integrity means that no traffic statistics data should be omitted. Otherwise, there may be relatively fewer call attempts and call drop times of a network or a cell, which cannot fully reflect network quality.

    Specifically speaking, master data includes:

    19) Nastar engineering parameters. Multiple analysis functions of the Nastar tool, such as missing adjacent cell analysis, interference analysis, and coverage analysis, are closely related to engineering parameters. The accuracy of engineering parameters determines the credibility of related analysis results of the Nastar tool.

    20)

    Traffic statistics data

    21)

    Configuration data

    22)

    CHR data. It is not used only for CHR analysis of the Nastar tool. In missing

    23)

    adjacent cell analysis and unidirectional adjacent cell analysis, CHR data is needed. If CHR data is only used for abnormal flow location analysis, we may selectively import CHR data according to the frame number of a cell to be analyzed. RTWP data (optional). It is chiefly used for interference analysis. It may be omitted if interference analysis is definitely unnecessary.

    24) IOS data (optional). It is used for an in-depth location analysis of many network abnormality problems, such as coverage. 25) General schedule of engineering parameters (optional). It is required for geographic analysis.

    CHR data records the information generated during a call. It will be recorded in the call logs of the system if some conditions are satisfied. It may record the signaling flow status before the call drop of a mobile phone, measurement report information reported by a mobile phone before call drop and signal condition when a mobile phone is accessed. In summary, CHR is oriented to all users involved in 3G services and records the context information of a mobile phone in a conversation. It is output when preset conditions are satisfied.

    IOS sampling tracing is to start measurement oriented to one or more users within a cell according to preset conditions. Sample data can be set. IOS sampling tracing is active data collection initiated by users. It may require that a mobile phone should actively report the measurement reports on the mobile phone side, such as downlink pilot RSCP and EcIo, or require that NodeB and RNC should report special measurement information.

    In contrast, CHR data

    traces

    all

    the

    users

    within a

    RNC that satisfies tracing

    conditions. It covers a large scope. IOS traces one or more users within a specific

    cell. It covers a small scope, but goes deeper.

    As to the use of RTWP data and IOS data, we generally determine whether to start the interference analysis and coverage analysis of the Nastar tool for an in-depth

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    performance analysis according to early performance analysis. If it is really necessary, we need to start tracing to get RTWP data and IOS data.

    • 3.3 Step 3: Ideas and Methods of Performance Analysis and

    Quality Early Warning

    This part summarizes the early experiences of multiple commercial networks in performance analysis, and educes section 3.3.2“General Idea of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning” from historical experiences. According to the general idea, section 3.3.3“Quick Analysis of Some PIs” systematically describes the methods and procedures of performance analysis.

    • 3.3.1 Conventional Methods of Performance Analysis

    For different network problems, there are different methods of performance analysis. Acquire a good knowledge of the running status and problems of existing network, and then select one or more proper analytical methods. The commonly used methods of performance analysis are as follows:

    26) TOPN worst cell

    According to traffic statistics indexes such as call drop rate, connection success rate, and soft handover failure rate, get the busy-hour average or all-day average as required, find out the worst N cells, and make them as the emphasis of fault analysis and optimization. Or you may determine the priority order of optimization based on this.

    27) Time trend figure

    Trend figure of traffic statistics index is a commonly used method of traffic analysis. Analysis engineers may draw the change trend figure of one or more indexes of the whole network, Cluster or a single cell by hour, day or week and find the change law of traffic statistics indexes.

    28) Region location

    The change of network performance index always takes place in some regions. Traffic increase, traffic model change, radio environment change, base station faults or uplink/downlink interference leads to the index variation of these regions. The index variation affects performance indexes of the whole network. We may compare the network performance indexes before and after the variation, mark the base station or sector with the greatest network performance variation on an electronic map, and make a detailed analysis of problematic regions.

    29) Contrast

    A traffic statistics index is always affected by multiple factors. Some factors change while others may not. We may properly select comparison objects, confirm the

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    existence of problems and analyze the causes. When observing indexes, we should not focus on only their absolute values, but on their relative values.

    Besides a longitudinal comparison, we should, if necessary, make a latitudinal comparison of networks in different regions, for example, upgrade. We may refer to the index change and causes after similar network upgrade.

    • 3.3.2 Analysis Method of Alarm Data

    Performance analysis is made by using the Nastar tool while alarm analysis is made by using the Omstar. In the course of performance analysis, whether at the RNC level or at the cell level, it is recommended to analyze alarm data first and confirm whether any related equipment alarm affects PI. If equipment and transmission are both normal, an in-depth analysis of specific PIs may greatly improve efficiency.

    Alarm analysis methods must be used together with KPI analysis. An independent analysis is meaningless, nor can it solve network quality problems effectively. Generally speaking, the KPIs in our daily concern are traffic, access performance, RAB establishment success rate, handover, and call drop. What alarms can these KPIs be related to? We have simply classified service-related alarms as follows:

    Performance of traffic: transmission congestion alarm, broken link alarm, and CE resource congestion (DSP abnormality alarm)

    RRC access performance: related to congestion alarm, such as CN congestion, CPU congestion, base station baseband congestion, and IUB interface transmission congestion

    RAB

    establishment

    success

    rate:

    related

    to

    transmission

    congestion

    and

    RF

    coverage Handover performance: related to clock or resource congestion Call drop rate: Call drop caused by RF and by unavailability of a cell or a base station According to the above-mentioned characteristics, we associate KPIs with alarms while analyzing problems. Then, we analyze traffic statistics indexes to determine whether alarm is the root cause of the decrease in KPIs. If yes, recover alarm and check whether performance indexes resume to normal. In alarm analysis, there is no need to analyze the detailed cause of alarm generation. We only need to analyze the extent of the impact of this alarm on network performance. If this alarm does not affect network performance, analyze other problems. If this alarm does affect network performance, we need to analyze how alarm is associated with KPIs. If alarm is closely associated with KPIs, we need to recover alarm to verify the correctness of analysis results. The general process is as follows:

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Deterioration of network quality Collect and analyze alarm information No Does the alarm affect KPI? Yes
    Deterioration of
    network quality
    Collect and
    analyze alarm
    information
    No
    Does the alarm
    affect KPI?
    Yes
    Does the alarm
    correlate to the
    decreased KPI?
    No
    Yes
    Find out and
    recover major
    alarms
    Yes
    No
    Does KPI resume
    to normal?
    Analysis of
    other problems
    Ye
    s
    End

    Figure 1 Alarm analysis processing flow

    Network quality is always affected by one major alarm. In alarm analysis, we will find that multiple alarms may affect service. Some of them are only accompanying alarms. We need to distinguish between major alarms and accompanying alarms. Otherwise, we cannot locate the root cause. The following table shows the impact of commonly seen alarms on performance and is for your reference in problem solving.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Table 1 Alarm influence

    Alarm Type

    Performance Impact

     

    Trunk alarm

    has

    a fatal impact

    on

    network quality. If network

    quality is worsened and there is any trunk alarm, it is generally believed that it is trunk fault that causes worsening of the network quality.

    There are a variety of trunk alarms. Trunk alarm does not necessarily lead to the worsening of network quality. This type of alarm always has numerous accompanying alarms. We need to combine associated alarms and make an analysis for accurate location.

    Trunk alarm

    Some alarms will make a base station unavailable, thus causing coverage “hole”. This may not be found from KPIs, but will cause the cell of the base station adjacent to this base station to have a greater probability of RF call drop. In the case of a large-scale network, the impact is concealed. From the perspective of KPIs, it can only be considered that this falls within the normal fluctuation range. But the unavailability caused by this type of alarm will have a bad impact on users’ feelings. Maybe some customers will make complaints. In this case, we should not make an analysis only from the association of KPIs with alarm. We need to focus on whether alarm makes a cell unavailable. The impact of this alarm on KPI is implicit.

    Loopback alarm, configuration alarm, and mismatch alarm do not appear in network operation, so they do not deserve our attention. Slip frame overrun alarm and high bit error alarm depend on specific conditions. If they appear often, they will have an impact on network quality. If they are seldom generated, it can be believed that they have no impact on network quality. Among the RNC alarms, the alarms about APS and MSP have no impact on service. These are the alarms of additional functions. If they are not used, this type of alarm does not appear in network operation. Other alarms, more or less, affect service. They affect capacity, access, handover, and call drop caused by RF.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Alarm Type

    Performance Impact

     

    Most alarms may be signaling link alarms caused by trunk alarm. In analyzing this type of alarm, we need to make clear whether there is any trunk alarm. If there is any trunk alarm, we need to analyze them by associating signaling link alarms with trunk alarms. Note that NodeB categorizes AAL2PATH alarm as a signaling alarm while RNC categorizes AAL2PATH alarm as a trunk alarm.

    Signaling alarm

    Signaling alarm will unexceptionally have a certain impact upon service, sometime a fatal impact. For example, NCP/ALCAP alarm directly causes the unavailability of a base station, so a coverage “hole” appears. The alarms of MTP3B link, SCCP and SAAL link will have a direct impact on service availability. If the link with a core network is interrupted, the link will also be interrupted between UE and the core network. All related services become unavailable.

    Configuration error alarm, syntactical error alarm, unknown message, and packet boundary-crossing may appear in interconnecting partners’ equipment. But they will not affect existing network quality if other processes are normal. The system information “11 limiting adjacent cell data” is an event alarm. Handover is not affected either. Among RNC alarms, there are some event alarms. If these event alarms are often generated, they will affect network quality. If they seldom occur, it can be believed that they do not affect network quality.

     

    QoS alarm directly affects service communication quality and KPIs.

    QoS alarm

    For the alarms of NodeB, generally cell blocking appears in network operation only when this cell is not needed. Therefore, we need not pay any attention to this type of alarm. Simulated load starting alarm is used for testing and does not appear in network operation either. Cell unavailability will directly cause a coverage “hole”. Call drop caused by RF will also appear. Too small output power of a cell will also cause coverage problems and there will be poor coverage in some places. This causes call drop due to RF. From the perspective of KPIs, call drop rate rises slightly.

    The service alarm of RNC is an event alarm and affects service slightly. But the loss of a large number of measurement results may cause some algorithm problems, for example, power control failure. If event alarms are often generated, they may affect KPIs, but the impact is limited.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Alarm Type

    Performance Impact

     

    The alarms which involve a service board and a main control board may affect service. The alarm of a board other than a service board does not affect any network quality.

    Hardware alarm

    Among the hardware boards of NodeB, all the boards except the NMON board are related to service. The alarms of these boards may lead to deterioration of network quality. But the extent of impact depends on alarm type. A RF board is also related to service and directly affects quality of the air interface of networks.

    All boards of RNC products are basically related to service. Board hardware fault of the WRSS frame and WRBS frame may deteriorate network quality. Power alarm and fan alarm do not affect service. A faulty WGRU board affects location service, but does not affect any other service or KPIs. Therefore, no consideration should be given to this for the time being.

    Software alarm

    Software alarm is generated by the running software part of a product. It is unrelated to hardware structure, but closely related to the software structure of the system. Among the software parts of NodeB and RNC, some involve service while others are not related to service, but related to equipment maintenance. Software function alarms related to service need our attention. Those alarms unrelated to service function do not need our attention.

    In analyzing the software alarm of NodeB, we need not pay any attention to the alarms of the operation and maintenance part. Other software alarms are generally unrelated to service and do not appear in normal network operation. These alarms will be involved only when there is any operation of system software upgrade. But generally, the software upgrade of NodeB will interrupt service.

    In the software parts of RNC, the switching subsystem and the service processing subsystem are related to service, but the operation and maintenance subsystem is unrelated to service and may not be considered.

    The software alarms of RNC are

    mostly the alarms of the

    operation and maintenance subsystem. That is, they are associated with BAM database system. Host software alarm is seldom seen and some are generated during network

    construction. The alarms generated during network operation are

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Alarm Type

    Performance Impact

     

    the KPIs which only affect network capacity and network access.

     

    This type of alarm is generated when the software system runs abnormally. Most of them are system abnormality caused by software design defects after long-term running. They may also be generated when system running exceeds software design specifications. We need to know about product specifications and functions before we analyze network quality well. Most alarms are unrelated to service.

    Running alarm

    The running alarms of NodeB will mostly be seen during the early days of network construction. This is because some configuration has not been fixed yet. These running alarms are seldom seen during normal operation. LICENSE alarm and DSP/CPU alarm will affect the capacity, access and handover of the system.

    The running alarms of RNC are mostly generated during network construction because some configuration or parameter settings are not fully frozen during network construction. These alarms helps effectively analyze and solve some problems existing during network construction. They will be eliminated in formal network optimization to avoid affecting network quality.

     

    Communication alarms are mainly internal communication alarms of a product, especially the maintenance channel communication between boards. Generally speaking, maintenance channel fault does not affect any service, but service channel fault is bound to affect service. When a communication link generates any alarm, link fault will lead to corresponding communication interruption.

    Communication

    The internal communication alarm of NodeB does not affect normal service running.

    alarm

    The communication link of RNC is related to service, so the interruption of internal links between corresponding boards will have a certain impact as a trunk alarm does.

    Among the communication alarms of RNC, BAM-related link fault will not affect service, but the alarms which involve a board may affect service. The impact is fatal and generally leads to the unavailability of a cell or a base station. Thus, some coverage “hole” problems appear.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Alarm Type

    Performance Impact

    Environment

    An environment alarm generally does not affect the service and KPI of the system. But some environment alarms deteriorate product performance or functions of some products. They will be

    alarm

    analyzed accordingly. Among the environment alarms of RNC, GPS antenna alarm affects only location service instead of any other service.

     

    Generally, power alarm does not affect service

    at

    all,

    but

    Power alarm

    hardware alarm caused by power alarm may make service abnormal. This case will be analyzed accordingly.

    Processing error

       

    alarm

    Processing error alarm involves only RNC instead of NodeB.

    • 3.3.3 Quick Analysis of Some PIs

    According to the values of indexes, we can quickly analyze network performance based on the following PIs:

    • Capacity PIs, such as downlink capacity, uplink capacity, effective utilization of codes, and bandwidth utilization

    • Transmission index, such as aal2path

    • Cell unavailability duration VS.Cell.UnavailTime.OM

    Before using the Nastar tool for an in-depth analysis, we may export the above- mentioned commonly seen PIs and judge whether there is any problem with network. This analysis method may greatly improve efficiency, but is not systematic enough.

    • 3.3.4 Commonly Seen PIs and Corresponding Analysis Idea

    30)

    Among the causes of call drop, if VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.RLCRst,

    31)

    VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.ULSync, VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.DLSync, and VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.UuNoReply take a large proportion, we should first analyze RF problems. Judge whether overload leads to abnormal release. If VS.RAB.RelReqCS.RABPreempt leads to call drop for many times, it can be confirmed that the cell load has reached the admission threshold. If congestion makes many users released, it can be confirmed that the load of this cell has reached the congestion threshold. We may also make an analysis by associating call drop times with the downlink load of a cell. If the downlink load of a cell is high within the period with much call drop (by viewing the indexes VS.MeanTCP, VS.MinTCP, and VS.MaxTCP, or starting the downlink transmit power measurement of this cell), start load problem analysis.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    32) If call drop rate of the whole network suddenly becomes relatively high, generally the following factors may lead to this and we need to make the following check:

    (1) Iu interface transmission analysis: analyze alarms to see whether there is any problem with the transmission for the Iu CS interface and the Iu PS interface. (2) RNC equipment analysis: analyze alarms to see whether RNC boards reset and whether there is any equipment fault. (3) whole-network traffic analysis: Find out whether sudden increase in registered users and traffic leads to the increase in call drop rate and check whether the system is upgraded or patched.

    In dealing with special topic exercises, Chapter 2points out that there is need to summarize the relationship between traffic statistics PIs and network problems (section 2.4.1). This section summarizes commonly used experiences in analysis of commercial networks. It also expounds the analysis idea of commonly seen PIs. The abstraction of this experience forms the following parts:

    3.3.5 General Idea of Performance Analysis and Quality Early Warning

    By referring to the historical experience of performance analysis and considering the analysis functions provided by the Nastar tool and the Omstar tool, we may summarize the principles of performance analysis and quality early warning: gradually narrow the scope of problems and define the nature of problems from the macroscopical to the microscopical and from the whole to the part. For the problems of different nature, we use respective functions of the Nastar tool for an in-depth analysis and thus obtain analysis results.

    Concretely speaking, the analysis idea can be summarized as follows:

    33) First analyze RNC whole-network indexes macroscopically, and observe daily

    34)

    reports and weekly reports to check whether KPIs are normal. Then, query other PIs or cell indexes. If KPIs are abnormal, it is recommended to make a comparative analysis of

    TOPN cells and TOPN users. Observe whether regional deterioration or some users leads to the decrease in whole-network KPIs and whether integral indexes of network decrease. If there are a small number of on-net users, the abnormality of an individual user or cell may probably affect whole-network KPI performance. This is especially apparent in PS service. 35) If integral indexes of the network decrease, we need to analyze whether there is any problem with RNC equipment or whether IU interface transmission is restricted. 36) Whether RNC-level analysis or cell-level analysis, it is recommended to check alarms first to make sure whether there is any problem with equipment and transmission. 37) After defining the nature of problems, properly use different functions of the Nastar tool for an analysis.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 3.3.6 Procedures and Methods of Performance Analysis and Quality Early

    Warning

    3.3.6.1 Flowchart of Performance Analysis Procedures

    According to the general idea, we may determine the specific procedures of performance analysis and quality early warning. It is mentioned in 3.2.2“Preparation of Master Data” that RTWP data and IOS data can be obtained only if there is specific tracing, and is needed only at a specific stage of performance analysis.

    The following flowchart shows the main procedures of performance analysis, but the performance analysis flow is not completely a one-way process. From the perspective of time, performance analysis is also a day-after-day process of gradual analysis, repeated optimization and continuous observation. After a problem is analyzed, possibly there is need to adjust parameters, increase transmission and solve equipment problems. Upon finishing network optimization and network maintenance, continue observing network indexes, contrastively adjust traffic statistics performance, and confirm the effects after the change. From the perspective of flow, we may omit some procedures or lay an emphasis upon the observation of a certain part according to on-site scenarios.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    (2) RNC equipment/IU transmission/parameter N Y END statistics Traffic Alarm Is there any KPI deterioration? traffic
    (2) RNC equipment/IU
    transmission/parameter
    N
    Y
    END
    statistics
    Traffic
    Alarm
    Is there any KPI
    deterioration?
    traffic
    Whole-
    network
    statistics
    (1) Overall analysis of
    network KPI
    N Y Is there any equipment problem/transmission fault?
    N
    Y
    Is there any
    equipment
    problem/transmission
    fault?

    Solve RNC equipment/IU

    transmission problems.

    N Y problems Solve cell equipment (5) Analysis of cell load problems Is there any cell
    N
    Y
    problems
    Solve cell equipment
    (5) Analysis of cell load
    problems
    Is there any cell
    equipment
    problem?
    statistics
    RNC and Node B
    Cell traffic statistics
    alarm
    (4) Analysis of cell-related
    equipment
    (3) KPI analysis of TopN
    cells
    Cell traffic
    Traffic statistics: IUB
    bandwidth
    CE resource
    Equipment resource
    Radio resource
    N Y A Is there any overload problem?
    N
    Y
    A
    Is there any
    overload
    problem?

    Solve overload problems

    Figure 1 Performance analysis flow

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    A
    A

    CHR: NodeB RTWP

    (6) Analysis of cell

    Cell load information

    interference problems

    Special interference

    analysis

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only A CHR: NodeB RTWP (6)
    Y Is there any interference problem? Solve cell interference problems N CHR: (7) Analysis of cell
    Y
    Is there any
    interference
    problem?
    Solve cell interference
    problems
    N
    CHR:
    (7) Analysis of cell
    coverage problems
    Pilot pollution
    Extraction of coverage
    information
    IOS Trace:
    Analysis of cell coverage
    quality
    Y
    Is there any
    coverage
    problem?
    Solve cell coverage
    problems
    N
    CHR:
    (8) Analysis of cell
    parameter problems
    Optimization of
    adjacent cells
    Configuration
    verification
    Parameter optimization
    Y Is there any parameter problem? N (9) CHR flow/terminal performance
    Y
    Is there any
    parameter
    problem?
    N
    (9) CHR flow/terminal
    performance
    CHR: Statistical analysis of mobile phone problems
    CHR:
    Statistical
    analysis of
    mobile phone
    problems

    Solve parameter problems

    Y Is there any terminal performance problem? N B
    Y
    Is there any terminal
    performance
    problem?
    N
    B
    Terminal defect list
    Terminal defect list

    Figure 2 Performance analysis flow (Continued)

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    1)

    Overall analysis of network KPI

    • Step 1 of performance analysis and quality early warning is to make an overall analysis of network KPIs. The KPIs include, but are not limited to traffic, call completion rate, handover success rate, and call drop rate, shown as follows. For those which contain specific services, such as HSDPA and CMB, or specific algorithms, we also need to observe the integral indexes of corresponding KPIs.

    • Analyze the KPI of daily report or weekly report as required. From WCDMA Performance Monitoring Report output by the Nastar tool, we can also obtain a visual overall analysis.

    • The judgment of whether the KPI is abnormal must be based on the comparison with early history. We may observe the extent of relative change instead of the absolute value of the KPI.

    • When there is no apparent change in the KPI, there are two processing modes: End the current performance analysis and analyze TOPN cell. When there are a large number of network cells, the performance deterioration of very few base stations may not apparently affect the overall network KPI. These abnormal cells can be found out by contrasting TOPN analysis.

    • When the relative value of the KPI is not apparently changed but its absolute value always cannot reach standards and no analysis conclusion has been drawn, we need to analyze specific causes according to traffic statistics data and conduct quality early warning.

    Table 1 Overall analysis of network KPIs

    13.08 (11:00–12:00) 0.39 (17:00–18:00) Traffic AMR DL12.2 Erlang VP DL Erlang CS Erlang PS UL Erlang
    13.08 (11:00–12:00)
    0.39 (17:00–18:00)
    Traffic
    AMR DL12.2 Erlang
    VP DL Erlang
    CS Erlang
    PS UL Erlang
    PS DL Erlang
    15.86 (18:00 – 19:00)
    167.19
    (21:00–22:00)
    554.03
    (21:00–22:00)
    PS
    UL Throughput
    2675.06
    (21:00–22:00)
    PS
    DL Throughput
    8864.55
    (21:00–22:00)
    Access
    RRC Connection Setup Success Rate
    (service) (>98%)
    99.78% (135343/135638)
    RRC Connection Setup Success Rate
    (other) (>95%)
    99.31% (170930/172122)
    R99
    AMR RAB Assignment Success Rate
    99.66% (18595/18659)
    (>98%)
    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Video Call RAB Assignment Success Rate (>98%) 99.57% (230/231) PS RAB Assignment Success Rate 99.59% (95524/95918)
    Video Call RAB Assignment Success
    Rate (>98%)
    99.57% (230/231)
    PS RAB Assignment Success Rate
    99.59% (95524/95918)
    (>97%)
    Soft Handover Factor based on Radio
    Link Number (<50%)
    22.66%
    Soft Handover Success Rate (>99%) 99.72% (318538/319439)
    Inter-Freq Hard Handover Success
    N/A (0/0)
    HO
    Rate
    (>95%)
    CS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate
    (from UTRAN to GSM) (>96%)
    PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate
    (from UTRAN to GSM) (>92%)
    CS AMR Call Drop Rate (<1.5%)
    98.76% (6198/6276)
    96.10% (44834/46653)
    0.35% (66/18595)
    CDR
    Traffic
    VP Call Drop Rate (<3%) 0.87% (2/230)
    PS Service Drop Rate (<5%) 5.08% (4854/95524)
    HSDPA RLC Traffic Volume (MBytes) 19373
    HSDPA Mean UE 68.18 (18:00–19:00)
    HSDPA RLC Throughput (Mbps)
    HSDPA RAB Setup Success Rate
    Access
    98.24% (14360/14617)
    (>97%)
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change
    99.73% (10391/10419)
    Success Rate (with SHO)
    (>99%)
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change
    Success Rate (with Intra HHO) (>95%)
    N/A
    HO
    HS-DSCH Service Cell Change
    Success Rate (with Inter HHO) (>95%)
    N/A
    HS-DSCH to DCH Handover Success
    Rate (>95%)
    99.38% (961/967)
    HSDPA
    DCH to HS-DSCH Handover Success
    83.28% (792/951)
    Rate (>95%)
    CDR HSDPA Service Drop Rate (<5%) 1.39% (200/14360)
    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    2)

    Analysis of RNC equipment problem/IU transmission problem/parameter

    • RNC equipment problem and IUR interface transmission problem may affect the whole-network KPI.

    • IU interface transmission problem and core network problem will affect the whole-network KPI directly.

    • If the performance indexes of network cells are universally deteriorated, basic causes are related to the RNC board reset and restricted IU interface transmission. Equipment problems and intermittent transmission failure can be checked by the Omstar tool. Transmission bandwidth restricted can be checked by observing transmission-related PIs from traffic statistics.

    • Another case of affecting the overall KPI of RNC: RNC-level parameter change. If the whole-network KPI becomes apparently abnormal, we need to make sure whether any RNC-level parameter change has been made recently and carefully check the impact of this parameter on the network.

    3)

    KPI analysis of TOPN cell

    • The number of TOPN cells can be increased according to the network scale. The number of the Nastar tools is 10 by default. If there are too few TOPN cells, some cells with abnormal performance may be ignored.

    • The WCDMA Performance Monitoring Report output by the Nastar tool lists the TOPN with normal KPIs. According to this report, we may pick out important cells from TOPN cells and make an in-depth analysis.

    • A comparison of the indexes of TOPN cells with those of history TOPN cells helps judge whether cell performance indexes are normal. It is recommended to use the above-mentioned trend analysis figure for comparison. Make sure whether TOPN cell Id changes and what the amplitude of change in TOPN cell KPI is. This is simple but visual.

    • TOPN cell problems must be analyzed together with cell traffic. For example, a pure observation of the call drop rate of a cell is meaningless. If a cell has one call drop, but there is only one call attempt, the call drop rate is 100%.

    4)

    Cell equipment analysis:

    • Cell equipment analysis means analyzing the equipment of TOPN cells of last step. Likewise, subsequent load problem analysis and interference problem analysis are oriented to TOPN cells.

    • The equipment that affects cell performance KPI includes the antenna feeder equipment and the uplink/downlink processing board of a base station. Generally, related equipment alarms can be observed either on the NodeB side or on the RNC side.

    • The transmission restricted and intermittent transmission failure of a base station will affect related cell indexes. Intermittent transmission failure is observed by

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    using the Omstar tool. We make an auxiliary analysis by using the cell unavailability PI (VS.Cell.UnavailTime.OM) provided by the Nastar tool.

    5)

    Analysis of cell load problems

    • The indexes directly related to cell load include average uplink/downlink occupied CE of a cell (VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.CELL/2, VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.CELL) and the maximum uplink/downlink occupied CE (VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.CELL.Max/2, VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.CELL.Max). When the maximum uplink/downlink occupied CE approaches 128 or the average occupied CE is around 60, expansion should be considered.

    • Causes for cell load problems include: change of traffic model; the main coverage service of this cell is designed to be VP64, but actually there are a large number of 384k services. During holidays, relatively concentrated population leads to the increase in traffic.

    • High load may cause CE congestion, power congestion, code congestion, and transmission congestion. We should make an analysis by observing corresponding PI.

    • In load problem analysis, when much power congestion occurs, actual load is not necessarily very high. In this case, we need to analyze admission strategy and judge whether admission parameters are properly set.

    6)

    Analysis of cell interference problems

    • Causes of interference: UE self-correlation interference. If there are many UEs in a conversation within a cell, interference will increase. Interference is also caused by external interference source and by pilot pollution.

    • Whether there is any uplink interference within a cell can be judged by observing the RTWP indexes in traffic statistics, that is, the average RTWP of a cell and the maximum RTWP of a cell. If the average RTWP of a cell is as high as -95 dBm or higher, it is possible that there is uplink interference. Observe the maximum RTWP. If RTWP peak, such as -70 dBm, is often seen, the cause may be the power of access process or handover process.

    • An in-depth interference analysis requires that the interference analysis function of the Nastar should be started. If a cell has severe interference, we need to trace its RTWP data. Import the RTWP data, configuration data and engineering parameter to the Nastar tool, and start the interference analysis function. In this way, we can effectively find external interference or internal equipment problems. This function locates multiple possible causes of radio interference or abnormal signals by analyzing main-diversity signal strength and according to certain algorithm categorization.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    7)

    Analysis of cell coverage problems

    • Coverage problems include poor coverage, excessive coverage, pilot pollution, and missing configuration of adjacent cells.

    • Poor coverage leads to poor performance of an air interface. In traffic statistics, a large number of PIs, such as RF.RLCRst, RF.ULSync and UuNoReply, are related to poor coverage.

    • For an in-depth analysis of poor coverage and excessive coverage, we need to provide the IOS data of the analyzed cell and enable the coverage analysis function of the Nastar to make a statistical analysis of the coverage strength of the pilot and the link quality of service.

    • Pilot pollution analysis does not need any IOS data. The pilot pollution analysis function of the Nastar tool needs CHR data, engineering parameter, configuration data, and traffic statistics data. The principles of pilot pollution analysis are to make statistics according to 1C measurement reports and signal quality of active set and monitoring set when 1C reports are reported, together with the number of branches of cell power splitting output in engineering configuration parameters.

    • The intra-frequency adjacent cell check of the Nastar tool can be fully used to find those adjacent cells that miss configuration. In using this function, we need to turn on the detection set reporting switch. The principles of this function are to judge whether any adjacent cell misses configuration by making statistics of detection set reports and cell signal strength reported.

    8)

    Analysis of parameter problems: (What factors lead to parameter change? Insufficient bandwidth, missing configuration of adjacent cells, comparison of cutover tool with the Nastar tool)

    • If the KPI deterioration of a cell is not closely related to equipment, load, interference or coverage, we need to check cell parameters carefully.

    • We need to make sure whether the history (see 3.1.3“Network Operation History”) of network operations contains any parameter adjustment related to this cell, including adjustment of adjacent cell relationship and RF parameter adjustment. If cell parameter adjustment has been made recently, we need to make a careful analysis. Meanwhile, the impact of early parameter adjustment on the recent KPI should not be eliminated. We also need to check whether there is a big increase in the traffic of this cell. If traffic increases sharply, the unreasonableness of cell parameters will be easily found.

    • The configuration verification function of the Nastar tool can help quickly check the parameter changes of the same version made on a different day.

    9)

    Analysis of CHR process and terminal performance problems

    • The prerequisite to network planning performance analysis is stable product performance and normal equipment. But the bug of actual networks and products always exists. We need to define whether the problem lies in product implementation through performance analysis.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    • In the early performance analysis, many RAN equipment problems have been found. In cell performance analysis, sometimes abnormal access or call drop still occurs even if there is no high load, a cell has normal signal coverage and there is correct parameter configuration. In this case, we need to enable the CHR analysis function of the Nastar tool and use signaling process to make an analysis. The dot information of CHR involves the implementation of a product internal module. CHR analysis does not aim to accurately locate a problem, but to determine the scope of the problem and failure location of abnormal processes. Then, feedback the result to product R&D personnel to provide auxiliary information about the location by the R&D personnel.

    • Besides RAN equipment problem, terminal problems cannot be excluded in performance analysis. Many of them have been found in an actual network. Sometimes, a terminal transmits at a fixed power and the conditions that a terminal satisfies measurement reports fail to be reported in time. For the sake of query, terminal problems found in existing network can be classified and included in a list.

    • RAN equipment problems and terminal problems seldom appear, therefore they are put at the end of performance analysis. In analyzing abnormal PIs, after excluding multiple possible causes, we should dare to doubt equipment problems and give reasonable evidence based on CHR.

    3.3.6.2 Proper Use of Functions of the Nastar

    The previous section describes the processes and procedures of performance analysis. In one word, performance analysis is proper use of the Nastar tool. This document first describes performance analysts’ necessary skills and then expounds related preparations for performance analysis. Finally, one thing is certain. That is, we should know how to analyze a complex network by using a specific function of the Nastar.

    The Help document of the Nastar tool describes main related functions of the Nastar:

    • Quick index query

    • Output reports based on a template

    • Coverage analysis, interference analysis, and configuration verification analysis

    A tool is only a platform. How to make an effective analysis with this tool requires continuous summarization of experiences. Now take for example the analysis of RRC establishment success rate and RAB establishment success rate to expound when the Nastar functions should be used in performance analysis. This serves as the example of performance analysis methods.

    The Nastar functions are described in section 2.4.2“Mastery of Advanced Functions of the Nastar Tool”. For the sake of the figure analysis as follows, these functions are summarized as [Query Function], [Customization Query], [Daily Report Output], [TOPN Query], [Coverage Analysis], [Cross Coverage], [Missing Configuration of Adjacent Cell], [Load Analysis], [Interference Analysis], and [Configuration

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Verification]. The difference between [Query Function] and [Customization Query] is that the former can be directly exported from the performance analysis template of the Nastar tool while the latter is customized as required.

    1. Performance analysis of RRC establishment success rate

    Query TOPN cells with the most RRC establishment failures with the Nastar. Make the following performance analysis in terms of each TOPN cell.

    1. Query RRC establishment by using the network performance analysis function 2. Do indexes satisfy the
    1. Query RRC
    establishment by using the
    network performance
    analysis function
    2. Do indexes
    satisfy the
    requirements?
    Y
    N
    3. Subdivide
    Y
    into cell
    4. Query equipment
    alarm
    equipment
    problems
    N
    5.
    Coverage quality
    problem
    9. Cell reselecting
    problem
    11. Overload admission
    problem
    7. Overshoot
    8. Missing
    6.
    Ec/Io
    analysis
    configuration of
    analysis
    adjacent cell
    10. Analysis of
    adjacent cell
    coverage quality
    12. Load and
    interference
    analysis

    Figure 1 Performance analysis of RRC establishment success rate

    1)

    [Daily Report Output] Use a network optimization tool to analyze RNC traffic

    2)

    statistics data, output daily reports and get related indexes of RRC establishment success rate, mainly including RRC establishment success rate of service and non-service. Judge whether the KPI satisfies network requirements according to the defined threshold or a comparison of the history.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    3)

    [TOPN Query] Subdivide RNC-level indexes into cell-level indexes and find out

    basic KPI analysis. Then, we use the Nastar tool for a corresponding analysis.)

    4)

    10 cells with the worst indexes. [Customization Query] and [Omstar query] Customize the unavailability indexes

    5)

    of the queried cell or find equipment alarm information with the Omstar, and judge whether the problem lies in equipment or transmission. [Customization Query] Query results indicate that possible performance

    6)

    problems include coverage problems, cell reselecting problems and admission problems (We need to determine the type of problems according to the previous

    [Coverage Analysis] Enable cell coverage quality analysis to exclude coverage

    7)

    problems. [Overshoot Analysis] Enable overshoot analysis to exclude possible overshoot.

    8)

    [Missing Configuration of Adjacent Cell] Enable the analysis of missing adjacent cells to exclude the possibility of missing configuration of adjacent cells.

    9) [Configuration Verification] Enable parameter analysis to exclude parameter configuration problems.

    10)

    [Coverage Analysis] Adjacent cell coverage quality analysis.

    11) [Customization Query][Configuration Verification] Query the PIs with load admission failure and check parameters to judge whether load admission is too high. 12) [Customization Query][Interference Analysis] Query cell load PIs or enable the interference analysis function to eliminate interference problems and overload problems.

    2. Performance analysis of RAB establishment success rate

    Query TOPN cells with the most RAB establishment failures by using Nastar. Make the following performance analysis in terms of each TOPN cell.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 1. Query RAB

    establishment success rate by using the performance analysis function

     
    2. Do indexes
    2. Do indexes

    Y

    satisfy the requirements? N 3. Subdivide Y into cell 4. Query equipment alarm equipment problems N
    satisfy the
    requirements?
    N
    3. Subdivide
    Y
    into cell
    4. Query equipment
    alarm
    equipment
    problems
    N
    5.
    Coverage quality
    8. Intra-frequency
    problems
    handover problem
    10. Overload admission
    problems
    7. Missing
    6.
    Ec/Io
    configuration of
    analysis
    adjacent cell
    9. Analysis of
    adjacent cell
    coverage quality
    11. Load and
    interference
    analysis

    Figure 1 Performance analysis of RAB establishment success

    1)

    [Query Function] First use the network performance analysis and query function

    2)

    of a network optimization tool to query the RAB establishment success rate of various RNC-level services, including AMR service, VP service, and PS service with a typical rate. Judge whether each RAB establishment KPI satisfies requirements based on the

    3)

    history. [TOPN Query] Subdivide RNC-level indexes into cell-level indexes and find out

    4)

    10 cells with the worst indexes. Among cell-level indexes, some statistical points of RAB establishment failure can be used for the isolation of equipment problems or network performance problems. [Customization Query] or [Omstar tool query] We can use the Omstar tool to query equipment problems or transmission problems. We may customize PI query, for example, query the index VS.Cell.UnavailTime.OM.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    5) [Customization Query] RAB failure causes can be categorized as coverage

    6)

    problems, handover problems and overload rejection problems. For the standard for the categorization, refer to Table 1 in section 2.4.1. [Coverage Analysis] Enable cell coverage quality analysis to exclude coverage

    7)

    problems. [Missing Configuration of Adjacent Cell] Enable the analysis of missing adjacent

    8)

    cells to exclude the problem of missing configuration of adjacent cells. [Customization Query] Query related PIs to make sure whether the problem lies

    9)

    in handover. [Configuration Verification] Enable parameter optimization analysis to exclude

    handover parameter configuration problems. 10) [Customization Query] Query related PIs to make sure whether there is any overload. 11) [Customization Query] and [Interference Analysis] Query load-related PIs and enable interference analysis to exclude interference problems and overload problems.

    3.3.6.3 Routine Analysis and Quality Early Warning

    This document does not distinguish between performance analysis and quality early warning. Quality early warning is defaulted to occur during performance analysis. We confirm whether quality early warning is necessary according to performance analysis results.

    Quality early warning includes performance KPI deterioration early warning and potential quality risk early warning. When any KPI deterioration is found during performance analysis, we give a timely early warning, find network problems and optimize network to avoid continuous deterioration of network performance. Potential risk early warning is not driven by any KPI deterioration event. Therefore, we need to make routine network check according to certain rules and give an early warning to those that do not conform to rules.

    Routine analysis and quality early warning include the following aspects:

    12) Check unidirectional adjacent cells. Normally, the intra-frequency adjacent cell relationship of the UMTS network is configured as bi-directional. If some cells are only configured with unidirectional adjacent cell relationship, we need to give an early warning to those scenarios that cannot give special reasons for their particularity. 13) Check the adjacent cells that miss configuration. Using the missing adjacent cell check function, regularly check whole-network adjacent cell relationship. We need to give an early warning to the adjacent cells that apparently miss configuration. 14) Check RTWP. Regularly check the average RTWP and the maximum RTWP of whole-network cell. It is found from actual network that some cells have a relatively high RTWP, but their call drop rate and call drop times are not necessarily quite deteriorated. No matter what the KPI performance of a cell is,

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    we need to give an early warning to the cells with a relatively high RTWP and find out corresponding causes. 15) Check pilot pollution. Actual measurement and theoretical analysis have given us a conclusion. Pilot pollution is not necessarily linked to call drop, but we need to optimize the regions with severe pilot pollution. We should regularly check whole-network pilot pollution with the Nastar and give an early warning to the regions with severe pilot pollution.

    Routine check is also based on the basic query function and advanced special topic function of the Nastar. Its period can be flexibly set according to existing network conditions. For example, routine check can be made once a month or a quarter.

    Another trigger factor of routine check and quality early warning is network cutover. When large-scale relocation and cutover occur in a network, be sure to make routine check by using the configuration verification function and missing adjacent cell check function of the Nastar. The complexity of the UMTS network parameters determines the fact that whole-network check is necessary in case of large-scale relocation. A quality early warning should be given as soon as possible to parameter inconsistency or parameter omission.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 4 Observation Point and Analysis

    Examples of Typical Problems

    An observation point is a PI which reflects a specific performance problem. The analysis based on an observation point is a process that goes deeper based on the familiarization of the UTRAN PI. Observation point analysis associates signaling process with performance index. Observation points are categorized as follows:

    16)

    RRC establishment analysis observation point

    17)

    RAB establishment analysis observation point

    18)

    Soft handover analysis observation point

    19)

    Call drop analysis observation point

    20)

    CS/PS intersystem handover analysis observation point

    21)

    Traffic analysis observation point

    22)

    Key interface process analysis observation point

    23)

    HSDPA analysis observation point

    An in-depth performance analysis can be made only after you have gained a mastery of observation points. The Nastar tool provides special topic query of most observation points. We may also make special topic query of other observation points by means of customization. Special topic drilling analysis of basic observation point helps deepen the understanding of signaling processes and various PIs and strengthen the mastery of the Nastar tool.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only Figure 1 Special topic analysis

    Figure 1 Special topic analysis

    • 4.1 Observation Points of Typical Problems

      • 4.1.1 RRC Establishment Analysis Observation Point

    Table 1 RRC Establishment Observation Point

    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

    Categories of

    Observe various types of RRC connection establishment

     

    If there are many streaming class called service requests (accounting for over 10% of total connection establishment requests), we need to pay much attention to them. This is because when UE changes

    RRC

    requests and

    from DCH status into IDLE status, PS

    needs to transmit packets, then ps paging

    establishment

    their proportional

    requests

    distribution. If any abnormality, we need to give an early warning.

    occurs and the corresponding RRC requests are streaming class called service requests. If there are too many requests of this type, it is possible that the timer from DCH status to IDLE status is not properly set.

    RRC

    Number of RRC

    AAL2

    It is generally caused by insufficient

    establishment

    connection

    establishment

    transmission resource or transmission

    failure

    establishment failures (>=5); RRC connection establishment

    failure

    fault. You may query the cell downlink throughput at the moment from associated traffic statistics indexes. If it is lower than 200 kbps, transmission fault may occur.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    RL

    It may be caused by NodeB fault or insufficient NodeB resource. You may query the maximum downlink CE of a cell

    establishment

    from associated traffic statistics index. If

    failure

    the maximum uplink CE is less than 20, then traffic is not high and the problem lies in abnormal NodeB equipment.

    Power

    RRM admission decision cannot establish any new RRC connection due to too high radio load within a cell. In this case, you need to query the maximum RTWP and the maximum TCP of the cell to confirm uplink

    congestion

    congestion or downlink congestion and

    failure rate

    judge whether any expansion is necessary. Meanwhile, we should check whether related admission strategy settings, such

    (>=10%)

    as DCCC, are proper.

    Uplink CE

    Uplink CE resource admission congestion within an RNC. You need to query the number of uplink CEs of a cell from relevant parameters and judge whether to expand CE. If the number of uplink CEs is less than 20, then traffic is not high and the problem may lie in abnormal NodeB equipment.

    congestion

    At present, RNC does not make an accurate estimate of CE resource. It is quite possible that RNC judges CE to be sufficient, but actual NodeB CE resource is insufficient. In addition, inconsistent capability of RNC and NodeB may also lead to NodeB RL establishment failure.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Downlink CE

    Downlink CE resource admission congestion within an RNC. You need to query the number of downlink CEs of a cell from relevant parameters and judge whether to expand CE. If the number of uplink CEs is less than 40, traffic is not high and the problem may lie in abnormal NodeB equipment.

    congestion

    At present, RNC does not make an accurate estimate of CE resource. It is quite possible that RNC judges CE to be sufficient, but actual NodeB CE resource is insufficient. In addition, inconsistent capability of RNC and NodeB may also lead to NodeB RL establishment failure.

    Code

    Code resource fails to be allocated during RRC connection establishment. Code congestion is generally caused by too many network users. It may be seen in high traffic scenarios with microcell

    congestion

    coverage. You may query the effective utilization of codes from associated traffic statistics indexes. If the effective utilization of codes is lower than 30%, it is possible that the code distribution algorithm is abnormal.

    Other congestion leads to RRC rejection.

    Generally the congestion caused by unknown insufficient resources. For example, license resource and high CPU utilization make flow control and FMR processing capacity insufficient. In addition, E1 fault also appears. This cause value is dotted.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Transmission

    Transmission congestion is mainly caused by insufficient transmission resource. You may query the downlink cell throughput from associated traffic statistics indexes. If the downlink cell throughput is lower than

    congestion

    200 kbps, it is possible that there is abnormal equipment. The power-down of a base station once led to transmission interruption, but the cause in traffic statistics is transmission congestion.

    Other factors lead to RRC rejection.

    Abnormal causes. We need to make in- depth location based on RNC logs. The known problem is that the system redirection function of the network is enabled. During redirection, a mobile phone does not support GSM and thus failure rejection occurs.

    No response

    This is generally caused by poor coverage.

    from UE

    The downlink FACH and RACH have unbalanced coverage.

     

    This is generally caused by an RNC fault. At present, there is a problem with traffic statistics mode, which may lead to some wrong dotting of this cause.

    Other factors lead to RRC establishment failure.

    There was a problem with the designated access DSP of node B. The RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST message fails to be sent to RNC. The RACH packet decoding of this cell fails. We may make a judgment by checking whether the index VS.MAC.CRNCIubBytesRACH.Tx is abnormal.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 4.1.2 RAB Establishment Analysis Observation Point

    Table 2 RAB establishment observation point

    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Transmission

    Generally transmission equipment fault or insufficient transmission capacity. You need

    network

    to query the transmission utilization of that time.

    Migration

    In starting migration, RNC receives a RAB establishment request, but does not process it. This is mainly caused by flow nesting and seldom occurs. It is related to user behavior sequence. This is generally avoided in a core network.

    Number of

     

    RRM admission decision cannot establish any new RRC connection due to too high radio load within a cell. In this case, you need to query the maximum RTWP and the

    CS/PS RAB

    Power

    maximum TCP of the cell to make sure of

    establishment

    congestion

    uplink congestion or downlink congestion

    CS/PS RAB

    and judge whether any expansion is

    establishment

    failures (>=5);

    necessary. Meanwhile, we should check

    CS/PS RAB

    failure

    whether related admission strategy

    establishment

    failure rate

    settings, such as DCCC, are proper.

    (>=10%)

    Uplink CE

    Uplink CE resource admission congestion within an RNC. You need to query the number of uplink CEs of a cell from relevant parameters and judge whether to expand CE. If the number of uplink CEs is less than 20, then traffic is not high and the problem may lie in abnormal NodeB equipment.

    congestion

    At present, RNC does not make an accurate estimate of CE resource. It is quite possible that RNC judges CE to be sufficient, but actual NodeB CE resource is insufficient. In addition, inconsistent capability of RNC and NodeB may also lead to NodeB RL establishment failure.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Downlink CE

    Downlink CE resource admission congestion within an RNC. You need to query the number of downlink CEs of a cell from relevant parameters and judge whether to expand CE. If the number of uplink CEs is less than 40, then traffic is not high and the problem may lie in abnormal NodeB equipment.

    congestion

    At present, RNC does not make an accurate estimate of CE resource. It is quite possible that RNC judges CE to be sufficient, but actual NodeB CE resource is insufficient. In addition, inconsistent capability of RNC and NodeB may also lead to NodeB RL establishment failure.

    Code

    Code resource fails to be allocated during RRC connection establishment. Code congestion is generally caused by too many network users. It may be seen in high traffic scenarios with microcell

    congestion

    coverage. You may query the effective utilization of codes from associated traffic statistics indexes. If the effective utilization of codes is lower than 30%, it is possible that the code distribution algorithm is abnormal.

    Transmission

    Transmission congestion is mainly caused by insufficient transmission resource. You may query the downlink cell throughput from associated traffic statistics indexes. If the downlink cell throughput is lower than

    congestion

    200 kbps, it is possible that there is abnormal equipment. The power failure of a base station once led to transmission interruption, but the cause in traffic statistics is transmission congestion.

    Others

    Abnormal causes. We need to make an in- depth location based on RNC logs.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Air interface

    The air interface failure occurring during RB establishment is generally caused by

    failure

    poor coverage or mobile phone compatibility.

    Configuration

    The compatibility of a mobile phone itself becomes faulty in some unknown scenarios. For example, when a Huawei mobile phone drops network abnormally, it

    not supported

    may not release any RB. When PS RB is set up next time, this case may occur. This case also happens to the SE V800 mobile phone.

    Physical

    This generally occurs when FACH migrates to DCH and sets up RB. The downlink physical layer of a terminal is not

    channel failure

    synchronized, which leads to RB establishment failure. This is mainly caused by poor coverage.

    Cell update

    The Cell Update flow occurs during RB establishment. This nested flow leads to RB establishment failure.

    Illegal

    UE considers parameter configuration illegal. Network and terminals have an inconsistent understanding of parameter processing. If RB establishment failure

    configuration

    occurs in the domain of CS, it is possible that a user dials a wrong telephone number and at once goes onhook. RB SETUP failure may also occur at this time. The cause is illegal configuration.

    No response

    Generally poor coverage makes UE unable

    from UE

    to receive any RB establishment command.

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    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Parameter error

    RNC considers the parameter delivered by a core network invalid. You need further cell signaling tracing to determine the cause. Among the known causes is that the uplink subscription and activation application information of user PS service exceeds the capacity of a mobile phone, or that the network negotiation rate in PDP activation acceptance messages is less than the minimum guaranteed rate.

    • 4.1.3 Call Drop Analysis Observation Point

    Table 3 CS/PS call drop observation point

    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

    CS/PS call

    High CS/PS call

     

    Call drop caused by operation and

    drop

    drop rate

    OM intervention

    maintenance. For example, the execution of TRG RABRel on LMT causes users to be released.

    RAB

    High-priority users preempt low-priority users when admission is rejected. This causes a link to be released. This kind of

    preemption

    call drop occurs in the case of load and insufficient resource. Determine whether expansion is necessary according to the number of occurrences.

    UTRAN

    Within a cell, UTRAN leads to abnormal link release. This case generally corresponds to processing abnormality. We need to make a further analysis by means of CDL.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Uplink/downlink

    Uplink or downlink signaling RB reaches the maximum retransmission times and resets. This causes a link to be released.

    RLC reset

    This case is mainly caused by poor coverage quality (including missing configuration of adjacent cells and small handover area).

    Uplink

    RNC receives RL Failure reported by NodeB, which causes a link to be abnormally released. In this case, poor

    synchronization

    coverage quality (including missing

    failure

    configuration of adjacent cells and small handover area) makes UE abnormally shut down the transmitter, or uplink demodulation out-of-sync.

    Downlink

    Receive the Cell Update message reported by a mobile phone. The cause is downlink RL Failure, which makes a link abnormally released. In this case, poor coverage

    synchronization

    quality (including missing configuration of

    failure

    adjacent cells and small handover area) makes UE abnormally shut down the transmitter, or uplink demodulation out-of- sync.

    The UU

    RNC delivers a message and waits for the response from a mobile phone, but timeout occurs. For example, waiting for RB

    interface makes

    reconfiguration completion message times

    no response.

    out and waiting for active set update completion times out. This case is generally caused by poor coverage.

    Other RF

     

    causes

    RF cause; due to poor coverage quality

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

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    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Abnormal AAL2

    RNC finds that the AAL2 Path of the IU CS interface is abnormal and starts abnormal release. It is possible that the transmission equipment of the Iu interface is abnormal.

    link

    The known problem is that immediate normal release during RB establishment is classified by traffic statistics into abnormal release.

    Abnormal

    RNC finds that the GTPU of the IU PS interface is abnormal and starts abnormal

    GTPU

    release. The cause may be equipment fault or defect.

    Others

    Possibly the call drop (but traffic statistics does not dot) occurring during flow interaction or cell update, or abnormal call drop and cell blocking caused by the transmission fault of the Iub interface, RNC internal cause, and Bug. There may be call drop for abnormal causes. We need to make an analysis based on RNC logs. The call drop caused by violent change (corner effect or driving out from the shadow area of a building) of uplink signal is known to be classified into this cause.

    • 4.1.4 Soft Handover Analysis Observation Point

    Table 4 Soft handover analysis observation point

    Observation

       

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

     

    Analysis Idea

    Soft

    Soft handover

     

    Possible causes of too high (>= 40%) a

    handover

    rate based on

    soft handover rate:

    rate

    cell resource allocation and

    1)

    Handover parameter setting makes addition easy, but deletion difficult.

    soft handover rate based on

    2)

    In the early days of network construction, there are few base

    IUB transmission

    stations and insufficient coverage.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Observation

     

    Possible

     

    Point

    Condition

    Cause

     

    Analysis Idea

           

    Therefore, capacity gives way to quality.

    3)

    The CN side of some partners does

    resource

    not deliver Iu release. After a user’s

    allocation.

    dial-up access is disconnected, there is only user plane release instead of signaling plane release. Users have soft handover even after a network is disconnected.

       

    Configuration

    UE considers that the content of the active set update of RNC adding/deleting a link is

    not supported

    not supported. Generally, this scenario will not appear in commercial use.

    Synchronization

    UE gives the feedback that the softer/soft handover process of RNC adding/deleting a link is incompatible with other concurrent

    reconfiguration

    processes. RNC has guaranteed serial

    Number of

    not supported

    flow processing. Soft handover execution

    soft/softer

    failure is mainly caused by the problematic

    Soft

    handover failures

    processing of some mobile phones.

    handover

    (>=5) and

       

    execution

       

    soft/softer

    UE considers that the content of the active

    failure

    handover failure

    Illegal

    set update of RNC adding/deleting a link is

    rate (>=10%)

    configuration

    illegal. Generally, this scenario will not appear in commercial use ..

    No response

    RNC does not receive the active set update command response for adding/deleting a link. This is the main

    from UE

    cause of softer/soft handover failure. This happens in the region with poor coverage or a small handover area. It needs RF optimization.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    • 4.1.5 CS/PS Intersystem Handover Analysis Observation Point

    Table 5 Intersystem handover observation point

    Observation

         

    Point

    Condition

     

    Possible Cause

    Analysis Idea

    Hard

    Preparation failures (>=5) of hard handover

     

    Radio link establishment failure occurs during RL establishment. For details, see

    handover

    into this cell and

    the RL establishment process analysis of

    preparation

    preparation

    the IUB interface.

    failure

    failure rate (>=10%) of hard handover into this cell

    For other causes, we need to make a further analysis based on RNC logs.

    Preparation

    Preparation

     

    A target cell has

     

    failure of

    failures (>=5) of

    no wireless

    A target cell has no resource available, or

    transition out

    transition out of

    network

    there is some RNC parameter

    of cell

    cell accompanied

    resource

    configuration error. We need to make an

    accompanied

    by hard

    available.

    analysis based on RNC logs.

    by hard

    handover and

       

    handover

    preparation failure rate (>=10%) of transition out of

     

    Transition timeout of target system

    The problem often lies in CN parameter configuration or a related link connection. We need to make an analysis based on RNC logs.

    cell accompanied by hard handover

     

    Transition failure in the target CN/RNC or system

    It generally corresponds to core network configuration error.

     

    Transition in the target CN/RNC or system not supported

    Generally, RNC does not support some hard handover parameters. We need to make an analysis based on RNC logs.

     

    Transition

    Often an MSC parameter configuration

    objective not

    error. We need to check the parameter

    allowed

    configuration of a core network.

     

    OM intervention

    Failure caused by operation and maintenance

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Observation

         

    Point

    Condition

    Possible Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    No available

    Often an MSC parameter is configured

    resource

    incorrectly, or a target RNC has no resource available.

    Undefined

    Failure causes are not defined in traffic statistics.

    Others

    We need to make an analysis based on RNC logs.

       

    Waiting for

    A core network does not return a corresponding command of handover preparation request. In this case, there is

    transition

    some problem with the parameter

    command

    configuration or related link connection of

    timeout

    a core network. We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling trace of the core network and BSS.

    Preparation

    Preparation failures (>=5) of RNC-level CS/PS domain intersystem

     

    Upon requesting handover preparation, RNC receives the release command from a core network. Two cases: intersystem handover request occurs during signaling process like location update. The location

    failure of

    outgoing

    Transition

    update flow has been finished before one

    RNC-level

    handover,

    cancelled

    flow is finished. The core network starts

    foreign

    preparation

    release; the user who sets up a call goes

    outgoing

    failure rate

    onhook during handover preparation, and

    handover

    (>=10%)of CS domain intersystem

    the core network starts release. No handover is finished in either case, but either is normal flow nesting.

    outgoing handover

    Transition

    It generally corresponds to core network configuration error. We need to analyze

    timeout

    the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Transition failure in the target CN/RNC or system

    The problem often lies in the parameter configuration or related link connection of a core network. We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Observation

         

    Point

    Condition

    Possible Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Unknown target

    The problem often lies in an MSC parameter configuration error. That is, the LAC of the target cell fails to be

    RNC

    configured. We need to check the parameter configuration of a core network. This case is often seen after the adjustment of 2 G network.

    No available

    The problem often lies in an MSC parameter configuration error, or BSC has

    resource

    no resource available. We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Others

    We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

       

    Transition

    The problem often lies in the parameter configuration or related link connection of

    Preparation failures (>=5) of

    timeout

    a core network. We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Preparation

    CELL-level CS domain intersystem

    Transition failure in the target

    It generally corresponds to core network configuration error or BSS not supporting.

    failure of

    outgoing

    CN/RNC or

    We need to analyze the cause according

    Cell-level

    handover and

    to the signaling tracing of a core network

    foreign

    preparation

    system

    and a BSS.

    outgoing

    failure rate

     

    In this case, a BSC does not support

    handover

    (>=10%) of CS domain intersystem outgoing handover.

    Transition in the target CN/RNC or system not supported

    some parameters of intersystem handover requests. We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Others

    We need to analyze the cause according to the signaling tracing of a core network and a BSS.

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance For Internal Use Only

    Guide to Analysis of WCDMA Network Performance

    For Internal Use Only

    Observation

         

    Point

    Condition

    Possible Cause

    Analysis Idea

       

    Configuration

    UE considers that the command for hard handover out of a cell is not supported.

    not supported

    The problem generally lies in the compatibility of a mobile phone.

    Physical

    Possibly poor coverage or severe

    channel failure

    interference

    Outgoing

       

    hard

    UE gives the feedback that hard handover

    handover

    Failures (>=5) of

    Synchronization

    process is incompatible with other

    failures within

    hard handover

    reconfiguration

    concurrent processes. The problem may

    NODE B,

    out of a cell,

    not supported

    lie in the compatibility of a mobile phone

    between

    failure rate