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SCOPE OF STUDY

The title chosen for the project are CMOS Digitally Controlled Active Phase Shifter Circuit. Based on title, it clearly shown that this project was purposely required to design a phase shifter using CMOS technology.

It also a type of phase shifter that have the capabilities to be control digitally which mean that this type of phase shifter are designed with a digital signal control. This digitally controlled means that this phase shifter is not by value 1 or 0 but it was more like a two state devices that different insertion phase bits and applied as the function of switches for phase shifter circuit.

There are 2 two type of electronic circuit design which are passive and active circuit design. In this project, active circuit design was choose to design an active phase shifter. According to active circuit design, the active phase shifter design required active components to be use in designing the phase shifter circuit. One of the most famous active component use for designing was transistor and logic gates.

In terms of technology, CMOS technology will be used to design this type of phase shifter. For CMOS technology, 0.18 nm technology are chosen to design the phase shifter circuit.

PROBLEM STATEMENTS

This project was basically intend to design an active phase shifter that controlled by digital inputs. The problem of the study is that an electronic device need a mechanism of phase shifting for various electrical devices such as oscillator. As example an oscillator need a 360 phase shift because it need a positive feedback to work or more specifically to oscillate. So, the signal have to be shifted to make the feedback signal.

The second problem was to control the shifting of phase using digital signal. So, some of an electrical need a phase shifter that can be control digitally because of its immune to noise characteristic.

OBJECTIVES

1. To get the phase shifted to according the degree of angle.

2. To control the phase shifter digitally.

3. To design phase shifter using active circuit approach.

4. To control the phase of signal according to the bits.

LITERATURE REVIEW

CMOS Technology

CMOS Technology is one of the most used technology use in the computer chip design industry and broadly used to form integrated circuits in many applications. This technology was more preferable because of its smaller power dissipation feature. It is because the power is only dissipated in case if the circuit is actually switches and it allows the integrating of more CMOS gates on Integrated Circuits than in NMOS technology or bipolar technology in which will result in better performance. CMOS is actually the combination of P- Channel MOS (PMOS) and N-Channel MOS (NMOS) transistor.

NMOS is a type of transistor that have electrons as its majority carriers. The NMOS will be switch on by applying a high voltage or high logic signal to it. When a low voltage or low logic signal applied to it, the transistor will not conduct. In the other hand, PMOS is a complementary of NMOS transistor. It will only switch on when low voltage or low logic signal was applied to it and it have holes as its majority carriers. It was said that the NMOS is faster than PMOS because of its majority carrier, electron who travel twice as fast as the holes.

In CMOS technology, both NMOS and PMOS transistor was use to design logic functions or gates. The simple method to operate was that the signal that on one of the transistor will turn off the other transistor. So, this type of transistor was design to acts as a simple switches that control the operation the designed electronic devices. Few of example electronic circuit that uses the CMOS Technology was logic gates such as inverter and NAND gate.

Digital

In general digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores and processes data in terms of two state which represented by number 1 for high or positive value or 0 for low or non-positive value. Thus, the data transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0’s and 1’s. Each of these state digits is referred as a bit. In the electronics, these digital system was use as digital signal that represent the Boolean Algebra and are the basis of all digital circuits for computer, integrated circuits and other electronic devices.

Digitally Controlled

A digitally controlled control is basically give the meaning of using digital input to control the behaviour of the circuit. One of the best example of component that uses digital signal to control the circuit is transistor or other transistor based component like MOSFET and BJT. This component actually was a component that receive digital signal input and acts as switch to turn on or switch off the electronic devices. As example, one of the famous MOSFET technology use in designing electronics circuits is CMOS technology or complementary MOS technology. A CMOS technology circuits is actually the combinations of PMOS and NMOS transistor that acts differently with digital signal input.

of PMOS and NMOS transistor that acts differently with digital signal input. Figure 1 CMOS Inverter

Figure 1 CMOS Inverter

of PMOS and NMOS transistor that acts differently with digital signal input. Figure 1 CMOS Inverter

Figure 2 PMOS and NMOS

Active Circuit

An active circuit is type of circuit that have at least on active component in the designed circuit. It also said that an active circuit have the ability to control the behaviour of the circuit using active component such as transistor and logic gates. An active components is a component that produce energy in the form of voltage or current. Active components also have the ability to provide the power gain and control the current flow within the circuit. For passive components it have a complementary characteristic as the active components.

Phase Shift

Generally, in the form alternating current (AC) the signal produce are in the cycle of positive and negative. One complete signal was represented by cycle from zero to positive peak to zero and to negative peak until zero again. The position of a signal of a waveform is known as “Phase” of a waveform. For one complete phase of a full cycle waveform is 360 degree. In other term, phase also can defined as the displacement of two waves with respect to each other.

In term of phase, there is one more parameter that also important which is phase difference. Phase difference is a degree or radians that a waveform has shift from a certain reference point along the horizontal zero axis.

a waveform has shift from a certain reference point along the horizontal zero axis. Figure 2

Figure 2 The phase shifting of signal

Phase Difference Equation :

Phase Difference Equation : A – Amplitude of the waveform Omega – angular frequency of waveform

A Amplitude of the waveform

Omega angular frequency of waveform in radian

Pi phase shift

Based on the equation, it shown that from the equation few parameter can be obtain which are the amplitude or peak of the signal, the frequency of the waveform and the phase shift of the

waveform. The phase shift of the signal is the shifting of the signal from the existing position

in which will show the direction of the shifting. If the value of phase shifting was in positive

value, it shown that the waveform is ahead of another wave with the same frequency in leading phase. Instead of that, if the value of phase shift was in negative value it describe that the

waveform is behind another wave with same frequency in lagging phase.

Phase Shifter

A phase shifter is a type of two-port device whose basic function was to provide change in the phase of radio frequency (RF) signal with negligible attenuation. It have three important characteristics which are low insertion loss, have equal amplitude for all phases states and reciprocal networks. Phase shifter can be control through few mechanism which are electrically,magnetically and mechanically. But, most of the phase shifter are electronically- controlled whether by analog or digitally controlled.

Phase shifter can be controlled digitally or using analog signal. An analog phase shifter provide a variable phase and oftenly controlled by a voltage. An electrical analog phase shifter have been use in antenna to steer the antenna and also use radar systems. This type of phase shifter somehow have varactor diodes to change the capacitance with voltage in its operation. For digital phase shifter, it provide discrete phase of states that controlled by two state phase bits. The highest order of bit it can operate was 180 degrees and decreasing accordingly to the phase shifter sensitivity based on the phase shifter design. Those 360 degrees is divided into smaller binary steps based on the phase bits. As example if the phase shifter designed was three bits phase shifter it would have 45 degree least significant bit(LSB).

Analog Phase Shifter

Digital Phase Shifter

- Lower loss.

- Immunity to noise

- Lower cost.

- More uniform performance

Table 1 The advantages of Analog and Digital Phase Shifter

Two Port Network

Two port network is type of electrical network that has two pair of terminal which one pair represented as the input and other pair as the output. It has two terminal pairs acting as access points as the current entering one terminal and leaves the other terminal. A two-port network has four port variables which is input voltage, input current, output voltage and output current. For linear two-port network we can use two of the variables as excitation variables and other two variables as the response variables.

Phase shifter is a type of two-port microwave devices that happen to be function as a device that shift the phase of signal by taking the input signal and output a phase shifted version of signal. This device are used in phased antenna arrays, radar arrays and other communications system.