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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)

Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016


ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

An Introduction to DC Generator Using


MATLAB/SIMULINK
Debabrata Pal
Assistant Professor, Aksum University, College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ethiopia, NE Africa

Abstract:This paper presents the modeling and analysis


of a dc generator in two different ways. First method is This paper mainly deals with a dc generator which is
keeping field flux constant and by varying the shaft controlled by shaft torque (field flux constant) and field
torque of the generator and second method is keeping flux (shaft torque constant) using MATLAB/ SIMULINK
shaft torque constant and by varying the field flux of the environment.
same generator.The performance of the generator under
various conditions as mentioned above are simulated 2. Mathematical Modeling of DC
using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and simulation Generator
results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.
The different equations related to DC generator are given
Key words: DC Generator, Field flux, Shaft torque below
MATLAB/SIMULINK.
= (1)
1. Introduction
= - - (2)
.
A dc generator is an electrical machine which converts = (3)
dw
mechanical energy into direct current electricity. This Tshaft = TL + r + Bwr (4)
dt
energy conversion is based on the principle of production = (5)
of dynamically induced emf. According to Faradays
laws of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor Where = terminal voltage, = total generated voltage,
is placed in a varying magnetic field (OR a conductor is = armature inductance, = armature resistance,
moved in a magnetic field), an emf (electromotive force) = armature current, = voltage constant, =
gets induced in the conductor. The magnitude of induced
stator/field flux, wr = speed of the generator, =
emf can be calculated from the emf equation of dc
load resistance, Tshaft = shaft torque, = load torque,
generator. If the conductor is provided with the closed
= moment of inertia, B = viscous friction, = load
path, the induced current will circulate within the path. In
torque.
a dc generator, field coils produce an electromagnetic
The necessary differential equations will now be derived
field and the armature conductors are rotated into the
by using above equations to simulate the dc generator.
field. Thus, an electromagnetically induced emf is
generated in the armature conductors. The direction of
induced current is given by Flemings right hand rule. ( + )
= (6)

DC generators can be classified in two main categories,
= - + (7)
separately excited and self-excited.
In separatelyexcite type generator, field coils are
energized from an independent external DC source 3. Results and Discussion
and InSelf excited type dc generator, field coils are
energized from the current produced by the generator The set of model equations given by ((6), (7)) are solved
itself. Initial emf generation is due to residual magnetism to compute the instantaneous values of the performance
in field poles. The generated emf causes a part of current variables of the system. Let, the dc generator parameters
to flow in the field coils, thus strengthening the field flux (coefficient of differential equations) are assigned to be
and thereby increasing emf generation. Self excited dc = 0.01kg-m2, B = 0.1N-m sec/rad, = 1 , = 0.4 H,
generators can further be divided into three types - (a) = 0.27 V-sec/rad, = 0.11 N-m/A, = 3.
Series wound - field winding in series with armature
winding (b) Shunt wound - field winding in parallel with
In first case, simulation has been carried out by varying
armature winding (c) Compound wound - combination of
different shaft torques (20 N-m, 30N-m, 40N-m) and
series and shunt winding [1]-[3].

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 935


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

keeping field flux constant (0.30 T).The simulation 150


results are shown in following figures.

Generated power(watt)
100

15 50
Terminal voltage(volt)

10 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)

5 300

Rotor speed(r.p.m)
200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time(Sec)
100
5
Armature current(amp)

4
0
3 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
2

1 Fig: 2 Response of DC generator with Tshaft = 30 N-m


0
and field flux( )= 0.30 T (constant)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
25
50
Generated power(watt)

Terminal voltage(volt)

40 20

30 15

20 10

10 5

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec) Time(Sec)
200 10
Armature current(amp)
Rotor speed(r.p.m)

150 8

6
100
4
50
2

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec) Time(Sec)

Fig: 1 Response of DC generator with Tshaft = 20 N-m 200

and field flux ()= 0.30 T (constant)


Generated power(watt)

150

20 100
Terminal voltage(volt)

15 50

10 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
5
400

0
Rotor speed(r.p.m)

0 2 4 6 8 10 300
Time(Sec)
8 200
Armature current(amp)

6 100

4 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
2
Fig: 3 Response of DC generator with Tshaft = 40 N-m
0
and field flux() = 0.30 T (constant)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 936


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

In second case, simulation has been carried out by


varying different field flux (0.30T, 0.40T, 0.50T) and 200
keeping shaft torque constant (30N-m). The simulation

Generated power(watt)
150
results are shown in following figures.
100
20
50
Terminal voltage(volt)

15
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
10 Time(Sec)

5
300

Rotor speed(r.p.m)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec) 200

8
Armature current(amp)

100
6

4 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
2

0
Fig: 5 Response of DC generator with field flux () =
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
0.40T and Tshaft = 30N-m (constant)
150
30
Generated power(watt)

Terminal voltage(volt)

100
20

50
10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
Time(Sec) 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
300
10
Rotor speed(r.p.m)

Armature current(amp)

200 8

6
100
4

2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
Time(Sec) 0 2 4 6 8 10
Fig: 4 Response of DC generator with field flux ( ) = 0.3 Time(Sec)

T and Tshaft = 30N.m (constant). 300


Generated power(watt)

25
200
Terminal voltage(volt)

20

15
100
10

5 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 Time(Sec)
0 2 4 6 8 10
300
Time(Sec)
Rotor speed(r.p.m)

10 200
Armature current(amp)

8
100
6

4
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
2 Time(Sec)

0 Fig: 6 Response of DC generator with field flux ()=


0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(Sec)
0.50 T and Tshaft = 30N-m (constant).

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 937


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

4. Conclusion
This paper mainly shows different results such as voltage,
current, power and speed of the generator with respect to
time under different conditions in MATLAB/SIMULINK
environment. This work will help undergraduate students
to explore more about dc generator
.

REFERENCES
[1] Dr. P.S. Bimbhra, Electrical Machines,
KHANNA PUBLSHER
[2] D.P Kothari &I.J.Nagrath, Electrical Machines
TATA Mc GRAW HILL EDUCATION,2004.
[3] Horace Field Parshall& Henry Metcalfe Hobart
Electric Generators JOHN WILEY AND SONS,
New York, 1900.
[4] Devendra K. Chaturvedi, Modeling and simulation
of system using MATLAB and Simulink, CRC
Press Taylor and Francis group Boca Raton
London New York 2010.

Author Profile
Debabrata Pal was born in Bankura,
West Bengal, India. He has received his
B.Tech degree in Electrical Engineering
in 2005 from West Bengal University of
Technology, India and Masters degree
in Electrical Systems in 2010 from
National Institute of Technology,
Durgapur, India. His research interest is
in Renewable Energy Sources, Control
Engineering and Machine Simulation.
He has been teaching in various universities in India for
more than eight years in various capacities (2005-2013).
He is currently Assistant Professor in the Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of
Engineering and Technology, Aksum University, Aksum,
Ethiopia. Mr. Pal has attended many seminars and
conferences in various parts of India.

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 938