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STATIONARY POWER

Project Guide
for Diesel Power Plants
Project Guide
for Diesel Power Plants

Stationary Plants
Status 07.2004

MAN B&W Diesel AG


P.O.B. 10 00 80
D-86135 Augsburg
Phone: +49-821-322-0
Telefax: +49-821-322-3382
e-mail: info@manbw.de
Internet: www.manbw.com
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Contents

1 Basic information ............................................................. 1 - 1


1.1 Power plants by MAN B&W Diesel ................................................................... 1-3

1.2 About the Project Guide.................................................................................... 1-5

1.3 Power plant concept ......................................................................................... 1-7

1.4 Selection of engine (25MW, 55MW, 105MW) ................................................. 1 - 25

2 Engine................................................................................ 2 - 1
2.1 Data concerning all engines ............................................................................. 2-3
2.1.1 Historical development of MAN B&W Diesel engines ......................................... 2 - 3
2.1.2 Programme for works test of four-stroke engines............................................... 2 - 9
2.1.3 Earthing measures on Diesel engines and bearing insulation on generators.... 2 - 10
2.1.4 Engine Running-in ............................................................................................. 2 - 12
2.1.5 Acceleration times ............................................................................................. 2 - 15
2.1.6 Standard reference conditions .......................................................................... 2 - 17
2.1.7 Load application ................................................................................................ 2 - 18
2.1.8 Adjustment of output and power....................................................................... 2 - 23
2.1.9 Exhaust gas emissions ...................................................................................... 2 - 28
2.1.10 Generator plants in isolated operation .............................................................. 2 - 30
2.1.11 Turbo charger and charge air cooler ................................................................. 2 - 32
2.1.12 Jet Assist ........................................................................................................... 2 - 33
2.1.13 Condensate amount .......................................................................................... 2 - 35

2.2 Engine 48/60..................................................................................................... 2 - 37


2.2.1 Outputs, speeds and designations.................................................................... 2 - 37
2.2.2 Dimensions, weights and cross sections .......................................................... 2 - 40
2.2.3 Calculation of performance (Projedat) ............................................................... 2 - 43
2.2.4 Engine noise..................................................................................................... 2 - 45
2.2.5 Intake noise ....................................................................................................... 2 - 46
2.2.6 Exhaust gas noise.............................................................................................. 2 - 47
2.2.7 Planning data..................................................................................................... 2 - 48
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2.2.8 Maintenance and spare parts ............................................................................ 2 - 51


2.2.9 Turbo charger .................................................................................................... 2 - 55

3 Quality requirements........................................................ 3 - 1
3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO) ........ 3-3

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3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO) ...................................... 3-7

3.3 Quality of engine cooling water...................................................................... 3 - 11

3.4 Checking cooling water .................................................................................. 3 - 19

3.5 Cleaning cooling water ................................................................................... 3 - 23

3.6 Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation


(addtive and circulating water) 3 - 25

3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO) ........................................................................ 3 - 27

3.8 Quality of Marine Diesel Fuel (MDO) .............................................................. 3 - 37

3.9 Quality of gas oil/Diesel fuel (MGO) ............................................................... 3 - 39

3.10 Viscosity temperature-diagram...................................................................... 3 - 41

3.11 Quality of intake air (combustion air)............................................................. 3 - 43

3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants....................................... 3 - 45

4 Genset ............................................................................... 4 - 1
4.1 Genset for engine V48/60 .................................................................................. 4-3

5 Engine-related systems ................................................... 5 - 1


5.1 Engine-related systems - engine V48/60 ......................................................... 5-3
5.1.1 Lube oil system.................................................................................................... 5 - 3
5.1.2 2-circuit radiator cooling system ......................................................................... 5 - 8
5.1.2.1 High temperature (HT) cooling water circuit ...................................... 5 - 8
5.1.2.2 Low temperature (LT) cooling water circuit ..................................... 5 - 12
5.1.2.3 Nozzle cooling water circuit ............................................................. 5 - 17
5.1.3 Cooling tower cooling system ........................................................................... 5 - 20
5.1.4 Fuel oil system................................................................................................... 5 - 22
5.1.5 Combustion air system...................................................................................... 5 - 26
5.1.6 Exhaust gas system (downstream of the engine).............................................. 5 - 30

6 Engine-related modules and components..................... 6 - 1


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6.1 Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines ... 6-3
6.1.1 Selection of economic serial products and procurement of accessories (electric mo-
tors, pumps, strainer and filter, control valves, cooler/ heat exchanger) ............ 6 - 3
6.1.1.1 Electric motors ................................................................................... 6 - 3
6.1.1.2 Pumps ................................................................................................ 6 - 4
6.1.1.3 Strainer ............................................................................................ 6 - 15

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6.1.1.4 Filter ................................................................................................. 6 - 16
6.1.1.5 Temperature Control valves ............................................................. 6 - 22
6.1.1.6 Cooler/ Heat exchanger (HE) .......................................................... 6 - 23
6.1.2 Radiator cooling system .................................................................................... 6 - 26
6.1.3 Cooling tower cooling system (forced- air- cooled) .......................................... 6 - 30
6.1.4 Combustion air system...................................................................................... 6 - 31
6.1.5 Exhaust gas system........................................................................................... 6 - 38
6.1.6 Cleaning system for fuel and lube oil ................................................................ 6 - 44

6.2 Engine-related modules and components -


engine V48/60 - for 6 - 47
6.2.1 Lube oil system.................................................................................................. 6 - 47
6.2.2 2-circuit radiator cooling system ....................................................................... 6 - 52
6.2.2.1 High temperature (HT) cooling water circuit .................................... 6 - 52
6.2.2.2 Low temperature (LT) cooling water circuit ..................................... 6 - 55
6.2.2.3 Nozzle cooling water circuit ............................................................. 6 - 57
6.2.3 Cooling tower cooling system ........................................................................... 6 - 59
6.2.4 Fuel oil system................................................................................................... 6 - 62
6.2.5 Combustion air system...................................................................................... 6 - 65
6.2.6 Exhaust gas module .......................................................................................... 6 - 69

7 Plant-related supply systems.......................................... 7 - 1


7.1 Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants .............................. 7-3
7.1.1 Lube oil supply system ........................................................................................ 7 - 3
7.1.2 Water supply and treatment system.................................................................... 7 - 5
7.1.3 Diesel oil supply system ...................................................................................... 7 - 7
7.1.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system........................................................ 7 - 9
7.1.5 Start / control air supply system........................................................................ 7 - 11
7.1.6 Engine preheating system ................................................................................. 7 - 13

7.2 Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant........................... 7 - 17


7.2.1 Lube oil supply system ...................................................................................... 7 - 18
7.2.2 Water supply and treatment system.................................................................. 7 - 20
7.2.3 Diesel oil supply system .................................................................................... 7 - 22
7.2.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system...................................................... 7 - 24
7.2.5 Start / control air supply system........................................................................ 7 - 26
7.2.6 Engine preheating system ................................................................................. 7 - 30
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7.3 Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant......................... 7 - 33


7.3.1 Lube oil supply system ...................................................................................... 7 - 34
7.3.2 Water supply and treatment system.................................................................. 7 - 36
7.3.3 Diesel oil supply system .................................................................................... 7 - 38
7.3.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system...................................................... 7 - 40

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7.3.5 Start / control air supply system........................................................................ 7 - 42
7.3.6 Engine preheating system ................................................................................. 7 - 44

8 Plant-related supply modules and components ........... 8 - 1


8.1 Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants 8-3
8.1.1 Lube oil supply modules and components ......................................................... 8 - 3
8.1.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components ........................................... 8 - 5
8.1.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components........................................................ 8 - 7
8.1.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components................................................. 8 - 9
8.1.5 Start / control air supply modules and components ......................................... 8 - 11
8.1.6 Engine preheating system ................................................................................. 8 - 13

8.2 Plant-related supply modules and components


- drawings for 55MW plant 8 - 15
8.2.1 Lube oil supply modules and components ....................................................... 8 - 16
8.2.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components ......................................... 8 - 17
8.2.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components...................................................... 8 - 19
8.2.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components............................................... 8 - 21
8.2.5 Start / control air supply modules and components ......................................... 8 - 23
8.2.6 Engine preheating modules and components................................................... 8 - 25

8.3 Plant-related supply modules and components


- drawings for 105MW plant 8 - 27
8.3.1 Lube oil supply modules and components ....................................................... 8 - 28
8.3.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components ......................................... 8 - 29
8.3.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components...................................................... 8 - 31
8.3.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components............................................... 8 - 33
8.3.5 Start / control air supply modules and components ......................................... 8 - 36
8.3.6 Engine preheating modules and components................................................... 8 - 38

9 External exhaust and boiler systems ............................. 9 - 1


9.1 External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants .................. 9-3

9.2 Exhaust gas treatment system - description for all plants ............................ 9-4
9.2.1 Selective catalytic reduction system (DeNOx)..................................................... 9 - 4
9.2.2 Desulphurisation system (DeSOx) ....................................................................... 9 - 6
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9.2.3 Particulate Matter (PM) ........................................................................................ 9 - 9

9.3 Heat recovery system...................................................................................... 9 - 11


9.3.1 Calculation of heat demand - for 55MW- plant ................................................. 9 - 11
9.3.2 Steam generation system - diagram ................................................................. 9 - 13
9.3.3 Thermal oil system - diagram ............................................................................ 9 - 15

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9.3.4 Hot water generation system - diagram ............................................................ 9 - 16

10 External exhaust and boiler modules and


components 10 - 1
10.1 Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants................... 10 - 3
10.1.1 Main stacks and flow noise ............................................................................... 10 - 3
10.1.2 Bypass stack - Photograph of existing power plant ......................................... 10 - 8

10.2 Exhaust gas treatment modules and components -photographs of existing power
plants 10 - 9
10.2.1 Desulphurisation (DeSOx) with NaOH- scrubber .............................................. 10 - 9
10.2.2 Desulphurisation (DeSOx) with limestone- scrubber....................................... 10 - 10
10.2.3 ESP for V48/60 ................................................................................................ 10 - 13

10.3 Heat recovery modules and components ................................................... 10 - 14


10.3.1 Exhaust gas boiler for steam generation ......................................................... 10 - 14
10.3.2 Exhaust gas boiler for thermal oil system........................................................ 10 - 15

11 Plant-related electrical systems ................................... 11 - 1


11.1 Electrical system.............................................................................................. 11 - 3
11.1.1 General design................................................................................................... 11 - 3
11.1.2 High voltage part ............................................................................................... 11 - 5
11.1.3 Step-up-transformer.......................................................................................... 11 - 6
11.1.4 Medium voltage system................................................................................... 11 - 11
11.1.5 Service transformer ......................................................................................... 11 - 15
11.1.6 Low voltage part .............................................................................................. 11 - 18

11.2 Generator / alternator.................................................................................... 11 - 19


11.2.1 General design................................................................................................. 11 - 19
11.2.2 Mechanic part.................................................................................................. 11 - 20
11.2.3 Electrical part................................................................................................... 11 - 21

11.3 Control, monitoring and alarm system ........................................................ 11 - 25


11.3.1 General design................................................................................................. 11 - 25
11.3.2 Control system ................................................................................................ 11 - 27
11.3.3 Engine.............................................................................................................. 11 - 30
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11.4 Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope ............................... 11 - 31

11.5 Single line diagram ........................................................................................ 11 - 37

11.6 Lists for electrical systems ........................................................................... 11 - 39


11.6.1 List of cables ................................................................................................... 11 - 39

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11.6.2 List of equipment ............................................................................................. 11 - 40
11.6.3 List of measuring points .................................................................................. 11 - 41
11.6.4 List of consumers ............................................................................................ 11 - 42
11.6.5 List of Electric motors...................................................................................... 11 - 46
11.6.6 List of measurement and control devices ....................................................... 11 - 47
11.6.7 List of signals................................................................................................... 11 - 51

11.7 Data sheets for electrical system................................................................. 11 - 53

11.8 Earthing and protection system ................................................................... 11 - 55


11.8.1 Earthing system ............................................................................................... 11 - 55
11.8.2 Protection ........................................................................................................ 11 - 63
11.8.3 Touch / step voltages evaluation..................................................................... 11 - 66

11.9 Lighting and small power system ................................................................ 11 - 69

11.10 Drawings and documentation for electrical systems................................. 11 - 71

12 Tank farm ........................................................................ 12 - 1


12.1 Tank farm - description for all plants............................................................. 12 - 3

12.2 Tank farm - drawings for 55MW plant ......................................................... 12 - 11

12.3 Tank farm - drawings for 105MW plant ....................................................... 12 - 13

13 Plant Service and protection system ........................... 13 - 1


13.1 Plant Service and protection systems- description for all plants ............... 13 - 3
13.1.1 Work air system ................................................................................................. 13 - 3
13.1.2 Fire detection and fire fighting systems ............................................................ 13 - 5
13.1.3 Waste treatment and disposal........................................................................... 13 - 7
13.1.3.1 Sludge and leakage treatment and discharge system .................... 13 - 7
13.1.3.2 Contaminated process water treatment and discharge system ...... 13 - 9

13.2 Plant service and protection systems- drawings for all plants ................. 13 - 11
13.2.1 Schematic diagram treatment of contaminated process waters .................... 13 - 11
13.2.2 Components .................................................................................................... 13 - 13
13.2.2.1 Leakage oil/sludge module ............................................................ 13 - 13
13.2.2.2 Photograph of installed leakage oil/sludge module ....................... 13 - 15
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13.2.2.3 Detail drawing for sludge pit (2 chamber) ...................................... 13 - 17


13.2.2.4 Detail sketch for sludge pit (3 chamber) ........................................ 13 - 19

13.3 Plant service and protection systems- drawing for 55 MW plant ........ 13 - 21
13.3.1 Work air system .............................................................................................. 13 - 22
13.3.2 Sludge-, leakage-, HFO treatment- and discharge system.......................... 13 - 26
13.3.3 Heavy- fuel oil separator- module ................................................................... 13 - 29

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13.4 Plant service and protection systems - drawings for 105 MW plant ........ 13 - 31
13.4.1 Work air system ............................................................................................... 13 - 32
13.4.2 Sludge-, leakage-, HFO treatment and discharge system .......................... 13 - 36
13.4.3 Heavy- fuel oil separator - module .................................................................. 13 - 39

14 Buildings ......................................................................... 14 - 1
14.1 Descriptions for engines V32/40 and V48/60 ................................................ 14 - 3
14.1.1 Power House ..................................................................................................... 14 - 3
14.1.2 Power House Ventilation system ..................................................................... 14 - 30
14.1.3 Power House crane ......................................................................................... 14 - 39
14.1.3.1 Sole plate 48/60 ............................................................................. 14 - 41
14.1.4 Pump House, fuel treatment............................................................................ 14 - 47
14.1.4.1 Ventilation of the separator room .................................................. 14 - 48
14.1.5 Unloading and weighting station ..................................................................... 14 - 51
14.1.6 Work shop and stores ..................................................................................... 14 - 53

15 Project engineering........................................................ 15 - 1
15.1 Minimum data for quotation of MAN B&W Diesel stationary power plant . 15 - 3

15.2 Engineering service for planning a power plant ......................................... 15 - 15

15.3 Timetable and milestones ............................................................................. 15 - 19

15.4 Piping with related fittings, seals, armatures.............................................. 15 - 25


15.4.1 System - isometric - lube oil............................................................................ 15 - 31

15.5 Typical drawings generated from plant design .......................................... 15 - 33


15.5.1 Steel support construction .............................................................................. 15 - 33
15.5.2 Pipe- isometric................................................................................................. 15 - 35

15.6 Photoseries of existing power plants .......................................................... 15 - 37

15.7 Noise investigation ........................................................................................ 15 - 43

15.8 Miscellaneous ................................................................................................ 15 - 47

16 Appendix ......................................................................... 16 - 1
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16.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................ 16 - 3

16.2 Marking instruction for power plant components ...................................... 16 - 21

16.3 Code for accessories .................................................................................... 16 - 25

16.4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 16 - 39

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16.5 Conversion of Units ....................................................................................... 16 - 41

16.6 Flow rate and velocity diagram for liquids, gases and vapours ................ 16 - 45

16.7 Calculation of the system resistance and adjustment of the centrifugal pump to
the service point 16 - 47

16.8 List of MAN B&W drawings........................................................................... 16 - 51

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

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1 Basic information
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Power plants by MAN B&W Diesel

1.1 Power plants by MAN B&W Diesel


MAN B&W Diesel
MAN B&W Diesel is the Diesel engine manufac- Fast and uncomplicated assembly and com-
turer who can look back upon the most years of missioning,
tradition worldwide.
Stable and efficient operation during the en-
Rudolf Diesel, inventor cooperating with MAN tire life cycle of the system.
Augsburg works, developed the worlds first
The objectives were achieved by these meas-
Diesel engine from 1893 to 1897. MAN B&W
ures:
Diesel is thus considered as the "birthplace" of
the Diesel engine. Reduction of enclosed space for the power
house,
Thereafter, MAN concentrated on the produc-
tion of stationary Diesel power plants. In 1904, Simple design of the structure,
MAN delivered the worlds first large Diesel Modular design and assembly to the greatest
power plant to Kiew. possible extent,
The MAN B&W Diesel parent works at Augsburg Prefabrication and delivery of ready to install
today concentrates Diesel-generator-sets and modules in the
On the improvement and manufacturing of manufacture works,
medium speed Diesel engines, and Obtainment of tested, well-running concepts,
On the planning and delivery of stationary Obtainment of short manufacturing and de-
Diesel power plants up to turnkey plants. livery times for the Diesel power plants at ac-
With regard to the century-long tradition MAN ceptable investments.
B&W Diesel strives to optimise the products and This new single-floor power plant concept, as
to develop the best solution for the client with seen in the following figure, is the standard con-
regard to technology and efficiency. cept. It is described in detail in this Project
Guide.
Power plant concept
MAN B&W Diesel today offers different engine-
The power houses and especially the foundation generator-sets for the single-floor power house.
for the Diesel-generator-sets passed through They are described in Chapter 4 "Genset", Page
historical developments. 4-1.
MAN B&W Diesel reengineered the power plant When planning a power plant, MAN B&W Diesel
concept according to todays and tomorrows requires the data given in Chapter 15.1 "Mini-
demands. In the new concept all components, mum data for quotation of MAN B&W Diesel sta-
i.e. genset, mechanical accessories, pipes, ca- tionary power plant", Page 15-3, from the client.
bles and electric equipment, are positioned on
one level within the power house.
The design of the single-floor power plant fo-
cused on the following objectives:
Space-saving and service-friendly arrange-
ment,
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Simple and cost-effective design of the struc-


ture,

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Power plants by MAN B&W Diesel

Figure 1-1 Cross-section of single-floor power house

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About the Project Guide

1.2 About the Project Guide


Objective ambient climatic conditions (minimum and
maximum ambient temperatures)
The Project Guide serves
geodetic site altitude,
To give the client information on MAN B&W
Diesel power plants, and cooling system.
To support the MAN B&W Diesel sales de- The Projedat computer program cannot be used
partment to plan a power plant. externally.
The Project Guide is to assist the preparation of On example each, both fo rthe 18V 32/40 and
a power plant project and to give first informa- the 18V 48/60 engine is included in Chapter
tion on the power plant design. 2.2.3 "Calculation of performance (Projedat)",
Page 2-43 and Chapter 2.2.3 "Calculation of
Described engines and plants performance (Projedat)", Page 2-43, as visual
demonstration material.
The Project Guide describes power plants of
three different sizes and comprising different en-
PDS-Numbers
gines. These are:
The PDS-Numbers stated below each chapter
Power plant 25MW
headline refer to the "Produkt-Daten-Struktur"
Comprising 3 x engine 18V 32/40 (product-data-classification) MAN B&W Diesel
Power plant 55MW uses to organise its quotations.

Comprising 3 x engine 18V 48/60 When receiving a MAN B&W Diesel quotation,
you will recognise the PDS-Numbers.
Power plant 105MW
Comprising 6 x engine 18V 48/60 Engine versions

According to your needs, the Project Guide de- Several MAN B&W Diesel engines are available
scribes either as L-engines as well as V-engines. In the Project
Guide, please note that the texts, tables and fig-
all above mentioned engines and power ures are marked as follows:
plants, or
Letter "L" or "V" before the engine type
one engine or plant of your interest.
The information is valid for the stated engine
Projedat version only.

Projedat is an electronic computer program for Example: "Engine L 32/40".


the determination of engine planning data such No letter before the engine type
as
The information applies to both the L-engine
site rating, and the V-engine, if existent.
quantity of heat to be dissipated, Example: "Engine 32/40".
intake air quantity
Constrictions
axhaust gas quantity
The Project Guide covers information on typical
exhaust gas temperature
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power plants. The data given is exemplary and


depending on the site conditions, e.g.: not binding.

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About the Project Guide

The Project Guide does not substitute the de-


tailed design, specifications and calculations of
the project engineering for an individual engine
or power plant.
All information in the Project Guide is subject to
change by MAN B&W Diesel without notice.
The Project Guide is property of MAN B&W Die-
sel. It may not be reproduced, communicated or
published without prior written consent by MAN
B&W Diesel.

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Power plant concept

1.3 Power plant concept


Diesel power plants
Usually, Diesel engines are used for stationary
application in combination with generators for
power generation.
The area of application comprises ranges from
the coverage of peak loads or basic loads in
public mains supplies to isolated applications
for industrial consumers. The favoured working
material is the well-priced heavy oil, but engine
operation with gas is also available.
The MAN B&W Diesel medium speed four-
stroke Diesel engines, types 32/40 and 48/60,
cover a range of performance from approx.
4.3MW to approx. 18.9MW per genset.
The four-stroke Diesel engine has several ad-
vantages as opposed to the two-stroke Diesel
engine that recommend it for stationary applica-
tion. It demands less space, smaller foundation
and has lower investment costs. Generally, the
power generation by power plants medium
speed four-stroke engines is more cost-effective
than that by power plants with slow speed two-
stroke engines. Thus, the power plant with four-
stroke engines is amortised faster.
From the abundance of power plants built by
MAN B&W Diesel, three representative power
plant sizes are presented in the following. These
are:
Power plant 25MW
Comprising 3 x engine 18V 32/40
Power plant 55MW
Comprising 3 x engine 18V 48/60
Power plant 105MW
Comprising 6 x engine 18V 48/60.
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Power plant concept

25MW power plant Three dimensional view generated from plant design

1. Power house
2. Exhaust gas boiler plant
3. DeSOx plant
4. Radiator cooler plant
5. Tank farm
6. Pump house
7. Workshop store

Figure 1-2 Layout- example for 25 MW plant

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Figure 1-3 Side view of power house - example for 25MW power plant

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Power plant concept

25MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-4 to 1-5)
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Figure 1-4 Cross section and view from above - example for 25MW power plant

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Power plant concept

25MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-4 to 1-5)

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Figure 1-5 Table for plant equipment and weights - example for 25MW power plant

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Power plant concept

25MW power plant - site plan

TANKFARM DETAILS SEE CHAPTER 12

Figure 1-6 Site plan - example for 25MW power plant


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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Three dimensional view generated from plant design

1. Power house
2. Exhaust gas duct
3. Air intake
4. Chimney
5. Radiator cooler plant

Figure 1-7 Power house and radiator cooler plant - example for 55MW power plant

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Figure 1-8 View inside the power house

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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Photograph of an executed power plant

Figure 1-9 Power house - example for 55MW power plant


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Figure 1-10 Power house - example for 55MW power plant

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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-11 to 1-14)

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Figure 1-11 Power house, sectional view - example for 55MW power plant

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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-11 to 1-14)
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Figure 1-12 Longitudinal section- example for 55MW power plant

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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-11 to 1-14)

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Figure 1-13 Power house, topview - example for 55MW power plant level above 0,00, level above + 6,50, level above
+10,50.

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Power plant concept

55MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-11 to 1-14)

Figure 1-14 Table for plant equipment and weights - example for 55MW power plant
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Power plant concept

55MW power plant- Site plan

TANKFARM DETAILS SEE CHAPTER 12

Figure 1-15 Site plan - example for 55MW power plant


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Power plant concept

105MW power plant Three dimensional view generated from plant design

1) Power house
2) Exhaust gas duct
3) Air intake
4) chimney
5) Radiator cooler
6) Tank farm
7) Pump house
Figure 1-16 Power plant with 3 x 55MW (165 MW)
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Figure 1-17 View inside the power house (5 x18V 48/60)

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Power plant concept

105MW power house Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-18 to 1-21)

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Figure 1-18 Power house cross section - example for 105MW power plant

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Power plant concept

105MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-18 to 1-21)
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Figure 1-19 Longitudinal section of power house - example for 105MW power plant

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Power plant concept

105MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-18 to 1-21)

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Figure 1-20 Power house - topview example for 105MW power plant, above level 0,00, above level + 6,5, above level
+ 20,50

Page 1 - 22 Version 08/2003


Power plant concept

105MW power plant Typical layout drawing (consisting of figure 1-18 to 1-21)

Figure 1-21 Table for plant equipment and weights - example for 105MW power plant
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Power plant concept

105MW power plant- site plan

TANKFARM DETAILS SEE CHAPTER 12

Figure 1-22 Site plan - example for 105MW power plant


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Selection of engine (25MW, 55MW, 105MW)

1.4 Selection of engine (25MW, 55MW, 105MW)


To select the number and type of engine neces-
sary for the power plant,
see Figure 1-23, Page 1-25.

Figure 1-23 Selection of engine


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Selection of engine (25MW, 55MW, 105MW)

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2 Engine
Kapiteltitel 2.fm

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Kapiteltitel 2.fm

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Data concerning all engines

2.1 Data concerning all engines

2.1.1 Historical development of MAN B&W Diesel engines


The Diesel engine is a modern prime mover at a High efficiency,
high state of development.
Low fuel consumption,
At the Augsburg location, MAN B&W Diesel de-
High availability,
velops and builds large super-charged, medium
speed four-stroke Diesel engines. The ability to burn fuel of poor and poorest
quality at
The V 32/40 and V 48/60 engines, both used for
the power plant concept "single-floor power - Reduced wear, thus long lifetime, despite
house", are described in Chapter 2 "Engine", high firing pressure.
Page 2-1. The following graphs show the development of
The characteristics of the Diesel engine are: the MAN B&W Diesel engines.

Figure 2-1 Development of mean effective pressure (left) and mean piston speed (right)

Mean effective pressure (mep): Mean piston speed:


Engine 32/40.......................................... 24.9bar Since, 1990 a mean piston speed of 10m/s is
safely controllable in series due to the available
Engine 48/60.......................................... 23.2bar
materials and metallurgy.
In 1951 MAN B&W Diesel tested super-charging
engines which is today state of the art.
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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-2 Development of specific fuel oil consumption (sfoc) (g/kWh)

The combustion process was optimised by im-


proved materials which allow
Higher firing pressure,
Improved combustion,
Reduced consumption,
Improved efficiency.
In 1892 Rudolf Diesel mentioned, in his patent, a
firing pressures of 250bar. Today, firing pres-
sures of 220bar are achieved.
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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-3 Wear rate improvements

Despite maximum demands made on engines


components, better wear rates and reductions
in the times between overhaul can, and must be,
achieved by using improved materials and ma-
terial combinations.
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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-4 Prime mover systems

Development of the efficiency of four-stroke Die-


sel engines
The efficiency was improved due to utilisation of
exhaust gas (Diesel combined cycle).

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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-5 Sankey-diagram

MAN B&W Diesel uses two-step charge air cool-


ers. Thus, a bulk of the energy of the combustion
air compressed in the turbocharger can be used
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for heat recovery at a high temperature level.

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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-6 HFO operation with exhaust gas treatment and heat recovery

For exhaust gas treatment MAN B&W Diesel of-


fers
NOx-reduction in selective catalytic reduction
(DeNOx),
SOx-reduction in scrubber-plants (DeSOx).

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Data concerning all engines

2.1.2 Programme for works test of four-stroke engines


PDS: 10 10 350, 20 30 70

Cons. No. Engine rating Operating time LT cooling water temperature

% site rating min. C (ISO)

1 100 60 25

2 100 30 According to site conditions

3 85 30 According to site conditions

Figure 2-7 Operating points to be considered during the acceptance test run

Acceptance test record


Service records for above load points in ac-
cordance with ISO Standard 3046-1.
Service records for load points 25%, 50%,
75% and 110% of previous test run meas-
urement.
Records of starting attempts, governor test-
ing and safety system testing of previous test
run measurements.

Remarks
Further load points can only be demonstrated
during the acceptance test run (30 minutes
each), if this is part of the contract.
After the acceptance test run, the compo-
nents will be inspected, as far as this is pos-
sible without dismantling them.
Components will only be removed on cus-
tomers order.
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Data concerning all engines

2.1.3 Earthing measures on Diesel engines and bearing insulation on


generators
PDS: 70 50

General
The use of electrical equipment on Diesel en-
gines requires precautions to be taken for pro-
tection against shock current and for
equipotential bonding. These not only serve as
shock protection but also for functional protec-
tion of electric and electronic devices (EMC pro-
tection, device protection in case of welding,
etc.).

Figure 2-8 Earthing connection on engine


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Data concerning all engines

Earthing connections on the engine Another possibility would be to measure the


voltage between the shaft end on the free engine
Threaded bores M12, 20 mm deep, marked with
end and the generator casing, once the rated
the earthing symbol have been provided in the
speed and the nominal voltage of the generator
engine foot on both ends of the engines.
have been reached. If the measured voltage is
It has to be ensured that earthing is carried out lower than 0.5 V (alternating voltage), the gener-
immediately after engine set-up! (If this cannot ator manufacturer should be consulted.
be accomplished any other way, at least provi-
sional earthing is to be effected right at the be- Earthing conductor
ginning.)
The nominal cross section of the earthing con-
ductor (equipotential bonding conductor) has to
Measures to be taken on the generator
be selected in accordance with DIN VDE 0100,
Because of slight magnetic unbalances and ring part 540 (up to 1000V) or DIN VDE 0141 (in ex-
excitations, shaft voltages, i.e. voltages be- cess of 1KV).
tween the two shaft ends, are generated in elec-
Generally, the following applies:
trical machines. In the case of considerable
values (e.g. >0.3V), there is the risk that bearing The protective conductor to be assigned to the
damage occurs due to current transfers. For this largest main conductor is to be taken as a basis
reason, at least the bearing that is not located on for sizing the cross sections of the equipotential
the drive end is insulated on generators approx. bonding conductors.
> 1MW. For verification, the voltage available at
Flexible conductors have to be used for the con-
the shaft (shaft voltage) is measured while the
nection of resiliently mounted engines.
generator is running and excited. With unobjec-
tionable insulation, this voltage corresponds to
Execution of earthing
the voltage between shaft and earth. In order
to protect the prime mover and to divert electro- At stationary plants, earthing has to be carried
static charging, an earthing brush is often fitted out by the party responsible for the construction
on the coupling side. of the plant.
Observation of the required measures is the Earthing strips are not included in the MAN B&W
generator manufacturers responsibility. Diesel scope of supply.

Consequences of inadequate bearing insula- Additional information regarding the use of


tion on the generator, and insulation check welding equipment
In case the bearing insulation is inadequate, In order to prevent damage on electrical compo-
e.g., if the bearing insulation was short-circuited nents, it is imperative to earth welding equip-
by a measuring lead (PT100, vibration sensor), ment close to the welding area, i.e., the distance
leakage currents may occur, which result in the between the welding electrode and the earthing
destruction of the bearings. One possibility to connection should not exceed 10m.
check the insulation with the machine at stand-
still (prior to coupling the generator to the en-
gine; this, however, is only possible in the case
of singlebearing generators) would be to raise
the generator rotor (insulated, in the crane) on
the coupling side, and to measure the insulation
by means of the Megger test against earth (in
0201-0301PA.fm

this connection, the max. voltage permitted by


the generator manufacturer is to be observed!).

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Data concerning all engines

2.1.4 Engine Running-in


PDS: 230 110

Preconditions Operating media


Engines must be run in
Fuel
during commissioning at site if, after the test
run, pistons or bearings were removed for in- Diesel oil or heavy fuel oil can be used for the
spection and/or if the engine was partly or running-in process. The fuel used must satisfy
completely disassembled for transport, the quality requirements (see Chapter 3 "Quality
requirements", Page 3-1) and be appropriate for
on installation of new running gear compo- the fuel system layout.
nents, e.g. cylinder liners, piston rings, main
bearings, big-end bearings and piston pin The gas that is to be later used under operation-
bearings, al conditions is best used for running-in spark-
ignited gas engines. Dual-fuel engines are run-in
on installation of used bearing shells, in Diesel mode using the fuel oil that will later be
after an extended low-load operation (> 500 used as pilot oil.
operating hours).
Lubricating oil
Supplementary information The lubricating oil to be used while running in the
engine must satisfy the quality requirements
Adjustment required (see Chapter 3 "Quality requirements", Page
Surface irregularities on the piston rings and the 3-1) relating to the relevant fuel quality.
cylinder liner running surface are smoothed out Attention!
during the running-in process. The process is
The lube oil system is to be rinsed out before fill-
ended when the first piston ring forms a perfect
ing it for the first time (see MAN B&W Diesel
seal towards the combustion chamber, i.e. the
Work Card 000.03).
first piston ring exhibits an even running surface
around its entire circumference. If the engine is
subjected to a higher load before this occurs, Running-in the engine
the hot exhaust gases will pass between the pis-
ton rings and the cylinder liner running surface. Cylinder lubrication
The film of oil will be destroyed at these loca- During the entire running-in process, the cylin-
tions. The consequence will be material destruc- der lubrication is to be switched to the Run-
tion (e.g. scald marks) on the running surfaces of ning-in mode. This is done at the control
the rings and the cylinder liner and increased cabinet and/or the operators panel and causes
wear and high oil consumption during subse- the cylinder lubrication to be activated over the
quent operation. entire load range already when the engine is
The duration of the running-in period is influ- started. The increased oil supply has a favoura-
enced by a number of factors, including the con- ble effect on the running-in of the piston rings
dition of the surface of piston rings and the and pistons. After completion of the running-in
cylinder liner, the quality of the fuel and lube oil process, the cylinder lubrication is to be
and the loading and speed of the engine. The switched back to Normal Mode.
running-in periods shown in Figure 2-9, Page
0201-0401PA.fm

2-14, and Figure 2-10, Page 2-14, respectively,


are, therefore, for guidance only.

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Data concerning all engines

Checks ning-in is also required if the rings have been re-


placed on one piston only. Running-in is to be
During running-in, the bearing temperature and
carried out according to Figure 2-9, Page 2-14
crankcase are to be checked
and Figure 2-10, Page 2-14, and/or the pertinent
for the first time after 10 minutes of operation explanations.
at minimum speed,
The cylinder liner requires rehoning according to
again after operational output levels have MAN B&W Diesel Work Card 050.05 unless it is
been reached. replaced. A portable honing device can be ob-
The bearing temperatures (camshaft bearings, tained from one of our service bases.
big-end and main bearings) are to be measured
and compared with those of the neighbouring Running-in after refitting used or installing new
bearings. For this purpose, an electric tracer- bearing shells (main bearing, big-end and piston
type thermometer can be used as measuring pin bearings)
device. If used bearing shells were refitted or new bear-
At 85% load and on reaching operational output ing shells installed, the respective bearings will
levels, the operating data (firing pressures, ex- have to be run in. The running-in period should
haust gas temperatures, charge air pressure, be 3 to 5 hours, applying load in stages. The re-
etc.) are to be checked and compared with the marks in the previous paragraphs, especially un-
acceptance record. der "Checks", as well as Figure 2-9, Page 2-14
and Figure 2-10, Page 2-14, resp., are to be ob-
Standard running-in programme served.

In the case of engines driving generators, the Idling at high speed over an extended period is
engine speed is, within the specified period, at to be avoided, wherever possible.
first increased up to the normal speed before
load is applied. During the entire running-in pe- Running-in after low-load operation
riod, the engine output is to remain within the Continuous operation in the low-load range may
output range that has been marked in Figure 2- result in heavy internal contamination of the en-
9, Page 2-14 and Figure 2-10, Page 2-14, resp. gine. Combustion residues from the fuel and lu-
Critical speed ranges are to be avoided. bricating oil may deposit on the top-land ring of
the piston, in the ring grooves and possibly also
Running-in during commissioning at site in the inlet ducts. Besides, the charge air and ex-
Four-stroke engines are, with a few exceptions, haust piping, the charge air cooler, the turbo-
always subject to a test run in the manufactur- charger and the exhaust gas boiler may become
ers works, so that the engine has been run in, as oily.
a rule. Nevertheless, repeated running is re- As also the piston rings will have adapted them-
quired after assembly at the final place of instal- selves to the cylinder liner according to the
lation if pistons or bearings were removed for loads they have been subjected to, accelerating
inspection after the test run or if the engine was the engine too quickly will result in increased
partly or completely disassembled for transpor- wear and possibly cause other types of engine
tation. damage (piston ring blow-by, piston seizure).
After prolonged low-load operation ( 500 oper-
Running-in after installation of new running gear
ation hours), the engine should therefore be run
components
in again, starting from the output level, at which
0201-0401PA.fm

In case cylinder liners, pistons and/or piston it has been operated, in accordance with Figure
rings are replaced on the occasion of overhaul 2-9, Page 2-14 and Figure 2-10, Page 2-14.
work, the engine has to be run in again. Run-

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 13


Data concerning all engines

Please also refer to the notes in Chapter 2.1.7


"Load application", Page 2-18.
Note!
For additional information, the after-sales serv-
ice department of MAN B&W Diesel or of the li-
cense will be at your disposal.

Figure 2-9 Standard running-in program for engine 32/40 (constant speed)
A Engine speed nM D Running-in period [h]
B Engine output (specified range) E Engine speed and output [%]

0201-0401PA.fm

Figure 2-10 Standard running-in program for engine 48/60 (constant speed)
A Engine speed nM D Running-in period [h]
B Engine output (specified range) E Engine speed and output [%]

Page 2 - 14 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

2.1.5 Acceleration times


PDS: 230 110

Figure 2-11 Running-up and loading times, lube oil 20C, engine cooling water 20C

Minimum temperatures required Runningup and loading times

Lube oil - Engine start and acceleration up min 1-3


C 20
Engine cooling water to 100% engine speed
- Loading gradually up to 30% load min 5
- Warming up engine: min 5 - 10
Lube oil up to 40C
Cooling water up to 60C
- Loading gradually up to 70% load min 5 - 10
- Warming up engine to min 5 - 10
operating temperature
- Loading gradually up to 100% min 5 - 10

Time since engine start min 26-48

Time since engine loading min 25-45


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Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-12 Runningup and loading times, lube oil 40C, engine cooling water 60C

Minimum temperatures required Runningup and loading times

Lube oil 40 - Engine start and acceleration up min 1-3


C
Engine cooling water 60 to 100% engine speed
- Loading gradually up to 50% load min 5 - 10
- Warming up engine to min 5 - 10
operating temperature
- Loading gradually up to 100% min 5 - 10
load

Time since engine start min 16 - 33

Time since engine loading min 15 - 30


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Data concerning all engines

2.1.6 Standard reference conditions


Available outputs

General definition of Diesel engine rating ISO reference conditions No de-rating required in case of
(according to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1 : 2002)

Air temperature Tr (tr) 298 K (25C) 308 K (35C)


Air pressure pr 100 kPa (1bar) 95,5 kPa (0,955 bar)

Cooling water temperature upstream of charge air 298 K (25C) 315 K (42C)
cooler Tcr (tcr)

Realtive humidity 30% 50%


Exhaust gas overpressure after turbine pEx 3 kPa 3 kPa

Available outputs/ related Nominal output according Fuel stop power Other conditions
reference conditions to Project Guide

% % -

Stationary power plnats

32/40, 48/60, 100 110 (1)

Emergency generating sets

32/40, 48/60 100 110 (1)(2)(3)

Auxiliary engines for off- 100 110 (1)


shore application

Notes:
(1) Blocking of the output is made at 110% of
the maximum continuous output.
Output greater than the max. continuous output at site
may only be run for a short time for the governing pur-
poses.
Please see also sheet Power adjustment for ambient
conditions at site for stationary power plants on
page 25..
(2) Consultation with MAN B&W Diesel AG is required
(3) Permissible total running time according to DIN6280
1000h/a.
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Data concerning all engines

2.1.7 Load application


PDS: 230 110

Load application from 0% to 100% rating Depending on the mean effective pressure of the
(ISO 8528-5 requirements) engines a load application from 0 to 100% re-
sults in the number of load steps an their per-
For applications in the range from 0% to 100%
centages given in the table below.
of the site rating, the requirements according to
Section 9 and Figure 6 of ISO 8528-5: 1993 ap-
ply. Please also refer the figure below.

Figure 2-13 Load application in steps as per ISO 8528-5

Engine bmep 1st step 2nd step 3rd step 4th step

bar % % % %

32/40 21.9 ... 24.9


33 23 18 26
48/60 22.6 ... 23.2

Table 2-1 Mean effective pressures and application loads according to ISO 8528-5

The percentage of the load steps referring to a bmep of 24.8bar in the diagram.
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Data concerning all engines

Load application from any basic load


(ISO 8528-5 requirements)
Based on ISO 8528-5 requirements, the applica-
tion rates shown in the following figure are re-
quired for load application from any basic load:

Figure 2-14 Load application depending on the current load according to ISO 8528-5

Reference pressure bmep = 24.8bar


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Data concerning all engines

Load application allowed by MAN B&W Die-


sel
As a standard MAN B&W Diesel allows higher
load application than required by ISO 8528-5,
see the figure below.

Figure 2-15 Load application depending on the current load allowed by MAN B&W Diesel AG

Requirements for plant design Important


Load application according to Table 2-1, It is absolutely necessary that all questions re-
Page 2-18, and Table 2-14, Page 2-19, must garding the dynamical behaviour of the engines
be taken into consideration for the plant de- are clarified prior to contract conclusion and for
sign. all customer requirements and MAN B&W Diesel
AG confirmations are fixed in writing in the deliv-
Running-up and loading times have to be in
ery contract.
accordance with Chapter 2.1.4 "Engine Run-
ning-in", Page 2-12.
Load reduction
For the design of a plant with isolated electri-
cal systems take Chapter 2.1.10 "Generator Sudden load throw-off
plants in isolated operation", Page 2-30, into
consideration. The sudden load throw-off represents a rather
exceptional situation and corresponds to open-
Jet-Assist ing the generator switch of a Diesel-electric
plant.
For power plants, jet-assist is necessary if load
application > 25% of the engine output is re- Care is to be taken that, after a sudden load
quired. throw-off, the system circuits remain in opera-
tion at least 5 min. to 10 min. in order to dissi-
0201-0601PA.fm

pate the residual engine heat.

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Data concerning all engines

Recommended load reduction / stopping the high for all load conditions which, however is of
engine particular importance during operation on heavy
fuel oil.
Unloading the engine
Better conditions
In principle, there are no regulations with re-
gard to unloading the engine. However, a Engines are genuinely better equipped for low-
minimum of 1 min. is recommended for un- load operation
loading the engine from 100% PNominal to ap-
if they have a two-stage charge-air cooler, the
prox. 25% PNominal.
second stage of which can be switched off in
order to improve the operating data or
Engine stop
if they have a two-stage charge-air cooler
As from 25% PNominal, further engine unload- and switch-over from HT to LT has been pro-
ing is possible, without interruption, and af- vided for, permitting the admission of HT wa-
terwards the engine can be stopped. ter to the LT stage.

Run-down cooling HT: High temperature


LT: Low temperature
In order to dissipate the residual engine heat,
the system circuits should be kept in opera- Operation on heavy fuel oil
tion for a minimum of 5 min.
Because of the aforementioned reasons, low-
Part-load operation load operation <20% of full load on heavy fuel
oil is subjected to certain limitations. According
to Figure 2-16, Page 2-22, the engine must, after
Definition
a phase of part-load operation, either be
Generally the following load conditions are dif- switched over to Diesel operation or be operat-
ferentiated: ed at high load (>70% of full load output) for a
Over-load (for regulation): certain period of time in order to reduce the de-
>100% of full load output posits in the cylinder and exhaust gas turbo-
charger again.
Full-load: 100% of full load output
In case the engine is to be operated at low-load
Part-load: <100% of full load output for a period exceeding that shown in Figure 2-
Low-load: <25% of full load output 16, Page 2-22, the engine is to be switched over
to Diesel oil operation beforehand.
Correlations For continuous heavy fuel oil operation at part
The ideal operating conditions for the engine loads in the range <25% of the full engine out-
prevail under even loading at 60% to 90% of the put, co-ordination with MAN B&W Diesel is ab-
full-load output. Engine control and rating of all solutely necessary.
systems are based on the full-load output.
In the idling mode or during low-load engine op-
eration, combustion in the cylinders is not ideal.
Deposits may form in the combustion chamber,
which result in a higher soot emission and an in-
crease of cylinder contamination.
0201-0601PA.fm

Moreover, in low-load operation the cooling wa-


ter temperatures cannot be regulated optimally

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 21


Data concerning all engines

Operation on Diesel fuel arrangements (e.g. the use of part-load injec-


tion nozzles).
For low-load operation on Diesel fuel oil, the fol-
lowing rules apply: A no-load operation, especially at nominal
speed (generator operation) is only permitted
A continuous operation below 15% of full
for a maximum period of 1...2 hours
load is to be avoided, if possible.
No limitations are required for loads above 15%
Should this be absolutely necessary, MAN
of full load, as long as the specified operating
B&W Diesel has to be consulted for special
data of the engine will not be exceeded.

Figure 2-16 Time limits for part-load operation on heavy fuel oil (on the left), duration of relieving operation(on the right)

P Full load output [%] t Operating period [h]

Explanations Example
Figure on the left: Line a:
Time limits for part-load operation on heavy At 10% of full-load output, HFO operation is
fuel oil permissible for maximum 19 hours, then switch
over to Diesel fuel oil, or
Figure on the right:
Line b:
Necessary operation time at > 70% of full-
load output after part-load operation on Operate the engine for approx. 1.2 hours at not
heavy fuel oil. Acceleration time from present less than 70% of full-load output to burn away
output to 70% of full-load output not less the deposits that have formed. Subsequently,
0201-0601PA.fm

than 15 minutes. part-load operation on heavy fuel oil can be con-


tinued.

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Data concerning all engines

2.1.8 Adjustment of output and power


PDS: 230 110

Available outputs - dependent on frequency If necessary, a continuous rating is permissible if


deviations the standard frequency is exceeded by 3%. In
this connection.
General For the engine outputs and speeds see "Out-
Generating sets, which are integrated in an elec- puts, speeds and designations" of the respec-
tricity supply system, are subjected to the fre- tive engine in Chapter 2 "Engine", Page 2-1.
quency fluctuations of the mains. Depending on
the severity of the frequency fluctuations, output Limiting parameters
and operation respectively have to be restricted.
Max. torque In case the frequency decreases,
the available output is limited by the maximum
Frequency adjustment range permissible torque of the generating set.
According to DIN ISO 85285: 199711, operat- Max. speed for continuous rating An increase
ing limits of > 2.5% are specified for the lower in frequency, resulting in a speed that is higher
and upper frequency adjustment range. than the maximum speed admissible for contin-
uous operation, is only permissible for a short
Operating range period of time, i.e. for less than 2 minutes.
Depending on the prevailing local ambient con- For enginespecific information see "Outputs,
ditions, a maximum useful continuous rating will speeds and designations" of the respective en-
be available. gine in Chapter 2 "Engine", Page 2-1.
In the output/speed and frequency diagrams, a
range has specifically been marked with No Overload
continuous operation allowed in this area. Op- For generating sets, overload is generally not
eration in this range is only permissible for a permissible!
short period of time, i.e. for less than 2 minutes.
0201-0701PA.fm

Figure 2-17 Available output at 100% load

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 23


Data concerning all engines

Behaviour in case the limiting parameters are ex-


ceeded
Maximum torque
If, in case of a frequency decrease, the output
demand is higher than admissible according
to the diagram (i.e. the maximum permissible
torque of the generating set is exceeded), the
power management has to reduce the output
of the generating set until the working point is
again within the admissible operating range.
Note:
For small electricity supply systems, where
this might result in a breakdown of the mains,
a time lag of two minutes after indication of
the alarm message Attention! Generating set
overloaded! Output reduction in two minutes
time can be granted. This is only admissible
in case the output demand is lower than the
maximum possible load at nominal frequen-
cy.
Maximum speed for continuous operation
If a frequency increase of the electricity sup-
ply system results in speeds higher than the
maximum speed admissible for continuous
operation, the engine has to be disconnected
from the mains after two minutes at the latest
or, in case of very small electric systems, the
setpoint for the engine speed has to be re-
duced continuously until the frequency is
again within the permissible range.
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Page 2 - 24 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

Power adjustment for ambient conditions at px Ambient total air pressure at site [kPa]
site for stationary power plants Pr Nominal output acc. to table of ratings [kW]
Px Output at site [kW]
The nominal output of Diesel engines for station-
tcx Charge air coolant temperature at site [C]
ary power plants is defined for the standard ref-
tEx Correction temperature for exhaust pressure [C]
erence conditions given in Table 2-2, Page 2-25.
tx Ambient air temperature at site [C]
Also see "Outputs, speeds and designations"of Tcra Substitute reference for charge air coolant
the respective engine in Chapter 2 "Engine", thermodynamic temperature = 315 [K]
Page 2-1. Tra Substitute reference for ambient air thermodynamic
temperature = 308 [K]

Reference Conditions:
ISO 3046-1: 2002; ISO 15550: 2002 Output can be overloaded up to 10% for a short time for
governing purposes (ISO 8528-1:1993).
Air temperature Tr K / C 298/ 25

Air pressure pr kPa 100 Note:

Relative humidity r % 30 An increased exhaust gas back pressure


(> 3kPa) raises the temperature level of the en-
Cooling water temperature before K / C 298/ 25 gine and will be considered when calculating a
charge air cooler tcr
required derating by reducing the ambient sub-
Table 2-2 Standard reference conditions stitute temperature (Tra) by 2.5K for every 1kPa
of the increased exhaust gas back pressure after
the turbine.
In case the ambient conditions prevailing at site
deviate from the above-mentioned standard ref- pEx 3kPa tEx = 0
erence conditions, the continuous rating appli- tEx> 3kPa tEx = 2.5 (pEx - 3)
cable for the respective site is to be determined
according to the following formula:

Px = Pr ISO 30461: 2002.


Section 10.4: Types of power output
0.7 1.2 For engines for electrical power generation, the
px T ra T cra
k = -------- --------------------- ------------------------ specifications given in ISO 8528-1:1993. 13.3,
p ra 273 + t x 273 + t cx
apply.
p x 0.7 308 t Ex 1.2 315
k = -----------
----------------------- ------------------------ ISO 85281: 1993.
95.5 273 + t 273 + t
x cx Section 13.3: Types of power output

1 For all types of power output, it is necessary to


= k 0.7 ( 1 k ) -------- 1 provide additional engine power for governing

m
purposes only (e.g. transient load conditions
and suddenly applied load). This additional en-
1 i.e. Px Pr gine power is usually 10% of the rated power of
the generating set and should not be used for
Correction factor for power [-] the supply of electrical consumers.
m Mechanical efficiency [-] This additional power is not identical to the
k Ratio of indicated power [-] overload power for reciprocating internal com-
0201-0702PA.fm

pEx Exhaust gas overpressure after turbine [kPa] bustion engines as defined in ISO 3046-1.
pra Substitute reference for total barometric pressure
= 95.5 [kPa]

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 25


Data concerning all engines

Figure 2-18 Illustration of continuous power

0201-0702PA.fm

Page 2 - 26 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines
0201-0702PA.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 27


Data concerning all engines

2.1.9 Exhaust gas emissions


PDS: 230 110

Composition of exhaust gas of medium combustion process. Only some of these are to
speed four-stroke Diesel engines be considered as harmful substances.
The exhaust gas of a medium speed four-stroke The table below show the typical composition of
Diesel engine is composed of numerous of con- the exhaust gas of an MAN B&W Diesel four-
stituents. These are derived from either the stroke Diesel engine at full load and without any
combustion air and fuel oil and lube oil used, or exhaust gas treatment devices
they are reaction products, formed during the
Main exhaust gas constituents approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]
Nitrogen N2 74.0 - 76.0 5020 - 5160
Oxygen O2 11.6 - 12.6 900 - 980
Carbon dioxide CO2 5.2 - 5.8 560 - 620
Steam H2O 5.9 - 8.6 260 - 370
Inert gases Ar, Ne, He... 0.9 75
Total > 99.75 7000

Additional gaseous exhaust gas con- approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]


stituents considered as pollutants
Sulphur oxides SOx 1) 0.08 12.0
2)
Nitrogen oxides NOx 0.08 - 0.15 9.6 - 16.0
3)
Carbon monoxide CO 0.006 - 0.011 0.4 - 0.8
Hydrocarbons HC 4) 0.1 - 0.04 0.4 - 1.2
Total <0.25 26

Additionally suspended exhaust gas approx. approx.


5)
constituents, PM [mg/Nm3] [g/kWh]
operating on operating on
MGO 7) HFO 8) MGO 7) HFO 8)
Soot (elemental carbon) 6) 50 50 0.3 0.3
Fuel ash 4 40 0.03 0.25
Lube oil ash 3 8 0.02 0.04
Table 2-3 Exhaust gas constituents (only for guidance)
Note : At rated power and without exhaust gas teatment
1) SOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 6C, with a sulphur content in the fuel oil of 3% by weight
2) NOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 7E, total NOx emission calculated as NO
2
3) CO according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 10
4) HC according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 25A
5) PM according to IVDI-2066, EN-13284,ISO-9096 or US EPA method 17
6) Pure soot, without ash or any other particle-borne constituents
7) Marine gas oil DM-A grade with ash content of the fuel oil of 0.01 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 1.5 %
0201-0801AA.fm

8) Heavy fuel oil RM-B grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.1 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 4.0 %

Page 2 - 28 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

Carbon dioxide CO2


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of combus-
tion of all fossil fuels.
Among all internal combustion engines the Die-
sel engine has the lowest specific CO2 emission
based on the same fuel quality, due to its supe-
rior efficiency.

Sulphur oxides SOx


Sulphur oxides (SOx) are formed by the com-
bustion of the sulphur contained in the fuel.
Among all propulsion systems the Diesel proc-
ess results in the lowest specific SOx emission
based on the same fuel quality, due to its supe-
rior efficiency.

Nitrogen oxides NOx (NO + NO2, )


The high temperatures prevailing in the combus-
tion chamber of an internal combustion engine
cause the nitrogen contained in the combustion
air and also that contained in some fuel grades
to react with the oxygen of the combustion air to
form nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Carbon monoxide CO:


Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed during incom-
plete combustion.
In MAN B&W four-stroke Diesel engines, optimi-
zation of mixture formation and turbocharging
process successfully reduces the CO content of
the exhaust gas to a very low level.

Hydrocarbons HC
The hydrocarbons (HC) contained in the exhaust
gas are composed of a multitude of various or-
ganic compounds as a result of incomplete
combustion.
Due to the efficient combustion process, the HC
content of exhaust gas of MAN B&W four-stroke
Diesel engines is at a very low level.

Particulate Matter PM:


0201-0801AA.fm

Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot (ele-


mental carbon) and ash.

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 29


Data concerning all engines

2.1.10 Generator plants in isolated operation


PDS: 230 110

Isolated operation range and, in case one unit fails, that unimpor-
tant users can be switched off by the Power
A power plant, as standalone power supplier for
Management System to avoid failure of the sys-
a consumer net, operates in isolated operation.
tem.
Plant layout
Plant layout without Power Management
When planning such a plant, the possible failure System
of one generating unit must to be allowed for in
In the case of plants in isolated operation with-
order to avoid overloading the remaining en-
out Power Management System, the generating
gines, and thus risking a black-out. For maxi-
unit output should be adjusted in such a way
mum allowed load application see Chapter 2.1.7
that, in case one unit fails, the sudden loss in
"Load application", Page 2-18.
output can be compensated for by the other en-
gines in operation.
Plant layout with Power Management System
(PMS) Taking into account the permissible load appli-
cation (see Chapter 2.1.7 "Load application",
For power stations with several generating units,
Page 2-18), the recommended utilisation de-
which are working in isolated operation, we ad-
pending on the number of generating units run-
vise equipping with a Power Management Sys-
ning can be stated as given in Table 2-4, Page
tem.
2-30
This is the only way to ensure that the generating
units can be operated in the maximum output

Number of generating units running 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Recommended utilisation of gener- % of


ating units capacity during system Pmax 60 75 80 83 86 87.5 89 90
operation

Table 2-4 Recommended utilisation dependent on generating units running

Load application in case one generating unit Example


fails
The isolated network consists of 4 generating
In case one generating unit fails in isolated oper- units of 12V48/60 type with an output of
ation, its output must transferred to the remain- 12,260kW electric each.
ing generating unit and/or the load must be
P max = 4 12,260kW = 49,040kW = 100 %
reduced by switching off electric consumers. A
generating units capacity for immediate load
transfer does not always correspond to its re- If the present system load is P0 = 39,000, each
maining reserve capacity, but depends on the generating unit runs with:
current base load.
These permissible load applications can be P0 39,100
100% -------------- = 100 ------------------ = 80% load
0201-0901PA.fm

gathered from Chapter 2.1.7 "Load application", P max 49,040


Page 2-18.

Page 2 - 30 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

In case one unit suddenly fails, an immediate


transfer of 20% engine output is possible ac-
cording to Chapter 2.1.7 "Load application",
Page 2-18, i.e. from 80% to 100% engine out-
put.
100% generating unit output of the remaining
3 x 9L 58/64 is calculated as follows:
P 1 = 3 12,260kW 36,780kW

Consequently, an immediate load decrease


from 39,100kW to 36,780kW is necessary, i.e.
reduction of the consumers in the system by
2,320kW.
0201-0901PA.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 31


Data concerning all engines

2.1.11 Turbo charger and charge air cooler


PDS: 10 20

MAN B&W Diesel uses a super-charging system for the turbine:


and two-step charge-air cooling.
- wet cleaning
Generally, the following cleaning systems are
- dry cleaning
available:
for the compressor:
- wet cleaning.
For further information see Chapter "Turbo
charger" of the respective engine.

Figure 2-19 Typical charge air system

1 Intake casing B Lubrication oil for turbocharger


3 Turbocharger C Turbine cleaning
4 Compressor D Waste water from turbine cleaning
5 Turbine G Fresh air
6 Double diffuser H Charge air
7 Diffuser housing J Exhaust
8 Charge air cooler K Cooling water
9 Charge pipe L Condensed water discharge
16 Float valve LT Low temperatur cooling water circuit
0201-1001PA.fm

17 Overspill pipe HT High temperatur cooling water circuit


18 Exhaust pipe H Charge air

Page 2 - 32 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

2.1.12 Jet Assist

General General data


Jet Assist is a system for the acceleration of the Jet Assist air pressure (overpressure):
turbocharger. By means of nozzles in the turbo- Max. 5bar
charger, compressed air is directed to the com-
Jet Assist activating time:
pressor wheel resulting in its acceleration. This
Normally 3 sec to 10 sec.
causes the turbocharger to adapt more rapidly
(5 sec. in average)
to a new load condition and improves the re-
sponse of the engine. Activation below 50% load when fuel admission
rises quickly.
Air consumption
Air supply
The air consumption for Jet Assist is, to a great
extent, dependent on the load profile of the en- Generally, larger air bottles are to be provided
gine. for the air supply of the Jet Assist. If the planned
load profile is expecting a high requirement of
Jet Assist, it should be checked whether an air
supply from the working air circuit, a separate air
bottle or a specially adapted, separate com-
pressed air system is necessary or reasonable.
In each case the delivery capacity of the com-
pressors is to be adapted to the expected Jet
Assist requirement per unit of time.

Application No. of manoeuvres per hour / No. of manoeuvres, which take place
Average duration in rapid succession, if necessary

Power plants (stationary) approx. 3 times, 5 sec approx. 3 times


(in case of load application > 25%)

Table 2-5 Guiding values for the number of Jet Assist manoeuvres dependent on application
0201-1002PA.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 33


Data concerning all engines

0201-1002PA.fm

Page 2 - 34 Version 08/2003


Data concerning all engines

2.1.13 Condensate amount


Charge-air pipes, air vessels

Figure 2-20 Diagram condensate amount

The amount of condensation water precipitated


from the air can be quite large, particularly in the
tropics, and depends of the condition of the air
drawn in, when the temperature of the charge air
in the charge-air pipes drops below the dew
point .
The volume of condensate in the air vessels is
determined by means of the curve at the bottom
right of the diagram, representing an operating
pressure of 30bar.
0201-1003PA.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 35


Data concerning all engines

Determine the amount of water accumulating in the charge air pipe,


Parameter Unit Value
Engine output (P) kW 2,880
Specific air flow (le) kg/kWh 7.1
Ambient air condition (I): Ambient air temperature C 35
Relative air humidity % 90
Charge-air condition (II): Charge-air temperature after cooler C 50
Charge-air pressure (overpressure) bar 2.6
Solution acc. to above diagram:
Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water / kg of air 0.033
Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (II) kg of water / kg of air 0.021
The difference between (I) and (II) is the condensed water amount (A)
A = I II = 0.033 0.021 = 0.012 kg of water / kg of air
Total amount of condensate QA:
Q A = A le P
Q A = 0.012 7.1 2880 = 245.4 kg/h

Determine the amount of water condensing in the compressed air vessel


Parameter Unit Value
Volumetric capacity of tank (V) litre 4,000
m3 4
Temperature of air in vessel (T) C 40
K 313
Overpressure in vessel (p) bar 30
Absolute pressure in tank (pabs) bar 31
N 5
-------
2
31 10
m
Gas constant for air (R) Nm
--------- K 287
kg
Ambient air temperature C 35
Relative air humidity % 90
Weight of air in the tank is calculated as follows:
5
pV 31 10 4
m = ------------- = -------------------------------- = 138 kg
RT 287 313
Solution acc. to above diagram:
Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water / kg of air 0.033
Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (III) kg of water / kg of air 0.002
The difference between (I) and (III) is the condensed water amount (B)
B = I III
B = 0.033 0.002 = 0.031 kg of water / kg of air
Total amount of condensate in the vessel QB:
QB = m B
QB = 138 * 0.031 = 4.28 kg
0201-1003PA.fm

Page 2 - 36 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2 Engine 48/60

2.2.1 Outputs, speeds and designations


PDS: 10

Engine V 48/60
Engine ratings

Engine type Engine rating


No. of cylinders
500 rpm 514 rpm

Engine Generator1) Engine Generator1)


kW kW kW kW

12V 48/60 12 12,600 12,260 12,600 12,260

14V 48/60 14 14,700 14,305 14,700 14,305

18V 48/60 18 18,900 18,390 18,900 18,390

Table 2-6 Engine ratings - engine V 48/60

1) Power factor 0.8

Related data sheet see Chapter 2.1.6 "Standard


reference conditions", Page 2-17.
0203-0101PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 37


Engine 48/60

Engine 48/60

Speeds/main data

Unit 50 Hz 60 Hz
Cylinder rating kW (PS) 1,050 (1,430) 1,050 (1,430)
Rated speed rpm 500 514
Mean piston speed m/s 10.0 10.3
Mean effective pressure bar 23.2 22.6
Number of pole pairs - 6 7
1)
Highest engine operating rpm 525 525
speed

Table 2-7 Speeds/main data - engine 48/60

1)
This concession may possibly be restricted. See Chapter 2.1.8 "Adjustment of output and power", Page 2-23.

0203-0102PD.fm

Page 2 - 38 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Engine V 48/60
Engine designation and design parameters

Parameter Unit Abbreviations

Number of cylinders 12, 14, 18


-
Vee engine V

Cylinder bore 48
cm
Piston stroke 60

Table 2-8 Engine designations - engine V 48/60

Parameter Unit Value

Cylinder bore 480


mm
Piston stroke 600

Swept volume of each cylinder litres 108.6

Compression ratio 1050 kW/cyl - 15.3

Distance between cylinder cen- mm 1000


tres

Vee angle 50

Crankshaft diameter at journal 480


mm
Crankshaft diameter at crank 415
pin

Table 2-9 Design parameters - engine V 48/60


0203-0103PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 39


Engine 48/60

2.2.2 Dimensions, weights and cross sections


PDS: 10

Engine V 48/60
Dimensions and weight

12V48/60B L = 9835mm TCA77 181t


14V48/60B L = 10835mm TCA77 206t
18V48/60B L = 12606mm TCA88 256t

Figure 2-21 Main dimensions - engine V 48/60

0203-0201PD.fm

Page 2 - 40 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Engine V 48/60
Cross section

Figure 2-22 Cross section, view on counter coupling side - engine V 48/60
0203-0202PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 41


Engine 48/60

0203-0202PD.fm

Page 2 - 42 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2.3 Calculation of performance (Projedat)


The performance of the engine is calculated us- Examples for engine 48/60 are given in the fol-
ing the programme "Projedat" developed by lowing.
MAN B&W Diesel.
0203-0301PD.fm

Figure 2-23 Calculation of operating data - example for engine 48/60

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 43


Engine 48/60

Figure 2-24 Calculation of operating data - example for engine 48/60


0203-0301PD.fm

Page 2 - 44 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2.4 Engine noise


PDS: 10

Engine V 48/60
Output 1050 kW/cyl., speed = 500/514 rpm
Engine noise

Sound pressure level Octave level diagram


Approx. 107.5dB(A) In the octave level diagram below the minimum
Approx. 102.5dB(A) and maximum octave levels of all measuring
points have been linked by graphs.
Measuring points Engines with lower ratings are between these
A total of 18 measuring points at 1 m distance curves.
from the engine surface distributed evenly
around the engine according DIN 45635 Part 11,
Section 5.4.3.

Figure 2-25 Octave level diagram - engine V 48/60


0203-0501PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 45


Engine 48/60

2.2.5 Intake noise


PDS: 10

Engine V 48/60
Output.
Intake noise

0203-0601PD.fm

Page 2 - 46 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2.6 Exhaust gas noise


PDS: 10

Engine V 48/60
Output 1050 kW/cyl., speed = 500/514 rpm
Exhaust gas noise

The exhaust gas sound level at a distance of 1m


from the exhaust gas pipe outlet opening
(DIN 45635 Part 11, Appendix A), without a si-
lencer, is approx. 120dB(A) 3dB(A) at rated
output.
0203-0701PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 47


Engine 48/60

2.2.7 Planning data


PDS: 210

Engine V 48/60
1050 kW/cyl.; 500/514 rpm
Coolers

Reference conditions: Fan cooling


Air temperature 25
Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler C 32
(LT stage)
Air pressure bar 1
Relative humidity % 30
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 18V
Engine output kW 12,600 14,700 18,900
1)
Heat to be dissipated
Cylinder cooling water 1180 1375 1765
Charge air cooler HT-stage 3095 3530 4345
Charge air cooler LT-stage 1135 1360 1945
kW
2)
Lube oil cooler + separator 1515 1770 2275
Cooling water fuel nozzles 28 33 42
Heat radiation engine 485 565 730
Flow rates
HT circuit (cylinder + charge air cooler HT-stage) 140 160 200
LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT-stage) 170 200 250
m3/h
Cooling water fuel nozzles module 3.4 4.0 5.0
Lube oil (5 bar before engine) 3) 325 370 460
Temperature basis
HT cooling water engine outlet 90
LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 32
Lube oil engine inlet 55

Table 2-10 Coolers - engine V 48/60

1)
Tolerance: +10% for rating coolers, -15% for heat recovery
2) Including separator heat (30kJ/kWh)
3) Without back washing oil required for filter, reserve for control valve and the tolerances of the pump delivery capacities.
0203-0901PD.fm

Table shows guide values only. Please contact MAN B&W Diesel to have exact values calculated.

Page 2 - 48 Version 07/2004


Engine 48/60

Engine V 48/60
1050 kW/cyl.; 500/514 rpm
Air and exhaust gas data

Reference conditions: Fan cooling

Air temperature 25
C
Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler 32
(LT stage)

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 30

Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 18V

Engine output kW 12,600 14,700 18,900

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 41 43 43

Air flow rate m3/h 73820 86130 110770

t/h 86.3 100.7 129.5

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.09

Exhaust gas data 1)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet) m3/h 154970 180800 232460

Mass flow t/h 88.8 103.6 133.2

Temperature at turbine outlet C 335

Heat content (210C) kW 3270 3810 4900

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger mbar < 30

Table 2-11 Air and exhaust gas data - engine V 48/60

1) Tolerances: quantity 5%, temperature 20C


Table shows guide values only. Please contact MAN B&W Diesel to have exact values calculated.
0203-0902PD.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 2 - 49


Engine 48/60

Engine 48/60
Water and oil volume of engine, flow resistances, operating pressures

Water and oil volume of engine


Note: Exhaust gas back pressure
No. of cylinder 12 14 18 An increased exhaust gas back pressure
(> 30mbar) raises the temperature level of the
Cooling 1,250 1,400 1,700
water
engine and will be considered when calculating
approx. litres a required derating by adding 2,5K to the ambi-
ent temperature for every 10mbar of the in-
Lube oil 325 380 490
approx.
creased exhaust gas back pressure after the
turbine.
Table 2-12 Water and oil volume - engine V 48/60

Flow resistance bar


Charge air cooler (HT stage) 0.35 per cooler
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 0.40 per cooler
Cylinder (HT cooling water) 1.0
Fuel nozzles (water) 1.5

Table 2-13 Flow resistances - engine 48/60

Operating pressures bar 1)


min. max.
LT cooling water before charge air 2.0 4.0
cooler stage 2
HT cooling before cylinders 3.0 4.0
Nozzle cooling water
before fuel valves
open system 2.0 4.0
closed system 3.0 5.0
Fuel Oil before injection pumps 4.0 8.0
Lube oil before engine L = 4.0 L = 5.0
V = 5.0 V = 5.5
Exhaust gas back pressure
After turbocharger 30mbar
Negative intake pressure before 20 mbar
compressor
Maximum cylinder pressure 190
Blow-off pressure (nozzle) 350

Table 2-14 Operating pressures - engine 48/60


0203-0904PD.fm

1)
All pressures overpressures

Page 2 - 50 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2.8 Maintenance and spare parts


PDS: 10 50

Engine 48/60
Maintenance

Component Spot checks Spot checks Time between overhauls Time between overhauls
5,000 - 6,000 h 10,000 - 12,000 h 15,000 - 20,000 h 30,000 - 40,000 h

Exhaust valve x x Inspection / grinding Inspection /


replacement

Inlet valve x x Inspection / grinding Inspection /


replacement

Piston x x Inspection Inspection /


replacement

Piston ring x x Replacement Replacement

Connecting rod bearing - x Inspection Replacement

Cylinder liner x x Inspection / honing Inspection / honing /


O-ring change

Main bearing - x Inspection Inspection /


replacement

Table 2-15 Maintenance intervals

The intervals are guidelines. Correct operation and maintenance must be ensured.
0203-1001PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 51


Engine 48/60

Engine 48/60
Spare parts

0203-1002PD.fm

Page 2 - 52 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Engine 48/60
Spare parts
0203-1002PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 53


Engine 48/60

Engine V 48/60
Major spare parts

0203-1003PD.fm

Page 2 - 54 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

2.2.9 Turbo charger


PDS: 10 20

Figure 2-26 Turbocharger for engine 48/60


0203-1101PD.fm

Figure 2-27 Explanation of acting forces and moments on the turbocharger exhaust- outlet

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 55


Engine 48/60

Description and function

Figure 2-28 TCA 77 - engine 48/60

1 Silencer 14 Casing foot


2 Insert 15 Gas-outlet diffuser
3 Compressor casing 16 Outlet, washing water
4 Diffuser 17 Thrust bearing
5 Bearing casing 18 Compressor wheel
6 Bearing bush, compressor side 19 Discharge, compressed fresh air
7 Bearing body
8 Turbine rotor
9 Gas outlet casing
10 Bearing bush, turbine side
0203-1101PD.fm

11 Nozzle ring
12 Gas-admission casing
13 Turbine blades

Page 2 - 56 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Description results, and based on decades of experience in


building Diesel engines and exhaust gas turbo-
Economical operation of modern large-scale en-
chargers.
gines is not imaginable without exhaust gas tur-
bochargers. The already high requirements for
propulsion systems and energy producing units Sub assemblies
concerning efficiency and longevity are being Turbochargers consist mainly of a turbine and a
continuously increased under the aspects of fuel compressor, which are seated on the same
utilization and environmental load. In this, the shaft. The exhaust gas of the engine drives the
components of exhaust gas turbochargers are turbine; the compressor draws in fresh air and
subject to extreme operating conditions. compresses it.
Exhaust gases of up to 650C continuously The turbocharger consists of the following main
flow through the turbine and heat up its com- sub assemblies:
ponents, without an own counteractive cool-
Rotating element:
ing system. Especially the shaft bearing must
withstand the high operating temperatures Turbine wheel and shaft are firmly connected
without the lubricating film ever breaking. together; the turbine blades are individually
set into the turbine wheel. The compressor
On the compressor side, the air is heated to
wheel is mounted on the shaft.
over 200C.
Bearing casing:
The high temperatures lead to extreme ther-
mal loads of the material at many locations. The interior bearing of the running equipment
consists of two bearing bushes and a thrust
Speeds are extremely high: The MAN B&W
bearing. Lubrication of the bearing is carried
Diesel exhaust gas turbochargers are operat-
out via the lube oil circuit of the engine. Lubri-
ed with speeds ranging from 10.000 to
cating oil pipes, lube oil venting and sealing
35.000rpm, depending on size. In this, cir-
air pipes are integrated in the bearing casing.
cumferential velocities of 560m/s and more
are reached at the compressor wheel, which Gas-admission casing:
amounts to 1.7 times the speed of sound or
The nozzle ring is built into the gas-admission
2.000km/h.
casing. It enables optimum adaptation of the
The centrifugal forces are extremely high: turbocharger to the engine.
Forces of several hundred kN can easily ap-
Gas outlet casing:
ply at the foot of the turbine blade.
The gas-outlet diffuser in the outlet casing is
The complete gas exchange of the engine is
flow-technically optimized. The outlet casing
performed by the exhaust
is fitted with 5 offset connections for the
Gas turbocharger. For this machine, the washing water outlet. Depending on the
throughput of combustion air can amount to build-in position of the turbocharger, the con-
32.5m3/s. nection positioned lowest is used.
The outlet casing is designed so that together
Simplified, it can be said that approx. 1/3 of
with the flanged-on gas admission casing, it
the power produced by the engine is convert-
offers optimum burst protection for the tur-
ed on minute space within the exhaust gas
bine wheel.
turbocharger.
Silencer or air intake casing
These requirements can be fulfilled only with use
of the most recent material and manufacturing Compressor casing optional with one or two
0203-1101PD.fm

technologies, introduced into the series by MAN discharge connections. The compressor cas-
B&W Diesel with use of the latest developmental ing houses the diffuser, which allows for op-

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 57


Engine 48/60

timum adaptation of the turbocharger to the


engine. Additionally, the diffuser functions as
burst protection.

Function
The exhaust gas of the engine flows through the
gas-admission casing and the nozzle ring, and
runs axially onto the turbine wheel. The exhaust
gas drives the turbine wheel; in this process, the
energy contained in the exhaust gas is trans-
formed into mechanical rotation energy at the
turbine wheel. As the turbine wheel and the
compressor wheel are seated on the same shaft,
the compressor wheel is driven at the same
time. The exhaust gas exits the turbocharger
through the gas-outlet diffuser and the gas out-
let casing.
The compressor wheel draws in fresh air
through the silencer or the intake casing and the
insert. The fresh air is compressed in the com-
pressor wheel, diffuser and compressor casing.
The compressed fresh air is forced into the cyl-
inders of the engine via charge air cooler and
charge air pipe.
The running equipment of the turbocharger is
led radially by two bearing bushes, which are sit-
uated in the bearing casing between turbine
wheel and compressor wheel. The thrust bear-
ing positioned on the compressor side not only
handles the axial guidance, but also transfers
the thrust in axial direction. A bearing body
holds the bearing seat and at the same time is
used as insulation against the hot exhaust-gas
side of the turbocharger.
0203-1101PD.fm

Page 2 - 58 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Lube oil system

Figure 2-29 Lube oil system for TCA 77 - engine 48/60

1 Supply pipe 10 Drain pipe


2 Pressure reduction valve (4-stroke) ( > max. inclination of system: + 5)
3 Turbocharger supply pipe 11 Service tank or crankcase
4 Non-return valve 12 Venting
5 Pressure monitor 13 Non-return valve with bypass
6 Manometer 14 Bore
7 Bearing casing 15 Supply/drain pipe
8 Locating bearing 16 Orifice
9 Bearing bush 17 Overflow pipe
18 Post lubrication tank
0203-1101PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 59


Engine 48/60

Functional description
Lube Oil Circuit:
The lubrication and cooling of the high-stressed
bearing bushes in the turbocharger takes place
by means of a lube oil system, which is integrat-
ed mainly in the bearing casing.
The lubricating oil is supplied from the lube oil
system of the engine to the lube oil system of the
turbocharger via a supply pipe (1). A pressure
reduction valve (2.1) (four-stroke engine) adjusts
the required lube oil pressure. The lube oil pres-
sure is controlled behind the non-return valve (4)
by means of a pressure monitor (5) and a ma-
nometer (6).
The lubrication oil flows through the non-return
valve (4) into the turbocharger casing, from
where it reaches the thrust bearing (8) and the
bearing bushes (9) via passages in the bearing
casing (7) and the bearing body. The lubricating
oil flows to the gap between bearing and shaft
as well as to the face-sided lubrication point of
the thrust bearing via bores in the bearing bush-
es. The lubricating oil leaves the gap between
the bearing and the shaft and is splashed
against the wall of the bearing casing by the ro-
tation of the shaft. The lubricating oil exits the
bearing casing through the drain pipe (10) and
flows back into the lube oil system of the engine
(11).

0203-1101PD.fm

Page 2 - 60 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Sealing air system

Figure 2-30 Sealing air system of TCA 77 - engine 48/60

1 Compressor casing 8 Pipe bend


2 Ring duct, compressor side 9 Bearing bush
3 Orifice 10 Locating bearing
4 Sealing air pipe 11 Bearing casing
5 Ring duct, turbine-side 12 Gas outlet casing
6 Compensation pipe C Compressor wheel
7 Non-return valve T Turbine wheel

Functional description flows out of the compressor casing (1) into a ring
duct (2) in the bearing casing. From there, the air
The sealing air prevents hot exhaust gas from
is led into the sealing air pipe (4), whereby an or-
entering the bearing casing and the lubricating
ifice (3) reduces the pressure to the required
oil from seeping into the turbine (oil coke). Addi-
sealing air pressure. The air is led to a ring duct
tionally, undesirable axial thrust on the bearing
(5) on the turbine side of the bearing casing.
bushes is reduced.
There, the sealing air emerges between shaft
0203-1101PD.fm

The sealing air system is fully integrated in the and turbine labyrinth.
bearing casing (11). A part of the air compressed
by the compressor wheel (C) is diverted and

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 61


Engine 48/60

Acceleration system "Jet Assist" (auxiliary


air drive)

Figure 2-31 Jet assist, TCA 77 - engine 48/60

1 Pressure reducing station or orifice 6 Bore


2 Solenoid valve 7 Compressor casing
3 Non-return valve A Starting-air cylinder (30bar)
4 Ring duct C Compressor wheel
5 Insert * standard specification turbocharger

Functional description The engine control actuates the solenoid valve


(2). Compressed air of 30bar now flows from the
The "Jet Assist" acceleration system is used
starting-air cylinder through the pressure reduc-
when special requirements are made towards
ing station or orifice (1), where it is reduced to a
0203-1101PD.fm

swift and possibly soot-free acceleration, and/or


maximum of 4bar. The compressed air reaches
towards the load applications of the engine.
the compressor casing (7) via a non-return valve

Page 2 - 62 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

(3) at a maximum of 4bar, from where it is led to


the insert (5) via the ring duct (4).
The compressed air is blown onto the compres-
sor wheel (C) through several inclined bores (7)
in the insert. On the one hand this provides ad-
ditional air to the compressor, while on the other
hand the compressor wheel is accelerated, thus
increasing the charge air pressure.
0203-1101PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 63


Engine 48/60

Cleaning system of the turbine - dry cleaning

Figure 2-32 Turbine dry cleaning - engine 48/60

1 Compressed air pipe (5 ... 8bar) 7 Gas-admission casing


2 Screw plug 8 Gas-outlet casing
3 Granulate container 9 Turbine wheel
4 Pipes (25 x 2.0 mm) 10 Nozzle ring
5 Connection flange A Stop cock (compressed air)
6 Adapter B Stop cock (exhaust gas)

Functional description the compressed-air supply pipe is opened and


compressed air flows into the granulate contain-
The dry cleaning of the turbine is performed dur-
er. Afterwards, the stop cock (B) in the pipe
ing operation at normal load of the engine.
leading to the gas-admission casing is opened.
The granulate container (3) is equipped with a The compressed air blows the granulates out of
filling opening, a compressed air pipe (1) and a the granulate container into the gas-admission
pipe (4) leading to the gas-admission casing (7). casing, from where the exhaust gas flow trans-
The pipes for compressed air are fitted with stop ports the granulates to the turbine wheel. The
cocks (A) and (B). granulates bounce against the nozzle ring and
0203-1101PD.fm

The granulate container is filled with cleaning turbine wheel, thus removing deposits and con-
granulates and shut tight. The stop cock (A) in tamination. The exhaust gas flow carries the

Page 2 - 64 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

granulates and contamination particles out of


the system.

Operating conditions
The granulate container (3) must be fastened
at a suitable location. It may not be not be po-
sitioned lower than 1 m below the connection
flange (5).
The pipe (4) may not be longer than 6 m and
must be supported against vibrations. Ensure
unobstructed flow.
Maximum operating temperature of the stop
cock (B) (exhaust gas): 150C.
The connection flange (5) can be attached ei-
ther at the adapter (6) of the exhaust gas pipe
or directly at the gas-admission casing (7).
0203-1101PD.fm

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 65


Engine 48/60

Cleaning system of the turbine - wet cleaning

Figure 2-33 Turbine wet cleaning - engine 48/60

1 Washing water 6 Turbine wheel


2 Pressure reducer 7 Drain, washing water
3 Nozzles 8 Drain funnel
4 Gas-admission casing B Drain valve
5 Nozzle ring E Shut off valve water supply
0203-1101PD.fm

Page 2 - 66 Version 08/2003


Engine 48/60

Functional description Cleaning system of the turbine - wet cleaning


system of the compressor
The wet cleaning is performed during operation
with heavily reduced engine load (approx. 10%
for driven engines), in order to avoid overload of
the turbine blades (thermoshock).
The advantages of wet cleaning in comparison
to dry cleaning are:
The better cleaning effect and thus longer
cleaning intervals,
Control of the cleaning effect via the contam-
ination degree of the drained washing water.
The washing water flows through the stop cock
(E). The washing lances spray the washing water
in the exhaust gas pipe in front of the turbine.
The washing water droplets bounce against the
nozzle ring and the turbine, where they wear off
the contamination. The washing water collects
Figure 2-34 Wet cleaning system, compressor - engine
in the turbine casing and runs off through the 48/60
washing water drain (7) and the drain valve (B).
The washing water is led via a funnel (8) to a sed-
1 Charge air pipe
iment tank, where it is collected.
2 Pipe
The funnel enables visual control of the washing 3 Key-button valve
water. The cleaning process is finished when the 4 Hose
washing water remains clean. 5 Water tank with screwed connection
6 Hose
7 Injection pipe
8 Compressor casing
9 Charge air cooler

Functional Description
The wet cleaning of the compressor is per-
formed during operation at full load.
The water tank (5) is filled with fresh water and
tightly closed with the screwed connection. If
the key-button valve (3) is opened, compressed
air flows from the charge air pipe (1) into the wa-
ter tank and presses the water out of the tank
through the hose (6) to the injection pipe (7). The
injection pipe sprays the water in the compres-
sor casing (8) in front of the compressor wheel.
The water droplets bounce against the com-
pressor wheel, where they wear off the contam-
0203-1101PD.fm

ination.

Version 08/2003 Page 2 - 67


Engine 48/60

0203-1101PD.fm

Page 2 - 68 Version 08/2003


3 Quality requirements
Kapiteltitel 3.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 3 - 1


Kapiteltitel 3.fm

Page 3 - 2 Version 5/2003


Quality requirements
3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)

3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil
(MGO/MDO)
PDS: 10, 30, 40, 90

The specific power output offered by todays as specified in Table 3-1, Page 3-3, particularly
Diesel engines and the use of fuels which more as concerns its aging stability.
and more often approach the limit in quality in-
crease the requirements placed on the lube oil Doped lube oils (HD-oils)
and make it imperative that the lube oil is chosen
The base oil with which additives have been
carefully. Doped lube oils (HD oils) have proven
mixed (doped lube oil) must demonstrate the fol-
to be suitable for lubricating the running gear,
lowing characteristics:
the cylinder, the turbocharger and for the cool-
ing of the pistons. Doped lube oils contain addi-
tives which, amongst other things, provide them Additives
with sludge carrying, cleaning and neutralization The additives must be dissolved in the oil and
capabilities. must be of such a composition that an absolute
Only lube oils, which have been released by minimum of ash remains as residue after com-
MAN B&W Diesel, are to be used. These are list- bustion. The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite
ed in Table 3-3, Page 3-5. is not complied with, increased deposits are to
be expected in the combustion chamber, espe-
cially at the outlet valves and in the inlet housing
Specifications
of the turbochargers. Hard additive ash pro-
motes pitting on the valves seats, as well as
Base oil
burnt-out valves and increased mechanical
The base oil (doped lube oil = basic oil + addi- wear.
tives) must be a narrow distillation cut and must
Additives must not facilitate clogging of the filter
be refined in accordance with modern proce-
elements, neither in their active nor in their ex-
dures. Bright stocks, if contained, must neither
hausted state.
adversely affect the thermal nor the oxidation
stability. The base oil must meet the limit values

Characteristic features Unit Test method Limit value


Structure - - preferably paraffin-basic
Behaviour in cold, still flows ASTMD2500 -15
C
Flash point (as per Cleveland) ASTMD92 > 200

Ash content (oxide ash) Weight ASTMD482 < 0.02

Coke residue (as per Conradson) % ASTMD189 < 0.50

Aging tendency after being MAN B&W Diesel


- -
heated up to 135C for 100hrs. aging cabinet
Weight ASTMD4055
nheptane insolubles t < 0.2
% or DIN 51592
Weight
Evaporation loss - <2
%
MAN B&W Diesel Must not allow to recognize precipitation of
Drop test (filter paper) -
test resin or asphalt-like aging products
0302-0101AA.fm

Table 3-1 Lube oil (MGO/MDO) - specified values

Status 04/2004 Page 3 - 3


Quality requirements
3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)

Detergency Doped grade


The detergency must be so high that coke and Doped lube oils (HD oils) corresponding to inter-
tar-like residues occurring when fuel is com- national specifications MIL-L 2104 or API-CD,
busted must not build-up. and having a Base Number (BN) of 12 15
mg KOH/g are recommended by us (Designa-
Dispersancy tion for armed forces of Germany: O-278).
The dispersancy must be selected such that The content of additives included in the lube oil
commercially available lube-oil cleaning equip- depends upon the conditions under which the
ment can remove the detrimental contamination engine is operated, and the quality of fuel used.
from the used oil. If marine Diesel fuel is used, which has a sulphur
content of up to 2.0 weight % as per ISO-F
Neutralization capacity DMC, and coke residues of up to 2.5 weight %
as per Conradson, a BN of approx. 20 is of ad-
The neutralization capacity (ASTM-D2896) must vantage. Ultimately, the operating results are the
be so high that the acidic products which result decisive criterion as to which content of addi-
during combustion are neutralized. The reaction tives ensures the most economic mode of en-
time of the additives must be matched to the gine operation.
process in the combustion chamber.
Cylinder lube oil
Evaporation tendency
In the case of engines with separate cylinder lu-
The tendency to evaporate must be as low as brication, the pistons and the cylinder liner are
possible, otherwise the oil consumption is ad- supplied with lube oil by means of a separate oil
versely affected. pump. The oil supply rate is factory-set to con-
form to both the quality of the fuel to be used in
Further conditions service and to the anticipated operating condi-
The lube oil must not form a stable emulsion tions.
with water. Less than 40ml emulsion are accept- A lube oil as specified above is to be used for the
able in the ASTM-D1410 test after one hour. cylinder and the lubricating circuit.
The foaming behaviour (ASTM-D892) must meet
the following conditions: after 10 minutes Speed governor
<20ml. The lube oil must not contain agents to In case of mechanic-hydraulic governors with
improve viscosity index. Fresh oil must not con- separate oil sump, multi grade oil 5W-40 is pref-
tain any water or other contamination. erably used. If this oil is not available for top-
ping-up, an oil 15W-40 may exceptionally be
used. In this context it makes no difference
Lube oil selection whether multicoloured oils based on synthetic
or mineral oil are used. According to the mineral
Engine SAE Viscosity mm2/s at oil companies they can be mixed in any case.
Class 40C or 100C (Designation for armed forces of Germany: O-
preferably in the upper 236)
region of the SAE-
32/40, 40/54, 48/60, The oil quality specified by the manufacturer is
40 Class
48/60
applicable to the to be used for the remaining equipment fitted to
engine the engine.
0302-0101AA.fm

Table 3-2 Viscosity (SAE class) of lube oils

Page 3 - 4 Status 04/2004


Quality requirements
3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)

Lube-oil additives Manufacturer Base Number [mgKOH/g] 12-151)


We advise against subsequently adding addi- ADNOC Marine Engine Oil X412
tives to the lube oil, or mixing the different
makes (brands) of the lube oil, as the perform- Cladium 120 - SAE 40
AGIP
ance of the carefully matched package of addi- Sigma S SAE 40 2)
tives which is suiting itself and adapted to the Energol DS 3-154
BP
base oil, may be upset. Also, the lube oil compa- Vanellus C3 2)
ny (oil supplier) is no longer responsible for the
Castrol MLC 40
oil. Castrol TLX 154
CASTROL
Castrol MXD 154
Selection of lube oils / warranty Rivermax SX 40

Most of the mineral oil companies are in close CHEVRON Taro 16 XD 40


and permanent consultation with the engine (FAMM, Caltex) Delo 1000 Marine SAE 40
manufacturers and are therefore in a the posi- DELEK Delmar 40-12
tion to quote the oil from their own product line
that has been approved by the engine manufac- ENGEN Genmarine EO 4015
turer for the given application. Independent of ERTOIL Koral 15
this release, the lube oil manufacturers are in
ESSO/EXXON Exxmar 12 TP 40
any case responsible for quality and perform-
ance of their products. In case of doubt, we are IRVING Marine MTX 1240
more than willing to provide you with further in-
Mobilgard 412 / SHC 120
formation. MOBIL (MG 1SHC)
Mobilgard ADL 40 / Delvac 13402)
Examinations
PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-410
We carry out the investigations on lube oil in our
REPSOL Neptuno NT 1540
laboratories for our customers who need only
pay the self-costs (net-costs). A representative Gadinia Oil 40
sample of about 1litre is required for the exami- SHELL
Sirius FB 40
nation. (Sirius/Rimula X) 2)
Gadinia AL

STATOIL MarWay 1540

TEBOIL Ward S 10 T

TOTAL Lubmarine Disola M4015

Table 3-3 Lubricating oils which have been released for


the use in MAN B&W Diesel four-stroke
engines running on gas oil and Diesel oil
1)
If Marine Diesel fuel of poor quality (ISO-F-DMC) is
used, a Base Number (BN) of approx. 20 is of advan-
tage.
2) If the sulphur content of the fuel is < 1%.

We do not assume any reponsibility for difficul-


ties that might be caused by these oils.
0302-0101AA.fm

Status 04/2004 Page 3 - 5


Quality requirements
3.1 Quality of lube oil for operation on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)

0302-0101AA.fm

Page 3 - 6 Status 04/2004


Quality requirements
3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO)

3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO)
PDS: 10, 30, 40, 90

The specific power output offered by todays ther adversely affect the thermal nor the
Diesel engines and the use of fuels which more oxidation stability.
and more often approach the acceptable limit in
The base oil must meet the limit values given in
quality increase the requirements placed on the
Table 3-4, Page 3-7, particularly as concerns its
lube oil and make it imperative that the lube oil
aging stability.
is chosen carefully. Medium-alkaline lube oils
have proven to be suitable for lubricating the
Medium-alkaline lube oil
running gear, the cylinders, the turbocharger
and, if applicable, for the cooling of the pistons. The base oil with which additives have been
Medium-alkaline oils contain additives which, mixed must demonstrate the following charac-
amongst other things, provided them with a teristics.
higher neutralising capacity than doped (HD) en-
gine oils have. Additives
No international specifications exist for medium- The additives must be dissolved in the oil and
alkaline lube oils. An adequately long trial oper- must be of such a composition that an absolute
ation in compliance with the manufacturers in- minimum of ash remains as residue after com-
structions is therefore necessary. bustion, even though the engine were run on
Only lube oils, which have been released by distillate fuel temporarily. The ash must be soft.
MAN B&W Diesel, are to be used. These are list- If this prerequisite is not complied with, in-
ed in Table 3-7, Page 3-10. creased deposits are to be expected in the com-
bustion space, especially at the exhaust valves
and in the inlet housing of the turbochargers.
Requirements
Hard additive ash promotes pitting on the valve
seats, as well as burnt-out valves and increased
Base oil
mechanical wear in the cylinder space.
The base oil (medium-alkaline lube oil = base oil
Additives must not facilitate clogging of the filter
+ additives) must be a narrow distillation cut and
elements, neither in their active nor in their ex-
must be refined in accordance with modern pro-
hausted state.
cedures. Bright stocks, if contained, must nei-

Properties/characteristics Unit Test method Limit values


Structure - - preferably paraffinbasic
Behaviour in cold, still flows ASTM-D2500 -15
Flash point (as per Cleveland) C ASTM-D92 >200
Ash content (oxide ash) ASTM-D482 <0.02
Coke residue (as per Conradson) ASTM-D189 <0.50
Aging tendency after being MAN B&W Diesel
-
heated up to 135C for 100 hrs. aging cabinet
ASTM-D4055 or
n-heptane insolubles <0.2
Weight DIN 51592
Evaporation loss % - <2
MAN B&W Diesel Must not allow to recognize precipitation of
Drop test (filter paper)
0302-0102AA.fm

test resinous or asphalt-like aging products

Table 3-4 Lube oil (HFO operation) - specified values

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 7


Quality requirements
3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO)

Detergency Lube oil selection


The detergency must be so high that the build-
up of coke and tar-like residues on combustion SAE- Viscosity mm2/s at 40C
Engine
of the HFO is precluded. class or 100C

preferably in the upper


Dispersancy 32/30, 40/54, 48/60
40 region of the SAEClass
58/64
applicable to the engine
The dispersancy must be selected such that
commercially available lube-oil cleaning equip- Table 3-5 Viscosity (SAE class) of lube oils
ment can remove the detrimental contamination
from the used oil, i.e. the used oil must have Neutralisation property (BN)
good separating and filtering properties.
Medium-alkaline lube oils having differently high
levels of neutralisation capacity (BN) are availa-
Diesel-Performance
ble on the market. According to the present-day
The Diesel performance (without taking the neu- state of knowledge, operating conditions to be
tralisation ability into consideration) must, at expected and BN can be correlated as shown in
least, comply with MIL-L-21014 D resp. API-CD. Table 3-6, Page 3-9. The operating resulting will
in the essence be the decisive criterion as to
Neutralization capacity which BN will ensure the most economic mode
of engine operation.
The neutralisation capacity (ASTM-D2896) must
be so high that the acidic products of combus-
Cylinder lube oil
tion are neutralised at the lube oil consumption
rate that is specific for the engine. The reaction In the case of engines with separate cylinder lu-
time of the additives must be matched to the brication, the pistons and the cylinder liner are
process in the combustion chamber. Hints con- supplied with lube oil by means of a separate oil
cerning the selection of the BN are given in Ta- pump. The oil supply rate is factory-set to con-
ble 3-6, Page 3-9. form to both the quality of the fuel to be used in
service and to the anticipated operating condi-
Evaporation tendency tions. A lube oil as specified above is to be used
for the cylinder and the lubricating circuit.
The tendency to evaporate must be as low as
possible, otherwise the oil consumption is ad-
versely affected.

Further conditions
The lube oil must not form a stable emulsion
with water. Less than 40ml emulsion are accept-
able in the ASTM-D1410 test after one hour. The
foaming behaviour (ASTM-D892) must meet the
following conditions: after 10 minutes <20ml.
The lube oil must not contain agents to improve
viscosity index. Fresh oil must not contain any
water or other contamination.
0302-0102AA.fm

Page 3 - 8 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO)

BN (me KOH/g oil) Operating conditions

Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) of poor quality (ISO-F-DMC) or heavy fuel oil with sulphur content of
~20 - 25
(0.5% by weight)

~30 For 32/40, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64 engines only if sulphur concentration <1.5%.

For 32/40, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64 engines generally, provided the sulphur concentration is
~40
>1,5%.

For 32/40, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64 engines if BN 40 is inadequate in terms of time between
~50
renewal of oil charge (high sulphur content of the fuel, very low oil consumption).

Table 3-6 Determining the BN for operating conditions

Speed governor more than willing to provide you with further in-
formation.
In case of mechanic-hydraulic governors with
separate oil sump, multi grade oil 5W-40 is pref-
erably used. If this oil is not available as refill, an Examinations
oil 15W-40 can be used for once. In this context We carry out the investigations on lube oil in our
it is not important, if multi grade oils based on laboratories for our customers who need only
synthetic or mineral oil are used. According to pay the self-costs (net-costs). A representative
the mineral oil companies they can be mixed in sample of about 1litre is required for the exami-
all cases. nation.
The oil quality specified by the manufacturer is
to be used for the remaining equipment fitted to
the engine.

Lube-oil additives
We advise against subsequently adding addi-
tives to the lube oil, or mixing the different
makes (brands) of the lube oil, as the perform-
ance of the carefully matched package of addi-
tives which is suiting itself and adapted to the
base oil, may be upset. Also, the lube oil compa-
ny (oil supplier) is no longer responsible for the
oil.

Selection of lube oils / warranty


Most of the mineral oil companies are in close
and permanent consultation with the engine
manufacturers and are therefore in a the posi-
tion to quote the oil from their own product line
that has been approved by the engine manufac-
turer for the given application. Independent of
this release, the lube oil manufacturers are in
any case responsible for quality and perform-
0302-0102AA.fm

ance of their products. In case of doubt, we are

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 9


Quality requirements
3.2 Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil operation (HFO)

Manufacturer Base Number [mgKOH/g]

20 - 25 30 40

ADNOC Marine Engine Oil X424 Marine Engine Oil X430 Marine Engine Oil X440

AGIP - Cladium 300 Cladium 400

BP Energol IC-HFX 204 Energol IC-HFX 304 Energol IC-HFX 404

CASTROL TLX 204/TLX Plus 204 TLX 304/TLX Plus 304 TLX 404/TLX Plus 404

CEPSA Koral 25 Koral 35 -

CHEVRON Texaco Taro 20DP40 Taro 30DP40 Taro 40XL40


(FAMM, Caltex) Delo 2000 Marine Oil SAE 40 Delo 3000 Marine Oil SAE 40 Delo 3400 Marine Oil SAE 40

DELEK Delmar 40-24 Delmar 40-30 Delmar 40-40

ENGEN - Genmarine EO 4030 Genmarine EO 4040

ERTOIL Koral 25 Koral 35 -

Exxmar 24 TP 40 Exxmar 30 TP 40 Exxmar 40 TP 40


ESSO / EXXON
- Exxmar 30 TP 40 Plus Exxmar 40 TP 40 Plus

IRVING Marine MTX 2040 Marine MXD 3040 Marine MXD 4040

MAO MING - MMDL 4030 -

- Mobilgard 430 Mobilgard 440


MOBIL
- Mobilgard M430 Mobilgard M440

PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-420 Marbrax CCD-430 Marbrax CCD-440

REPSOL Neptuno NT 2040 Neptuno NT 3040 Neptuno NT 4040

SHELL Argina S 40 Argina T 40 Argina X40

STATOIL MarWay-2040 MarWay-3040 MarWay-4040

TEBOIL - Ward S 30 T Ward S 40 T

TOTAL Lubmarine Aurelia XL 4025 Aurelia XL 4030 Aurelia XL 4040

Table 3-7 Lubricating oils, which have been released for the use in MAN B&W Diesel four-stroke engines running on
heavy fuel oil

We do not assume any reponsibility for difficulties that might be caused by these oils
0302-0102AA.fm

Page 3 - 10 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

3.3 Quality of engine cooling water


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 50

Preliminary remarks Test device


The engine cooling water, like the fuel and lubri- The MAN B&W Diesel water test kit includes de-
cating oil, is a medium which must be carefully vices permitting, i.a., to determine the above-
selected, treated and controlled. Otherwise, mentioned water characteristics in a simple
corrosion, erosion and cavitation may occur on manner. Moreover, the manufacturer of anti-
the walls of the cooling system in contact with corrosion agents are offering test devices that
water and deposits may form. Deposits impair are easy to operate. As to checking the cooling
the heat transfer and may result in thermal over- water condition, see Chapter 3.4 "Checking
load on the components to be cooled. The treat- cooling water", Page 3-19.
ment with an anti-corrosion agent has to be
effected before the first commissioning of the Supplementary information
plant. During subsequent operations the con-
centration specified by the engine manufacturer Distillate
must always be ensured. In particular, this ap-
plies if a chemical additive is used. If a distillate (from the freshwater generator for
instance) or fully desalinated water (ion ex-
changer) is available, this should preferably be
Requirements
used as engine cooling water. These waters are
free from lime and metal salts, i.e. major depos-
Limiting values
its affecting the heat transfer to the cooling wa-
The characteristics of the untreated cooling wa- ter and worsening the cooling effect cannot
ter must be within the following limits: form. These waters, however, are more corro-
sive than normal hard water since they do not
form a thin film of lime on the walls which pro-
Property/
feature
Characteristics Unit vides a temporary protection against corrosion.
This is the reason why water distillates must be
Distillate or freshwater, free treated with special care and the concentration
from foreign matter.
Not to be used: Sea water,
of the additive is to be periodically checked.
Type of water -
brackish water, river water,
brines, industrial waste Hardness
water and rain water
The total hardness of the water is composed of
Total hardness max. 10 dH 1) temporary and permanent hardness. It is largely
pH-value 6.5 - 8 - determined by calcium and magnesium salts.
Chloride ion The temporary hardness is determined by the
max.50 mg/l 2) hydrogen carbon content of the calcium and
content
magnesium salts. The permanent hardness can
Table 3-8 Cooling water - characteristics to be adhered
to
be determined from the remaining calcium and
1)
magnesium salts (sulphates). The decisive fac-
1dH (German hardness): tor for the formation of calcareous deposits in
10mg CaO/litre the cooling system is the temporary (carbonate)
17.9mg CaCO3/litre hardness.
0.357mval/litre
Water with more than 10dH (German total
0302-0201AA.fm

0.179mmol/litre
2) 1 mg/l 1 ppm hardness) must be mixed with distillate or be
softened. A rehardening of excessively soft wa-

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 11


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

ter is only necessary to suppress foaming if an Protecting films can be produced by treating the
emulsifiable anti-corrosion oil is used. cooling water with a chemical anti-corrosion
agent or emulsifiable anti-corrosion oil.
Damage in the cooling water system Emulsifiable anti-corrosion oils fall more and
more out of use since, on the one hand, their use
Corrosion is heavily restricted by environmental protection
Corrosion is an electro-chemical process which legislation and, on the other hand, the suppliers
can largely be avoided if the correct water qual- have, for these and other reasons, commenced
ity is selected and the water in the engine cool- to take these products out of the market.
ing system is treated carefully.
Treatment before operating the engine for the
Flow cavitation first time
Flow cavitation may occur in regions of high flow Treatment with an anti-corrosion agent should
velocity and turbulence. If the evaporation pres- be done before the engine is operated for the
sure is fallen below, steam bubbles will form first time so as to prevent irreparable initial dam-
which then collapse in regions of high pressure, age.
thus producing material destruction in closely Attention!
limited regions.
It is not allowed to operate the engine without
Erosion cooling water treatment.

Erosion is a mechanical process involving mate- Cooling water additives


rial abrasion and destruction of protective films
by entrapped solids, especially in regions of ex- No other additives than those approved by MAN
cessive flow velocities or pronounced turbu- B&W Diesel and listed in Table 3-9, Page 3-16
lences. up to Table 3-12, Page 3-17.

Corrosion fatigue Permission required

Corrosion fatigue is a damage caused by simul- A cooling water additive can be approved for
taneous dynamic and corrosive stresses. It may use if it has been tested according to the latest
induce crack formation and fast crack propaga- rules of the Forschungsvereinigung Verbren-
tion in water-cooled, mechanically stressed nungskraftmaschinen (FVV), Testing the suita-
components if the cooling water is not treated bility of coolant additives for cooling liquids of
correctly. internal combustion engines (FVV publication R
443/1986). The test report is to be presented if
Treatment of the engine cooling water required. The necessary testing is carried out by
Staatliche Materialprfanstalt, Department
The purpose of engine cooling water treatment Oberflchentechnik, Grafenstrae 2, 64283
is to produce a coherent protective film on the Darmstadt on request.
walls of the cooling spaces by the use of anti-
corrosion agents so as to prevent the above- To be used only in closed circuits
mentioned damage. A significant prerequisite
for the anti-corrosion agent to develop its full ef- Additives can only be used in closed circuits
fectively is that the untreated water which is where no appreciable consumption occurs ex-
used satisfies the demands mentioned under cept leakage and evaporation losses.
"Requirements", Page 3-11.
0302-0201AA.fm

Page 3 - 12 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

Chemical additives agent simultaneously acting as a corrosion


inhibitor must be added to the cooling water.
Additives based on sodium nitrite and sodi-
Otherwise the entire system must be heated.
um borate, etc. have given good results. Gal-
(Designation for armed forces of Germany:
vanised iron pipes or zinc anodes providing
Sy-7025).
cathodic protection in the cooling systems
must not be used. Please note that this kind Sufficient corrosion protection will be
of corrosion protection, on the one hand, is achieved by admixing the products listed in
not required since cooling water treatment is Table 3-12, Page 3-17 taking care that the
specified and, on the other hand, considering specified concentration is observed. This
the cooling water temperatures commonly concentration will prevent freezing down to a
practised nowadays, it may lead to potential temperature of about -22C. The quantity of
inversion. If necessary, the pipes must be anti-freeze actually required, however, also
dezinced. depends on the lowest temperatures expect-
ed at the site.
Anti-corrosion oil
Anti-freeze agents are generally based on
This additive is an emulsifiable mineral oil
ethylene glycol. A suitable chemical additive
mixed with corrosion inhibitors. A thin protec-
must be admixed if the concentration of the
tive oil film which prevents corrosion without
anti-freeze specified by the manufacturer for
obstructing the transfer of heat and yet pre-
a certain application does not suffice to af-
venting calcareous deposits forms on the
ford adequate corrosion protection or if, due
walls of the cooling system.
to less stringent requirementswith redard to
Emulsifiable anti-corrosion oils have nowa- protection from freezing, a lower concentra-
days lost importance. For reasons of environ- tion of anti-freeze agent is used than would
mental protection legislation and because of be required to achieve sufficient corrosion
occasionally occurring emulsion stability protection. The manufacturer must be con-
problems, they are hardly used any more. tacted for information on the compatibility of
The manufacturer must guarantee the stabil- the agent with the anti-freeze and the con-
ity of the emulsion with the water available or centration required. The compatibility of the
has to prove this stability by presenting em- chemical additives stated in Table 3-9, Page
pirical values from practical operation. If a 3-16 with anti-freeze agents based on ethyl-
completely softened water is used, the possi- ene glycol is confirmed. Anti-freeze agents
bility of preparing a stable, non-foaming may only be mixed with each other with the
emulsion must be checked in cooperation suppliers or manufacturers consent, even if
with the supplier of the anti-corrosion oil or the composition of these agents is the same.
by the engine user himself. Where required, Prior to the use of an anti-freeze agent, the
adding an anti-foam agent or hardening (see cooling system is to be cleaned thoroughly.
Chapter 3.4 "Checking cooling water", Page
If the cooling water is treated with an emulsi-
3-19) is recommended. Anti-corrosion oil is
fiable anti-corrosion oil, no anti-freeze may
not suitable if the cooling water may reach
be admixed, as otherwise the emulsion is
temperatures below 0C or above 90C. If
broken and oil sludge is formed in the cooling
so, an anti-freeze or chemical additive is to
system.
be used.
For the disposal of cooling water treated with
Anti-freeze agent
additives, observe the environmental protec-
If temperatures below the freezing point of tion legislation. For information, contact the
0302-0201AA.fm

water may be reached in the engine, in the suppliers of the additives.


cooling system or in parts of it, an anti-freeze

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 13


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

this purpose. If this work is done by the engine


user it is advisable to make use of the services
Biocides
of an expert of the cleaning agent supplier. The
If the use of a biocide is inevitable because cooling system is to be flushed thoroughly after
the cooling water has been contaminated by cleaning. The engine cooling water is to be treat-
bacteria, the following has to be observed: ed with an anti-corrosion agent immediately af-
- It has to be ensured that the biocide suita- terwards. After restarting the engine, the
ble for the particular application is used. cleaned system has to be checked for any leak-
ages.
- The biocide must be compatible with the
sealing materials used in the cooling water Periodical checks of the condition of the cooling
system; it must not attack them. water and cooling system
- Neither the biocide nor its decomposition Treated cooling water may become contaminat-
products contain corrosion-stimulated ed in service and the additive will loose some of
constituents. Biocides whose decomposi- its effectively as a result. It is therefore neces-
tion results in chloride or sulphate ions are sary to check the cooling system and the condi-
not permissible. tion of the cooling water at regular intervals.
- Biocides due to the use of which the cool- The additive concentration is to be checked at
ing water tends to foam are not permissi- least once a week, using the test kit prescribed
ble. by the supplier. The results are to be recorded.

Prerequisites for efficient use of an anti-corro- Important!


sion agent The concentrations of chemical additives must
not be less than the minimum concentrations
Clean cooling system stated in Table 3-9, Page 3-16.
Before starting the engine for the first time and Concentrations that are too low may promote
after repairs to the piping system, it must be en- corrosive effects and have therefore to be avoid-
sured that the pipes, tanks, coolers and other ed. Concentrations that are too high do not
equipment outside the engine are free from rust cause damages. However, concentrations more
and other deposits because dirt will considera- than double as high should be avoided for eco-
bly reduce the efficiency of the additive. The en- nomical reasons.
tire system has therefore to be cleaned using an
A cooling water sample is to be sent to an inde-
appropriate cleaning agent with the engine shut
pendent laboratory or to the engine supplier for
down (see MAN B&W Diesel Work Card 000.03
making a complete analysis every 3 6 months.
and Chapter 3.5 "Cleaning cooling water",
Page 3-23). For emulsifiable anti-freeze agents , the supplier
generally prescribes renewal of the water after
Loose solid particles, in particular, have to be re-
approx. 12 months. On such renewal, the entire
moved from the system by intense flushing be-
cooling system is to be flushed, or if required to
cause otherwise erosion may occur at points of
be cleaned (also see Chapter 3.5 "Cleaning
high flow velocities.
cooling water", Page 3-23). The fresh charge of
The agent used for cleaning must not attack the water is to be submitted to treatment immedi-
materials and the sealants in the cooling system. ately.
This work is in most cases done by the supplier
0302-0201AA.fm

of the cooling water additive, at least the suppli-


er can make available the suitable products for

Page 3 - 14 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

If chemical additives or anti-freeze agents are Anti-corrosion agents are a contaminating load
used, the water should be changed after three for the water in general. Cooling water must
years at the latest. therefore not be disposed off by pouring it into
the sewage system without prior consultation
If excessive concentrations of solids (rust) are
with the competent local authorities. The re-
found, the water charge has to be renewed
spective legal regulations have to be observed.
completely, and the entire system has to be
thoroughly cleaned.
The causes of deposits in the cooling system
may be leakages entering the cooling water,
breaking of the emulsion, corrosion in the sys-
tem and calcareous deposits due to excessive
water hardness. An increase in the chloride ion
content generally indicates sea water leakage.
The specified maximum of 50mg/kg of chloride
ions must not be exceeded, since otherwise the
danger of corrosion will increase. Exhaust gas
leakage into the cooling water may account for
a sudden drop in the pH value or an increase of
the sulphate content.
Water losses are to be made up for by adding
untreated water which meets the quality de-
mands according to "Requirements", Page
3-11. The concentration of the anti-corrosion
agent has subsequently to be checked and cor-
rected if necessary.
Checks of the cooling water are especially nec-
essary whenever repair and servicing work has
been done in connection with which the cooling
water was drained.

Protective measures
Anti-corrosion agents contain chemical com-
pounds which may cause health injuries if
wrongly handled. The indications in the safety
data sheets of the manufacturers are to be ob-
served.
Prolonged, direct contact with the skin should
be avoided. Thoroughly wash your hands after
use. Also, if a larger amount has been splashed
onto the clothing and / or wetted it, the clothing
should be changed and washed before being
worn again.
If chemicals have splashed into the eyes, imme-
0302-0201AA.fm

diately wash with plenty of water and consult a


doctor.

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 15


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

Permissible cooling water additives

Chemical additives (Chemicals) - containing nitrite

Initial dose Minimum concentration ppm


Manufacturer Product designation per Nitrite Na-Nitrite
1,000 litre Product
(NO2) (NaNO)2
Drew Ameroid Int.
Liquidewt 15l 15,000 1) 700 1,050
Stenzelring 8
Maxigard 40l 40,000 1,330 2,000
21107 Hamburg
DEWT-NC 4.5kg 4,500 2,250 3,375
Germany
Unitor Chemicals
KJEMI-Service A.S.
Rocor NB Liquid 21.5l 21,500 2,400 3,600
P.O. Box 49
Dieselguard 4.8kg 4,800 2,400 3,600
3140 Borgheim
Norway
Vecom GmbH
Schlenzigstr. 7
CWT Diesel/QC-2 16l 16,000 4,000 6,000
21107 Hamburg
Germany
Nalfleet Marine
Nalfleet EWT Liq (9-108) 3l 3,000 1,000 1,500
Chemicals
Nalfleet EWT 9131 C 10l 10,000 1,000 1,500
P.O. Box 11
Nalfleet EWT 9111 10l 10,000 1,000 1,500
Northwich
Nalcool 2000 30l 30,000 1,000 1,500
Cheshire CW8DX, UK
Maritech AB
P.O. Box 143
Marisol CW 12 l 12,000 2,000 3,000
29122 Kristianstad
Sweden
Uniservice
N.C.L.T. 12l 12,000 2,000 3,000
Via al Santuario di N.S.
della Guardia 58/A
Colorcooling 24l 24,000 2,000 3,000
16162 Genova, Italy
Table 3-9 Chemical additives - containing nitrite
1)
The values in the marked areas can be determined with the test kit of the chemical manufacturer.

Chemical additives (Chemicals) - free from nitrite

Initial dose Minimum concen-


Manufacturer Product designation
per 1,000 l tration
Arteco
Technologiepark Havoline
75 l 7.5 %
Zwinaarde 2 XLI
B-9052 GentBelgium
Total Lubricants
WT Supra 75 l 7.5 %
0302-0201AA.fm

Paros, France

Table 3-10 Chemical additives - free from nitrite

Page 3 - 16 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

Emulsifiable anti-corrosion oils

Product
Manufacturer
(Designation)
BP Marine
Breakspear Way Diatsol M
Hemel Hempstead Fedaro M
Herts HP2 4UL, UK
Castrol Int.
Pipers Way Solvex WT 3
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK
DEA Minerall AG
berseering 40 Targon D
22297 Hamburg, Germany
Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35 Oil 9156
22284 Hamburg, Germany

Table 3-11 Emulsifiable anti-corrosion oils

Anti-freeze agents with corrosion inhibiting effect

Product Minimum
Manufacturer
(Designation) concentration
BASF Glysantin G 48
Carl-Bosch-Str. Glysantin 9313
67063 Ludwigshafen, Rhein, Germany Glysantin G 05
Castrol Int.
Pipers Way Antifreeze NF,SF
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK
BP, Britannic Tower, Moor Lane,
Antifrost X 2270A
London EC2Y 9B, UK
DEA Minerall AG
berseering 40 Khlerfrostschutz 35 %
22297 Hamburg, Germany
Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35 Glycoshell
22284 Hamburg, Germany
Hchst AG, Werk Gendorf Genatin extra
84508 Burgkirchen, Germany (8021 S)
Mobil Oil AG
Steinstrae 5 Frostschutz 500
20095 Hamburg, Germany
Arteco/Technologiepark, Zwijnaarde 2,
Havoline XLC
B-9052 Gent, Belgium
50 %
0302-0201AA.fm

Total Lubricants Glacelf Auto Supra


Paris, France Total Organifreeze

Table 3-12 Anti-freeze agents with corrosion inhibiting effect

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 17


Quality requirements
3.3 Quality of engine cooling water

0302-0201AA.fm

Page 3 - 18 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.4 Checking cooling water

3.4 Checking cooling water


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 50

Purpose of jobs to be done Means for checking the concentration of addi-


tives
Record and assess characteristic values of op-
erating media, avoid/reduce harmful effects. When using chemical additives:
Testing means according to the recommen-
Brief description dations of the supplier.
Fresh water that is used for filling cooling water Usually, the testkits delivered by the suppli-
circuits must comply with the specifications. ers also contain testing means for determin-
Cooling water in the system must be checked at ing the fresh water quality.
regular intervals according to the maintenance
schedule. When using anti-corrosion oils:
The work/steps include: Emulsion tester (Messrs Hamburger Labor-
bedarf Dargatz, Hamburg), and concentrated
Recording characteristic values of operating hydrochloric acid.
media
Assessment of operating media and Check the characteristic values of the water
Checking the concentration of anti-corrosion
agents. Brief specification
Characteristic Water for
Waterincircu-
Tools/appliances required value/Feature charging and
lation
topping up
Means for checking the fresh water quality Fresh water,
Treated cool-
Either use Type of water free of foreign
ing water
matter
MAN B&W Diesel water test kit or a coorre-
Total hardness 10dGH 1) 10dGH 1)
sponding testkit containing all the necessary
instruments and chemicals for determining pH value
6.5 8 at
7.5 at 20C
the water hardness, the pH value and the 20C
chloride content (can be obtained from MAN Chloride ion con-
B&W Diesel or from Messrs Mar-Tec Marine, 50mg/l 50mg/l
tent
Hamburg), or
Table 3-13 Quality specifications for cooling water (brief)
Durognost tablets used to determine the wa-
ter hardness (Messrs Gebr. Hegl KG, Hild- 1) dGH = German hardness
esheim), and
pH value indicator paper with colour check- Check the water hardness
ing pattern to determine the pH value (Messrs
The water hardness should be tested in compli-
Merk AG, Darmstadt), or alternatively liquid
ance with the instructions accompanying the
pH value indicator or electronic measuring
Durognost tablets.
unit, and n/10 silver nitrate solution and 5-
percent potassium chromate solution to de- Water of a hardness exceeding the specified
termine the chloride ion content. limit is to be mixed with distillate or softened wa-
0302-0202AA.fm

ter, or to be softened by adding the chemicals


stated below.

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 19


Checking cooling water
3.4 Checking cooling water

The water hardness is reduced by 1dGH if the curs. Then check once again for hardness and
following quantities of chemicals are added to pH value.
1000l of water:
- approx. 40g anhydrous trisodium phos- Testkit of the producer of the additive
phate (Na3PO4), and As far as the testkit of the supplier of the additive
- approx. 20g anhydrous sodium carbonate contains testing means to determine the charac-
(Na2CO3). teristic values of the fresh water, these can be
used.
Important!
The chemicals are to be dissolved in water, in a Check the concentration of anti-corrosion
separate tank outside the engine circuit (in order agents
for the water hardness constituents to be sepa-
rated outside the engine circulation system) and Brief specification
subsequently be gradually added via the com-
Anti-corro- Concentration
pensating tank, with the engine running. sion agent
Chemicals to increase the water hardness are In compliance with quality specification,
virtually insignificant nowadays because emulsi- Chemical
see Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling
additives
fiable anti-corrosion oils are hardly used any water", Page 3-11
longer. These chemicals only served the pur-
Initially, after filling in, 1.5 - 2% by volume;
pose of suppressing foaming in such cases. Anti-corro-
when operating conditions have stabilised
sion oil
0.5-1% by volume
Check the pH value
In compliance with quality specification,
Indicator paper, a liquid indicator, or an elec- Anti-freeze see Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling
tronic measuring unit is to be used for measur- water", Page 3-11
ing. Make sure to observe the instructions given Table 3-14 Concentration of cooling additives
by the respective supplier.
The pH value indicates the concentration of hy- Check the concentration of chemical additives
drogen ions and provides a comparative value The concentration should be checked weekly
for the aggressiveness of the water. If the pH and/or in accordance with the maintenance
value is lower than the specified limit, it can be schedule, using the testing instruments and rea-
corrected by adding sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or gents specified by the respective supplier, and
sodium hydroxide (NaOH); sodium nitrite should in accordance with the instructions issued.
be given preference. Which quantity is required
depends on the pH value found. A protection by chemical anti-corrosion agents
is only ensured if the concentration is exactly
Check the chloride ion content adhered to. In this connection, the concentra-
tions recommended by MAN B&W Diesel (see
Add exactly 5cm3 of n/10 silver nitrate solution Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling water",
(AgNO3) to 350cm3 of the water sample in the Page 3-11) are to be adhered to by all means.
glass and mix thoroughly. Add 5 drops of a 5- These recommended concentrations may differ
percent potassium chromate solution (K2CrO4). from the producers specifications.
If red colouration occurs, the chloride ion con-
tent is less than 50mg/l. For reasons of environment protection, chemi-
cal additives are almost exclusively used nowa-
If the chloride ion content is too high, add water days. Emulsifying anti-corrosion oils have lost
0302-0202AA.fm

with a low chloride content (distilled water or to- importance.


tally desalinated water) until red colouration oc-

Page 3 - 20 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.4 Checking cooling water

Check the concentration of anti-corrosion oils


The concentration of the anti-corrosion oil is de-
termined by means of the emulsion tester by
acid cleavage with concentrated hydrochloric
acid.

Check the concentration of anti-freeze agents


The concentration is to be checked in accord-
ance with the instructions of the producer, or a
suitable laboratory is to be entrusted with the
determination of the concentration. In case of
doubt, MAN Diesel AG, Augsburg, should be
consulted .
0302-0202AA.fm

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 21


Checking cooling water
3.4 Checking cooling water

0302-0202AA.fm

Page 3 - 22 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.5 Cleaning cooling water

3.5 Cleaning cooling water


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 50

Purpose of jobs to be done Oil sludge


Free operating media systems from contamina- Oil sludge produced by lube oil entering the
tion/residues, ensure/restore operational relia- cooling system or by an excessive concentra-
bility. tion of anti-corrosion agents can be removed by
flushing with fresh water, with some cleaning
Brief description agent being added. Table 3-15, Page 3-23, lists
appropriate agents in alphabetical order. Prod-
Cooling water systems that show contamination
ucts of other manufacturers may be used pro-
or deposits impede effective component cooling
vided their properties are comparable. The
and may endanger a stable emulsion of water
manufacturers instructions for use are to be
and anti-corrosion oil. Contamination and de-
strictly observed.
posits are to be removed at regular intervals.
This includes: Calcareous and rust deposits
cleaning of systems and, if necessary, Calcareous and rust deposits may form if exces-
removing calcareous deposits sively hard water or too low a concentration of
anti-corrosion agent has been used in opera-
flushing of systems. tion. A thin layer of scale need not be removed
as, according to experience, this provides pro-
Cleaning tection against corrosion. Calcareous layers of
The cooling water system has to be checked for >0.5mm in thickness, however, will impede the
contamination at the specified intervals. If heav- heat transfer to an extent which results in ther-
ily fouled, immediate cleaning is necessary. This mal overloading of the components to be
work should preferably be done by a specialist cooled.
firm which will provide the cleansers suitable for Rust in the cooling system adversely affects the
the particular type of deposits and materials stability of the emulsion in case anti-corrosion
used in the cooling system. Only in the event oil is being used for cooling water treatment.
that procurement of the services of a specialist Washed-off rust particles can act like an abra-
firm is not possible, the cleaning should be per- sive (e. g. on the sealing elements of the water
formed by the engine operator. pumps). Together with the water hardness con-
stituents, they form so-called iron sludge which
settles predominantly in areas of low flow rates.

Manufacturer Product Concentration Durationofcleaningprocedure/temperature

Drew HDE 777 4 5% 4 hrs at 50 60C

Nalfleet Nalfleet 9 010 2 5% 4 hrs at 60 80C

Unitor Aquabreak 1) 0.05 0.5% 4 hrs at ambient temperature

Ultrasonic
Vecom 4% 12 hrs at 50 60C
Multi Cleaner

Table 3-15 Cleaning agents for removing oil suldge


0302-0203AA.fm

1) Can also be used in case of short engine operating periods

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 23


Quality requirements
3.5 Cleaning cooling water

Duration of the cleaning procedure /


Manufacturer Product Concentration
temperature

Drew SAF-Acid Descale-IT 5 10% 4 hrs. at 60 70C

Nalfleet Nalfleet 9 068 5% 4 hrs. at 60 75C

Unitor Descalex 5 10% 4 6 hrs. at approx. 60C

Vecom Descalant F 3 10% approx. 4 hrs. at 50 60C

Table 3-16 Cleaning agents for dissolving calcareous scale and rust
In general, products used for dissolving calcare- sion pitting. We therefore recommend having
ous scale deposits are also suitable for remov- the cleaning operation performed by a firm
ing rust. Table 3-16, Page 3-24, lists appropriate specialising in this field.
agents in alphabetical order. Products of other
Carbon dioxide bubbles which form in the disso-
manufacturers may also be used as long as their
lution process of the calcareous deposits may
properties are comparable. The manufacturers
obstruct the access of the cleaning agent to the
instructions for use are likewise to be strictly ob-
water scaling. It is, therefore, absolutely neces-
served. Prior to cleaning, check whether the
sary to circulate the water containing the clean-
agent concerned is suitable for the materials to
ing agent so that the gas bubbles are carried
be cleaned. The agents listed in Table , Page
away and can escape. The duration of the clean-
3-24, are also suitable for stainless steel
ing process depends on the thickness and com-
position of the deposits. For guide values,
In case of emergency please see Table , Page 3-24.
Only in exceptional cases, if none of the special
agents the application of which does not After cleaning
present problems is available, calcareous de-
Following the cleaning of cooling spaces using
posits may be removed by using aqueous hy-
cleaning agents, the system has to be flushed
drochloric acid or amido sulphur acid as a
several times. In doing so, make sure to replace
means of emergency. The following is to be ob-
the water. Where acids have been used for
served for application:
cleaning, subsequently neutralise the cooling
Heat exchangers made of stainless steel system with appropriate chemicals, and then
must never be treated with aqueous hydro- flush it. When this has been done, the system
chloric acid. can be refilled with appropriately treated water.
Cooling systems containing nonferrous Attention!
metals (aluminium, red brass, brass, etc.)
Do not start the cleaning process before the en-
have to be treated with inhibited amido sul-
gine has dooled down. Hot engine components
phur acid. This acid should be added to the
are not allowed to be charged with cold water.
water at a concentration of 3 - 5%. The tem-
Prior to proceeding to refilling the cooling water
perature should be 40 - 50C.
system, make sure that the venting pipes are
Aqueous hydrochloric acid may only be used open. Clogged venting pipes obstruct the es-
for cleaning steel pipes. The use of hydro- cape of air and involve the danger of thermal
chloric acid for system cleaning always in- overloading of the engine.
volves the risk of acid residues remaining in
0302-0203AA.fm

The relevant regulations have to be observed for


the system even after thorough neutralisation
the disposal of cleaning agents or acids.
and flushing. Such residues promote corro-

Page 3 - 24 Status 09/2003


Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation (addtive and circulating water)

3.6 Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation


(addtive and circulating water)
PDS: 10, 30, 40, 50

This guideline specifies the basic demands a regulating effect on the concentration constit-
made on cooling water for cooling tower opera- uents of the circulating water. The amount of the
tion. Should the cooling tower manufacturer water to be exchanged depends on the water
make further demands on the water quality, quality and has to be chosen as to ensure con-
these requirements must, by all means, be ob- stant compliance with the limit values specified
served. for the circulating water (see Table 3-17, Page
3-26).
Moreover, it must be taken into consideration
that additional demands will be made on the wa-
ter quality depending on the material of the cool- Additive water
ers, which are applied with water. Additional The system water losses caused by blowing
requirements for the cooling water made by the down, evaporation or leakages must be re-
cooler manufacturer must also be observed. placed by continuous additive water topping
during operation. The required amount of addi-
General tive water depends on the quality of the additive
water and the climatic site conditions.
The raw water system with cooling tower re-
cooling concerns an open circulation system, Certain demands have to be made on the addi-
which dissipates the heat absorbed from the tive water quality, which is based on the require-
water by evaporation into the cooling tower. ments for circulating water taking the
This results at the same time in a continuous wa- concentration degree into consideration. If the
ter loss due to evaporation. In order to restrict required water quality cannot be achieved, the
the incurring salt concentration, a certain water water has to be treated chemically (e.g. soften-
amount must permanently be topped as addi- ing or hardness stabilisation) or mechanically, if
tive water. necessary. Otherwise
Water losses due to evaporation and blowing deposits due to precipitation of hardly solu-
down (depending on the additive water quality) ble salts,
may amount up to 3% of the circulating water
sediments of disperse solid substances,
quantity.
corrosion,
Blowing down growth of micro organisms
An increasing evaporation loss results in a high- are to be expected.
er concentration of the salts and the suspended
substances in the water and, therefore, in an in- The cooling tower should, at least, be run with a
creasing tendency to corrosion and the forma- concentration by factor 2. Higher concentra-
tion of deposits in the system. In addition, the tions are, in general, more economic. In order to
raw water absorbs impurities from the ambient permit this, the content of substances must not
air. Deposits have a negative effect on the heat exceed half of the amount of the contents per-
dissipation in the coolers and the control system mitted for circulating water. For the absolute
function. minimum requirements, please see Table 3-17,
Page 3-26.
In order to avoid excessive concentration, a part
0302-0204PA.fm

of the thickened circulating water must be re-


moved from the circuit and be replaced by less
concentrated additive water. Blowing down has

Version 5/2003 Page 3 - 25


Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation (addtive and circulating water)

1)
Water treatment Minimum requirements in the case of concentration
factor 2. At a higher concentration the values are ac-
Depending on the water quality, various treat- cordingly lower.
ment processes come into consideration: 2)
When using chemical additives, the pH values may be
located outside the specified range.
Decarbonisation, acid injection
Desalinisation Monitoring of the water quality
Cooling water conditioning (chemical treat- pH Value, water hardness and conductivity of
ment). the circulating water should, at least, be meas-
By using special chemicals, so-called stabilisers ured every 2 weeks. Based on the conductivity,
and conditioners, deposits and corrosion in the it can be checked whether the prescribed con-
cooling water circuit can largely be controlled. centration factor is kept. Regular checks must
These means permit operation at increased include the values stated in Table 3-17, Page
concentration and, therefore, a reduction of the 3-26.
required additive water.
Utilisation of biocides
When using chemical additives for cooling water
conditioning, the cooling tower manufacturer is Intensive venting of the water in the cooling tow-
to be contacted. er and insulation will, above all, during the warm
season, cause algeas and microorganisms,
Quality guidelines for circulating and additive which clog the cooling system, support corro-
water sion and clearly reduce the cooling efficiency.
Growth by algeas, shells and bacteria colonies
Circulating water Additive water 1) must, therefore, be eliminated by vaccination
with chlorine or effective biocides.
Appearance Colourless, clear, Colourless, clear,
no sediments no sediments The selection and application of biocides de-
pends on the occurring microorganisms. Close
pH value 2) 7.5 - 8.5 -
cooperation with the manufacturer, resp. suppli-
Total salt content <2,500ppm <1,250ppm er, would be recommendable as they dispose of
suitable test processes for micro organism de-
Conductivity <3,000S/cm -
tection as well as the necessary experience.
Calcium >20ppm >10ppm

Carbonate hard- <4dH <2dH


Environmental protection, safety
ness without <71ppm CaCO3 <35ppm CaCO3 The locally applicable environmental require-
hardness stabili-
ments are, in cooling tower operation, to be tak-
sation
en into consideration for the discharge of blow-
Carbonate hard- <20dH <10dH down water and disposal of the substances
ness with hard- <356ppm <178ppm (hardness stabilisers, biocides, corrosion inhibi-
ness stabilisation CaCO3 CaCO3
tors, dispersants) used for cooling water treat-
Chloride <200ppm <100ppm ment.
Sulphate <300ppm <150ppm When using chemical additives, the safety regu-
lations of the manufactures must, by all means,
KMnO4 con- <100g/m -
sumption
be observed.

Germ number <10,000/ml -


0302-0204PA.fm

Table 3-17 Quality guidelines for circulating and addi-


tive water

Page 3 - 26 Version 5/2003


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 90

Prerequisites CIMAC, British Standards MA-100). As a rule,


the engine builders expect that fuels satisfying
MAN B&W Diesel four-stroke engines can be
these specifications are being used.
operated on any crude-oil based heavy fuel oil
meeting the requirements listed in Table 3-19, The fuel specifications given in Table 3-19, Page
Page 3-29, provided the engine and the fuel 3-29, are categorized by viscosity and grade,
treatment plant are designed accordingly. In or- and make allowance for the lowest-grade crude
der to ensure a well-balanced relation between oil offered worldwide and for the most unfavour-
the costs for fuel, spare parts and maintenance able refining processes. The specifications have
and repair work, we recommend bearing in mind been coordinated between the International
the following points. Standard Organisation (ISO), the British Stand-
ards Institute (BSI), the association of engine
Heavy fuel oil (HFO) builders (CIMAC) and the International Chamber
of Shipping (ICS).
Provenance/refining process
Blends
The quality of the heavy fuel oil is largely deter-
mined by the crude oil grade (provenance) and The admixing of engine oils (used oils), of non-
the refining process applied. This is the reason mineral oil constituents (such as coal oil) and of
why heavy fuel oils of the same viscosity may residual products from refining or other proc-
differ considerably, depending on the bunker esses (such as solvents) is not permitted. The
places. Heavy fuel oil normally is a mixture of reasons are, for example: the abrasive and cor-
residue oil and distillates. The components of rosive effects, the adverse combustion proper-
the mixture usually come from state-of-the-art ties, a poor compatibility with mineral oils and,
refining processes such as visbreaker or catalyt- last but not least, the negative environmental ef-
ic cracking plants. These processes may have a fects. The order letter for the fuel should ex-
negative effect on the stability of the fuel and on pressly mention what is prohibited, as this
its ignition and combustion properties. In the es- constraint has not yet been incorporated in the
sence, these factors also influence the heavy commonly applied fuel specifications.
fuel oil treatment and the operating results of the The admixing of engine oil (used oil) to the fuel
engine. involves a substantial danger because the lube
Bunker places where heavy fuel oil grades of oil additives have an emulsifying effect and keep
standardised quality are offered should be given dirt, water and catfines finely suspended. There-
preference. If fuels are supplied by independent fore, they impede or preclude the necessary
traders, it is to be made sure that these, too, cleaning of the fuel. We ourselves and others
keep to the international specifications. The re- have made the experience that severe damage
sponsibility for the choice of appropriate fuels induced by wear may occur to the engine and
rests with the engine operator. turbocharger components as a result.
A fuel shall be considered to be free of used lu-
Specifications bricating oil if one or more of the elements Zn, P
Mineral oil companies have internally estab- and Zn are below the specific limits (Zn: 15 ppm;
lished specifications for heavy fuel oils, and ex- P: 15 ppm; Ca: 30 ppm).
perience shows that these specifications are
0302-0301AA.fm

The admixing of chemical waste materials (such


observed worldwide and are within the limits of as solvents) to the fuel is for reasons of environ-
international specifications (e.g. ISO 8217, mental protection prohibited by resolution of the

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 27


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee In the fuel ordering form, the limit values as per
of 1 Jan. 92. Table 3-19, Page 3-29, which have an influence
on the engine operation, should be specified, for
Leaked oil collectors example in the bunkering or charter clause.
Please note the entries in the last column of Ta-
Leaked oil collectors into which leaked oil and
ble 3-19, Page 3-29, because they provide im-
residue pipes as well as overflow pipes of the
portant background information
lube oil system, in particular, must not have any
connection to fuel tanks. Leaked oil collectors
Important:
should empty into sludge tanks.
Fuel oil characteristics as stated in analysis re-
Specifications sults - even if they meet the above mentioned
requirements - may be not sufficient for estimat-
For the usability of fuels of certain specifica-
ing the combustion properties of the fuel oil. This
tions, Table 3-18, Page 3-28, is valid. In Table 3-
means that service results depend on oil proper-
19, Page 3-29, the limit values to be complied
ties which cannot be known beforehand. This
with in each case are stated.
especially applies to the tendency of the oil to
The heavy fuel oils ISO F-RMK 35/45/55, with a form deposits in the combustion chamber, gas
maximum density of 1010kg/m3, can only be passages and turbines. It may, therefore, be
used if appropriate modern separators are avail- necessary to rule out some oils that cause diffi-
able. culties.

Fuel oil specification

CIMAC 2003 A30 B30/C10 D80 E/F180 G/H/K380 - H/K700

BS MA100 M4 M5 M7 8/9 M8/- M9/-

ISO FRM A10 B/C10 D15 E/F25 G/H/K35 H/K45 H/K55

Usability for engine types

Engine type 32/40, 40/54, 48/60, 58/64

All engines Fuel can be used without consultation

Table 3-18 Usability of fuels with respect to engine types 0302-0301AA.fm

Page 3 - 28 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Fuel oil specification


CIMAC 2003 A30 B30 D80 E/F180 G/H/K380 - H/K700
See
BS MA100 M4 M5 M7 8/9 M8/- M9/-
ISO FRM A10 B/C10 D15 E/F25 G/H/K35 H/K45 H/K55
Fuel-system related characteristic values
Viscosity mm2/s "Viscosity/injection
max. 40 40 80 180 380 500 700
(at 50C) (cSt) viscosity", Page 3-30
Viscosity "Viscosity/injection
max. 10 10 15 25 35 45 55
(at 100C) viscosity", Page 3-30
Density "Heavy fuel oil treat-
g/ml max. 0.975 0.981 0.985 0.991/1.010
(at 15C) ment", Page 3-30
"Flash point (ASTMD-
Flash point min. 60
93)", Page 3-32
"Low temperature
behaviour (ASTM D-
Pour point
max. 6 24 30 97)", Page 3-32, and
(summer)
"Pump ability", Page
C
3-33
"Low temperature
behaviour (ASTM D-
Pour point
max. 0 24 30 97)", Page 3-32, and
(winter)
"Pump ability", Page
3-33
Enginerelated characteristic values
Carbon
"Combustion proper-
residues 10 10/14 14 15/20 18/22 22 22
ties", Page 3-33
(Conradon)
% wt. "Sulphuric acid corro-
Sulphur 3.5 3.5 4 5
sion", Page 3-35
"Heavy fuel oil treat-
Ash 0.10 0.15 0.20
max. ment", Page 3-30
150/ 200/ 300/ "Heavy fuel oil treat-
Vanadium mg/kg 150 350 600
300 500 600 ment", Page 3-30
"Heavy fuel oil treat-
Water % vol. 0.5 0.8 1
ment", Page 3-30
Sediment
% wt. 0.1
(potential)
Supplementary characteristic values
Aluminium "Heavy fuel oil treat-
mg/kg 80
and silicon ment", Page 3-30
"Combustion proper-
Asphalts % wt. max. 2/3 of carbon residues (Conradson)
ties", Page 3-33
"Heavy fuel oil treat-
Sodium mg/kg Sodium<1/3 vanadium, sodium<100
ment", Page 3-30
"Ignition quality",
Cetane number of lowviscosity constituent minimum 35
Page 3-33
Fuel free of admixtures not based on mineral oil, such as coal oils or vegetable oils;
free of tar oil and lubricating oil (used oil)
0302-0301AA.fm

Table 3-19 Fuel oil specifications and associated characteristic values

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 29


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Supplementary remarks stream of the engine can be seen from the


viscosity/temperature diagram.
The following remarks are thought to outline the
relations between heavy fuel oil grade, heavy
fuel oil treatment, engine operation and operat- Heavy fuel oil treatment
ing results. Trouble-free engine operation depends, to a
large extent, on the care which is given to heavy
Selection of heavy fuel oil fuel oil treatment. Particular care should be tak-
en that inorganic, foreign particles with their
Economic operation on heavy fuel oil with the
strong abrasive effect (catalyst residues, rust,
limit values specified in Table 3-19, Page 3-29,
sand) are effectively separated. It has shown in
is possible under normal service conditions,
practice that with the aluminium content
with properly working systems and regular
>10mg/kg abrasive wear in the engine strongly
maintenance. Otherwise, if these requirements
increases.
are not met, shorter TBOs (times between over-
haul), higher wear rates and a higher demand in The higher the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil, the
spare parts must be expected. Alternatively, the higher will the density and the foreign particles
necessary maintenance intervals and the oper- concentration be, according to our experience.
ating results expected determine the decision as The viscosity and density will influence the
to which heavy fuel oil grade should be used. cleaning effect, which has to be taken into con-
sideration when designing and setting the clean-
It is known that as viscosity increases, the price
ing equipment.
advantage decreases more and more. It is there-
fore not always economical to use the highest Settling tank
viscosity heavy fuel oil, which in numerous cas-
The heavy fuel oil is precleaned in the settling
es means the lower quality grades.
tank. This precleaning is all the more effective
Heavy fuel oils ISO-RMB/C 10 or CIMAC B10 the longer the fuel remains in the tank and the
ensure reliable operation of older engines, which lower the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil is
were not designed for the heavy fuel oils that are (maximum preheating temperature 75C to
currently available on the market. ISO-RMA 10 prevent formation of asphalt in the heavy fuel
or CIMAC A30 with a low pour point should be oil). One settling tank will generally be suffi-
preferred in cases where the bunker system cient for heavy fuel oil viscosity below
cannot be heated. 380mm2/s at 50C. If the concentration of
foreign matter in the heavy fuel oil is exces-
Viscosity/injection viscosity sive, or if a grade according to ISO-F-RM, G/
H/K35, H/K45 or H/K55 is preferred, two set-
Heavy fuel oils if having a higher viscosity may
tling tanks will be required, each of which
be of lower quality. The maximum permissible
must be adequately rated to ensure trouble-
viscosity depends on the existing preheating
free settling within a period of not less than 24
equipment and the separator rating (through-
hours. Prior to separating the content into the
put).
service tank, the water and sludge have to be
The specified injection viscosity and/or fuel oil drained from the settling tank.
temperature upstream of the engine should be
Separators
adhered to. Only then will an appropriate atomi-
sation and proper mixing, and hence a low-resi- A centrifugal separator is a suitable device for
due combustion be possible. Besides, extracting material of higher specific gravity,
mechanical overloading of the injection system such as water, foreign particles and sludge.
0302-0301AA.fm

will be prevented. The specified injection viscos- The separators must be of the self-cleaning
ity and/or the necessary fuel oil temperature up- type (i.e. with automatically induced cleaning
intervals).

Page 3 - 30 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Separators of the new generation are to be which the manufacturers of these separators
used exclusively; they are fully efficient over a take as a basis and which they also guaran-
large density range without requiring any tee.
switchover, and are capable of separating
The manufacturer specifications have to be
water up to a heavy fuel oil density
adhered to in order to achieve an optimum
of 1.01g/ml at 15C.
cleaning effect.
Table 3-20, Page 3-31, shows the demands
made on the seoarator. These limit values

Marine and stationary appli-


cation: connected in parallel

1 separator for
100% throughput
1 separator (standby) for
100% throughput

Figure 3-1 Heavy fuel oil cleaning/separator arrangement

Layout of the separators is to be in accord- water and inorganic foreign particles in the
ance with the latest recommendations of the heavy fuel oil are reached at the entry into the
separator manufacturers, Alfa Laval and engine.
Westfalia. In particular, the density and vis-
The results obtained in practical operation re-
cosity of the heavy fuel oil are to be taken into
veal that adherence to the above values
consideration. Consulting MAN B&W Diesel
helps to particularly keep abrasive wear in the
is required if other makes of separators come
injection system and in the engine within ac-
up for discussion.
ceptable limits. Besides, optimal lube oil
If the cleaning treatment prescribed by MAN treatment must be ensured
B&W Diesel is applied, and if the coorect sep-
arators are selected, it can be expected that
the results given in Table 3-20, Page 3-31, for

Definition Particle size Quantity

Inorganic foreign particles (incl. <20mg/kg


<5m
catalyst residues) (Al+Si content <15mg/kg)

Water - <0.2% by volume


0302-0301AA.fm

Table 3-20 Obtainable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 31


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Water that raises the melting temperature of the


heavy fuel oil ash (also refer to "Additives to
Attention is to be paid to very thorough water
heavy fuel oils", Page 3-35).
separation, since the water is not a finely dis-
tributed emulsion but in the form of adversely Ash
large droplets. Water in this form promotes
Heavy fuel oils with a high ash content in the
corrosion and sludge formation also in the
form of foreign particles such as sand, corro-
fuel system, which has an adverse effect on
sion and catalyst residues, promote the me-
the delivery and atomisation and thus also on
chanical wear in the engine. There may be
the combustion of the heavy fuel oil. If the
catalyst fines (catfines) in heavy fuel oils com-
water involved is sea water, harmful sodium
ing from catalytic cracking processes. In
chloride and other salts dissolved in the wa-
most cases, these catfines will be aluminium
ter will enter the engine.
silicate, which causes high wear in the injec-
The water-containing sludge must be re- tion system and in the engine. The aluminium
moved from the settling tank prior to each content found multiplied by 5-8 (depending
separating process, and at regular intervals on the catalyst composition) will approxi-
from the service tank. The venting system of mately correspond to the content of catalyst
the tanks must be designed in such a way materials in the heavy fuel oil.
that condensate cannot flow back into the
Homogenizer
tanks.
If a homogenizer is used, it must not be in-
Vanadium/sodium
stalled between the settling tank and the sep-
Should the vanadium/sodium ratio be unfa- arator on any account, since in that case,
vourable, the melting temperature of the harmful contaminants, and in particular sea-
heavy fuel oil ash may drop into the range of water, cannot be separated out sufficiently.
the exhaust valve temperature which will re-
sult in high-temperature corrosion. By pre-
cleaning the heavy fuel oil in the settling tank
Flash point (ASTMD-93)
and in the centrifugal separators, the water,
and with it the water-soluble sodium com- National and international regulations for trans-
pounds can be largely removed. port, storage and application of fuels must be
adhered to in respect of the flash point. Gener-
If the sodium content is lower than 30% of
ally, a flash point of above 60C is specified for
the vadium content, the risk of high-tempera-
fuels used in Diesel engines.
ture corrosion will be small. It must also be
prevented that sodium in the form of sea wa-
ter enters the engine together with the intake Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D-97)
air. Pourpoint
If the sodium content is higher than 100mg/ The pour point is the temperature at which
kg, an increase of salt deposits is to be ex- the fuel is no longer fluid (pumplike). Since
pected in the combustion space and in the many of the low-viscosity heavy fuel oils have
exhaust system. This condition will have an a pour point greater than 0C, too, the bun-
adverse effect on engine operation (among kering system has to be preheated unless
others, due to surging of the turbocharger). fuel in accordance with CIMAC A30 is used.
The content of sodium of engines with PTG The entire bunkering system should be de-
has to be limited to 50mg/kg. signed so as to permit preheating of the
0302-0301AA.fm

Under certain conditions, high-temperature heavy fuel oil to approx. 10C above the pour
corrosion may be prevented by a fuel additive point.

Page 3 - 32 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Cloud point bustion, which may lead to thermal overloading


of the oil film on the cylinder liner and excessive
For filter clogging, the cloud point is of inter-
pressures in the cylinder. Ignition lag and the re-
est.
sultant pressure rise in the cylinder are also in-
fluenced by the final temperature and pressure
Pump ability
of compression, i.e. by the compression ratio,
Difficulties will be experienced with pumping if the charge-air pressure and charge-air temper-
the fuel oil has a viscosity higher than ature.
1,000mm2/s (cSt) or a temperature less than ap-
Preheating of the charge-air in the part-load
prox. 10C above the pour point. Please also re-
range and output reduction for a limited period
fer to "Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D-
of time are possible measures to reduce detri-
97)", Page 3-32.
mental influences of fuel of poor ignition quali-
ties. More effective, however, are a high
Combustion properties compression ratio and the in-service matching
An asphalt content higher than 2/3 of the carbon of the injection system to the ignition qualities of
residue (Conradson) may lead to delayed com- the fuel oil used, as is the case in MAN B&W Die-
bustion, which involves increased residue for- sel trunk piston engines.
mation, such as deposits on and in the injection The ignition quality is a key property of the fuel.
nozzles, increased smoke formation, reduced The reason why it does not appear in the inter-
power and increased fuel consumption, as well national specifications is the absence of a
as a rapid rise of the ignition pressure and com- standardised testing method. Therefore, param-
bustion close to the cylinder wall (thermal over- eters such as the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity
loading of the lube oil film). If the ratio of Index (CCAI) are resorted to as an aid, which are
asphaltenes to carbon residues reaches the limit derived from determinable fuel properties. We
value 0.66, and the asphaltene content also ex- have found this to be an appropriate method of
ceeds 8%, additional analyses of the heavy fuel roughly assessing the ignition quality of the
oil concerned by means of thermogravimetric heavy fuel oil used.
analysis (TGA) must be performed by MAN B&W
Diesel to evaluate the usability. This tendency A test instrument utilising a constant-volume
will also be promoted by the blend constituents combustion technology /FIA fuel ignition analys-
of the heavy fuel oil being incompatible, or by er) has been developed and is currently being
different and incompatible bunkering being evaluated at a number of testing laboratories.
mixed together. As a result, there is an increased The ignition quality of a fuel is determined as an
separation of asphalt (also see "Compatibility", ignition delay in the instrument that is converted
Page 3-35). to an instrument-related cetan number (FIA-CN).
It has been observed that fuels with a low FIA
Ignition quality cetan number could, in some cases, lead to op-
erational problems.
Cracked products which nowadays are pre-
ferred as low-viscosity blend constituents of the As the fluid constituent in the heavy fuel oil is the
heavy fuel oil in order to achieve the specified determining factor for its ignition quality and the
reference viscosity may have poor ignition qual- viscous constituent is decisive for the combus-
ities. The cetane number of these constituents tion quality, it is the responsibility of the bunker-
should be >35. An increased aromatics content ing company to supply a heavy fuel oil grade of
(above 35%) also leads to a decrease in ignition quality matched to the Diesel engine. Please re-
quality. fer to Figure 3-2, Page 3-34
0302-0301AA.fm

Fuel oils of insufficient ignition qualities will


show extended ignition lag and delayed com-

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 33


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Figure 3-2 Nomogram for the determination of CCAI - assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types

V Viscosity mm/s (cSt) at 50 C


D Density [kg/m] at 15C
CCAI Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index
A Normal operating conditions
B Difficulties may be encountered
C Problems encountered may increase up to engine damage after a short time of operation
1 Engine type
2 The combining straight line across density and viscosity of a heavy fuel oil results in CCAI.

CCAI can also be calculated with the aid of the following formula:
0302-0301AA.fm

CCAI = D - 141 log log (V+0.85) - 81

Page 3 - 34 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Sulphuric acid corrosion The use of fuel additives during the guarantee
period is rejected as a matter of principle.
The engine should be operated at the cooling
water temperatures specified in the operating Additives currently in use for Diesel engines are
manual for the respective load. If the tempera- listed in Table 3-21, Page 3-35, together with
ture of the component surface exposed to the their effect on engine operation.
acidic combustion gases is below the acid dew
point, acid corrosion can no longer be sufficient-
ly prevented even by an alcaline lubricating oil.
Dispersants/stabilizers
If the lube oil quality and engine cooling meet
the respective requirements, the BN values (see Pre-combustion Emulsion breakers
Chapter 3.2 "Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel oil Biocides
operation (HFO)", Page 3-7) will be adequate, Combustion catalysts (fuel econ-
depending on the sulphur concentration in the Combustion
omy, emissions)
heavy fuel oil.
Ash modifier (hot corrosion)
Post-combustion Carbon remover (exhaust sys-
Compatibility
tem)
The supplier has to guarantee that the heavy fuel
oil remains homogenous and stable even after Table 3-21 Additives to heavy fuels - Classification/
the usual period of storage. If different bunker effects
oils are mixed, separation may occur which re-
sults in sludge formation in the fuel system, large
quantities of sludge in the separator, clogging of
filters, insufficient atomisation and highresidue
combustion.
In such cases, one refers to incompatibility or in-
stability. The heavy fuel oil storage tanks should
therefore be emptied as far as possible prior to
re bunkering in order to preclude incompatibility.

Blending heavy fuel oil


If, for instance, heavy fuel for the main engine
and gas oil (MGO) are blended to achieve the
heavy fuel oil quality or viscosity specified for
the auxiliary engines, it is essential that the con-
stituents are compatible (refer to "Compatibili-
ty", Page 3-35).

Additives to heavy fuel oils


MAN B&W Diesel engines can be economically
operated without additives. It is up to the cus-
tomer to decide whether or not the use of an ad-
ditive would be advantageous. The additive
0302-0301AA.fm

supplier must warrant that the product use will


have no harmful effects on engine operation.

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 35


Quality requirements
3.7 Quality of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Examinations

Sampling
To be able to check as to whether the specifica-
tion indicated and/or the stipulated delivery con-
ditions have been complied with, we
recommend a minimum of one sample of each
bunker fuel to be retained, at least during the
guarantee period for the engine. In order to en-
sure that the sample is representative for the oil
bunkered, a sample should be drawn from the
transfer pipe at the start, at half the time and at
the end of the bunkering period. Sample Tec,
supplied by Messrs Mar-Tec, Hamburg is an ap-
propriate testing kit for taking samples continu-
ously during the bunkering.

Analyse samples
The samples received from the bunkering com-
pany are frequently not identical with the heavy
fuel oil bunkered. It is also appropriate to verify
the heavy fuel oil properties stated in the bunker
documents, such as density, viscosity, pour
point. If these values should deviate from those
of the heavy fuel oil bunkered, one runs the risk
that the heavy fuel oil separator and the preheat-
ing temperature are not set correctly for the giv-
en injection viscosity. The criteria for an
economic engine operation with regard to heavy
fuel oil and lubricating oil may be determined
with the help of the MAN B&W Diesel Fuel and
Lube Analysis Set.
Our department for fuels and lube oils (Augs-
burg Works, Department QC) will be glad to fur-
nish further information if required.Additives to
heavy fuel oils: Classification/effects
0302-0301AA.fm

Page 3 - 36 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.8 Quality of Marine Diesel Fuel (MDO)

3.8 Quality of Marine Diesel Fuel (MDO)


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 90

Other designations Specification


Diesel Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil, Bunker Diesel Oil, Ma- The usability of a fuel depends upon the engine
rine Diesel Fuel. design and available cleaning facilities as well as
on the conformity of the key properties with
Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) is offered as heavy dis-
those listed in the table below which refer to the
tillate (designation ISO-F-DMB) or as a blend of
condition on delivery.
distillate and small amounts of residual oil (des-
ignation ISO-F-DMC) exclusively for marine ap- The key properties have been established to a
plications. The commonly used term for the great extent on the basis of ISO 8217-1996 and
blend, which is of dark brown to black colour, is CIMAC-2003. The key properties are based on
Blended MDO. MDO is produced from crude oil the test methods specified.
and must be free from organic acids.

Property/feature Unit Test method Designation


Specification ISO-F DMB DMC
Density at 15C kg/m3 ISO 3675 900 920
2/s
Cinematic viscosity at 40C mm cSt ISO 3104 >2.5 < 11 >4 < 14
Pour Point winter quality ISO 3016 <0 <0
summer quality C <6 <6
Flash point Pensky Martens ISO 2719 > 60 > 60
Total content of sediments ISO CD 10307 0.10 0.10
Water content ISO 3733 < 0.3 < 0.3
Sulphur content ISO 8754 < 2.0 < 2.0
Ash content ISO 6245 < 0.01 < 0.03
Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 < 0.30 < 2.5
Cetane number ISO 5165 > 35 > 35
-
Copper-strip test ISO 2160 <1 <1
Vanadium content DIN 51790T2 0 < 100
mg/kg
Content of aluminium and silicon ISO CD 10478 0 < 25
1)
Visual inspection - -
Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 100 1987 Class M2 Class M3
ASTM D 975 2D 4D
ASTM D 396 No. 2 No. 4

Table 3-22 Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) key properties to be adhered to


1) With good illumination and at room temperature, appearance of the fuel should be clear and transparent.
0302-0302AA.fm

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 37


Quality requirements
3.8 Quality of Marine Diesel Fuel (MDO)

Supplementary information Investigations


At transshipment facilities and in transit MDO is Fuel analyses are carried out in our chemical
handled like residual oil. Thus, there is the pos- laboratory for our customers at cost price. For
sibility of oil being mixed with high-viscosity fuel examination a sample of approx. 1dm3 is re-
oil or Interfuel, for example with remainders of quired.
such fuels in the bunkering boat, which may ad-
versely affect the key properties considerably.
The fuel shall be free of used lubricating oil
(ULO). A fuel shall be considered to be free of
ULO if one or more of the elements Zn, P and Ca
are below the specified limits (Zn: 15 ppm;
P: 15 ppm; Ca: 30 ppm).
The Pour Point indicates the temperature at
which the oil will refuse to flow. The lowest tem-
perature the fuel oil may assume in the system,
should lie approx. 10C above the pour point so
as to ensure it can still be pumped.
The recommended fuel viscosity at the inlet of
the injection pump is 10 ... 14mm2/s.
If Blended MDOs (ISO-F-DMC) of differing bun-
kering are being mixed, incompatibility may re-
sult in sludge formation in the fuel system, a
large amount of sludge in the separator, clog-
ging of filters, insufficient atomization and a
large amount of combustion deposits. We would
therefore recommend to run dry the respective
fuel storage tank as far as possible before bun-
kering new fuel.
Sea water, in particular, tends to increase corro-
sion in the fuel oil system and hot corrosion of
exhaust valves and in the turbocharger. It is also
the cause of insufficient atomization and thus
poor mixture formation and combustion with a
high proportion of combustion residues.
Solid foreign matter increase the mechanical
wear and formation of ash in the cylinder space.
If the engine is mainly run on Blended MDO i.e.
ISO-F-DMC, we recommend to provide a cen-
trifugal separator upstream of the fuel oil filter.
Separator throughput 65% with relation to the
rated throughput. Separating temperature 40 to
50C. Solid particles (sand, rust, catalyst fines)
and water can thus largely be removed and the
0302-0302AA.fm

intervals between cleaning of the filter elements


considerably extended.

Page 3 - 38 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.9 Quality of gas oil/Diesel fuel (MGO)

3.9 Quality of gas oil/Diesel fuel (MGO)


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 90

Other designations Specification


Gas oil, Marine Gas Oil (MGO), High Speed Die- Suitability of the fuel depends on the conformity
sel Oil, Huile de Diesel. with the key properties as specified hereunder,
pertaining to the condition on delivery.
Diesel fuel is a medium class distillate of crude
oil which therefore must not contain any residual On establishing the key properties, the stand-
components. ards of DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-1996 (Class
DMA), as well as CIMAC-2003 were taken into
consideration to a large extent. The key property
ratings refer to the testing methods specified.

Property/feature Unit Test method Characteristic value

Density at 15C 820.0


kg/m3 ISO 3675
890.0

1.5
Cinematic viscosity / 40C mm2/s ISO 3104
6.0

Filter ability1)
in summer 0
DIN EN 116
in winter C -12

Flash point Abel-Pensky in closed cruci-


ISO 1523 60
ble

Distillation range up to 350C % by volume ISO 3405 85

Content of sediment (Extraction method) % by weight ISO 3735 0.01

Water content % by volume ISO 3733 0.05

Sulphur content ISO 8754 1.5

Ash ISO 6245 0.01


% by weight
Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 0.10

Cetane number - ISO 5165 40 2)

Copper-strip test - ISO 2160 1

Other specifications:

British Standard BS MA 100-1987 M1

ASTM D 975 1D/2D

Table 3-23 Diesel fuel oil (MGO) - key properties to be adhered to


1)
Determination of filter ability to DIN EN 116 is comparable to Cloud Point as per ISO 3015.
2) L/V 20/27 engines require a cetane number of at least 45
0302-0303AA.fm

Status 03/2004 Page 3 - 39


Quality requirements
3.9 Quality of gas oil/Diesel fuel (MGO)

Supplementary information

Using fuel oil


If, in case of stationary engines a distillate in-
tended for oil firing (for instance Fuel Oil EL to
DIN 51603 or Fuel Oil No 1 or No 2 according to
ASTM D-396, resp.), is used instead of Diesel fu-
el, adequate ignition performance and low-tem-
perature stability must be ensured, i.e. the
requirements as to properties concerning filter
ability and cetane number must be met.

Investigations
Fuel analyses are carried out in our chemical
laboratory for our customers at cost price. For
examination a sample of approx. 1dm3 is re-
quired.

0302-0303AA.fm

Page 3 - 40 Status 03/2004


Quality requirements
3.10 Viscosity temperature-diagram

3.10 Viscosity temperature-diagram


PDS: 10, 30, 40
0305-0302AA.fm

Figure 3-3 Viscosity-temperature (VT) diagram

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 41


Quality requirements
3.10 Viscosity temperature-diagram

Explanations of the viscosity-temperature (VT) 700mm2/s = cSt/50C (representing the maxi-


diagram mum viscosity as referred to in international
specifications such as ISO, CIMAC or British
The diagram shows the fuel temperatures on the
Standard). If a heavy fuel oil of a lower reference
horizontal and the viscosity on the vertical
viscosity is used, an injection viscosity of 12
scales.
mm2/s should be aimed at, ensuring improved
The diagonal lines correspond to the viscosity- heavy fuel oil atomisation and thus fewer resi-
temperature curve of fuels with different refer- dues from combustion.
ence viscosity. The vertical viscosity scales in
The transfer pump is to be designed for a heavy-
mm2/s = cSt apply to 40C, 50C or 100C.
fuel-oil viscosity of up to 1000mm2/s. The pump
ability of the heavy fuel oil also depends on the
Determination of the viscosity-temperature
pour point. The design of the bunkering system
curve and the preheating temperature required
must permit heating up of the fuel oil to approx.
Example: Heavy fuel oil of 180mm2/s at 50C. 10C above its pour point.
Attention!
Required heavy fuel oil Gas oil or Diesel oil (Marine Diesel Oil) must have
Specified injection
temperature before
viscosity engine inlet 1)
neither a too low viscosity nor a higher viscosity
than that specified when entering the injection
mm2/s = cSt C pump. With a too low viscosity, insufficient lu-
12 126 (line c) bricity may cause the seizure of the pump plung-
ers or the nozzle needles. This can be avoided if
14 119 (line d) the fuel temperature is kept to
Table 3-24 Determination of the viscosity-temperature - max. 50C for gas oil operation and
curve and the preheating temperature
- max. 60C for MDO operation.
1)
The temperature drop from the final preheater to the Therefore a fuel oil cooler has to be installed.
fuel injection pump is not covered by these figures.

A heavy fuel oil of 180mm2/s at 50C reaches a


viscosity of 1000mm2/s at 24C (line e), which is
the max. permissible viscosity with respect to
the pump ability of the fuel.
Using a state-of-the-art final preheater a heavy
fuel oil outlet temperature of 152C will be ob-
tained for 8bar saturated steam. Higher temper-
atures involve the risk of increased formation of
residues in the preheater, resulting in a reduc-
tion of the heating power and a thermal overload
of the heavy fuel oil. This causes formation of as-
phaltenes, i.e. a deterioration of quality.
The fuel pipes from the final preheater outlet up
to the injection valve must be insulated ade-
quately to ensure that a temperature drop will be
0305-0302AA.fm

limited to max. 4C. Only then can the required


injection viscosity of max. 14mm2/s be achieved
with a heavy fuel oil of a reference viscosity of

Page 3 - 42 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.11 Quality of intake air (combustion air)

3.11 Quality of intake air (combustion air)


PDS: 10, 30, 40

General For this reason, effective cleaning of the intake


air (combustion air) and regular maintenance/
The quality and the condition of the intake air
cleaning of the air filter are required.
(combustion air) exert great influence on the en-
gine output. In this connection, not only the at- When designing the intake air system, it has to
mospherical condition is of great importance but be kept in mind that the total pressure drop (fil-
also the pollution by solid and gaseous matter. ter, silencer, piping) must not exceed 20mbar.
Mineral dust particles in the intake air will result
in increased wear. Chemical/gaseous constitu- Requirements
ents, however, will stimulate corrosion. The concentrations after the air filter and/or be-
fore the turbocharger inlet must not exceed the
limiting values given in Table 3-25, Page 3-43.

Properties/feature Characteristic value Unit 1)

Particle size max. 5 m

Dust (sand, cement, CaO, Al2O3 etc.) max. 5

Chlorine max. 1.5


mg/m3 (STP)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) max. 1.25

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) max. 15

Table 3-25 Intake air (combustion air) - characteristic values to be observed


1)
m3 (STP) Cubic metre at standard temperature and pressure
0302-0401AA.fm

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 43


Quality requirements
3.11 Quality of intake air (combustion air)

0302-0401AA.fm

Page 3 - 44 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants


PDS: 10, 30, 40, 60

Conditions Saltless feed Low-salt or


Like fuel, lube oil and engine cooling water, wa- water salt-laden
feed water
ter for exhaust gas boiler plants is a consuma-
ble, which has carefully to be chosen, treated pH value at 25C >9 >9
and supervised. In the case of improper water
<0.06dH
maintenance, corrosion and deposits may form Hardness resp.
up in the water. Deposits will on their part again <0.01mmol/l
result in corrosion and have an adverse effect on
heat transfer. Conductivity at
<0.2S/cm 1)
25C
Any additional requirements for water quality
Oxygen content <0.1mg/l <0.02mg/l
specified in the boiler manufacturer's manual
have to be taken into consideration. Table 3-26 Requirements for feed water in exhaust gas
boilers
1)
Applications After strongly acid sample drawing cation exchanger

Two different systems are used:


Exhaust gas boiler plants generate steam, Low-salt or
Saltless cir-
salt-ladencir-
which is used as heat transfer agent in other culating
culating
systems. water
water
With regard to steam turbines, steam gener- pH value at 25C >9 >9
ated by means of the exhaust gas tempera-
ture is used for energy production. <0.06dH
Hardness resp.
Separate demands made on feed and circulat- <0.01mmol/l
ing water are valid for both application cases.
Conductivity at
<0.2S/cm *)
25C
Exhaust gas boiler without steam turbine
Acid capacity up
1 - 12mmol/l
The quality requirements for feed and circulating to pH 8.2
water comply with TRD 611 (Technische Regeln
Table 3-27 Requirements for circulating water in
fr Dampfkessel = technical rules for steam boil- exhaust gas boiler
ers). Low-salt and salt-laden feed water can be
used if the specifications in Table 3-26, Page Exhaust gas boiler with steam turbine
3-45, are kept. The utilisation of the salt-free
feed water is possible, but not necessary. When Only saltless feed water, which complies with
using saltless feed water, corresponding limit the requirements according to Table 3-28, Page
values are valid for circulating water. 3-46, may be used for steam turbines.
0302-0501AA.fm

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 45


Quality requirements
3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

Saltfree feed water


mentioned in Table 3-30, Page 3-46, are to be
used,
pH value at 25C >9
It is expressly pointed out that warranty for the
Conductivity at 25C <0.2S/cm 1) products used has to be taken over by the prod-
Oxygen content <0.1mg/l uct manufacturer.

Iron, total Fe <0.03mg/l


Producer Product
Copper, total Cu <0.005mg/l
DREW Advantage 121 M
Silicic acid, SiO2 <0.02mg/l
Nalco Nalco 72400
Table 3-28 Requirements for feed water in steam tur-
bines Unitor Liquitreat + Condensate Control
1)
After strongly acid sample drawing cation exchanger Table 3-30 Combination products for treatment of the
feed water in exhaust gas boilers without
steam turbine

Saltfree circulating water The recommendations of the turbine manufac-


turer are to be taken into consideration for the
pH value at 25C 9.5 - 10.5 treatment of water used in steam turbines. Gen-
Conductivity at 25C <3S/cm eral recommendations can, in this case, not be
given.
Silicic acid, SiO2 <4mg/l

Table 3-29 Requirements for circulating water in steam Water maintenance


turbines
The following values of the feed water are to be
checked and documented regularly:
Treatment
pH Value, daily
The feed water has to be treated with suitable
chemicals. If an exhaust gas boiler without tur- Conductivity, daily
bine is used, the conditioning agent must con-
Hardness, daily
tain the following products:
Oxygen content, resp. surplus at oxygen
Residue softener
binder, daily
Oxygen binder
Concentration of additives (according to
Alkalising medium manufacturer specifications)
Steam-volatile alkalising medium for corro- Iron content
sion protection in the condensate system (not
Acid capacity of up to pH 8.2 (p value)
compulsorily required in the case of saltless
feed water) With regard to steam turbines, the following has,
in addition, to be checked weekly:
Possible dispersing agent (in particular, if de-
posits already exist in the boiler system). Copper content, silicic acid
MAN B&W Diesel recommends using combina- The following values of the boiler water are to be
tion products. This simplifies the treatment and checked and documented regularly:
ensures that all vital points concerning water
treatment are taken into consideration.
0302-0501AA.fm

pH Value, daily
During the warranty period and in the case of ex-
isting maintenance contracts, only the products Conductivity, daily

Page 3 - 46 Status 09/2003


Quality requirements
3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

Hardness, daily
Iron content
Acid capacity of up to pH 8.2 (p value).
Additive concentration (according to manu-
facturer specifications)
The following values of the condensate are to be
checked and documented regularly:
pH Value, daily
Conductivity, daily
Hardness
Iron content
Additive concentration (according to manu-
facturer specifications).

Cleaning of the exhaust gas boiler


Cleaning at the exhaust gas side is carried out
with steam or water, by means of the corre-
sponding devices. In the case of water cleaning,
special requirements are not to be observed,
with the exception that sea or brackish water
must not be used.
Correct maintenance provided, water cleaning
is not necessary. Should cleaning prove to be
necessary, a suitable company has to be en-
gaged, which is able to carry out professional
cleaning.
0302-0501AA.fm

Status 09/2003 Page 3 - 47


Quality requirements
3.12 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

0302-0501AA.fm

Page 3 - 48 Status 09/2003


4 Genset
Kapiteltitel 4.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 4 - 1


Kapiteltitel 4.fm

Page 4 - 2 Version 5/2003


Genset for engine V48/60

4.1 Genset for engine V48/60


PDS: 20

Concept separately, only a type FEM calculation for


each cylinder variant is necessary.
The engine is rigidly supported on the base
frame. Usually, the designing the plate thicknesses
of the frame for the cylinder variant with the
The 2-bearing generator is separately mount-
strongest demands concerning oscillation
ed rigidly on the concrete block.
(18V) will be sufficient.
The engine with the frame is resiliently sup-
The entire physical and oscillational separa-
ported with spring vibration dampers on the
tion of engine and generator enables to
concrete block.
choose any generator type and size that
The engine is resiliently coupled with the 2- meets the demands of foundation, moments
bearing generator. of inertia and electrical performance.
The engine can also be tested apart from the
Advantages of the concept
genset.
With regard to oscillation, the engine as the main
Due to the resilient mounting of the genset and
oscillation stimulator is completely isolated
thus its complete isolation from the foundation
from the foundation block as well as from the
side as well as from the drive side the foundation
generator on the drive side. This means:
must basically be designed only according to
As the base frame is part of the oscillation the static requirements.
system "engine" and the generator stands
The lube oil service tank is integrated in the base
frame.
0402-0101PD.fm

Figure 4-1 Genset - engine V48/60

Version 8/2003 Page 4 - 3


Engine 48/60

Single characteristics and the foundation with fabric plates. In


earthquake regions the spring vibration
Engine dampers are further secured onto the frame
Standard engine without dry lube oil sump is to avoid shifting.
used. Standardised engine connection piping The steel spring vibration damper system is
including so-called engine connection bar. calculate for each project by the manufactur-
Turbocharger and charge air cooler are er of the spring vibration dampers. The calcu-
mounted on coupling counter side in princi- lation determines the arrangement of the
ple. spring vibration dampers under the frame
base board.
Base frame
Generator
The frame is weight-reduced and stiffness
optimised. 2-bearing generator, design IM 1001 or
IM 7201.
The frame has elongated lengthwise profiles
with consoles to place hydraulic jacks that The generator is mounted by steel shims or
are used to lift the genset. adjustable shims that are grouted into the
prepared generator base with non-shrinking
In four of the cross ribs lifting loops are at- concrete.
tached. They serve to handle the frame dur-
ing its production and to move the genset in The generator bearings are self-lubricated.
longitudinal and transversal direction by
hooking in a harness Drive

Integrated lube oil service-tank with nominal The engine requires a flywheel.
filling of approx. 1l/kW according to MAN A standard coupling is used. Size and rubber
B&W Diesel standard. quality are determined by the torsional vibra-
All necessary connections for the lube oil sys- tion calculation.
tem are integrated in defined positions at the For maintenance and adjustment works a
frame as pipe sockets. The turbocharger turning gear is installed at the frame. If neces-
drains are connected to the frame tank during sary, the turn drive engages with the sprocket
production. of the flywheel.
On the counter coupling side of the frame The power train (flywheel and coupling) is
fastening plates serve to fasten pipe of the covered by a flywheel cover which has venti-
connecting pipes via adapters. lation holes in the coupling area in order to al-
The base board of the frame has bores to se- low heat dissipation. The flywheel cover is
cure the spring vibration dampers fixed un- usually fixed onto the concrete foundation.
derneath the base board (when required in
Transport
earthquake regions).
The genset is usually transported on a low-bed
Genset trailer. If engine and frame are transported sep-
The genset is placed on standardised steel arately a transport oil sump is mounted under
spring vibration dampers. the engine to protect the interior of the crank-
case from pollution.
Depending on site conditions (earthquakes)
with or without additional visco dampers. To lift the genset the standard MAN B&W Diesel
lifting device is hung to the crane, see Figure 4-
0402-0101PD.fm

The steel spring vibration dampers are usual- 5, Page 4-9.


ly glued onto the underside of the steel frame

Page 4 - 4 Version 8/2003


Genset for engine V48/60

For transport the engine is secured against shift- The admissible traction per lifting loop in di-
ing. rection transversal to the engine direction is
maximum 20 t at the V-genset and 15 t at the
Moving the genset without crane L-genset, resp.
Moving the genset without a crane, e.g. onto Longitudinal as well as transversal movement
a displacement slant to transfer it into the is possible with the lifting loops provided that
powerhouse, can be done by means of four the admissible traction is not exceeded.
hydraulic jacks that are to be set under the
frame consoles beneath the lifting loops. Moving, aligning the genset on the founda-
tion and grouting the alternator.
The lifting loops are to be used to move the
genset. Always using all four loops at the After shifting the genset onto the foundation the
same time. genset is to be set onto the steel spring vibra-
tion dampers and the alternator is aligned with
the engine and grouted.

Figure 4-2 Moving the genset


0402-0101PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 4 - 5


Engine 48/60

weight of genset see 14.1.4.2


0402-0101PD.fm

Figure 4-3 Genset with maintenance platform - engine V 48/60

Page 4 - 6 Version 8/2003


Genset for engine V48/60

Basic data Alternator Moment of inertia (MoI)


design Island mode operation 1) Alternator
Engine Rated Fre- Rated Totally Engine Fly- Flexi- Island Mains
power quency speed re- + wheel ble parallel
quired damper cou-
pling
kWmech Hz 1/min kgm kgm kgm kgm kgm kgm
12V 48/60 12,600 20,300 4,624 1,960 978 12,738 10,708
14V 48/60 14,700 See further 23,700 5,196 1,960 1,590 14,954 12,584
50 500 information in
18V 48/60 18,900 30,400 6,340 2,935 1,592 19,533 16,493
this chapter
12V 48/60 12,600 19,200 4,624 1,960 978 11,638 9,718
14V 48/60 14,700 See further 22,400 5,196 1,960 1,590 13,654 11,414
60 514 information in
18V 48/60 18,900 28,800 6,340 2,935 1,592 17,933 15,053
this chapter
1) Reduction factor for main parallel operation
Engine Reduction
Table 4-1 Data- schedule for alternator to V48/60- engines Type Factor
48/60 0,900

Figure 4-4 Genset with maintenance platform and lube oil purifier - engine V48/60
0402-0101PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 4 - 7


Engine 48/60

The rubber quality of the coupling is determinated by torsional vibration calculation Typical DIMENSIONS IN MM
TYPE T1 H1 H2 R
Typical DIMENSIONS IN MM 12V 48/60 CDUW 180 -1266 320 510 1365
DK M L 14V 48/60 CDUW 200 -1278 350 480 1365
12- 14V 48/60 d= 1685 h6 688,6 520 18V 48/60 CDUW 225 -1292 390 440 1365
18V 48/60 d= 1790 h6 753,0 570

Figure 4-1 Typical drive arrangement with rubber cou-


pling and tuning gear - engine V48/60

TYPICAL DIMENSIONS IN MM
TYPE A B C D
0402-0101PD.fm

12V 48/60 CDUW 180 649 364 325 564


14V 48/60 CDUW 200 687 396 360 584
18V 48/60 CDUW 225 760 440 380 645

Figure 4-2 Flywheel cover - engine V48/60 Figure 4-3 Turnin gear - engine V48/60

Page 4 - 8 Version 8/2003


Genset for engine V48/60

Figure 4-5 Lifting device - engine V48/60

I. Spring/ Damper unit x II. Spring unit


X
X
X

D
X
Depending on the weight of the genset and in ad-
dition to the earthquake zone the spring/damper
unit equipment has to be designed in a combina-
tion of I and II.
X = adhesive pad; D = thread M20 for transport

Available standard sices Available standard sices

A Optional with 400mm, 640mm or 740 mm A Optional with 300mm, 445mm or 590mm
0402-0101PD.fm

B Optional with 352mm, 592mm or 692mm B Optional with 252mm, 397mm or 542mm
H Nominal operating height = 340 mm H Nominal operating height = 340mm

1) Spring element Figure 4-6 Typical damper- spring unit - engine V48/60
2) Damper element

Version 8/2003 Page 4 - 9


Engine 48/60

Figure 4-7 Genset V46/60

0402-0101PD.fm

Page 4 - 10 Version 8/2003


5 Engine-related systems
Kapiteltitel 5.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 1


Kapiteltitel 5.fm

Page 5 - 2 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1 Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.1 Lube oil system


PDS: 30 20

Purpose integrated indicator screen 100m) to protect


the engine. Impurities of the oil are intercept-
The lube oil system serves to
ed by the filter. Filters are always placed di-
supply the Diesel engine with lube oil of the rectly in front of the engine inlet.
necessary amount, pressure, temperature
Pressure control valve PCV007 to maintain
and quality during all loads, and to suitable
the required oil pressure before the engine
environmental conditions,
over the entire operating range.
dissipate heat generated by the engine, and
Elevated run-down tank T050, Figure 6-46,
maintain the lube oil. Page 6-51, to secure emergency lubrication
during engine run-out in case of a power
Feature blackout.
The main lube oil system is a closed circulation
system with a connection to the atmosphere via Components in lube oil module
the crankcase vent pipe. For engine 48/60 the following components are
assembled and connected by pipes in lube oil
Components module MOD006, Figure 6-43, Page 6-48:
Cooler HE002.
Main components
Temperature control valve TCV001.
The lube oil system consists of the following
main components: Service filter FIL001.
Lube oil service tank T001, integrated in the
Auxiliary systems connected to main system
steel base frame.
The following auxiliary systems are connected
When operating the engine the oil level must
to the main system:
lie between the minimum and maximum
gauges of the service tank. Preheating system (optional)
Screw pump P001, Figure 6-44, Page 6-49, Arranged parallel to the main system. If the
for the circulation of the oil and the genera- engine is loaded immediately after the accel-
tion of pressure with integrated control valve eration the oil must have a certain minimum
against overpressure. The pump is driven by temperature. The preheating takes place in-
an electric motor. directly.
Cooler HE002, designed as plate cooler. It Cleaning system MOD007, Figure 6-45, Page
serves to draw off the heat accumulated in 6-50.
the system. This system is of special importance. The
Temperature control valve TCV001 to keep lube oil cleaning takes place by a purifier par-
the oil temperature constant or to keep a cer- allel to the main system. The purifier is the
tain minimum oil temperature. only component in the system that removes
0502-0101PD.fm

impurities from the system.


Service filter FIL001 (automatic filter 30m
with continuous cross flow back flushing and Crankcase vent pipe system.

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 3


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

With outlet to the atmosphere. Trap to sepa-


rate the oil mist / condensate produced in the
engine. The crankcase vent pipe is to be in- Checking lube oil
stalled with negative incline away from the
Good oil lifetimes imply
engine to outdoors.
Regular oil checking
Feed of fresh oil.
Continuous oil care
MAN B&W Diesel does not regulate routine
oil change intervals. A (part) oil change is to - Checking separator adjustment and effi-
take place when the limit value for used en- ciency
gine oils is exceeded (see MAN B&W Diesel
- Monitoring the optimal operation of the
Work Card 000.04). The lube oil consumption
lube oil automatic filter.
is continuously replaced by the feeding of
fresh oil. See
Chapter 3.1 "Quality of lube oil for operation
Main operating conditions on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)", Page
Lube oil temperature before engine........... 55C 3-3,
Lube oil pressure before engine ..... 3.5... 4.5bar Chapter 3.2 "Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel
oil operation (HFO)", Page 3-7, and
Lube oil temperature before purifier .......... 95C
MAN B&W Diesel Work Card 000.05.
Viscosity..................................................SAE 40
The lube oil pollution is to be checked in the in-
Lube oil quality tervals given in the maintenance plan of the en-
gine.
Lube oil quality requirements If the lube oil does not meet our quality require-
See ments (see MAN B&W Diesel Word Card 000.04)
it is to be replaced. When replacing the oil note
Chapter 3.1 "Quality of lube oil for operation that the entire system contents is replaced. Not
on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)", Page only the engine oil sump and service tank are to
3-3, and be drained but the pipe system as well.
Chapter 3.2 "Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel
oil operation (HFO)", Page 3-7.

Selection of suitable lube oil


See
Chapter 3.1 "Quality of lube oil for operation
on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)", Page
3-3, and
Chapter 3.2 "Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel
oil operation (HFO)", Page 3-7.

Assessment and treatment of lube oils


See MAN B&W Diesel Work Card 000.04.
0502-0101PD.fm

Page 5 - 4 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60
0502-0101PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 5


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0102PD.fm

Figure 5-1 Equipment schedule for lube oil system - engine 48/60

Page 5 - 6 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0102PD.fm

Figure 5-2 Schematic diagram for lube oil system - engine V48/60

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 7


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.2 2-circuit radiator cooling system


PDS: 30 30

5.1.2.1 High temperature (HT) cooling water circuit

Purpose Centrifugal pump P002


The engine cooling water system serves to Required for the circulation of the cooling
medium (water and corrosion protection or
cool the charge air stage I in the charge air
water and anti-freeze with sufficient corro-
water cooler stage I,
sion protection).
cool the cylinders of the engine, and
Radiator cooler HE003, Figure 6-49, Page
dissipate heat generated by the engine to the 6-54.
radiator cooler.
Serves to draw off the heat accumulated in
the system from cylinder cooling water and
Feature
charge air (stage I).
The engine cooling water system is a closed cir-
Control valve MOV002
culation system that has only limited connection
to the atmosphere. To keep the cooling water outlet temperature
of the engine at constant 90C over the entire
Components load range.

Main components Components in pump module


Cooling water expansion tank T002, Figure 6- For engine 48/60 the following components are
47, Page 6-52. assembled and connected by pipes in pump
module MOD002, Figure 6-48, Page 6-53:
Takes up the increased water volume when
the water is heated. The tank contains a pres- Centrifugal pump P002.
sure / negative pressure relief valve to limit Control valve MOV002.
the pressure in the cooling water expansion
tank. Auxiliary systems connected to main system
The system is connected to the atmosphere Preheating system
via the pressure / negative pressure relief
valve (+0.2bar / -0.1bar). The permanent The preheating system is operated parallel to
vent pipe from the engine joins the tank. the main system.
If the pressure in the system inadmissibly ris- If the engine is in stand-by and is loaded im-
es during expansion of the cooling medium, mediately after acceleration, the cooling me-
the pressure relief valve at the expansion tank dium must have a certain minimum
opens. temperature. For preheating purpose the
main water pump P002 is to be operated.
If a negative pressure arises at cooling of the
system during downtime, the negative pres- Filling system.
sure relief valve draws air and balances the It is to be observed that only treated water is
pressure in the tank. refilled.
0502-0201PD.fm

When operating the engine the level cooling Expansion possibility.


medium level must lie between the minimum
and maximum gauges of the service tank.

Page 5 - 8 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

If anti-freeze is used belated, contact MAN B&W


Diesel for reduction of cooling capacity and
Main operation conditions compatibility with corrosion protection. This
note applies only if the plant is not planned for
Cooling water temperature
anti-freeze.
after engine .......................................... 90C.
Cooling water pressure
before engine ................................. 3... 4bar.

Quality requirements
The cooling medium consists of treated cooling
water.
See
Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling wa-
ter", Page 3-11.
Chapter 3.4 "Checking cooling water", Page
3-19.
Chapter 3.5 "Cleaning cooling water", Page
3-23.
Anti-freeze for cooling water see
Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling wa-
ter", Page 3-11.

Changing cooling water


The higher the water hardness and the operating
temperature, the more calcareous deposits and
magnesium salts deposit in the system. This ef-
fects the heat transfer to the cooling water, thus
degrading the cooling. Therefore, the water
should be changed only in the time intervals
stated in the Operating Instructions of the en-
gine.
Leakage losses are to be replaced by treated
water.

Anti-freeze for the cooling system


Special measures are necessary if the engine is
operated at temperatures that lie below the
freezing point of water. Either the system is
emptied, or kept at temperature, or an anti-
freeze is added (also see Chapter 3.3 "Quality of
0502-0201PD.fm

engine cooling water", Page 3-11).


Note

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 9


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0202PD.fm

Figure 5-3 Equipment schedule for HT cooling water circuit - engine 48/60 (Radiator cooling system)

Page 5 - 10 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0202PD.fm

Figure 5-4 Schematic diagram for HT cooling water circuit - engine V48/60 (Radiator cooling system)

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 11


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.2.2 Low temperature (LT) cooling water circuit

Purpose The oil cooler is integrated into the charge air


cooler system. At engine 48/60 the oil cooler
The charge air cooling water circuit serves to
is connected parallel to the charge air cooler.
cool the charge air stage II in the charge air
When operating the engine the level cooling
water cooler stage II,
medium level must lie between the minimum
dissipate heat generated by the engine to the and maximum gauges of the service tank.
radiator cooler,
Centrifugal pump P025
dissipate heat from the lube oil system,
For the circulation of the cooling medium
dissipate heat from the nozzle cooling water (water and corrosion protection or water and
system, and anti-freeze with sufficient corrosion protec-
dissipate heat generated at the MDO coolers. tion), driven by an electric motor.
Radiator cooler HE008, Figure 6-49, Page
Feature 6-54.
The charge air cooling water circuit is a closed It serves to draw off the heat accumulated in
circulation that has only limited connection to the system from charge air (stage II), lube oil
the atmosphere. and nozzles.
Control valve MOV003
Components
To influence the cooling water flow rate by
Main components the charge air cooler, dependent on the am-
bient temperature. It thus prevents conden-
Cooling water expansion tank T004, Figure 6- sate in the charge air pipe at the engine.
50, Page 6-55.
Control valve MOV004 (optional)
This tank serves to balance the system con-
tents at different temperatures. The tank con- To keep a minimum cooling water tempera-
tains a pressure / negative pressure relief ture when the engine is operated in areas
valve to limit the pressure in the cooling water with minimum air temperature <10C.
expansion tank.
Components in pump module
The system is connected to the atmosphere
via the pressure / negative pressure relief In engine 48/60 the following components are
valve (+0.2bar / -0.01bar). The permanent assembled and connected by pipes in pump
vent pipe of the charge air cooling water joins module MOD020, Figure 6-51, Page 6-56:
the tank. Centrifugal pump P025.
If the pressure in the system inadmissibly ris- Control valve MOV003.
es during expansion of the cooling medium,
the pressure relief valve at the expansion tank Auxiliary systems connected to main system
opens.
Expansion possibility of the system.
If a negative pressure arises at cooling of the
system during downtime, the negative pres- Filling system.
sure relief valve draws air and balances the It is to be observed that only treated water is
0502-0203PD.fm

pressure in the tank. refilled.

Page 5 - 12 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Note
Main operation conditions
If anti-freeze is used belated, contact MAN B&W
Cooling water temperature Diesel for reduction of cooling capacity and
after engine ....................depends on engine compatibility with corrosion protection. This
performance and note applies only if the plant is not planned for
site conditions anti-freeze.
Cooling water pressure
before engine ................................. 2 ... 4bar

Cooling water quality

Quality requirements
The cooling medium consists of treated cooling
water.
Quality requirements for cooling water and
cooling water treatment see Chapter 3.3
"Quality of engine cooling water", Page 3-11.
Checking cooling water see Chapter 3.4
"Checking cooling water", Page 3-19.
Cleaning the cooling water system see Chap-
ter 3.5 "Cleaning cooling water", Page 3-23.
Anti-freeze for cooling water see Chapter 3.3
"Quality of engine cooling water", Page 3-11.

Changing cooling water


The higher the water hardness and the operating
temperature, the more calcareous deposits and
magnesium salts deposit in the system. This ef-
fects the heat transfer to the cooling water, thus
degrading the cooling. Therefore, the water
should be changed only in the time intervals
stated in the Operating Instructions of the en-
gine.
Leakage losses are to be replaced by treated
water.

Anti-freeze for the cooling system


Special measures are necessary if the engine is
operated at temperatures that lie below the
freezing point of water. Either the system is
0502-0203PD.fm

emptied, or kept at temperature, or an anti-


freeze is added (also see Chapter 3.3 "Quality of
engine cooling water", Page 3-11).

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 13


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0204PD.fm

Figure 5-5 Equipment schedule for LT cooling water circuit - engine 48/60 (Radiator cooling system)

Page 5 - 14 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0204PD.fm

Figure 5-6 Schematic diagram for LT cooling water circuit - engine V48/60 (radiator cooling system)

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 15


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

0502-0204PD.fm

Page 5 - 16 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.2.3 Nozzle cooling water circuit

Purpose Diaphragm type expansion tank.


The nozzle cooling water circuit serves to Thermostatic control valve TCV005.
cool the nozzle, and
Main operation conditions
dissipate heat in the nozzle cooling water
cooler. Cooling temperature
before nozzle .........................................60C
Feature Cooling water pressure
before nozzle ................................... 2... 5bar
The nozzle cooling water circuit is a closed
forced circulation system without connection to
the atmosphere. Cooling water quality

Components Quality requirements


The cooling medium consists of treated cooling
Main components water.
Nozzle cooling water tank T005 to balance Quality requirements for cooling water and
the system contents due to heating. It in- cooling water treatment see Chapter 3.3
cludes an oil trap to separate the media water "Quality of engine cooling water", Page 3-11.
and fuel oil in case of leakage.
Checking cooling water see Chapter 3.4
Centrifugal pump P005 for the circulation of "Checking cooling water", Page 3-19.
the cooling medium, driven by an electric en-
Cleaning the cooling water system see Chap-
gine.
ter 3.5 "Cleaning cooling water", Page 3-23.
Insert heater H005 to warm and adjust the
temperature of the nozzle cooling water. Changing cooling water
Cooler HE005. The cooler is charged with The higher the water hardness and the operating
charge air cooling water that contains anti- temperature, the more calcareous deposits and
freeze if necessary. Attention: Heat transfer. magnesium salts deposit in the system. This ef-
Diaphragm type expansion tank. fects the heat transfer to the cooling water, thus
degrading the cooling. Therefore, the water
Thermostatic control valve TCV005. should be changed only in the time intervals
Filling system. It is to be observed that only stated in the Operating Instructions of the en-
treated water is refilled. gine.
Leakage losses are to be replaced by treated
Components in module MOD005 water.
Figure 6-52, Page 6-58
Auxiliary system- connection:
In engine 48/60 the following components are
assembled and connected by pipes in module - Filling system
MOD005: It has to be observed that only treated water
Nozzle cooling water tank T005. is refilled.
0502-0205PD.fm

Centrifugal pump P005. - LT cooling water circuit

Cooler HE005.

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 17


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0206PD.fm

Figure 5-7 Equipment schedule for nozzle cooling water circuit - engine 48/60

Page 5 - 18 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0206PD.fm

Figure 5-8 Schematic diagram for nozzle cooling water circuit - engine V 48/60

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 19


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.3 Cooling tower cooling system


PDS: 30 30

At sitsite arease areas with low ambient temper-


atures below (0C), provision must be made to
The cooling tower cooling system differs sub-
prevent freezing of the cooling tower water sys-
stantially from the 2- circuit radiator cooling sys-
tem. During standstill periods, the cooling water
tem by the following components.
system must
The radiator cooler is replaced by
- either be drained
the cooling tower plus
- or heated
additional LT cooler with raw water pump
For systems see Chapter 6.1.3 "Cooling tower
plus
cooling system (forced- air- cooled)", Page 6-30
additional HT cooler with raw water pump and modules see pictures Figure 6-53, Page
6-59, Figure 6-54, Page 6-60 and Figure 6-55,
Page 6-61.

0502-0301PD.fm

Page 5 - 20 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Figure 5-9 Cooling tower cooling system


0502-0301PD.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 21


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.4 Fuel oil system


PDS: 30 60

Purpose Main operation conditions


The fuel oil system serves to HFO-Temperature before engine depending
on the used fuel oil ..................approx. 150C
supply the Diesel engine with fuel oil of the
necessary amount, pressure, temperature, Fuel oil- pressure before fuel oil pump
viscosity and quality during all loads and en- on engine ........................................3 to 6bar
vironmental conditions.
Viscosity before engine
................. 12/14 mm2/sec, centistoke, 50C
Features
Keep fuel oil temperature at maximum 50C
The fuel oil system consists of two sub-systems:
befor engine during Diesel oil operation!
the ring line system
the main fuel oil system. Operation

The ring line generates an increased pressure by The engine is generally run up in Diesel oil oper-
an overflow valve and is connected to the at- ation. When reaching the parameters
mosphere via the service tank, whereas the engine load 30%
main fuel oil system is a closed pressureised
HFO-temperature in closed circuit system
system.
60C
Design criteria engine cooling water temperature 90C
Generally, the ring line system feeds the main the engine can be switched to heavy fuel oil op-
fuel oil systems of up to four engines. eration.
In HFO-operation the fuel oil viscosity is kept at
12-14cSt by the viscosimeter VI001 and the fi-
Mesh size of double filter in HFO- module
nal heater H004 with the associated control de-
................ .................................................. 34m
vice.
Fuel oil circulation in the main fuel oil system
When switching off the engine it is generally
........ ......................3 to 5 x engine consumption
switched back to Diesel oil operation and the
......................................................at 100% load
main fuel oil system is filled by Diesel oil.
Components The engine can be switched off and run up again
in heavy fuel oil operation if the engine systems
Main components are kept at operating temperature and the me-
Ring line system dia are circulated during engine downtime.

The ring line system is divided into: The Diesel oil heat exchanger HE007 is to be ac-
tivated if Diesel oil operation is to be run for a
- Diesel oil ring line longer time frame.
- HFO ring line
Fuel oil quality
Main fuel oil system
MDO-quality see Chapter 3.8 "Quality of Ma-
The main fuel oil system consists essentially
0502-0401PD.fm

rine Diesel Fuel (MDO)", Page 3-37.


of fuel oil module MOD008,Figure 6-56, Page
6-63 and Figure 6-57, Page 6-64 . HFO-quality see Chapter 3.7 "Quality of

Page 5 - 22 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

heavy fuel oil (HFO)", Page 3-27.


Viscosity diagram see Chapter 3.10 "Viscos-
ity temperature-diagram", Page 3-41.
0502-0401PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 23


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0402PD.fm

Figure 5-10 Equipment schedule for fuel oil system - engine 48/60

Page 5 - 24 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0402PD.fm

Figure 5-11 Schematic diagram for fuel oil system - engine V48/60

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 25


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.5 Combustion air system


PDS: 30 70

Purpose Cool.
The combustion air system serves to Dry.
supply the Diesel engine with combustion air Also see Chapter 3.11 "Quality of intake air
of the necessary amount and quality during (combustion air)", Page 3-43.
all loads and environmental conditions,
reduce the level of the sound.
System see Chapter 6.1.4 "Combustion air sys-
tem", Page 6-31 and typical air intake module
Feature Figure 6-58, Page 6-66 and Figure 6-59, Page
The combustion air system is a flow rate system. 6-67.

Components
Weather protection with bird protection grat-
ing AIR011 at system inlet.
Rotary oil bath filter FIL007.
Sound absorber SL001 to adsorb noise
caused by intake air flow. Its designs and
performance depending on the demands.
Usually MAN B&W Diesel offers silencer per-
formances of 30dB(A), 40dB(A) and 50dB(A).
Intake piping.
Compensator designed for negative pres-
sure.
Weather protection, rotary oil bath filter and
sound absorber are delivered as a unit.

Main operation conditions

Pressure
The admissible negative pressure in the sys-
tem is 20mbar.

Temperature
The intake air temperature may not exceed or
undershoot the values defined for the engine
installation power.

Intake air quality


0502-0501PD.fm

Clean.

Page 5 - 26 Version 8/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60
0502-0501PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 5 - 27


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0502PD.fm

Figure 5-12 Equipment schedule for intake air system - engine 48/60

Page 5 - 28 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0502PD.fm

Figure 5-13 Schematic diagram for intake air system - engine V48/60

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 29


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

5.1.6 Exhaust gas system (downstream of the engine)


PDS: 30 80

Purpose If the compensator is replaced, it must be as-


sembled with prestress according to the
The exhaust gas system serves to
drawing.
discharge the exhaust gas to the atmos-
phere, Components
reduce the level of the sound, and Silencer SL002 to absorb the exhaust gas
reduce the transition of air-borne noise. noise. Its design and performance depend on
the demands. Usually, MAN B&W Diesel of-
Feature fers silencer performances of 25dB(A) or
35dB(A).
The exhaust gas system is a discharge blow-out
system. Exhaust gas pipe.

The following points are to be taken into consid- Drainage of the system.
eration when designing and operating the ex- Compensator 1EB6501 / 2EB6501 to take up
haust gas system:
- Changes of length of components due to
Distances to flammable objects required by temperature changes.
local fire regulations are to be observed.
- Vibration amplitudes if the engine is elasti-
Sufficient insulation of the exhaust gas pipe cally supported.
and the silencer is to be provided in order to
Insulation as protection against contact and
- reduce transition of air-borne noise to reduce heat radiation.
- reduce fire danger and risk of accident Also see Chapter 6.2.6 "Exhaust gas mod-
- reduce pipe corrosion ule", Page 6-69.

- reduce heat radiation. Main operating conditions


Damper elements are to be considered at the The admissible counter-pressure in the system
silencers bearings with regard to structure- after the turbine is
borne sound.
usually ............................................ < 30mbar
The exhaust gas silencer is to be equipped
with permanent drainage (water tank). The The exhaust gas temperature after the turbo-
water tank must be filled with a sufficient charger depends on the ambient temperature
quantity of water. In regular intervals the wa- and the engine performance. Guide values are
ter-condensate-mixture is to be drained and given in Chapter 2.2.7 "Planning data", Page
the water tank to be refilled with fresh water. 2-48, for engine 48/60 and in the calculation
programme "Projedat" developed by MAN B&W
Mounts (fixed points and loose points) of the Diesel. See also Chapter 2.1.8 "Adjustment of
exhaust gas system are to be checked annu- output and power", Page 2-23.
ally. The fixed point is usually at the foot of
the silencer that is away from the engine. All Exhaust gas quality
other mounts and fixings are loose points and
must move freely. The exhaust gas quality depends on the fuel oil
0502-0601PD.fm

and the load of the engine. See Chapter 2 "En-

Page 5 - 30 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

gine", Page 2-1 and Chapter 9 "External exhaust


and boiler systems", Page 9-1.
0502-0601PD.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 31


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine 48/60

0502-0602PD.fm

Figure 5-14 Equipment schedule for exhaust gas system - engine 48/60

Page 5 - 32 Version 5/2003


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

Engine V 48/60
0502-0602PD.fm

Figure 5-15 Schematic diagram for exhaust gas system - engine V48/60

Version 5/2003 Page 5 - 33


Engine-related systems - engine V48/60

0502-0602PD.fm

Page 5 - 34 Version 5/2003


6 Engine-related modules and components
Kapiteltitel 6.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 1


Kapiteltitel 6.fm

Page 6 - 2 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1 Engine-related modules and components - data con-


cerning all engines

6.1.1 Selection of economic serial products and procurement of


accessories (electric motors, pumps, strainer and filter, control
valves, cooler/ heat exchanger)
PDS: 210

6.1.1.1 Electric motors


MAN B&W Diesel delivers standard motors ac-
cording to VDE 0530 and DIN EN 60034.
Protection class
Minimum IP 54 for installation indoors
Minimum IP 55 for installation outdoors.
Insulation material class
F.
Voltage
400V; 50Hz; or
460V (440 ... 480V); 60Hz.
Other designs, e.g.
Different voltages
Lubrication nipple (for bigger motors)
Enlarged screw connection for cables (be-
cause of certain cable connections)
Enlarged terminal box
Standstill heater
Special coloration etc.
Condensate drainage hole in the lower part
require special processing and thus lead to
higher procurement costs and longer delivery
times.
MAN B&W Diesel usually delivers electric mo-
tors with certain safety margin above the neces-
sary shaft power.
0601-0101PA.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 3


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.1.2 Pumps
MAN B&W Diesel delivers the following pumps. Attention!
Centrifugal pumps must be filled with medium
Centrifugal pumps prior to initial start-up in order to ensure proper
Usually used for wetting of the slide ring seal (mechanical seal).
All waters and
Avoid dry running by all means!
Circulation of thermal oil.
To avoid shaft leakages centrifugal pumps are
generally equipped with non-cooled slide ring
seals.
The viscosity of the delivery medium strongly in-
fluences
Efficiency
Characteristic
Height of conveyance
of the centrifugal pump.
Therefore MAN B&W Diesel uses centrifugal
pumps only to advance water.
Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming.
Centrifugal pumps have an efficiency of 75% ...
85%. Pumps with a flow rate of 500m/h have
an efficiency of approx. 80% ... 85%. Smaller
pumps have smaller efficiencies.
Centrifugal pumps must always be adjusted to
the conditions at the site.

Figure 6-1 Reference curve of centrifugal pump


0601-0101PA.fm

Page 6 - 4 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Centrifugal pumps

Figure 6-3 Cross section of centrifugal pump


Dismantling the rotating pump parts is possible without re-
moving the pump casing from the piping

Figure 6-2 Outher image of centrifugal pump

Figure 6-4 Q-H-characteristic of centrifugal pump

1 Operating point
0601-0101PA.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 5


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Gear pumps Flow rate ............................................1 - 50m/h


Used for medium volumes of self-lubricating Viscosity ........................................6 - 1,000cSt,
media, such as: dependent on revolution
Diesel oil Revolution...............................1,000 - 3,000rpm
Heavy oil Pressure................................... maximum 25bar
Lube oil. Type of bearing ...........................friction bearing
Gear pumps are equipped with shaft sealing Gear pumps with a flow rate of approx. 5m/h
rings (simmer ring). have an efficiency of approx. 50%.

Note Mode of operation


For gear pumps Gear pumps are operating displacement pumps
with external gears.
Dirt traps, or
When rotating the gears, low pressure will be in-
One- way filter
ducted at the suction side. By this the medium
must be installed on suction side.
enters into the pump and streams between the
gears of the wheels. Then the medium will be
transported in the gaps of tooth, closed by the
casing, further to the pressure side.

Aspiration Transport Displacement

Figure 6-5 Gear pump


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

1 Casing
2 Driving cover
3 End gear with Bulton relief valve
4 Gear shafts
5 Bearing bushes
6 Radial shaft packing ring
7 Round packing ring

Figure 6-6 Cross section of gear pump

Attention!
Gear pumps must be filled with oil prior to initial
start-up in order to ensure the required surface
lubrication of the rotating parts as well as proper
wetting of the seal (simmer ring)

Avoid dry running by all means!


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Figure 6-7 Delivery characteristic of gear pump

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Figure 6-8 Gear pump - Q, H-diagram

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Screw pumps The operating principle of screw pumps


Used for general volumes of self-lubricating me- The three rotors, one power rotor and two sym-
dia, such as: metrically opposed idler rotors, are the only
moving parts in a screw pump. Radially the ro-
Lube oil (large volume; e.g. main lube oil
tors are supported in their bores by a film of the
pump)
pumped fluid. Axial forces on the power rotor
Heavy oil are supported by adequately dimensioned
Diesel oil thrust bearings.

Thermal oil (fill /drain). The precisions made threads of the rotor seal
against each other and the rotor bores, forming
To avoid shaft leackages screw pumps are a series of enclosed chambers which move the
equipped with non- cooled slidering gaskets fluid uniformly at constant axial velocity. The lin-
ear movement of the fluid makes the pump suit-
Note able for direct connection to high speed motors
For screw pumps and ensures an excellent suction capability.

Dirt traps, or Because of the constant axial flow, the pumps


are very quiet and operate with virtually no pul-
One-way filter sation or vibration. The pumped fluid is subject
must be installed at the suction side. only to negligible shearing forces, which is espe-
cially important when pumping emulsions or flu-
Flow rate ......................................... 1 - 800m/h ids containing polymers.
Viscosity.........................................6 - 1,000cSt,
dependent on revolution
Revolution normal............................... 1,500rpm
Design of screw pump
For fuel oil ............................................3-spindle
For lube oil ....................2-spindle and 5-spindle
Type of bearing:
Drive spindle ....................... always ball bearing
Conveying spindle ......... usually friction bearing
Screw pumps have an efficiency of 70%... 75%.
Pumps with a flow rate of 500m/h have an effi-
ciency of approx. 75%. Smaller pumps have
smaller efficiencies.

Common data for gear pump and screw pump


The bearing of the screw pump spindle is of
higher quality than that of the gear pump.
The pumps can deliver faultless only if the deliv-
ery medium is advanced without pollution on the
suction side.
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Figure 6-9 The operating principle

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Screw pumps

Figure 6-10 Outline drawing of screw pump

Numbers of DN A B C D Assembly space Weight of Total


cylinders ExF electric weight
motor

mm mm mm mm mm mm kg kg

12 350 2,597 800 555 760 250 x 1,600 1,070 2,442


V48/60 diameter

14 400 2,777 1,000 555 930 300 x 2,000 1,181 3,655


V48/60 diameter

18 400 3,017 1,000 655 930 300 x 2,000 1,770 4,274


V48/60 diameter

Table 6-1 Measures of stationarylube oil pump


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Figure 6-11 Delivery characteristicof screw pump

Operating points 1 2 3 4
speed n (min -1) 1450 1450 1450 1450
viscosity v (mm2/s) 600 300 150 70
diff.press p diff (bar) 8 8 8 8
theor. vol (l) 6,47 6,47 6,47 6,47
flow rate Qa (l/min) 9379,7 9379,7 9379,7 9379,7
fl. rate reduce (%) 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
flow rate Q (l/min) 9305,1 9274,2 9230,5 9161,4
power demand (kW) 203,7 186,5 173,0 161,6

Table 6-2 Flow rate and power demand in accordance


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to viscosity

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Figure 6-12 Cross section of screw pump

Attention!
Screw pumps must be filled with oil prior to ini-
tial start-up in order to ensure the required sur-
face lubrication of the rotating parts as well as
proper wetting of the slide ring seal (mechanical
seal).

Avoid dry running by all means!


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Diaphragm pumps
Used for
Sludge (compressed air of approx. 7bar nec-
essary).

The functional principle of the pneumatic dia-


phragm pump
The pumps are double acting positive displace-
ment pumps with two alternating pump cham-
bers. The compressed air required for driving
the unit is admitted through a control valve to
the rear of each diagrams in turn, thus displac-
ing the medium from alternate pump chambers.
In the pump illustrated, the right- hand pumping
chamber is in the intake position. A vacuum has
been created by the retraction of the diaphragm,
and the pumped medium flows into the cham-
ber. The left hand diaphragm- which is support-
ed by the compressed air- simultaneously
displaces the medium present in this chamber.

Since the two diaphragms are connected by a


common piston rod, suction always occurs in
one chamber while discharge is occurring in the
other.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Diaphragm pump

1 Pressure blower
2 Upper ball valve
3 Diagraphm
4 Product chamber
5 Air outlet
6 Lower ball valva
7 Upper ball valve
8 Pneumatic control valve
9 Air chamber
10 Lower ball valve
11 Suction casing

Figure 6-13 Three dimensional view of a diagraphm pump

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Figure 6-14 Delivery characteristic of diagraphm pumps

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Hose pumps (peristaltic) Function


Used for The function of peristaltic pumps range is based
on a patent vacuum principle ("hose- in- hose-
Sludge
system").
Waste water.
When the pump starts to run an additional chan-
Protection against overpressure and protection nel in the wall of the hose quickly enables air to
against hose breaking (capacitive proximity be evacuated from inside the pumping house.
switch, protection against dry running) are nec-
The resulting pressure drop within the pump
essary.
housing is close to absolute vacuum. The hose
then expands in an attempt to fill he vacuum,
which in turn results in a strong pressure drop at
the suction port of the pump, sufficient to enable
the pump to overcome high suction lifts.

Figure 6-15 Three dimensional view of a hose pump


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Hose pump

Figure 6-16 Mode of operation of hose pump

1) The rotor rotates inside the lubricant filled


pump housing and presses the hose together 3) The product volume between both sliding
with its outer sliding pieces. This separates the pieces (Figure2) is exactly half of the displace-
suction side hermetically from the pressure side. ment per revolution.

2) During the rotation the product inside the 4) This volume is delivered to the pressure outlet
hose (liquid or gas) is forced towards the pres- whilst the same amount is simultaneously drawn
sure outlet. this causes a pressure drop in the in through the suction fitting (Figure 3 and 4).
suction side and product is then drawn in.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Hose Pumps

Figure 6-17 Hose pump - Q, n- Diagram


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Figure 6-18 Mode of operation of a hose pump in three-dimensional view

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Hose pump

All pump size with flange Glandless capable of One- piece rotor sliding,
connection. Other types of dry- running, dry blocks easily adjustable
connection possible self- priming

Hose and all moveable parts Compact structural shape Special shaped pump hose
lubricated by glycerine filling Pressure proof casing in different elastomers,
reinforced by textile fabrics

Greater service life of hose Gentle compression of


trough short and flexible pump hose by optimal
clamped pump hose Efficient pressure and priming
characteristics through hoses designed sliding blocks
reinforced by textile
0601-0101PA.fm

Figure 6-19 Cross section of a hose pump

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.1.3 Strainer

Strainer
Strainers are used as pump protection on the in-
take side of the pump for
Lube oil
Heavy oil
Diesel oil
Vapour
Condensate
Mesh size: 500 m.
See following figure.

Figure 6-20 Strainer

1 Body
2 Screen
3 Gasket
4 Cover
5 Stud
6 Hexagonal nut
7 Empty screw
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.1.4 Filter

Single filter Mesh size: 25 m.


Fuel oil running-in filter for Diesel oil.
After the running-in process the filter is re-
moved and the engine may be operated with
heavy oil operation as well.

Figure 6-21 Typical single filter DN65


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Running- in filter
Running-in filter for lube oil.
On the pressure side of the circulating pump,
temporary for lube oil, installed at the engine.
Mesh size: 37 m.

Figure 6-22 Running - in filter at the engine

After min. 200 engine operation hours remove


filter inserts. Same procedure after each engine
overhaul.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Double filter As indicator filter in HFO module outlet.


Used Mesh size: 34 m.
In MDO ringmain pipe. See Figure below.
Mesh size: 34 m.

Figure 6-23 Typical Double filter DN80


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Automatic filter
Interval flush filter
Used in HFO ringmain pipe.
Mesh size: 34 m.
Back flushing with pressure air 10bar.
One chamber is always in stand-by or in back
flushing process, dependent on the pressure dif-
ference in the filter.
See function of filters below.

Figure 6-24 Interval flush filter- operating (left side) and


back flushing(right side)
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Automatic filter Due to turning mechanism, opposite lying


plugs must be flushed; permanent rotation.
Permanent flush filter
The back- flushing facility with its own filter
Used as main lube oil filter medium operates continuously.
Mesh size 30 m. The design of the pump must take the back
With indicator screen 100 m. flushing quantity of the filter into account.

Figure 6-25 Function of the permanent flush filter


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

General survey of strainer/filter mesh sizes for stationary Diesel power plants

500 m Strainer for pump protection

37 m Lube oil running- in filter on engine

Double filter in MDO ring main pipe


34 m
- Automatic filter (interval flushing) in HFO ring main pipe

- Fuel oil double filter (indicator filter) in HFO module

30 m Automatic filter (permanent flushing) Lube oil main filter (indication filter insert 100 m
included)

25 m Fuel oil running- in filter (flushing in MDO mode)

Table 6-3 Generaly survey of strainer/filter mesh sizes


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.1.5 Temperature Control valves


- Thermostatic control valve with integrated
wax- filled- thermostat used for lube oi

Figure 6-26 Thermostatic control valve

- Control valve with electric actuator includ-


ing external temperature sensor used for
HT and LT cooling water- systems
.

Figure 6-27 Cross section of three- way temp. control


valve
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.1.6 Cooler/ Heat exchanger (HE)

Tube Type
Used for Suitable for higher temperatures and pres-
sures as no soft sealing is used.
Heavy oil preheating (HFO-module).

Figure 6-28 Typical tube heat exchanger

1 Tube flange
2 U- Tube
3 Bafle plates
4 Sealing strip
5 Distance tube
6 Nut
7 Stay rod
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Plate Type heat exchanger


Arguments for the utilisation of plate type heat
Used for exchangers. In consequence of the design:
Waters - realisation of a large exchanger surface on
Lube oil a restricted volume

Diesel oil - on account of high turbulance between


the cooler plates, a high heat transfer co-
Heavy oil efficient is achieved ( a high k- value re-
quires a small exchanger surface)
- easy maintenance

Figure 6-29 Plate type coolers

1 Girder 5 Pressure plate


2 Support column 6 Passage plate
3 Bolt protection 7 Tightening stud
4 Guide rail 8 Frame plate
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Radiator cooler
Used for
Waters
Lube oil
Heat transfer medium (vapour, hot water,
thermal oil).

See separate Chapter 6.1.2 "Radiator cooling


system", Page 6-26.

Cooling tower
See separate Chapter 6.1.3 "Cooling tower
cooling system (forced- air- cooled)", Page
6-30.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.2 Radiator cooling system


Used for - Nozzle cooling water .................. LT-circuit
waters Addition of surcharges given in the "Projedat"
regulations to the net heat flow.
lube oil
The radiator cooler is to be designed for the
Heat transfer medium (vapour, hot water,
determined basic heat flow (design point).
thermal oil)
Addition of an fouling factor for the radiator
Avoid short circuit (re circulation).
cooler as stated by the manufacturer.
Special features of radiator cooler:
Addition of an area reserve of 5% per circuit.
- Air is available everywhere, without re-
If air temperatures below 0C arise at the in-
striction
stallation site the reduction of the radiator
- Actually no water losses cooler performance due to anti-freeze agents
- If clean air is available, maintenance is is to be taken into account. See MAN B&W
hardly necessary Diesel document No. D365688 "Antifreeze
agent for coolant cooling system".
- In Areas with ambient temperatures below
0C, provided that the circuits are protect- Control calculation for ventilator design
ed with anti- freeze agents, no problems
are expected. The design of the ventilator cooler must consid-
er the design point as well as the extreme per-
On the other hand, power is required for the op- formance point.
eration of the fans.
Thus, the heat flows according to "Projedat" are
A certain surface must be available for installing. to be regarded. The manufacturer of the ventila-
tion cooler must confirm that the engine output
Radiator coolers temperature in the HT-circuit (90C) and the
Radiator coolers must be designed to meet the cold water temperature in the LT-circuit (ac-
respective site conditions. cording to project data) are observed.

Based on the specified engine performance at Typical radiator cooler design


the installation site the heat to be dissipated
from the engine and supply systems is calculat- Single cooler bundles rest on a common steel
ed by the programme "Projedat" developed by support.
MAN B&W Diesel. Ventilators on top of the cooling nets (preven-
tion of air short-circuit).
Procedure for the design
Electric motors with insulation class H de-
100% engine performance at the installation signed for air temperature minimum 70C.
site (design point)
Cooling pipe made of copper.
For this purpose net heat flow [kW] from
"Projedat" calculated for Cooling fins made of aluminium.

- Engine cooling water ................. HT-circuit The flow rates and temperatures of the media to
be cooled are given in the schematic diagrams
- Charge air cooler, stage 1.......... HT-circuit and the corresponding description
0601-0201PA.fm

- Charge air cooler, stage 2........... LT-circuit HT circuit


- Lube oil and engine purifier ........ LT-circuit LT circuit

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Lube oil circuit must be checked.


Nozzle cooling circuit Control of the ventilators
in Chapter 5 "Engine-related systems", Page Switch "On / Off" in groups, local and remote.
5-1 and following. Normal operation is in automatic mode, control-
led by PLC.
If the position of the radiator coolers at the site
differs from that in the concept site plan / con-
cept layout, then Arrangement of ventilator coolers

pipe diameters The distance of the ventilator cooler to high


walls such as power house, tank farm, pump
delivery height of the supply pump house, etc., should be approx. 2x the height of
contents of the cooling circuits (size of the the structure.
cooling water expansion tank)
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Figure 6-30 Arrangement of radiator cooler

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Height of the cooler bundle over ground and de-


sign of the installation area
The clearance of the cooler bundle over its in-
stallation should be up to 6m, depending on the
size of the power plant required and the area for
cooler installation. This serves to ensure suffi-
cient and clean air supply to all coolers.
The installation site underneath the cooling plant
is to be built as concrete plate to enable easy re-
moval of dust and other pollution.
The guide values of ventilator cooler arrange-
ment and height of the cooler bundle vary ac-
cording to the size of the plant.

Maximum Achievable cold


ambient air water tempera-
temperature ture (LT-circuit)
[C] [C]

Engine 32/40 35 45
Oil temperature at
engine inlet: 65C 40 50
Oil cooler in LT-cir-
45 55
cuit

Engine 48/60 35 45
Oil temperature at
engine inlet: 55C 40 47
Oil cooler in LT-cir-
cuit

Table 6-4 Selection of 2-circuit radiator cooler plants

If air temperatures below 0C arise at the instal-


lation site the reduction of the radiator cooler
performance due to anti-freeze agents is to be
taken into account. See MAN B&W Diesel docu-
ment No. D365688 "Antifreeze agent for coolant
cooling system".
The minimum concentration of antifreeze agent
is 35% due to corrosion protection, see Chapter
3.3 "Quality of engine cooling water", Page
3-11.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

MAN B&W Diesel uses a common cooler sup- even tolerances of the cooler support must be
port frame for the radiator cooler bundles. In or- ensured.
der limit cooler bundle distortion, distance and
Please see illustration below.

Figure 6-31 Details of radiator cooler installation


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.3 Cooling tower cooling system (forced- air- cooled)


PDS: 30 30

Features in temperate zone (Turkey)....... approx. 23C


The cooling tower operation (CT) requires a per- The cold water temperature is usually 6C higher
manent water consumption (make- up- water) of than the wet bulb temperature.
3 to 4% of the circulating raw water flow rate for
Water temperature before cooling tower not
the evaporation losses more than 48C to prevent calcification.
blowing down.
Cooling water quality
The cooling tower is designed according to the
distance between the wet-bulb temperature tF See Chapter 3.6 "Quality of raw-water in cooling
and the cold water temperature after the tower. tower operation (addtive and circulating water)",
Page 3-25
Wet-bulb temperature tF
in the tropics (Indonesia) ... approx. 28...29C

Engine Type 18V 32/40 (100% load) 18V 48/60 (100% load)

Amb. air temperature C 32 32

Wet bulb temperature C 23 28 23 28

Water temp. after CT C 29 34 29 34

Heat quantity LT- circuit kW 2720 2685 4965 4680

Heat quantity HT- circuit kW 3495 3560 7060 7255

Water flow rate LT- circuit m3/h 123 165 224 286

Water flow rate HT- circuit m3/h 158 218 318 444

Overall water flow rate m3/h 281 383 542 730

Make- up water requirement m3/h 11 15 22 29

Table 6-5 Orientation assistance for estimation the required amount of raw- and make- up water
Water temperature before CT 48C
Calculated on a concentration factor 2
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.4 Combustion air system


PDS: 3070

Please see the individual typical drawing of the


combustion air system for engine:
V34/40 Chapter 6.2.5 "Combustion air system",
Page 6-64
V48/60 Chapter 6.2.5 "Combustion air system",
Page 6-65.

Intake air filter and silencer module

Purpose
The combustion air modules and components
Figure 6-32 Rain protection for intake air filter
serve to:
Protect the engine against weather and birds
Clean the intake air
The total weather protection grid can be seen in
Absorb the sound the Drawing on the following page.

Features
MAN B&W Diesel uses Droplet Separator Profile
as rain protection

Separation technology
The streamlined separator profiles deflect the
droplet laden gas stream, as a result the monu-
mentum of the droplet causes them to impinge
onto the profiles surface. The droplets coalesce
together form a liquid film, the influence of grav-
ity causes the liquid to drain to the bottom of the
profiles. Specially sharped separation chambers
improve performance by enhancing the separa-
tion of finer droplets and ensuring problem for
discharge of liquid.
To avoid the flooding of the profiles and the pos-
sibility of re- entrainment of the separated liquid,
the height of the profile sections is normally lim-
ited to 2,500 mm.
The following graph illsustrates the descripted
technologie.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Weather protection grid

Figure 6-33 Weather protection grid for intake air filter


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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Size of intake air filter a adequate supply of adhesive oil. The filter
panels move vertically upward across the
The intake air filters are to be designed for the
front face of the housing forming a continu-
respective combustion air quantity of the die-
ous sealed curtain. They are then carried
sel engine
across the housing as the chains engage with
Consult MAN B&W Diesel to have the values carrier sprockets located in the top of the
calculated by the program "Projedat" casing and maintain the same vertical face as
Generally, the necessary gross area of the in- they travel downward on the clean side of the
take air filter is calculated as follows: filter.

Intake air Q [m3/h] / flow rate v [m/sec] = A [m2] On reaching the adhesive oil tank, the parti-
cles are submerged and thoroughly cleaned
The flow rate should be within 2,5 m/sec to by agitation prior to emerging from the bath
3 m/sec re- oiled and drained for re- entry the incom-
ing airstream.
Separation efficiency of oil bath rotary filter
At all stages of operation the filter panels
Degree of separation of an oilbath rotary filter is present the same face of filter media to the in-
given in the following graph. coming airstream.
The double panel bank and controlled curtain
movement ensures positive ellimation of oil
"carryover" with the filtered air.

Figure 6-34 Degree of separation in air intake filter (rotary


filter)

Principles of operation of an oilbath rotary filter


Auto- flo 2000 air filters operate using the vis-
cous impingement filter principle whereby
airborne particles suspended in the intake
airstream are trapped on a adhesive coated,
progressive density matrix. The filter media is
0601-0401PA.fm

supported in panels or cells which are sus-


pended at either end using roller chains.
The assembly is mounted into a steel hous-
ing, at the base of which is a tank containing
Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 33
Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

A more demonstrativ impression of the filter


operation is given in the following graph

Figure 6-35 Operation mode of oil bath rotary filter

Operation
Thus the filter panels travel a distance of ap-
With the power supply connected and control prox. 50mm during the 6 seconds and then
panel switched on, a timer circuit on an elec- remain stationary for 30 minutes. This allows
tronic control board will operate after a 60 time for any excess oil to drain from the filter
seconds delay, switching the power onto the panel mesh media back down into adhesive
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engine, for 6 seconds, and then off for 30 oil sump


minutes

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Recommended adhesive oils mesh), reduced filter effect and reduced filter
regeneration (reduced adhesion forces, re-
The viscosity of oil generally depends on the
duced resolving of oil film in bath).
temperature and decreases with decreasing
temperature. The oil is therefore to be adapt- At oil change the oil is transferred, cleaned
ed to the ambient temperature according to and kept until the next use.
the manufacturers instructions, see table be-
low. A wrong viscosity leads to increased
pressure loss of the filter (thicker oil film in the

Temperature Oil Viscosity


range

-10C to +6C Shell Tellus 10 Shell Morlina 10 Mobil DTE 11 M EssoNUTO H 10 ISO 10

-5C to +16C Shell Tellus 15 Shell Morlina 22 Mobil DTE 11 M Esso NUTO H 15 ISO 15

-6C to +27C Shell Tellus 22 Shell Morlina 22 Mobil DTE 22 M Esso NUTO H 22 ISO 22

-16C to +38C Shell Tellus 37 Shell Morlina 46 Mobil DTE 24 M Esso NUTO H 32 ISO 32

-28C to +52C Shell Tellus 100 Shell Morlina 100 Mobil DTE 27 M Esso NUTO H 100 ISO 100

Table 6-6 Adhesive oils

Additives as T / R / V / M mostly stand for spe-


cial additives to basic oil. They are usually of
higher quality than the basic oil and to be used
for special purposes.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Air intake silencer

Figure 6-36 Typical design of an intake air silencer

Nominal Dia of intake air pipe


The intake air pipe is designed for a flow rate
of approx. 18m/sec. to 20m/sec..

The following figure shows typical fix and sliding


point support for reduce structure borne noise
for air intake and exhaust gas pipes.
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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Figure 6-37 Typical fix point support to reduce structure bome noise for air intake and exhaust gas pipes

Figure 6-38 Typical sliding point support to reduce structure bome noise for air intake and exchaust gas pipes

DN A=E B C D F G I S T H
mm
600 200 100 560 460 110 460 550 18-20 20 519
700 568
800 618
900 300 200 660 560 210 610 700 18-20 20 668
1000 718
1100 768
1200 828
1300
1400 400 300 820 720 310 860 950 18-20 30 928
1600 1028
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1700 1078
1800 1128

Table 6-7 Measurements for fix and sliding point support

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.5 Exhaust gas system

Exhaust gas system installed directly down-


stream of the engine.
Please see the individual typical drawing of the Piping
exhaust gas system for engine 32/40 and 48/60 The pipe diameter given in typical drawings of
in Chapter 6.2.6 "Exhaust gas module", Page the exhaust system assures an exhaust gas ve-
6-67 andChapter 6.2.6 "Exhaust gas module", locity of approx. 35m/sec.
Page 6-69.
The exhaust gas velocity after a silencer with
Purpose a damping rate of 25/35 dB(A) is 35m/sec
The exhaust gas system serves to safely dis- a damping rate of 45 dB(A) is 25 m/sec.
charge the exhaust gas of the Diesel engine - The exhaust gas pipe is made of ST37.
without negative influence on the engine opera-
tion. - The dimensioning of the exhaust gas pipe
diameter after the absorber and of the ab-
Features sorber outlet diameter must take the ad-
missible muzzle sound level into
By means of the silencer SL002, see the corre- consideration, refer Chapter 9.1 "External
sponding octave level diagram for the silencer exhaust and boiler systems - description
performance in Chapter 6.2.6 "Exhaust gas for all plants", Page 9-3.
module", Page 6-67 and Chapter 6.2.6 "Exhaust
gas module", Page 6-69 , the unsilenced ex- The table shown in the above mentioned typical
haust gas noise according to graphic. Engine/ drawing of the individual exhaust gas system list
exhaust gas noises in the engine project plan- the admissible forces and/or moments, which
ning data Chapter 2.2.6 "Exhaust gas noise", must not be exceeded at the turbocharger con-
Page 2-47 and Chapter 2.2.6 "Exhaust gas nection.
noise", Page 2-47 is reduced to admissible
noise level. Compensator EB6501
The compensator according Figure 6-40, Page
Design criteria 6-40 ensures that the admissible load, forces
The admissible exhaust gas resistance in the en- and/or moments at the turbocharger, caused by
tire exhaust gas system, e.g. thermal elongation of the components and
movement amplitude of the resiliently mounted
silencer Diesel engine are not exceeded.
waste heat boiler The compensator has to be installed with 50%
catalytic convert and/or scrubber prestress.
ESP (dry electrostatic precipitator)
Support for exhaust gas pipe and silencer
piping
Please refer to the separate drawings in Chapter
fittings 6.1.4 "Combustion air system", Page 6-31 and
at the end of this chapter, Chapter Figure 6-41
chimney
"Sliding point for silencer and boiler to reduce
may not exceed the level according to the en- structure born noise", Page 6-41 and Chapter
0601-0501PA.fm

gine planning data (see respective engine in Figure 6-42 "Fix point for silencer and boiler to
Chapter 2 "Engine", page 2-1 and following). reduce structure born noise", Page 6-41, pro-
(Unally < 30mbar) viding information about the execution of the
support (fixed point and sliding point) of exhaust

Page 6 - 38 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

pipe and silencer, which is insulated to reduce


the structure bome noise.

Insulation
The insulation of exhaust gas pipe and exhaust
gas silencer is a hard cladding insulation con-
sisting of rock wool with aluminium- plate- cov-
ering.
Also see the separate drawings in chapter 6.1.4,
6.2.6/6.3.6 and at the end of this chapter.
Typical crossection of an exhaust gas absorp-
tion silencer see Figure 6-39, Page 6-40.
0601-0501PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 39


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Exhaust gas system

Figure 6-40 Typical expansion joint for exhaust gas sys-


tem

Technical data
Service pressure p = 25 mbar
Service temperature t = 550C
With floating flanges
On both sides from steel to DIN86044
Below multi wall from steel alloy 1.4541

Figure 6-39 Typical cross section of exhaust gas silencer

Nominal Dia of exhaust gas pipe:


The exhaust gas pipes are designed for a ve-
locity of approx. 35 m/sec
0601-0501PA.fm

Page 6 - 40 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Figure 6-41 Sliding point for silencer and boiler to reduce


structure born noise

Figure 6-42 Fix point for silencer and boiler to reduce


structure born noise
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Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 41


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

0601-0501PA.fm

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Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines
0601-0501PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 43


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

6.1.6 Cleaning system for fuel and lube oil


MAN B&W Diesel uses for both
fuel and
lube oil cleaning
Separator with controlled partial discharge

Figure 6-43 separator basic concept

The operating temperatures are


95C for lube oil and
98C for fuel oil
When separated water approaches the disc
Operating principle stack, see Figure 6-45, Page 6-45 and , some
Dirty oil is continuously fed to the separator. The droplets of water start to escape with the
flow of oil is not interrupted when sludge and/ or cleaned oil. The small increase of the water con-
water is discharged. tent in the cleaned oil is then immediately
sensed by the water transducer, installed in the
Clean oil is continuously dicharged from the clean oil outlet.
clean oil outlet. Separated sludge and water ac-
cumulate ate the periphery of the bowl as shown
in Figure 6-44, Page 6-44.
0601-0601PA.fm

Figure 6-44 Separated sludge and water accumulate at

Page 6 - 44 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

1) Oil inlet
2) Oil outlet
3) Sludge outlet
4) Make- up closing water inlet
5) Opening water inlet
6) Water drain valve
7) Water outlet
8) Flow control disc
9) Disc stack
10) Top disc
11) Inlet for conditioning and displacement
water

the periphery of the bowl

Figure 6-45 Water approaches the disc stack


0601-0601PA.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 45


Engine-related modules and components - data concerning all engines

Alternatively the water dedection also can accur


in a separate bypass to the main clean oil outlet.

Sludge space Monitoring System

Figure 6-46 Schematic illustration of a separator with Figure 6-47 Schematic illustration of a separator with
Sludge Space Monitoring System (SMS) Sludge Space Monitoring System (SMS)
during separation during ejection 0601-0601PA.fm

Page 6 - 46 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2 Engine-related modules and components -


engine V48/60 - for

6.2.1 Lube oil system


PDS: 30 20

Lube oil module Characteristics


Easy assembly and disassembly of compo-
Purpose nents for operation, maintenance and repair.
The lube oil module serves to: After installing the module, all operation de-
cool the system vices are easy to access for operation and
maintenance.
control the lube oil temperature
filter the lube oil Components
supply the engine with lube oil of the required For engine 48/60 the following components are
amount, temperature and pressure. assembled and connected by pipes in the lube
Note: The lube oil is delivered by freestanding oil module:
lube oil pump. Cooler HE002.
Temperature control valve TCV001.
Features
Service filter FIL001.
All components are completely mounted onto
the base frame and connected by pipes (exclud-
ing pump).
The base frame, a welded construction ST37, is
designed as oil sump with discharge nozzle and
locking screw.
All connections at the module are complete with
flange and counter-flange.
Foundation anchor and levelling screws (mini-
mum 3cm adjustment height) as well as lifting
loops for transport belong to the module.
VDE, DIN and EN regulations apply.
Lube oil automatic filter with mesh size 30m.
All sensors and the difference pressure switch of
the filter are cabled and connected on a terminal
box.
All non-zinced, black steel parts have priming
coat and covering coat.
0603-0101PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 47


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Lube oil module MOD006

Figure 6-43 Lube oil module engine


V 48/60

1 Heat exchanger N1 Lube oil inlet, DN 250


N4 Cooling water outlet, DN 250
2 Automatic filter lube oil N2 Lube oil outlet, DN 250
N5 Flushing outlet, DN 40
5 Terminal box N3 Cooling water inlet, DN 250
N6 Run-down lube oil inlet, DN 40
0603-0101PD.fm

Page 6 - 48 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Lube oil supply pump P001

Figure 6-44 Outline drawing of screw pump V48/60

Numbers of DN A B C D Assembly space Weight of Total


cylinders ExF electric weight
motor

mm mm mm mm mm mm kg kg

12 350 2,597 800 555 760 250 x 1,600 1,070 2,442


V48/60 diameter

14 400 2,777 1,000 555 930 300 x 2,000 1,181 3,655


V48/60 diameter

18 400 3,017 1,000 655 930 300 x 2,000 1,770 4,274


0603-0101PD.fm

V48/60 diameter

Table 6-8 Measures of stationary lube oil pump V48/60

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 49


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Lube oil separator MOD007

Figure 6-45 Lube oil separator - engine V48/60

10 Untreated lube oil inlet 18 Compressed air


11 Treated lube oil outlet 19 Water inlet
16 Steam inlet, flanges 94 Sludge outlet
17 Condensate discharge 96 Vent

Lube oil separators for engine V48/60 The hoist should be mounted on a running rail so
that bowl parts can be moved from the separa-
Transport weight approx. 1,500kg
tor to a workbench.
Operating weight approx. 1,800kg
Do not discharge the oily sludge into the pub- Separator for Height H1 Weight of bowl
lic sewage system.
mm kg
A hoist should be installed above the separa-
tor so that the heavy bowl parts can be han- 12V 48/60 1,540 190
14V 48/60
dled more easily.
0603-0101PD.fm

18 V 48/60

Table 6-9 Lube oil separator - engine V48/60

Page 6 - 50 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Run-down tank T050 Engine Con- Weight Weight Height Height


tents empty filled H H1

litre kg mm

V48/60 2,400 650 2,780 2,820 2,265

Table 6-10 Run-down tank

Figure 6-46 Run-down tank

N1 Manhole
N2 Venting
N3 Return
N4 Outlet
N5 Outlet
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Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 51


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.2 2-circuit radiator cooling system


PDS: 30 30

6.2.2.1 High temperature (HT) cooling water circuit

Pump module Cooling water expansion tank


Radiator cooler
Purpose
The HT cooling water pump module and com- Cooling water expansion tank T002
ponents serve to
Check the tank capacity if the installation of the
pump water for the HT-circuit into the engine radiator cooler differs from the installation stat-
via a control valve to the radiator cooler and ed in the concept site plan / concept layout.
back to the module.

Components
HT cooling water module

Figure 6-47 Cooling water expansion tank - engine V48/60


Empty/ weight = 500kg
Filled/weight = 2000kg
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Page 6 - 52 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

HT cooling water pump module MOD002

Figure 6-48 HT cooling water pump module

Engine N1 N2 N3 N4 Weight
from cooler bypass expansion line to engine

mm mm mm mm kg

12V 48/60 DN 125 DN 125 DN 32 DN 100 2000

14V 48/60 DN 150 DN 150 DN 32 DN 125 2040

18V 48/60 DN 150 DN 150 DN 32 DN 125 2100

Table 6-11 HT cooling water pump module


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Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 53


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Radiator cooler (HE003/ HE008)

Figure 6-49 Radiator cooler V48/60

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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.2.2 Low temperature (LT) cooling water circuit

Pump module prevent undercooling of the circuit at low am-


bient temperature.
Purpose
Components
The LT cooling water pump module and compo-
nents serve to: Cooling water expansion tank
pump water for the LT-circuit into Charge air LT cooling water module
cooler, stage II, parallel to lube oil cooler and
Radiator cooler
other consumers to the radiator cooler (con-
trol valve MOV003 to control charge air tem-
Cooling water expansion tank T004
perature in return pipe from charge air cooler,
stage II; control valve MOV004 to prevent un- Check the tank capacity if the installation of the
dercooling of circuit at low ambient tempera- radiator cooler differs from the installation stat-
ture in suction pipe of the module) back to the ed in the concept site plan / concept layout.
module.
control the charge air temperature

Figure 6-50 Cooling water expansion tank - engine V48/60 empty/weight = 500kg
filled/weight = 2000kg
0603-0202PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 55


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

LT cooling water pump module MOD020

Figure 6-51 LT cooling water pump module

Engine N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 Weight
from cooler expansion to charge from to engine to lube oil nozzle
line air cooler charge air cooler cooling
cooler water
outlet

mm mm mm mm mm mm mm kg

12V 48/60 DN 200 DN 32 DN 150 DN 150 DN 150 DN 150 DN 32 2450

14V 48/60 DN 250 DN 32 DN 200 DN 150 DN 150 DN 200 DN 32 3100

18V 48/60 DN 300 DN 32 DN 250 DN 200 DN 200 DN 250 DN 32 3400


0603-0202PD.fm

Table 6-12 LT cooling water pump module

Page 6 - 56 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.2.3 Nozzle cooling water circuit

Nozzle cooling water module MOD005 Control and power equipment, including the
sensors, are completely accommodated in a
Purpose switch cabinet and wired to the module.
The purpose of the nozzle cooling water module
is the automatic and lasting cooling of the fuel oil
injection nozzle of MAN B&W Diesel engines at
all operating conditions of the engine in compli-
ance with applicable control on/off, safety and
environmental requirements.
Further, the module is to preheat the fuel oil in-
jection nozzles before start of the Diesel engine.
In case of nozzle preheating, the nozzel cooling
water is heated in the tank before the engine
starts. The nozzle cooling water is thus heated
and pumped to the engine and back to the water
tank.

Features
The module consists of a self- supporting frame.
the corresponding compponents are connected
by means of pipes.
The nozzle cooling water circuit is a separate
pressurized closed circulation system. A centrif-
ugal pump sucks the nozzle cooling water from
a tank and pumps it to the nozzles of the Diesel
engine through a heat exchanger with subse-
quent temperature control valve. The circuit then
leads back to the tank.
The heat exchanger is supplied with LT-cooling
water as cooling medium.
The temperature control valve keeps the nozzle
cooling water temperature upstream of the noz-
zle constant.
A test connection serves to check if the water
contains oil (nozzle leakage).
The entire module is designed for continuous
fullload and part load operation (intermittent op-
eration several times per day).
The module is designed for unmanned operation
0603-0203PD.fm

without constant supervision at site. The power


on time is 100%.

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 57


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Noozle cooling water module MOD005

1 Vessel 13 expansions pot N1 Nozzle- cooling water inlet


2 Circulating pump 14 switch cabbet N2 Nozzle- cooling water outlet
3 plate heat exchanger N3 Cooling water inlet
4 heating battery N4 Cooling water outlet
5 safety valve N5 test pipe "oil in water"
6 automatic venting N6
N7 drain pipe
N8 overflow pipe

- weight 380 kg
- operating pressure max.
4 bar
- operating temperature
max 95C Figure 6-52 Noozle cooling water
0603-0203PD.fm

module engine V48/60

Page 6 - 58 Version 8/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.3 Cooling tower cooling system

Figure 6-53 Cooling tower with water basin, accessgrating water pipes and raw water pumps.

It has to be ensured that the min. water level in


the basins is well below the suction pipe of the
raw water pump, in order to prevent the pump
obtaining air from the basin.
Therefore the basin should have a height of
minimum 3m. Usually the cooling tower has a
accessible grating between cooling tower
and edge of the basin with approx. 60cm
width or a special man hole as access for
cleaning purpose.
For further informations also see Chapter 5.1.3
"Cooling tower cooling system", Page 5-20 and
Chapter 6.1.3 "Cooling tower cooling system
(forced- air- cooled)", Page 6-30.
0603-0301PD.fm

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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Figure 6-54 Side view of cooling tower with supply and discharge cooling water pipes

0603-0301PD.fm

Page 6 - 60 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Figure 6-55 Cooling tower with supply and discharge cooling water pipes
0603-0301PD.fm

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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.4 Fuel oil system


PDS: 30 60

Fuel oil module MOD008 Design criteria


Supply pump P003 must be able to deliver min-
Purpose imum 3...5 times the engine fuel consumption.
The purpose of the fuel oil module is the auto-
mated fuel oil supply of a MAN B&W Diesel en- Components
gine with cleaned and filtered fuel oil, according
Change-over valve for Diesel oil / heavy fuel
to the applicable quality requirements, at the
oil operation (MOV001)
necessary quantity and viscosity in order to
meet all operating conditions. Flow meter (FQ)
The fuel supply system must comply with all ap- Mixing tank (T011)
plicable requirements regarding safety and envi- Supply pump (P003)
ronment.
Final preheater for heavy fuel oil (H004)
Features Viscosimeter (VI001)
The components are connected by pipes and Fuel oil indicator filter 34m (FIL013)
cables onto a self-supporting, wrap resistant
frame. The arrangement of the components al- Pulsation damper (T008)
lows easy access for operation, maintenance, Condensate trap
assembly and disassembly.
Fittings
The devices necessary for transport are provid-
ed at the frame. Sensors

An automatically operated three-way valve Switch cabinet with automatic control and
serves to switch from Diesel oil to heavy oil and power device
vice versa, if necessary. Control, power device and sensors are complete
The fuel oil flows through a fuel oil meter to a cabled in the switch cabinet.
mixing tank. From there the supply pump deliv- .
ers the fuel to the final preheater, the viscosime-
ter and then to the Diesel engine. The
viscosimeter controls the heat energy supply to
the preheater so that the adjusted fuel oil viscos-
ity is achieved during heavy oil operation. The
surplus fuel oil flowing back from the Diesel en-
gine is lead to the mixing tank. Fresh fuel oil is
added to the surplus fuel which is then again
added to the fuel oil circuit.
The entire Diesel fuel oil module is to be run in
continuous fulload and part load operation (in-
termittent several times per day).
The module is designed to be operated fully au-
0603-0401PD.fm

tomatically without constant supervision un-


manned at site. The power-on time is 100%.

Page 6 - 62 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Fuel oil module MOD008

Figure 6-56 Fuel oil module


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Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 63


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Fuel oil module MOD008

Figure 6-57 Fuel oil module - engine 48/60

Connections with counter-flanges N9 Cooling water inlet


N1 Inlet HFO N10Cooling water outlet
N2 Inlet MDO N11Drain safety valves
N3 Return to HFO / MDO tank N12Drain module
N4 Outlet to engine N1Inlet HFO
N5 Return from engine N2Inlet MDO
N6 Inlet saturated steam N3Outlet to engine
N7 Outlet condensate N4Return from engine
N8 Supply compressor N5Return to HFO / MDO tank
0603-0401PD.fm

weight approx. 2400 kg

Page 6 - 64 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.5 Combustion air system


PDS: 30 70

Intake air filter and silencer module


The intake air filter and silencer module consists
of the following:

Components
Weather and bird protection grating AIR011
Oil bath rotary filter FIL007
Silencer SL001
- 30 dB(A),
- 40dB(A) or
- 50dB(A)
Air intake pipes

These components, excluding air intake pipes,


are mounted as one unit onto a self- supporting,
wrap resistant frame.
Measures of the units with different sound ad-
sorbers and for different cylinder numbers can
be seen in the following figure.
0603-0501PD.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 65


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Intake air filter and silencer module

- Gross area of intake air filter


The gross area is calculated as
W x H = A [m2]
- Oil capacity of intake air filter
The oil tank has a capacity of
250l per filter unit

Figure 6-58 Typical intake air module V48/60

Eng.
Silencer Dimension Weight Intake Air
30dB(A) each air Ve-
L L1 B C H h1 h2 DN Z
locity
mm kg m/h m/s
12V 48/60 2,570 2 x 900 38,500 2,5
14V 48/60 3,347 2,187 1,895 1,800 2,440 2,520 3,582 2 x 1,000 2,041 3,200 45,000 2,9
18V 48/60 3,797 2,687 1,895 1,800 2,948 2,980 4,090 2 x 1,100 2,041 3,500 58,000 3

Table 6-13 Measures table for intake air module - 30dB(A)

Silencer 40dB(A) 50dB(A)


40dB(A) L L1 L L1
50dB(A)
mm
12V 48/60
0603-0501PD.fm

3,847 2,737 4,597 3,487


14V 48/60
18V 48/60 4,347 3,237 5,097 3,987

Table 6-14 Measures table for intake air module - 40dB(A) and 50dB(A)

Page 6 - 66 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Combustion air system


SP = Sliding point
FP = Fix point

Note
Longitudinal welds to be arranged at the top line of
pipes. Flanges at right angles with the pipe axle.
Position of the bores for the flanges acc. to DIN
2501. Surface protection acc. to AN 410.

Figure 6-59 Intake air system

Cyl.No. Turbo- Turbo- Air in- A h1 Expansions Expansions F Dyn


charger charger take mm joint 1 joint 2
flange pipe
12V 48/60 TCA77 DN1200 DN900 668 2570 DN1200 DN900 2000 N
14V 48/60 TCA77 DN1200 DN1000 718 2520 DN1200 DN1000 2000 N
18V 48/60 TCA88 DN1400 DN1100 768 2980 DN1400 DN1100 2000 N

Engine is resilient supported. Between the con- tional measures might be required. See MAN
nection engine and duct, there must be an ex- quality requirements for intake air 3.3.11. Should
pansions joint for fre movement of engine, which additional sound- absorption measures be nec-
0603-0501PD.fm

must be capable of bearing vacuum. The admis- essary, a silencer with higher damping perform-
sible pressure loss is 20 mbar max. In case of ance might have to be selected.
high dust concentration in the intake air, addi-

Version 5/2003 Page 6 - 67


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

0603-0501PD.fm

Page 6 - 68 Version 5/2003


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

6.2.6 Exhaust gas module


The typical exhaust gas system drawing, see
Figure 6-60, Page 6-70 - direct downstream of
engine, shows the following individual data such
as:
exhaust gas pipe dia
mean measurements of the exhaust gas si-
lencer
allowable forces and moments of the exhaust
gas turbo charger on the engine
Figure 6-62, Page 6-71 and Figure 6-63, Page
6-72 show the detailled dimension data of the
exhaust gas silencer and the corresponding
Oktavlevel diagram for a 25 dB(A) silencer.
0603-0601PD.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 69


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Silencer with 25 dB(A) or 35 DB(A) available PRE- STRESSED


COMPENSATOR 50%
(in cold conditions)

Note
Longitudinal welds
to be arranged at
the top of pipes.
Flanges at right
angles with the pipe
axle. Position of
the bores for the
flanges acc. to DIN
2501. Surface
protection acc. to
AN 410.

Figure 6-60 Exhaust gas system and components- engine V48/60

Cyl. No. Turbo- Pipe A B Expansions Weight pipe F DYN:


charger joint 1
12 V 48/60 TCA77 DN1300 960 2054 DN1300 1600 kg 4000 N
14V 48/60 TCA77 DN1400 960 2054 DN1400 1800 kg 4600 N
18V 48/60 TCA88 DN1600 1140 1874 DN1600 3000 kg 5000 n

ENGINE IS RESILIENTLY SUPPORTED. BETWEEN THE CONNECTION ENGINE AND DUCT, THERE MUST BE AN EXPANSIONJOINT
FOR FREE MOVEMENT OF THE ENGINE AND FOR THERMAL EXPANSION OF DUCT BETWEEN SILENCER AND ENGINE. NEAR THE
EXPANSIONS JOINT; THE DUCT MUST BE SUPPORTED: THE EXPANSIONS JOINT HAS TO BE PRE- STRESSED LATERALLY IN COLD
CONDITION BY ABOUT 50% OF THERMAL EXPANSION: THE EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE IS APPROX: 400C: THE COMPLETE
PRESSURE LOSS IN THE EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM SHOULD NOT EXCEED 30MBAR.
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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Turbocharger TCA77 TCA88

Vertical F1 [N] *10900 *12000

Tangential F2 [N] *10900 *12700

Horizontal F3 [N] *5400 *5900

M1 [Nm] **8200 **9100

M2 [Nm] **4100 **4500

M3 [Nm] **4100 **4500

Forces (F1, F2, F3) F [N] 16300 17900

Moments (M1, M [Nm] 10000 11700 Figure 6-61 Maximum admissible forces and moments
M2, M3) on turbine outlet casing

* Admissible concentrated load if the sum of F1, F2, F3 <


sum of forces according table
** Admissible concentration moment, if the sum of M1, M2,
M3 < sum of moments according table

Cyl.No. dB DN 2 DN 1 D C Weight
kg
mm
12V 48/60 25 4664 3900
1300 1300 2200
35 6179 5750
14V 48/60 25 5171 5045
1400 1400 2300
35 6672 6535
0603-0601PD.fm

18V 48/60 25 5671 5520


1600 1600 2500
35 7177 7680

Figure 6-62 exhaust gas silencer- engine V48/60

Version 8/2003 Page 6 - 71


Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

Figure 6-63 Oktavlevel diagram

Graph 1 Sound pressure level, unsilenced exhaust gas noise


Graph 2 Sound pressure level, unsilenced exhaust gas noise (1) converted to level at the outlet (1.0 m fictitious distance)
Graph 3 Typical silencing effect of the silencer
0603-0601PD.fm

Graph 4 Sound pressure level silenced exhaust gas noise at a distance r = 1m

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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for
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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for
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Engine-related modules and components - engine V48/60 - for

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7 Plant-related supply systems
Kapiteltitel 7.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 1


Kapiteltitel 7.fm

Page 7 - 2 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1 Plant-related supply systems - description for all


plants

7.1.1 Lube oil supply system


PDS: 40 10, 90 10, 100 20 10

Purpose The truck would connect to the unloading


pump module via a hose with DN80 connec-
The lube oil supply system serves to
tion
Receive, store and supply sufficient amounts
Lube oil storage tank T012 located in the tank
of lubricating oil to ensure continuous, unin-
farm.
terrupted operation of the plant.
When operating the plant the oil level must lie
Make up the engine lubricating oil consump-
between the minimum and maximum gauges
tion losses of the plant.
of the storage tank.
Features Gear type lube oil filling pump P012 to supply
the oil to the service tanks. The pump is driv-
The clean lubricating oil is supplied by way of
en by an electric motor.
drums or tanker truck, received at the unloading
station, stored in a clean oil tank and manually or Volumetric type flow meter FQ001 for meas-
automatically distributed to the relevant service uring the flow of lube oil through the system.
tank of each engine in the plant.
Control valve SOV2303 for controlled filling of
Design criteria the individual service tank.
The capacity of the lube oil storage tank 1T012 Lube oil maintenance tank T055 located in
is designed for approximately 30 days running the tank farm. The tank is required for engine
the plant at 100% load for 24 hours per day. 48/60 only. Removal of the oil from the lube
The unloading system is designed to pump ap- oil service tank T001 can be achieved by
proximately the calculated consumption of the means of the respective separator feed pump
plant into the storage tank within five hours a P011.
day. This system is designed so there is always Pump P073 to refill the service tank.
one pump in stand-by.
Auxiliary systems connected to main system
Components
The following auxiliary systems are connected
Main components to the main system:

The lube oil supply system consists of the fol- Storage tank vent pipe.
lowing main components: The vent pipe is located at the highest point
Screw type, electric motor driven unloading on the storage tank, allowing any gases to
pumps 1P059 and 2P059 (1 x operation and vent to the atmosphere.
1 x stand-by), modular mounted together Maintenance tank vent pipe (engine 48/60
with pipe work, valves and mesh type filter only).
(MOD017).
0701-0101PA.fm

Design and function as storage tank vent


pipe.

Version 8/2003 Page 7 - 3


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

Drain to road tanker or discharge disposal.


De-watering facility on service tank T012 and
maintenance tank T055.

Main operating conditions


Lube oil temperature before
unloading pump and filling
pump P012 .................................................. 10C
At lower ambient temperatures tank and pipes
have to be heated an insulated.

Lube oil quality

Lube oil quality requirement and selection of


suitable lube oil
See
Chapter 3.1 "Quality of lube oil for operation
on gas oil and Diesel oil (MGO/MDO)", Page
3-3
Chapter 3.2 "Quality of lube oil for heavy fuel
oil operation (HFO)", Page 3-7

Assessment and treatment of lube oils


See MAN B&W Diesel Document 000.04.

Checking lube oil


A clean, high quality lubricating oil is essential to
the longevity of any Diesel plant. The following
steps should be taken to ensure this:
Regular oil checks.
Continuous oil care.
- Check lube oil levels.
- Ensure the mesh type filters positioned
before the lube oil unloading pumps are
free of obstructions.
- It is essential that the hose and flange be
free and clean before connection to the
unloading trucks.
0701-0101PA.fm

Page 7 - 4 Version 8/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1.2 Water supply and treatment system


PDS: 40 30, 100 20 10

Purpose - Receive the water from individual systems


in case of engine maintenance.
The water supply system serves to:
Centrifugal, electric motor driven pump P031
Provide, store and supply sufficient amounts
to circulate and mix the treated water for fill-
of water to ensure continuous, uninterrupted
ing and draining the individual water systems.
operation of the plant.
The centrifugal pump is equipped with a
Enable a softening and treating process for pressure vessel device to maintain the water
the raw water. pressure automatically via a pressure switch.

Features Auxiliary systems connected to main system


Water needs to be supplied to site at a pressure The following auxiliary systems are supplied
of 6bar, softened to the required degree and with softened water:
then distributed. For the systems that require
Boiler feedwater tank.
anti corrosion agents or chemicals the softened
water is stored in a tank, the chemicals added or Softened water is required so as to avoid a
mixed and then the water distributed to the indi- build-up of deposits on the boiler surface
vidual systems. which would cause a decrease in the heat
transfer capability.
Design criteria Fuel oil treatment system.
One tank T039 and one pump P031 is provided The heavy fuel oil centrifuge module requires
for up to a maximum of 5 engines. softened water for control water and for
cleaning.
Components
Lube oil treatment system.
Main components The lube oil centrifuge module requires sof-
The water supply system consists of the follow- tened water for control water and for clean-
ing main components: ing.

Water softening plant T040 provides sof- The following auxiliary systems are supplied
tened water for the nozzle cooling, engine with softened and treated water:
cooling and boiler feedwater systems. HT / LT expansion tank.
Water storage tank T039 with vent pipe. Here Complete with pressure relief valve for main-
chemicals are added for protection against taining the required pressure.
corrosion. The water is for the nozzle cooling,
engine cooling (HT) and charge air cooling Nozzle cooling water tank.
(LT) water systems. For storage of softened and treated water.
When operating the plant, the level in the Engine turbocharger.
storage tank T039 must lie at the lower level.
Softened water is supplied for turbocharger
This is to:
water washing.
- Make up of the leaking water in the individ-
0701-0201PA.fm

ual system.

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 5


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

Main operating conditions


Water pressure supply ............................... 6bar

Supply water quality

Quality requirements
The cooling water is to be treated in accordance
with the following guidelines:
Quality requirements for cooling water and
cooling water treatment see Chapter 3.3
"Quality of engine cooling water", Page 3-11.
Checking cooling water see Chapter 3.4
"Checking cooling water", Page 3-19.
Cleaning the cooling water system see Chap-
ter 3.5 "Cleaning cooling water", Page 3-23.
Anti-freeze for cooling water see Chapter 3.3
"Quality of engine cooling water", Page 3-11.
The engine cooling water, like the fuel oil and
lube oil, is a medium that must be carefully se-
lected, treated and controlled. Otherwise, corro-
sion and cavitation may occur on the walls of the
cooling system. Such deposits would impair the
heat transfer capability of the components and
thus result in thermal overload.
Leakage losses are to be replaced by treated
water.

0701-0201PA.fm

Page 7 - 6 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1.3 Diesel oil supply system


PDS: 40 40 10, 90 20, 100 20 50

Purpose This is applicable to


The Diesel oil system serves to: - One engine plant or
Receive, store and supply sufficient amounts - multi engine plants, all engines running in
of Diesel oil at the required pressure to en- DO- mode
sure continuous, uninterrupted operation of
The number of DN80 connections installed at
the plant.
the unloading station is to be clarified at the con-
Operate the engine during start-up and stop. tract stage. Each individual hose and connec-
tion is designed to receive fuel at a flow no
Flush the systems after an engine stop in
greater than 25m3/hours.
HFO mode.
Components
Features
The Diesel oil is delivered by tanker, stored in a Main components
storage tank and pressure fed to the engines.
The Diesel oil supply system consists of the fol-
The Diesel oil supply system is of the closed cir- lowing main components:
cuit type designed with a pressurised ringmain
pipe work system. Screw type, electric motor driven unloading
pumps 1P057 and 2P057 (1 x operation and
1 x stand-by), modular mounted together
Design criteria
with pipe work, valves and mesh type filter.
The ringmain pipe is designed so that it can feed
The truck would connect to the unloading
up to five engines.
pump module via a hose with DN80 connec-
The supply pump P008 is designed at 1.6 x con- tion.
sumption of one engine x 5 engines (maximum).
Diesel oil storage tank T003, located in the
The Diesel oil storage tank T003 capacity is de- tank farm which also acts as the daily service
signed for approximately one day full load oper- tank.
ation (24 hours) of the plant.
When operating the plant the Diesel oil level
The unloading system is designed to pump ap- must lie between the minimum and maximum
proximately the calculated weekly consumption gauges of the storage tank.
of the plant (in Diesel oil operation 7 days at 6
Screw type, electric motor driven Diesel oil
hours per day) into the storage tank T003 within
supply pump 1P008 and 2P008 (1 x opera-
five days when pumping for eight hours a day.
tion and 1 x stand-by), modular mounted to-
The unloading pump is over designed at 150%
gether with interconnecting pipe work and
of this capacity. In practice, the Diesel oil is only
valves.
used for starting and stopping (flushing) the en-
gine. This system is designed so there is always Diesel oil duplex filter FIL005, modular
one pump in stand-by. mounted together with interconnecting pipe
work and valves.
If one engine is flushed both Diesel oil supply
pumps P008 should be operated so as to avoid Via the overpressure valve system the re-
creating a vacuum in the system. quired pressure in the ringmain is achieved
0701-0301PA.fm

by means of the supply pump P008 and the


pressure relief valve.

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 7


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

Auxiliary systems connected to main system


The following auxiliary systems are connected
to the main system:
Tank vent pipe.
The vent pipe is located at the highest point
on the storage tank, allowing any gases to
vent to the atmosphere.
Drainage and de-water system.
Connected to the storage tank T003.

Main operating conditions


Diesel fuel oil temperature
upstream at the unloading
and supply pump ......................... 10C .. 50C.
Diesel fuel oil supply pressure ................... 5bar

Diesel oil quality


MDO-quality see Chapter 3.8 "Quality of Ma-
rine Diesel Fuel (MDO)", Page 3-37.
Viscosity diagram see Chapter 3.10 "Viscos-
ity temperature-diagram", Page 3-41.

0701-0301PA.fm

Page 7 - 8 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system


PDS: 40 40 20, 90 20, 100 20 60

Purpose Components
The heavy fuel oil supply system serves to:
Main components
Receive, store and supply sufficient amounts
of heavy fuel oil to ensure continuous, unin- The heavy fuel oil supply system consists of the
terrupted operation of the plant. following main components:

Run the engine during normal HFO operation. Screw type, electric motor driven unloading
pumps 1P038 and 2P038 (1 x operation and
1 x stand-by), modular mounted together
Features
with pipe work, valves and mesh type filter.
The heavy fuel oil is delivered by tanker, stored
The truck would connect to the unloading
in a storage tank and pressure fed to the en-
pump module via a hose with DN80 connec-
gines. The heavy fuel oil supply system is of the
tion.
closed circuit type designed with a pressurised
ringmain pipe work system. Heavy fuel oil storage tanks 1T016 and
2T016, normally steam heated, located in the
The fuel flows from storage tank T016 via the
tank farm.
supply pump P038 to the buffer tank T059 pass-
ing through the 3-way changeover valve. From The tanks are sized for 15 or 30 days capac-
the buffer tank T059 the fuel flows to the purifier ity. One tank is for receiving and settling fuel
CF002 by delivery pump P015 and then from when the other is used for supplying fuel to
here back to the clean oil daily service tank the plant and vice versa.
T022. There is an overflow from T022 to T059.
When operating the plant the heavy fuel oil
Once the high level in tank T059 is activated the
level must lie between the minimum and
3-way changeover valve changes back to tank
maximum gauges of the storage tanks.
T016 allowing the fuel to circulate around the
storage tank and the purifier. Once the clean oil Screw type, electric motor driven heavy fuel
daily service tank T022 asks for more oil the sys- oil supply pump 3P038 and 4P038 (1 x oper-
tem switches back. ation and 1 x stand-by), modular mounted to-
gether with pre-filter, interconnecting pipe-
Design criteria work and valves.
The system should ensure that the fuel oil purifi- Heavy fuel oil buffer tank T059, normally insu-
ers can operate 100% without shutting off due lated steam heated, located in the tank farm.
to high level in the service tank T022 or respec- When operating the plant the heavy fuel oil
tive buffer tank T059. level must lie between the minimum and
The ringmain pipe is designed so that it can feed maximum gauges of the storage tanks.
up to five engines. Heavy fuel oil daily service tank T022, nor-
The supply pump P018 is designed at 1.6 x con- mally insulated steam heated, located in the
sumption of one engine x 5 engines (maximum). tank farm.
The number of DN80 connections installed at When operating the plant the heavy fuel oil
the unloading station is to be clarified at the con- level must lie between the minimum and
maximum gauges of the storage tanks.
0701-0401PA.fm

tract stage. Each individual hose and connec-


tion is designed to receive fuel at a flow no Screw type, electric motor driven heavy fuel
greater than 25m3/hour.

Version 8/2003 Page 7 - 9


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

oil supply pump 1P018 and 2P018 (1 x oper-


ation and 1 x stand-by), modular mounted to-
gether with pre-filter, interconnecting pipe Main operating conditions
work and valves.
Preheating (heavy fuel oil
Filter module MOD009 complete with the fol- in the service tank) ...................................... 75C
lowing equipment:
Heavy fuel oil upstream of the
- Fuel oil automatic backflushing filter unloading pump and the different
1FIL003. supply pumps except P018....................... 55C
- Back flushing tank drain pump 1P010. Heavy fuel pressure in the
- Leak oil tank 1T006. ringmain pipe ............................................. 5bar

This equipment is modular mounted com- Heavy fuel oil quality


plete with interconnecting pipe work and
valves. HFO-quality see Chapter 3.7 "Quality of
heavy fuel oil (HFO)", Page 3-27.
The required pressure in the ring pipe is
achieved by means of the supply pump P018 Viscosity diagram see Chapter 3.10 "Viscos-
and pressure relief valve system. ity temperature-diagram", Page 3-41.

Auxiliary systems connected to main system


The following auxiliary systems are connected
to the main system:
Leakage fuel oil module.
This module collects all the fuel oil leakages
from the engine and modules indicated in the
sludge and leakage diagram.
Heavy fuel oil centrifuge module.
This system is of special importance. The
heavy fuel oil is cleaned by purifiers. The pu-
rifier removes impurities from the heavy fuel
oil. The purifying temperature is 98C and the
fuel oil sludge is pumped to sludge storage
tank T037.
Storage, buffer and daily service tank vent
pipes.
The vent pipes are located at the highest
point on the tanks, allowing any gases to vent
to the atmosphere.
Heating system for the individual tanks.
Drainage and de-watering device.
0701-0401PA.fm

Page 7 - 10 Version 8/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1.5 Start / control air supply system


PDS: 40 50, 100 20 70

Purpose watering device. Sized suitable for refilling


The start / control air system serves to: the system within 30 minutes.
A further standby, Diesel driven air compres-
Start the Diesel engine (30bar).
sor can be provided on request.
Control the accessories inside and outside
The appropriate number and size of starting
the powerhouse (7bar).
air receivers T007 are shown in the individual
Protect the plant - safety system for emer- system and have to be calculated per con-
gency stops of the Diesel engine (30bar). tract.
Pressure reducer PCV001 for station control
Feature
air. Installed in the 30bar air line, the pressure
The starting air receivers, the compressors in- is reduced to 7bar for providing control air to
cluding the control air system as well as the in- the engine and its accessories.
terconnecting piping form a closed pressurised
De-oiler TR002 for removing oil from the air
and balanced system.
line.
The individual components included in the total Air dryer TR003 for removing condensate
system can be isolated by shut-off valves al- from the air line.
though these are normally open.
Low pressure air vessel T036 enabling a 7bar
The system is protected against overpressure air supply to the pump house for controlling
by various safety valves included in the starting further accessories.
air receivers and the compressors.
Auxiliary systems connected to the main system
Design criteria
The following auxiliary systems are connected
Several starting air receivers and compressors to the main system:
are provided, the number of which depends on
the individual plant related systems. Shut-off valves.
The start air receivers are connected in paral-
It is necessary that only one engine should be
lel in the system, each one can be isolated
started whilst the others are running or in prepa-
from the system by means of shut-off valves.
ration for starting.
In normal operation the shut-off valves are
The compressors operate between 24bar and open.
30bar, manually or automatically.
Safety valve PSV.
Compressor 1 and / or 2 can operate manually
The HFO separators, LO separators, LO fil-
or automatically depending on the demand.
ters, HFO module and HFO filters are some of
the plant accessories supplied with control
Components air at 7bar. A safety valve is installed down-
stream from the pressure reducing station, its
Main components setting is 7bars.
The start / control air system consists of the fol-
lowing main components: Main operating conditions
Electric motor driven air compressor C001 Minimum pressure required
0701-0501PA.fm

rated at 30bar, air cooled with automatic de- for engine start/stop attempt................... 15bar
Maximum pressure of air receiver ........... 30bar

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 11


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

0701-0501PA.fm

Page 7 - 12 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

7.1.6 Engine preheating system


PDS: 40 20 10

Purpose Engine related preheating module MOD028


complete with
The preheating system serves to:
- Three way temperature control valve
Raise the temperature of the lube oil and en-
TCV009, set at 20C complete with by-
gine cooling water to at least 20C, or to the
pass for redirecting the water around the
optimum preheating temperature, before
heat exchanger when the required engine
starting of the plant.
cooling water temperature has been
Enable a quicker run-up and loading time of reached.
the plant.
- Engine cooling water heat exchanger
Protect the engine from thermal shock. H001 used to heat the engine cooling wa-
ter circulating inside the engine.
Features
- Three way temperature control valve
The preheating system is a closed circulation TCV018, set at 20C complete with by-
system with a membrane expansion pot, con- pass for redirecting the water around the
trolled automatically, dependent on the water heat exchanger when the required lube oil
temperature. The system is installed at sites temperature has been reached.
prone to low ambient conditions.
- Lube oil heat exchanger H025 used to
heat the lube oil to the required tempera-
Design criteria ture.
Selection of engines to be preheated at site. - Screw type, electric motor driven, lube oil
pump P021, required to generate pressure
Components and circulate the lube oil through the sec-
ondary side of heat exchanger H025.
Main components
The preheating system consists of the following Auxiliary systems connected to main system
main components: The following auxiliary systems are connected
Common preheating module MOD004 com- to the main system:
plete with Engine cooling water system.
- Electrical flow heater H017 used to heat Engine cooling water is pumped through the
the circulating, treated water. secondary side of preheater H001.
- Centrifugal, electric motor driven pump Lube oil system.
P047, required to circulate the treated wa-
ter and generate pressure in the system. Lube oil is pumped through the secondary
side of preheater H025 and serves to raise
- All interconnecting pipe work and valves the temperature of the lube oil inside the
within the boundaries of the module. service tank.
- Expansion pot required to maintain the Water supply system.
pressure in the system.
Serving to top up the water in the system.
0701-0601PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 13


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

Main operating conditions


Maximum operating temperature 80C.
Normal operating pressure 2bar.
Maximum operating pressure 6bar.

Water quality

Water quality requirements


See Chapter 3.3 "Quality of engine cooling wa-
ter", Page 3-11.

Checking water
Water softness.
Concentration of additives.
Water hardness.
Chloride ion content.
Periodical checks should be carried out on the
cooling water and preheating system.
Treated water may become contaminated in
service and the additive will loose some of its ef-
ficiency as a result. It is therefore necessary to
check the cooling system and the condition of
the cooling water at regular intervals.

0701-0601PA.fm

Page 7 - 14 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants
0701-0601PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 15


Plant-related supply systems - description for all plants

0701-0601PA.fm

Page 7 - 16 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2 Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW


plant
0703-0101PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 17


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.1 Lube oil supply system


PDS: 90 10

Lube oil supply system - 55MW plant

0703-0101PO.fm

Figure 7-1 Equipment schedule for lube oil supply system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 18 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Lube oil supply system - 55MW plant


0703-0101PO.fm

Figure 7-2 Schematic diagram for lube oil supply system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 19


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.2 Water supply and treatment system


PDS: 40 30

Water supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

0703-0201PO.fm

Figure 7-3 Equipment schedule for water supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 20 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Water supply and treatment system - 55MW plant


0703-0201PO.fm

Figure 7-4 Schematic diagram for water supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 21


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.3 Diesel oil supply system


PDS: 90 20

Diesel oil supply system - 55MW plant

0703-0301PO.fm

Figure 7-5 Equipment schedule for Diesel oil supply system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 22 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Diesel oil supply system - 55MW plant


0703-0301PO.fm

Figure 7-6 Schematic diagram for Diesel oil supply system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 23


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system


PDS: 90 20

Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

0703-0401PO.fm

Figure 7-7 Equipment schedule for heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 24 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 55MW plant


0703-0401PO.fm

Figure 7-8 Schematic diagram for heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 25


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.5 Start / control air supply system


Start / control air supply system - 55MW plant

0703-0501PO.fm

Figure 7-9 equipment schedule for start / control air supply system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 26 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Start / control air supply system - 55MW plant


0703-0501PO.fm

Figure 7-10 Schematic diagram for start / control air supply system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 27


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

0703-0501PO.fm

Page 7 - 28 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant
0703-0501PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 29


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

7.2.6 Engine preheating system


PDS: 40 20 10

Engine preheating system - 55MW plant

0703-0601PO.fm

Figure 7-11 Equipment schedule for engine preheating system - 55MW plant

Page 7 - 30 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

Engine preheating system - 55MW plant


0703-0601PO.fm

Figure 7-12 Schematic diagram for engine preheating system - 55MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 31


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 55MW plant

0703-0601PO.fm

Page 7 - 32 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3 Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW


plant
0704-0101PP.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 33


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.1 Lube oil supply system


PDS: 90 10

Lube oil supply system - 105MW plant

0704-0101PP.fm

Figure 7-13 Equipment schedule for lube oil supply system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 34 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Lube oil supply system - 105MW plant


0704-0101PP.fm

Figure 7-14 Schematic diagram for lube oil supply system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 35


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.2 Water supply and treatment system


PDS: 40 30

Water supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

0704-0201PP.fm

Figure 7-15 Equipment schedule for water supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 36 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Water supply and treatment system - 105MW plant


0704-0201PP.fm

Figure 7-16 Schematic diagram for water supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 37


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.3 Diesel oil supply system


PDS: 90 20

Diesel oil supply system - 105MW plant

0704-0301PP.fm

Figure 7-17 Equipment schedule for Diesel oil supply system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 38 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Diesel oil supply system - 105MW plant


0704-0301PP.fm

Figure 7-18 Schematic diagram for Diesel oil supply system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 39


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.4 Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system


PDS: 90 20

Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

0704-0401PP.fm

Figure 7-19 Equipment schedule for heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 40 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 105MW plant


0704-0401PP.fm

Figure 7-20 Schematic diagram for heavy fuel oil supply and treatment system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 41


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.5 Start / control air supply system

Start / control air supply system - 105MW plant

0704-0501PP.fm

Figure 7-21 Equipment schedule for start / control air supply system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 42 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Start / control air supply system - 105MW plant


0704-0501PP.fm

Figure 7-22 Schematic diagram for start / control air supply system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 43


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

7.3.6 Engine preheating system


PDS: 40 20 10

Engine preheating system - 105MW plant

0704-0601PP.fm

Figure 7-23 Equipment schedule for engine preheating system - 105MW plant

Page 7 - 44 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

Engine preheating system - 105MW plant


0704-0601PP.fm

Figure 7-24 Schematic diagram for engine preheating system - 105MW plant

Version 5/2003 Page 7 - 45


Plant-related supply systems - drawings for 105MW plant

0704-0601PP.fm

Page 7 - 46 Version 5/2003


8 Plant-related supply modules and compo-
nents
Kapiteltitel 8.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 1


Kapiteltitel 8.fm

Page 8 - 2 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1 Plant-related supply modules and components -


description for all plants

8.1.1 Lube oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 10, 90 10

Supply modules MOD017 and treatment system", Page 7-24 as well as


module drawings will be found in Chapter 8.2.1
Purpose "Lube oil supply modules and components",
Page 8-16, Chapter 8.2.1 "Lube oil supply mod-
Supply modules are used to deliever lube oil
ules and components", Page 8-16 and Chapter
from and to different tanks, treatment units as
8.3.1 "Lube oil supply modules and compo-
well as to consumers.
nents", Page 8-28.
Features
Supply modules consists of two or more pump
units built up on a common steel base frame.

Components
The main components are
- pumps,
- safety valve,
- electric motor,
- base frame

Design Criteria
Pumping set completely mounted on Frame
with oil pan, oil drain and plug.
Pipe completed, ready for operation, including:
strainer/ filter,
pressure gauges
100% power on time
Delivery head depending on the requirements.
Further informations also see Chapter 6.1.1 "Se-
lection of economic serial products and pro-
curement of accessories (electric motors,
pumps, strainer and filter, control valves, cooler/
heat exchanger)", Page 6-3 and following.
Drawings of the schematic diagram see Chap-
ter 7.2.1 "Lube oil supply system", Page 7-18,
0801-0101PA.fm

Chapter 7.2.3 "Diesel oil supply system", Page


7-22 and Chapter 7.2.4 "Heavy fuel oil supply

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 3


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

0801-0101PA.fm

Page 8 - 4 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components


PDS: 40 30, 100 20 10

Water treatment module T040 Required water quality for different purpose see
also Chapter 3 "Quality requirements", Page
Purpose 3-1.
A water processing plant convicts available wa-
ter with the necessary quality to the different cir-
cuits, e.g.:
Cooling water system
Cooling tower
Steam generator, etc...

Features
For each possible application the corresponding
preparation procedure, depending on the quality
of the available water, has to be chosen.
This differs from the simple water softening plant
with regeneration by recycling salt to the com-
plete demineralisation by reverse osmosis or ap-
propriate combinations.
Depending on the circuit, additiv dosing has to
be provided if necessary.

Components
The main parts of a water treatment plant are
depending on the requirements:
Softening
Demineralisation
Additiv dosing

Design Criteria
The essential concept of a water treatment
plant has to be determinated individually ac-
cording to the requirements, e.g.
Size of the Power plant, means consumption
of water
Water circuits (Cooling water circuits ,steam
generation, and so on)
0801-0201PA.fm

available water quality

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 5


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

Pressure increase plant MOD002


The intention of the pressure increase plant is to
provide at any time network water under pres-
sure at the disposal to defined consumers.

Features
The pressure increase plant consists of one or
more pump with all necessary connections, dia-
phragm expansion tank and a control unit on a
common base frame. The plant is pre- finished
for installation.

Components
The pressure increase plant mainly consist of
the following components:
Feed pump
Diaphragm type expansions tank
Control of the pump by a pressure transmitter
for manual or automatical mode
Combination of valves for mixing, filling and
draining for the engine water systems.

Design criteria
Depending on the dimensions of the power plant
one or more pressure increase plants, arranged
with one or more feed pumps, have to be ap-
plied.
Therefor please See Schematic Diagram in
Chapter 7.2.2 "Water supply and treatment sys-
tem", Page 7-20, Chapter 7.2.2 "Water supply
and treatment system", Page 7-20 and Chapter
7.3.2 "Water supply and treatment system",
Page 7-36.
ALso see Module drawings in Chapter 8.2.2
"Water supply, treatment modules and compo-
nents", Page 8-17, Chapter 8.2.2 "Water supply,
treatment modules and components", Page
8-17, Chapter 8.3.2 "Water supply, treatment
modules and components", Page 8-29.
For general description see Chapter "Centrifu-
gal pumps", Page 6-5.
0801-0201PA.fm

Page 8 - 6 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 10, 90 20

Supply modules MOD015 and MOD024 Chapter 8.3.3 "Diesel oil supply modules and
components", Page 8-31.
Purpose
Supply modules are used to deliever fuel oil from
and to different tanks, filter as well as to con-
sumers.

Features
Supply modules consists of two or more pump
units built up on a common steel base frame.

Components
The main components are
- pumps,
- safety valve,
- electric motor,
- base frame

Design Criteria
Pumping set completely mounted on Frame
with oil pan, oil drain and plug.
Pipe completed, ready for operation, including:
strainer/ filter,
pressure gauges
100% power on time
Delivery head depending on the requirements.
Further informations also see Chapter 6.1.1 "Se-
lection of economic serial products and pro-
curement of accessories (electric motors,
pumps, strainer and filter, control valves, cooler/
heat exchanger)", Page 6-3. Drawings of the
schematic diagrams see Chapter 7.2.3 "Diesel
oil supply system", Page 7-22, Chapter 7.2.3
"Diesel oil supply system", Page 7-22 and
Chapter 7.3.3 "Diesel oil supply system", Page
7-38 as well as module drawings see Chapter
8.2.3 "Diesel oil supply modules and compo-
0801-0301PA.fm

nents", Page 8-19, Chapter 8.2.3 "Diesel oil sup-


ply modules and components", Page 8-19 and

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 7


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

DO- Filter module MOD009

Purpose
Filter modules are used to refine possible impu-
rities from the fuel system (Ring main pipe).

Features
The refined fuel oil/ dirt composite is gathered in
a leakage oil tank. The mixture is carried back to
HFO- separator, where it will be recycled, by a
drainage pump. This process allows the re- use
of the fuel. (Only small quantities of diesel oil are
expected).

Components
The Filter module (Diesel oil part) consists of the
following main components:
- DO- Double- Filter FIL005
- Leak oil tank 1T006
- Drain pump 1P010
- Level- control for drain pump

Design criteria
The leakage oil tank serves as the chassis of the
module. The aforementioned components are
easy to maintain and mounted functionally on
the chassis.
By maintenance at the double filter the whole oil
content can be discharged into the leakage
tank.

See Chapter 6.1 "Engine-related modules and


components - data concerning all engines",
Page 6-3 for components like filter and pumps
and for drawings see Chapter 8.2 "Plant-related
supply modules and components - drawings for
25MW plant", Page 8-15, Chapter 8.2 "Plant-re-
lated supply modules and components - draw-
ings for 55MW plant", Page 8-15 and Chapter
8.3 "Plant-related supply modules and compo-
nents - drawings for 105MW plant", Page 8-27.
0801-0301PA.fm

Page 8 - 8 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 20, 90 20, 100 20 60

tem", Page 7-40 as well as module drawings see


Chapter 8.2.4 "Heavy fuel oil supply modules
Supply modules MOD016, MOD018 and
and components", Page 8-21, Chapter 8.2.4
MOD025
"Heavy fuel oil supply modules and compo-
nents", Page 8-21 and Chapter 8.3.4 "Heavy
Purpose
fuel oil supply modules and components", Page
Supply modules are used to deliever fuel oil from 8-33.
and to different tanks, treatment units as well as
to consumers.

Features
Supply modules consists of two or more pump
units built up on a common steel base frame.

Components
The main components are
- pumps,
- safety valve,
- electric motor,
- base frame

Design Criteria
Pumping set completely mounted on Frame
with oil pan, oil drain and plug.
Pipe completed, ready for operation, including:
strainer/ filter,
pressure gauges
100% power on time
Delivery head depending on the requirements.
Further informations also see Chapter 6.1.1 "Se-
lection of economic serial products and pro-
curement of accessories (electric motors,
pumps, strainer and filter, control valves, cooler/
heat exchanger)", Page 6-3. Drawings of the
schematic diagrams see Chapter 7.2.4 "Heavy
fuel oil supply and treatment system", Page
7-24, Chapter 7.2.4 "Heavy fuel oil supply and
0801-0401PA.fm

treatment system", Page 7-24 and Chapter


7.3.4 "Heavy fuel oil supply and treatment sys-

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 9


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

HFO- Filter module MOD009 8.3 "Plant-related supply modules and compo-
nents - drawings for 105MW plant", Page 8-27.
Purpose
Filter modules are used to refine possible impu-
rities from the HFO- system (Ring main pipe).

Features
The refined fuel oil/ dirt composite is gathered in
a leakage oil tank. The mixture is carried back to
HFO- separator, where it will be recycled, by a
drainage pump. This process allows the re- use
of the fuel.

Components
The Filter module (HFO- part) consists of the fol-
lowing main components:
- HFO oil automatic back flushing filter
1FIL003
- Leak oil tank 1T006
- Drain pump 1P010
- Control system for automatic filter
- Level- control for drain pump
- Heating coil

Design criteria
The leakage oil tank serves as the chassis of the
module. The aforementioned components are
easy to maintain and mounted functionally on
the chassis.
By maintenance at the automatic back flushing
filter the whole oil content can be discharged
into the leakage tank.

See Chapter 6.1 "Engine-related modules and


components - data concerning all engines",
Page 6-3 for components like filter and pumps
and for drawings see Chapter 8.2 "Plant-related
supply modules and components - drawings for
25MW plant", Page 8-15, Chapter 8.2 "Plant-re-
lated supply modules and components - draw-
0801-0401PA.fm

ings for 55MW plant", Page 8-15 and Chapter

Page 8 - 10 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1.5 Start / control air supply modules and components


PDS: 40 50

Starting air receiver T007

Purpose
To provide compressed air in adequate amount
and pressure to start a diesel engine.

Features
Air receiver vertical type on footing frame weld-
ed construction with valve head DN80 for V48/
60 engine or DN50 for V32/40 engine man hole,
drain socket on the receiver bottom including
drain valve.

Components
The air receiver consists of a welded bottle with
a special designed and calculated valve head

Design criteria
Design pressure (Safety valve set to 33 bar) op-
erating temperature at 50 C.
Surface treatment
Receiver inside and outside sandblast to DIN
55928 Part 4, Degree of purity SA 2 1/2
Paint
- Inside 1 x Celerol- Reaction- Ground
- Outside 1 x Varnish paint

Schematics diagrams see Chapter 7.2.5 "Start /


control air supply system", Page 7-26,Chapter
7.2.5 "Start / control air supply system", Page
7-26 and Chapter 7.3.5 "Start / control air sup-
ply system", Page 7-42.
Module drawings will be found in Chapter 8.2.5
"Start / control air supply modules and compo-
nents", Page 8-23, Chapter 8.2.5 "Start / control
0801-0501PA.fm

air supply modules and components", Page


8-23 and Chapter 8.3.5 "Start / control air sup-
ply modules and components", Page 8-36.

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 11


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

Compressor module MOD022 duces wear rate extended TBO (Time between
overhaul) and easy to maintain.
Purpose Switch- on pressure 24 bar
Production of compressed air for starting and Switch- off pressure 30bar
control of diesel engines.
Automatic condensate trap
Features 100% power on time
Complete compressor units mounted on a com- Elast. bearing
mon base frame for compressor and accesso-
ries. Components completely mounted piped
and cabled with oil pan, oil drain and screw. See schematic diagrams in Chapter 7.2.5 "Start
/ control air supply system", Page 7-26, Chapter
Components 7.2.5 "Start / control air supply system", Page
Compressor is air cooled with intermediate 7-26 and Chapter 7.3.5 "Start / control air sup-
and follow up cooler ply system", Page 7-42.

Non return valve Module drawing see Chapter 8.2.5 "Start / con-
trol air supply modules and components", Page
Oil and water separator 8-23, Chapter 8.2.5 "Start / control air supply
Flexible hose for compressed air connection modules and components", Page 8-23 and
Chapter 8.3.5 "Start / control air supply modules
condensate collecting pan at the lower frame and components", Page 8-36.
set of vibration metal elements for resilient
mounting
flexible hoses between condensate dis-
charge and condensate collecting
accessories for automatic operation,
control cabinets
Selector actuator "Hand- O- Automatic"
Programming unit for cyclic condensate dis-
charge from the coolers durig operation
Electro- magnetic 2- way valves for each step
for starting relief and condensate discharge
The module with its components is suited for
diesel engine operation. The devices in the
module are arranged to ensure easy mainte-
nance and accessibility.

Design criteria
Three stage compressor air cooled, direct drive.
MAN B&W Diesel uses 3 stage compressors be-
0801-0501PA.fm

cause of lower air rtemperature after each stage


compared with a 2 stage compressor . Thus re-

Page 8 - 12 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

8.1.6 Engine preheating system


PDS: 40 20 10

flap on the units outlet prevents the medium


flowing through opposite to the pumping direc-
Engine preheating system consisting of
tion. The pump and the heating battery are wired
Generating module MOD004 up electrically so the heating battery cannot be
Distribution module MOD028 operated without the pump. A safety tempera-
ture limiter protects the heating battery against
The engine preheating system creates and dis- thermal overload.
tributes energy to the oil respectively water cir-
cuit of the stagnant engine. By means of the diaphragm expansion tank the
volume expansion will be absorbed.
The aforementioned components are easily ac-
cessible and convertible mounted on a steel
Features
frame. The modules are piped and wired ready
At low ambient temperatures favourable starting for connection.
and acceleration conditions for a reduced wear
Please see schematic diagram in Chapter 7.2.6
operating mode will be reached by tempering
"Engine preheating system", Page 7-30, Chap-
the lube oil and/or cooling water circuit.
ter 7.2.6 "Engine preheating system", Page 7-30
and Chapter 7.3.6 "Engine preheating system",
Components
Page 7-44 as well as module drawings in Chap-
The module MOD004 consists of the following ter 8.2.6 "Engine preheating modules and com-
main components: ponents", Page 8-25, Chapter 8.2.6 "Engine
preheating modules and components", Page
- Electrical flow heating H017
8-25 and Chapter 8.3.6 "Engine preheating
- Circulating pump P047 modules and components", Page 8-38.
- Diaphragm expansion tank
The module MOD028 consists of the following
man components:
- Heat exchanger for water preheating
H001, with appertaining to control valve
TCV009.
- Heat exchanger for lube oil preheating
H025, with appertaining to control valve
TCV018.
- Lube oil circulating pump P021.

Design criteria
The unit is designed to heat up aqueous media
by means of electrical energy and to maintain
the required temperature by means of an regula-
tor. A built- in pump forces the medium through
0801-0601PA.fm

the continuous- flow heating battery in a closed


circuit and distribute the heated- up media to
the respective engine circuit, while a non- return

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 13


Plant-related supply modules and components - description for all plants

0801-0601PA.fm

Page 8 - 14 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2 Plant-related supply modules and components


- drawings for 55MW plant
0803-0101PO.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 8 - 15


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.1 Lube oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 10, 90 10

Figure 8-1 lube oil unloading pump module

Plant with 55 MW ModuleNo. Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 11,52 1156 1900 1375 1215 690
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD015/024 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO unloading MOD016 77,8 1906 3200 2114 1954 2250
0803-0101PO.fm

Page 8 - 16 Version 8/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components


PDS: 40 30

Figure 8-2 Pressurising module for the water supply system (with stand- by pump)

Module weight: 50kg


0803-0201PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 17


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

Pressurising module

Figure 8-3 Pressurising module for the water supply system (with single- by pump)

Module weight: 31 kg
0803-0201PO.fm

Page 8 - 18 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 10, 90 20

Figure 8-4 Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump module

Plant with 55 MW ModuleNo. Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 11,52 1156 1900 1375 1215 690
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD015/024 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO unloading MOD016 77,8 1906 3200 2114 1954 2250
0803-0301PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 19


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

Filter module

Figure 8-5 Fuel oil filter module

10 Flushing tank 540 litres with drain pump N1 MDO inlet


20 Automatic filter N2 MDO outlet
30 Reversible with cover safeguard N3 HFO inlet
50 Control box N4 HFO outlet
N5 Leakage outlet
N6 Vent
Max. flow rate .....approx. 21,3m/h (HFO/MDO) N7 Steam inlet
N8 Condensate outlet
Weight ...................................................... 980kg N9 Pressure air
N10Temperature control
N11Drain
0803-0301PO.fm

Page 8 - 20 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 20, 90 20

Figure 8-6 HFO unloading/ filling/ supply pump module

Plant with 55 MW ModuleNo. Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 11,52 1156 1900 1375 1215 690
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD015/024 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO unloading MOD016 77,8 1906 3200 2114 1954 2250
0803-0401PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 21


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

Filter module

Figure 8-7 Fuel oil filter module

N1 MDO inlet
10 Flushing tank 540 litres with drain pump N2 MDO outlet
20 Automatic filter N3 HFO inlet
30 Reversible with cover safeguard N4 HFO outlet
50 Control box N5 Leakage outlet
N6 Vent
Max. flow rate ........................approx. 21,3 m3/h N7 Steam inlet
N8 Condensate outlet
Weight......................................................980 kg N9 Pressure air
N10Temperature control
N11Drain
0803-0401PO.fm

Page 8 - 22 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.5 Start / control air supply modules and components


PDS: 40 50

Compressor

Figure 8-8 Starting air compressor - capacity 163m3/h at 30bar - 37kW, 900kg (Double compressor unit)
0803-0501PO.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 23


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

Start air receiver

Figure 8-9 Start air receiver (vertical)


0803-0501PO.fm

Page 8 - 24 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

8.2.6 Engine preheating modules and components


PDS: 40 20 10

1 Electric flow heater


2 Switch cabinet
3 Circulating pump
4 Non- return valve
5 Safety valve
6 Manometer
7 Expansion pot

Figure 8-10 cooling water preheating MOD004- flow rate 7,3 m3/h

Engine C Z Weight [kg]


[kW] [kg]
[mm]
12V 32/40 45 720
14V 32/40
16V 32/40 54 900 210
18V 32/40 60 720 250
12V 48/60 1455
0803-0601PO.fm

14V 48/60 108 300 275


18V 48/60 135 1655 1100 280

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 25


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 55MW plant

Distribution module (engine preheater)

Figure 8-11 Engine preheating system- Distribution mod-


ule MOD028

1 plate heat exchanger -water N1 Feed water inlet


2 plate heat exchanger - oil N2 cooling water inlet
3 pump N3 cooling water outlet
Temp. regulator N4 lube oil inlet
5 control valve N5 lube oil outlet
6 valve N6 feed water outlet
0803-0601PO.fm

7 valve
8 thermometer
Operating weight : 280 kg

Page 8 - 26 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3 Plant-related supply modules and components


- drawings for 105MW plant
0804-0101PP.fm

Version 8/2003 Page 8 - 27


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.1 Lube oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 10, 90 10

Figure 8-12 Lube oil unloading supply pump module

Plant with 105 MW Module Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD15/24 37,5 1614 2662 1881 1720 1220
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 39,4 1614 2662 1881 1720 1100
0804-0101PP.fm

Page 8 - 28 Version 8/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.2 Water supply, treatment modules and components


PDS: 40 30

Figure 8-13 Pressurising module for the water supply system (with stand- by pump)

Module weight: 50kg.


0804-0201PP.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 29


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

Pressurising module

Figure 8-14 Pressurising module for the water supply system (with single- by pump)

Module weight: 31 kg
0804-0201PP.fm

Page 8 - 30 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.3 Diesel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 10, 90 20

Figure 8-15 Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump module

Plant with 105 MW Module Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD15/24 37,5 1614 2662 1881 1720 1220
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 39,4 1614 2662 1881 1720 1100
0804-0301PP.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 31


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

Filter module

Figure 8-16 Fuel oil filter module

10 Flushing tank 540 litres with drain pump N1 MDO inlet


20 Automatic filter N2 MDO outlet
30 Reversible with cover safeguard N3 HFO inlet
50 Control box N4 HFO outlet
N5 Leakage outlet
N6 Vent
N7 Steam inlet
Max. flow rate .....approx. 21,3m/h (HFO/MDO)
N8 Condensate outlet
Weight ...................................................... 980kg N9 Pressure air
N10Temperature control
N11Drain
0804-0301PP.fm

Page 8 - 32 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.4 Heavy fuel oil supply modules and components


PDS: 40 40 20, 90 20

Figure 8-17 HFO unloading pump module Weight: 6500 kg


0804-0401PP.fm

Flow rate: 236 m3/h (3 x 78,67 m3/h)

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 33


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

HFO- supply module

Figure 8-18 HFO filling/ supply module

Plant with 105 MW Module Volume flow A B C D Weight


[m3/h] mm [kg]
Lube oil unloading pump MOD017 22,3 1379 2210 1618 1458 850
Diesel oil unloading/ supply pump MOD15/24 37,5 1614 2662 1881 1720 1220
HFO supply pump MOD025 21,62 1380 2210 1618 1458 920
HFO filling pump MOD018 39,4 1614 2662 1881 1720 1100
0804-0401PP.fm

Page 8 - 34 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

Filter module

Figure 8-19 Fuel oil filter module

N1 MDO inlet
10 Flushing tank 540 litres with drain pump N2 MDO outlet
20 Automatic filter N3 HFO inlet
30 Reversible with cover safeguard N4 HFO outlet
50 Control box N5 Leakage outlet
N6 Vent
N7 Steam inlet
Max. flow rate .....approx. 21,3m/h (HFO/MDO) N8 Condensate outlet
Weight ...................................................... 980kg N9 Pressure air
N10Temperature control
N11Drain
0804-0401PP.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 35


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.5 Start / control air supply modules and components


PDS: 40 50

Compressor

Figure 8-20 Starting air compressor - capacity 163m3/h at 30bar - 37kW, 900kg (Double compressor unit)
0804-0501PP.fm

Page 8 - 36 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

Start air receiver

Figure 8-21 Start air receiver (vertical)


0804-0501PP.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 37


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

8.3.6 Engine preheating modules and components


PDS: 40 20 10

1 Electric flow heater


2 Switch cabinet
3 Circulating pump
4 Non- return valve
5 Safety valve
6 Manometer
7 Expansion pot

Figure 8-22 cooling water preheating MOD004 - flow rate 7,3 m3/h

Engine C Z Weight [kg]


[kW] [kg]
[mm]
12V 32/40 45 720
14V 32/40
16V 32/40 54 900 210
18V 32/40 60 720 250
12V 48/60 1455
0804-0601PP.fm

14V 48/60 108 300 275


18V 48/60 135 1655 1100 280

Page 8 - 38 Version 5/2003


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

Distribution module (engine preheater)

Figure 8-23 Engine preheating system- Distribution mod-


ule MOD028

1 plate heat exchanger -water


N1 Feed water inlet
2 plate heat exchanger - oil
N2 cooling water inlet
3 pump
N3 cooling water outlet
Temp. regulator
N4 lube oil inlet
5 control valve
N5 lube oil outlet
6 valve
N6 feed water outlet
7 valve
0804-0601PP.fm

8 thermometer
Operating weight : 280 kg

Version 5/2003 Page 8 - 39


Plant-related supply modules and components - drawings for 105MW plant

0804-0601PP.fm

Page 8 - 40 Version 5/2003


9 External exhaust and boiler systems
Kapiteltitel 9.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 9 - 1


Kapiteltitel 9.fm

Page 9 - 2 Version 5/2003


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.1 External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all


plants
PDS: 60 10

Features
The external exhaust gas system is, without in-
terruption, connected to the exhaust gas sys-
tem, which is installed directly downstream of
the engine.
Depending on the requirements or the fixed
c scope of supply, the external exhaust gas sys-
tem also comprises the following components:
SCR- DeNOx
Exhaust gas steam boiler
DeSOx
ESP
The exhaust gas normally leaves the plant
through a chimney see Figure 10-1, Page 10-4.
The boiler plant is dealt with under Chapter 9.3
"Heat recovery system",Page 9-11 and Chapter
10.3 "Heat recovery modules and compo-
nents",Page 10-14
Concerning DeNOx and DeSOx see Chapter 9.2
"Exhaust gas treatment system - description for
all plants",Page 9-4 and Chapter 10.2 "Exhaust
gas treatment modules and components -pho-
tographs of existing power plants",Page 10-9.
For ESP (dry electrostatic precipitator) see
Chapter 9.2.3 "Particulate Matter (PM)",Page 9-
9 and Chapter 10.2 "Exhaust gas treatment
modules and components -photographs of ex-
isting power plants",Page 10-9.
Unless other requirements such as, e.g.
- Exhaust gas resistance
- Flow noise, etc....
are the decisive factors, the particulars stated in
Chapter 6.1.5 "Exhaust gas system",Page 6-38
apply for the design of the external exhaust gas
system.
0901-0101PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 9 - 3


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.2 Exhaust gas treatment system - description for all


plants

9.2.1 Selective catalytic reduction system (DeNOx)


PDS: 60 90

NOx-emission limit (NOx calculated as NO2 ) layer module or block to reduce HC and CO
emissions depending on the sulphur content
By World Bank ........................ 2,000mg/Nm
in the fuel urea-solution.
15% 02, dry exhaust gas
Freezing point .........................approx. +5C
Or according to the regulations of the resp.
(possibly the tank is to be heated)
country
For injection pressure air or steam is re-
NOx-abatement quired.
By engine internal measures. To meet limits
more stringent than the WB, Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) is necessary.
By Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with
urea- or ammonia-solution as reducing agent

Note
Urea is safer to handle than ammonia.
Oxidation catalyst can be placed as the last

SCR

0902-0101PA.fm

Figure 9-1 Typical installation of a SCR- system

Page 9 - 4 Version 5/2003


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants
0902-0101PA.fm

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External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.2.2 Desulphurisation system (DeSOx)


PDS: 60 100

SOx-emission limit (SOx calculated as SO2 ) essary to treat the process water and
gypsum, depending on the used process wa-
By World Bank ........................ 2,000mg/Nm
ter and fuel.
(15% O2, dry exhaust gas)
Pressure air 6bar to 8bar is required.
or
.................. 0.2t/d for power plants <50MWe Sodium hydroxide scrubbing
MWe = Electrical output at generator termi-
nals Low investment costs

Or according to the regulations of the resp. High operating costs


country Waste water with sodium sulfate and sodium
SOx- abatement by low sulphur fuels or SOx- sulfite has to be disposed if required.
absorption. - Sodium sulfite can be changed to sodium
sulfate by oxidation with additional equip-
SOx-absorption ment
By wet cleaning in a scrubber using - Heavy metals can be eliminated by addi-
tional belt filter
Limestone (or lime) with end product gypsum
with approx. 20% water and solids (dust, - pH-value can be documented by addition-
ash, soot, heavy metals from fuel) al tank and measuring device.
Sodium hydroxide with end product waste
water with sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and
solids (dust, ash, soot, heavy metals from fu-
el)

Note
One DeSOx-plant can be provided up to ap-
prox. 500,000Nm/h
Per engine one exhaust gas bypass including
flaps with heated sealing air should be pro-
vided.

Experiences with DeSOx-plants

Limestone scrubbing
High investment costs
Low operating costs
No waste water
Gypsum must be disposed
0902-0201PA.fm

Processing of gypsum, e.g. in cement pro-


duction, is possible. However, it may be nec-

Page 9 - 6 Version 5/2003


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

Figure 9-2 Schematic diagram of DeSOx-plant with scrubber


0902-0201PA.fm

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External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

0902-0201PA.fm

Page 9 - 8 Version 5/2003


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.2.3 Particulate Matter (PM)

PM- emission limit


By World Bank............... 50mg/m3 at 15% O2
Or according to the regulations of responding
country
PM- abatement
Regarding particulate the primary method is to
use a low sulphur/ash fuel oil or gas.
Secondary cleaning equipment for particulate is
new in context with big oil fired diesel engines.
Due to different temperature and oxygen con-
tent of the diesel flue gas, the electrical proper-
ties of the diesel particles are different
compared to particles from a boiler flue gas. Of
disadvantage is the big size, due to the needed
low flue gas speed about 1m/s in the ESP in or-
der to avoid reentrainment in the flue gas of
erased particulate. See pictures in Chapter 10.2
where the size is given for a dry electrostatic
precipitator (ESP).
Distribution approx. of PM average 1my

Note
If a scrubber is used in generall no additional
ESP is necessary.
Further information must be obtained with a
specific contract.
0902-0301PA.fm

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External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

0902-0301PA.fm

Page 9 - 10 Version 5/2003


Heat recovery system

9.3 Heat recovery system

9.3.1 Calculation of heat demand - for 55MW- plant


PDS: 60 10

Exhaust gas boiler systems 1 auxiliary boiler of 1.5t nominal size


(equals 850kW)
MAN B&W Diesel offers
Tis option is advantageous during intermit-
steam boilers
tent operation (switch-off at night) because
thermal oil boilers the entire plant can be kept "warm" by the
hot water boilers. auxiliary boiler. Thus, the plant may be start-
ed and switched off in HFO operation.
Heat demand and design of exhaust gas boil-
er for heavy fuel oil heating (own consump- Option b.)
tion for the diesel power plants)
3 exhaust gas boilers of each 1.4 to nominal
Example for a 55MW power plant (3 x engine size each (= 785kW)
18V 48/60)
This option is suited for plants in permanent
Heat demand / saturated steam ................. 8bar operation.
Engine .................................... approx. 600 kg/h For heavy fuel oil heating, saturated steam as
(equals 340 kW) well as thermal oil and hot water may be used.

Engine and tank farm............... approx. 850kg/h The following boiler designs are possible:
(equals 480kW) Steam boiler
Heat demand for 3 engines Self-regulating boiler with integrated evapo-
and tank farm.............................approx. 2.6to/h rator drum. This boiler has a certain self-
(equals 1470kW) cleaning effect on the exhaust gas tube side,
see picture in Chapter 10.3.1 "Exhaust gas
Experience shows that the heat output is re- boiler for steam generation", Page 10-14 and
duced by approx. 1/3 due to the development of according diagram Chapter 9.3.2 "Steam
deposits of plain tubes in exhaust gas boilers. generation system - diagram", Page 9-13 .
The deposition stabilises after approx. 6,000h.
See Figure 9-3, Page 9-12. Thermal oil boiler, see picture in Chapter
10.3.2 "Exhaust gas boiler for thermal oil sys-
MAN B&W Diesel therefore recommends to do tem", Page 10-15 and the according diagram
without extensive exhaust gas cleaning plants in Chapter 9.3.3 "Thermal oil system - dia-
and to design larger heating areas instead. gram", Page 9-15
For the above example this results in an ar- Here the surplus heat is dissipated in the LT
rangement of radiator cooler.

Option a.) For both solutions an exhaust gas bypass for the
boiler is not necessary.
2 exhaust gas boiler of 2t nominal size each
(equals 1,150kW)
0903-0101PA.fm

and

Version 5/2003 Page 9 - 11


Heat recovery system

Exhaust gas boiler system

Output

Figure 9-3 Decrease of output because of deposition in exhaust gas boilers

0903-0101PA.fm

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External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.3.2 Steam generation system - diagram


PDS: 60 60
0903-0201PA.fm

Figure 9-4 Schematic diagram steam generation system

Version 5/2003 Page 9 - 13


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

0903-0201PA.fm

Page 9 - 14 Version 5/2003


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.3.3 Thermal oil system - diagram


PDS: 60 40, 100 20 130
0903-0301PA.fm

Figure 9-5 Schematic diagram of the thermal oil system

Version 5/2003 Page 9 - 15


External exhaust and boiler systems - description for all plants

9.3.4 Hot water generation system - diagram


PDS: 60 80, 100 20 110

0903-0401PA.fm

Figure 9-6 Schematic diagram of hot water system

Page 9 - 16 Version 5/2003


10 External exhaust and boiler modules and
components
Kapiteltitel 10.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 10 - 1


Kapiteltitel 10.fm

Page 10 - 2 Version 5/2003


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.1 Exhaust modules and components - description for all


plants

10.1.1 Main stacks and flow noise


PDS: 60 10

Chimney design The self-supporting chimneys are connected


with a screws connection to the foundation by
MAN B&W Diesel recommends to install a pre-
means of an anchor basket set embedded into
fabricated chimney.
the concrete. The foundation into which the an-
The chimney height is to comply with the local chor basket is integrated is subject to structural
regulations and must usually be calculated in an calculations.
Environmental Impact Study. The number of
See drawings on the following pages.
outlets (dependent on the number of engines),
the output quantity and the output temperature
are to be taken into consideration.
The stability and the chimney movement are to
be calculated for the conditions on site, e.g.
wind velocity
soil bearing capacity
earthquakes etc.
Depending on the required chimney height there
are chimneys available, with or without vibration
adsorber and baffle plate.
MAN B&W Diesel recommends the use of dou-
ble walled chimneys. They consist of a bearing
tube (material: steel St37 or Korten) and an in-
ner tube (material: stainless steel) ; between
both tubes mineral rock wool is installed. The in-
sulation is necessary to prevent the exhaust gas
from cooling below the dew point temperature
of the sulphur-eous exhaust gas at the chimney
wall and thus to prevent the formation of sulphu-
ric acid in the chimney.
Sulphuric acid causes increased corrosion thus
leading to more or less intense rust ejection
when starting the Diesel engine, especially dur-
ing intermittent operation.
The chimney requires an access ladder with
platform, measurement connections to measure
the exhaust gases, regarding environmental
1001-0101PA.fm

compatibility and emergency lightning.

Version 5/2003 Page 10 - 3


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

Figure 10-2 Chimney without vibration damper

1) Anchor bolts special steel


2) Outer Shell Corten B
3) Mineral wool
4) Insider liner stainless steel
5) ladder and platform milde steel

Figure 10-1 Chimney with vibration damper

1) Safety vertical ladder


2) Exhaust gas inlet
- Material and design adapted and calculated to
3) Circulating vibration damper the local requirements
4) Mineral wool
1001-0101PA.fm

5) roller guide smoke tube


- Attend local emission regulation
6) Supporting pipe - Air craft warning lights if required
7) Smoke tube
8) Cleaning opening

Page 10 - 4 Version 5/2003


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

Figure 10-3 Typical anchor cage- sequenz of installation

1 Fit in lateral reinforcement


2 Shuttering
3 Fit in lower reinforcement
4 Layer to keep out impurities
5 Positioning of anchoring cage
6 Teaching for the mounting
7 Fit in upper and remaining reinforcement
8 Pour in concrete
9 Remove shuttering
10 Teaching for the mounting
11 After assembly is completed, the base must be contraction-free underpoured up to the foot of the stack
1001-0101PA.fm

12 Finished dried up foundation approx. 1 week after the spill

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

Figure 10-4 Typical anchor cage with connecting reinforcement

When as certaining the nois at the outlet on an


exhaust gas duct also the flow noise either:
in the latest build in components
in the dia at the component outlet, or
in the exhaust gas pipe upstream the latest
component
must be taken into consideration

Flow noise
The flow noise is to be calculated by the follow-
ing formula for V > 10m/s:
LWA = -5 + 60 lg V + 10 lg S [db(A)]

V Flow velocity [m/s]


S Area of the smallest diameter [m2]

Flow noise is defined as the sound level caused Figure 10-5 Flow noise
by a certain flow velocity of a gas in a pipe, inde-
pendent of a sound source.
1001-0101PA.fm

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants
1001-0101PA.fm

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.1.2 Bypass stack - Photograph of existing power plant


PDS: 60 20

Figure 10-6 Bypass stack at an executed power plant


1001-0201PA.fm

Page 10 - 8 Version 5/2003


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.2 Exhaust gas treatment modules and components -


photographs of existing power plants

10.2.1 Desulphurisation (DeSOx) with NaOH- scrubber


PDS: 60 90

Figure 10-7 DeSOx- plant with NAOH- scrubber


1002-0101PA.fm

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.2.2 Desulphurisation (DeSOx) with limestone- scrubber


PDS: 60 100

1 Exhaust gas boiler


2 Limestone scrub-

Figure 10-8 DeSOx- plant with limestone scrubber

1 Power house
2 Exhaust gas boiler
3 Limestone scrubber
1002-0201PA.fm

Figure 10-9 DeSOx- plant with limestone scrubber

Page 10 - 10 Version 5/2003


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

Figure 10-10 DeSOx- plant with limestone scrubber

1 Steam drum
2 Feed water tank
3 Gypsum silo
4 2xbypass chimney
1002-0201PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 10 - 11


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

Figure 10-11 DeSOx- plant with limestone scrubber

1 Tank farm
1002-0201PA.fm

Page 10 - 12 Version 5/2003


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.2.3 ESP for V48/60


PDS: 60 100

Figure 10-12 Dry electrostatic percipitator for engine 48/60

Nominal power demand: approx. 63kW


Operating power demand: approx. 30kW

Availability approx. 98%


1002-0401PD.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 10 - 13


Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.3 Heat recovery modules and components

10.3.1 Exhaust gas boiler for steam generation


PDS: 60 60

Figure 10-13 Steam boiler


1003-0101PA.fm

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

10.3.2 Exhaust gas boiler for thermal oil system


PDS: 60 40

Figure 10-14 Thermal ol boiler


1003-0201PA.fm

Figure 10-15 Thermal oil boiler

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Exhaust modules and components - description for all plants

1003-0201PA.fm

Page 10 - 16 Version 5/2003


11 Plant-related electrical systems
Kapiteltitel 11.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 1


Kapiteltitel 11.fm

Page 11 - 2 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

11.1 Electrical system

11.1.1 General design


PDS: 70 10

With regard to the electrical power part a typical Circuit breaker for internal auxiliary consum-
Diesel power plant consists of the following ers (i.e. circuit breaker 02).
equipment:
See Chapter 11.5 "Single line diagram", Page
High voltage part 11-37.
See Chapter 11.1.2 "High voltage part", Page Voltage transformers for measuring, synchro-
11-5. nisation, protection etc.
Step-up-transformer Depending of the short circuit capacity of the
medium voltage switch board the quantity of
See Chapter 11.1.3 "Step-up-transformer",
gensets which are directly connected to the
Page 11-6.
same medium voltage busbar is limited.
Medium voltage part incl. neutral earthing
Bigger Diesel power plants will consequently be
system
designed with two or more medium voltage bus-
See Chapter 11.1.4 "Medium voltage sys- bar sections which are connected with their own
tem", Page 11-11. step-up-transformers to the high voltage side.
Service-transformer Accordingly, the same physically limits are valid
for the low voltage-part.
See Chapter 11.1.5 "Service transformer",
Page 11-15. The quantity of service-transformers and conse-
quently the quantity of sections of the low volt-
Low voltage part age busbar must be increased if the limits of the
See Chapter 11.1.6 "Low voltage part", Page short circuit capacity are reached.
11-18. The requirement for separate sections of low
Alternator voltage busbars, each fed from its own service-
transformer, is also possible in Diesel power
See Chapter 11.2 "Generator / alternator", plants with only one medium voltage busbar.
Page 11-19.
In such a case it is recommendable to make a
The medium voltage part consists of the follow- separate part of the low voltage busbar for the
ing single panels: common part like black start Diesel, plant relat-
Alternator circuit breaker per genset (i.e. cir- ed common auxiliaries and other common con-
cuit breakers 1, 2 and 3). sumers. This low voltage common busbar will
be either connected to one or the other low volt-
See Chapter 11.5 "Single line diagram", Page age busbar section.
11-37.
Such a technically required subdivision needs
Export circuit breaker (i.e. circuit breakers 01 more space, more control logic, is more expen-
and 03). sive etc., but on the other hand it gives the ad-
See Chapter 11.5 "Single line diagram", Page vantage of a higher availability of the Diesel
11-37. power plant. A problem in one part can easily be
isolated from the rest of the Diesel power plant
1101-0101PA.fm

and will not cause a total shut down.

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 3


Electrical system

Depending on customers requests and special The wires are collected in plastic ducts or in flex-
requirements of the local authorities the electri- ible PVC pipes as connections to doors.
cal system may differ from this description.
The power wires are separated from the control
In any case the design and manufacturing of the or measuring wires as far as possible.
electrical components as well as the calculation
/ engineering of the plant system has to be car- Terminals
ried out by a qualified and potential consortial
All terminals are of "non hygroscopic" material.
partner of MAN B&W Diesel.
The terminals have a minimum rating of at least
The selection of suitable electrical components 1.5 at operating intensity. Terminals for the sec-
(switch boards, busbars, circuit breakers, trans- ondaries of voltage transformers are designed
formers, cables and so on) for each different as test terminals.
project, especially with regard to the maximum
The terminal blocks and all terminals are clearly
ambient temperature is a part of the detail engi-
marked and numbered in correspondence with
neering of MAN B&W Diesel.
the drawings of the electrical system.
Standards
Normal colour codes of the wiring
All offered material complies with the following
Black 3 phase and normal control wir-
relevant standards
ing and secondary winding of
DIN/EN, voltage transformers
VDE, Light blue Neutral
ISO, Yellow/green Earthing
IEC. Red DC-wiring 24 V+
The products and systems described in this Blue DC-wiring 24 V-
guideline manual are manufactured and market-
Brown DC-wiring 110 V+
ed using a quality assurance system based on
German standard DIN ISO 9001/EN 29001. Violet DC-wiring 110 V-
Grey Secondary wiring of current
Measuring instruments transformers
Measuring instruments are flush-mounted, nor- White Wiring for potential-free contacts.
mal frame size 96mm x 96mm, with 90 scale
deflection, accuracy class 1.5 or better.
With regard to the technical progress digital
multifunction devices are also applicable.

Low voltage wirings


All secondary circuits are wired with PVC insu-
lated flexible with pressed on ferrules.
Additional wire numbering is not required be-
cause of the clear and easy device and terminal
identification system inside the panels which
corresponds with the drawings of the electrical
1101-0101PA.fm

system.

Page 11 - 4 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

11.1.2 High voltage part


PDS: 70 10, 70 20

The design of the high voltage part is specific for Service voltage [kV, Hz] (acc. to the project-
each particular project and depends on the specific definition)
number of step-up-transformers and number of
Basic impulse insulation level [kV] (acc. to the
systems of the over head line.
project-specific definition)
Standard design Rated short circuit-breaking current [kA/sec]
(acc. to the project-specific definition)
Air insulated, installed outdoors
Control voltage [V, ACUPS or DC] (acc. to the
SF6-type circuit breaker with spring-charged project-specific definition)
mechanism
Auxiliary voltage [V, ACUPS or DC] (acc. to the
Motor operated disconnector with built-on, project-specific definition)
manually operated earthing switch
Lightning arrestors
Inductive current transformers (if not already
covered from the step-up-transformers cur-
rent transformers)
Capacitor voltage transformers for measur-
ing and protection
Control, protection and metering cubicle
containing
- Protection relay(s)
- Electricity meter (accuracy: active 0,2 / re-
active 0,5)
- V-meter
- A-meter
- Hz-meter
- Power factor meter
- P-meter
- Q-meter
- Steel portal for the overhead line
Grounding material for high voltage compo-
nents
Lightning piles

Electrical and key data


1101-0201PA.fm

Rated voltage [kV, Hz] (acc. to the project-


specific definition)

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 5


Electrical system

11.1.3 Step-up-transformer
PDS: 70 30

Electricity is usually transported over large dis- No load voltage ratio [kV/kV] acc. to the
tances using high voltage because of economic project-specific definition
reasons.
Rated frequency, 50 or 60Hz, acc. to the
Therefore, the step-up-transformer and the high project-specific definition
voltage part might not exist in power plants with
Vector Group, YNdd, or acc. to the project-
an adjacent power consumption (e.g. industrial
specific definition
powerplant, city power station).
Tapping range on the high voltage side,
The electrical energy for export into the grid will
10% ... +10% or acc. to the project-specific
be transformed to high voltage level by means of
definition
step-up-transformer.
Tap changer motor operated, on load, or acc.
Depending of the number of gensets, the power,
to the project-specific definition
the short circuit capacity, the required availabil-
ity and other parameters the number of step-up- Method of cooling: ONAN or ONAF
transformers are to be specified. - First letter: Coolant for the winding
Under special circumstances (e.g. on a barge O = Mineral oil
because of the limited space) it is recommended - Second letter: Manner of circulation for
to use a three winding type with 2 x medium the winding
voltage windings. N = Natural circulation
The step-up-transformer will be located outside - Third letter: Coolant for cooling the out-
and near to the high voltage switchyard. side of the transformer
Because of the high current in the medium volt- A = Air
age cables to the transformer it should be - Fourth letter: Manner of circulation for
placed as near as possible to the export feeder cooling the outside of the transformer
of the medium voltage switch board. N = Natural circulation
F = Forced circulation
Description of the step-up-transformer
Temperature rise in oil / winding, 60C / 65C
Three-phase oil-immersed transformer for out- or acc. to the project-specific definition
door installation, generally designed according
Impedance voltage at ONAF output, 18% or
to IEC 76 standards, with motor operated on
acc. to the project-specific definition
load tap changer.
Accessories, fittings and material testing are ac- Accessories
ceptable according to the relevant DIN stand-
Bushings on high voltage and medium volt-
ards.
age side
Electrical and thermal data Built on current transformers on high voltage
side for metering and protection
Rated output at ONAF [MVA] acc. to the
project-specific definition Remote control for OLTC (loose supply to be
installed at a suitable location)
Rated power factor acc. to the project-spe-
1101-0301PA.fm

cific definition Motor drive unit for OLTC


Double float Buchholz relay

Page 11 - 6 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

Temperature sensors for protection purposes


Dial type oil temperature indicator
Dial type winding type indicator
Magnetic oil level gauge
Silicagel breather
1101-0301PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 7


Electrical system

Legend for the following figure:

1 Rating and diagram plates, general plan of pipes and 29 Conservator oil sediment drain plug
valves 30 Oil sampling plugs (bottom, top)
2 Transformer lifting lugs 31 Terminal box for current transformer
3 Jacking lugs 32 Buchholz protective relay
4 Transformer haulage eyes 33 Cut-off valve for Buchholz protective relay
5 Skids 34 Oil flow operated relay for OLTC protection
6 Conservator lifting eyes 35 Cut-off valve for OLTC protective relay
7 Earthing terminal for tank 36 Magnetic oil level indicator for transformer oil
8 Potential connection 37 Magnetic oil level indicator for OLTC oil
9 High voltage bushing 38 Pressure relief device
10 Low voltage neutral bushing 39 Air vent plug
11 Low voltage bushing 40 Oil temperature indicator
12 On load tap changer 41 Manometric sensor of oil thermometer
13 Motor drive unit 42 Winding temperature indicator
14 Radiator 43 Manometric sensor of winding thermal relay of winding
15 Fan thermometer indicator (42)
16 Butterfly valve 44 Cable box
17 Conservator for oil transformer 45 Cut-off valve on pipe connection between tank and
18 Conservator for OLTC oil OLTC
19 Silicagel breather for transformer oil 46 Control cabinet
20 Silicagel breather for OLTC oil 47 Terminal marking plates
22 Handholes for lifting of core windings and cover 48 Oil outlet to oil treatment plant
23 Transformer oil filling and filtering valve 49 Oil inlet form oil treatment plant
24 Transformer oil drain and filtering valve 50 Plates for cables
25 Conservator filling and drain valve for transformer oil 51 Bushing for core earthing
26 Conservator filling and drain valve for OLTC oil 52 Bushing for core beams earthing
27 Conservator oil filling hole and plug (additional) 53 Surge arrester
28 Tank oil sediment drain plug 54 Surge counter

1101-0301PA.fm

Page 11 - 8 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

Figure 11-1 Step-up transformer


1101-0301PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 9


Electrical system

Figure 11-3 Pit for transformer

Figure 11-2 Foundation for step-up transformer

1101-0301PA.fm

Page 11 - 10 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

11.1.4 Medium voltage system


PDS: 70 40

Description Required room height: 3000mm


Required space in front of switchgear:
General information 1500mm (for removing of the circuit breaker
Metal cald cubicles with draw-out circuit part)
breakers and fixed mounted load break The panels are self-supporting steel construc-
switches tions with a maximum of stability and a minimum
Shock-wave resistant construction of weight.
Arc-resistant design Protection against accidental contacts with life
parts is provided by earthed sheet-steel inside
Floor mounted type
and outside the panel. The circuit breakers are
Completely assembled, wired and factory draw-out types and metal safety shutters will
tested automatically close the 6 disconnecting con-
tacts in the test position.
Standard and Ratings
The panels are divided into 4 compartments
IEC 298
Busbar compartment
DIN/VDE 0670 Part 6
Circuit breaker compartment
Protection Class IP 4X
Voltage transformer/current transformer/ca-
ble termination compartment
Technical data
Low voltage compartment for measuring and
The following data are subject to detailed calcu- protection
lations from the supplier of the electrical equip-
ment: The panel can be assembled directly on the lev-
elled floor. The design allows safe operation in
Service voltage [kV] extremely onerous climatic conditions.
Rated voltage [kV] Cables can easily be installed in the cable con-
Service frequency [Hz] nection chamber at the lower part of the panel.
Rated short circuit breaking current (3s) [kA] Type tests are carried out. Test certificates are
Rated current of busbar [A] available.

Insulation Level Switchboard

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1 Generator panel per genset


(peak) phase to earth [kV] 1 Busbar voltage measuring panel
Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 1 Service transformer panel
(rms) phase to earth [kV] 1 Main feeder panel (depending on generated
load)
Surface treatment
1 Bus tie panel (depending on the special phi-
Steel sections and sheets: galvanized losophy)
1101-0401PA.fm

Doors and front frame: Electrophoretic, prim-


er and stoved, enemelled grey (RAL 7032)

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 11


Electrical system

Outside panel dimensions (approx.) Busbar voltage measuring panel


Height: 2200mm Power part
Width: Depending on nos. - 1 Busbar system
Depth: 1300/1500mm (depending on the - 3 Voltage transformers, single-pole tape,
panel type) with two secondary windings (one for
measuring bus voltage and one for earth
Generator circuit breaker panels fault measuring, open delta)
Power part Low voltage part.
- 1 Busbar system - 1 Voltmeter
- 1 Vacuum or SF6 circuit breaker, with- - 1 Voltmeter selector switch
drawable, with safety shutters, motor
charged, spring operated, with closing/ Station transformer panel
tripping and undervoltage coil for the con-
Power part
trol voltage, with emergency hand opera-
tion and the necessary auxiliary contacts - 1 Busbar system
- 3 current transformers, double-core type. - 1 Vacuum or SF6 circuit breaker, with-
Core 1 for measuring cl. 0,5M5 or 0,2M5. drawable, with safety shutters, motor
Core 2 for protection cl. 10 P10 charged, spring operated, with closing
and tripping coil, with emergency hand
- 3 voltage transformers, single-pole type
operation and the necessary auxiliary con-
In the scope of the alternator maker or for de- tacts
livery to the alternator manufacturer (see
- 3 current transformers, double-core type
Chapter 11.2 "Generator / alternator", Page
(core 1 for measuring cl. 1M5, core 2 for
11-19):
protection cl. 10P10)
- 3 Current transformers, single or double-
core type, for mounting in the alternator Main feeder panel
star point for differential and overcurrent
Power part
protection
- 1 Busbar system
Low voltage part
- 1 Vacuum or SF6 circuit breaker, with
- 1 Voltmeter
drawable, with safety shutters, motor
- 1 Voltmeter selector switch charged, spring operated, with closing
- 1 Ampere meter and tripping coil, with emergency hand
operation and the necessary auxiliary con-
- 1 kWh-meter for unbalanced phases tacts
- 1 Control switch "local remote" - 3 Current transformers, double-core type
- 1 Illuminated push button "C.B. ON" (core 1 for measuring cl. 0,5M5 or 0,2M5,
core 2 for protection cl. 10P10)
- 1 Illuminated push button "C.B. OFF"
- 3 Potential transformers, single-pole type
- 1 Mimic diagram with semaphore indica-
tor for the circuit breaker - 1 Earthing switch, manually operated
1101-0401PA.fm

- Test terminals for current transformers


and voltage transformers

Page 11 - 12 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

Low voltage Part of the activated resistors. The other handicap is


- 1 Voltmeter the required space for the resistors. See Figure
11-4, Page 11-14.
- 1 Voltmeter selector switch
A more convenient solution would be to use only
- 1 Ampere meter one star point resistor per medium voltage sys-
- 1 kWh-meter for unbalanced phases tem in combination with a simple one pole
- 1 Control switch "local-remote" switch board. Such a system is theoretically
suitable for Diesel power plants with an unlimit-
- 1 Illuminated push button "C.B. ON"
ed number of gensets.
- 1 Illuminated push button "C.B. OFF"
The system shall be operated with exactly one
- 1 Mimic diagram with semaphore indica- closed connection between the star point resis-
tor for circuit breaker / earthing switch tor and a switched on alternator. However the
- Test terminals for current transformers defined star point connection is only possible
and voltage transformers with at least one genset which is connected to
the medium voltage system.
Neutral Earthing system In any case the software of the programmable
The medium voltage system in a Diesel power logic controller (PLC) will monitor the neutral
plant is relatively small and exists only in a limit- switch board and give an alert in case of a wrong
ed area. connection (less than one star point connected,
It is isolated against the external grid and more than one star point connected, wrong star
against the low voltage system by means of point connected). See Figure 11-5, Page 11-14.
transformers with a delta winding on the medi- The neutral earthing system can be made ac-
um voltage side. cording to the following specification.
In case of an earth fault of one phase in such a Metal enclosed cubicles with front doors for
system the fault current would be only deter- floor mounting equipped as follows
mined by means of the capacity between the - Voltage: acc. to system voltage
medium voltage system and the earth.
- Frequency: acc. to system frequency
The location of such an earth fault would be dif-
ficult to detect. The occurrence of an earth fault - Busbar: single-phase copper busbar
could cause a voltage surge on the alternator - Protection class: IP4x acc. to DIN/IEC
terminals which is very dangerous for the ma-
- Colour: RAL 7032
chine itself.
Isolating switched (one per genset), motor or
Therefore the medium voltage system should be
hand operated, single-pole, load break type,
in a defined condition to the earth potential.
monitored in such a way that only one gener-
However an unlimited earth fault current trough ator is earthed at any time.
the alternator could cause severe damage.
1 Overcurrent relay
Thus, in most cases the star point of the alterna-
Mechanical indicator, indicating ON/OFF po-
tor windings will be connected via a current lim-
sition of the isolating switches
iting resistor to the earth potential.
In small Diesel power plants with only one or two For separate installation
gensets which are connected to the same medi-
1 Neutral earthing resistor, mounted in IP 2x
um voltage system it is easiest to connect a sep-
enclosure, non-corrosive type, A/10s (rec-
arate resistor to each alternator star point. The
1101-0401PA.fm

ommended: I <10% In)


disadvantage is that in case of an earth fault the
fault current will be multiplied with the quantity 1 Cable type current transformer.

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 13


Electrical system

Figure 11-4 Earthing system with one star point per medium voltage system

1101-0401PA.fm

Figure 11-5 Earthing system with one star point for all medium voltage systems

Page 11 - 14 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

11.1.5 Service transformer


PDS: 70 60

For the electrical power supply of the auxiliaries Accessories, fittings and material testing are ac-
in typical MAN & BW Diesel power plants we use ceptable according to the relevant DIN stand-
only low voltage equipment. No auxiliary is so ards.
large that it has to be operated with higher volt-
age. Electrical and thermal data
Depending of the rated frequency in the relevant Rated output at ONAN [kVA] acc. to the
area MAN B&W Diesel normally uses a voltage project-specific definition
level of 230/400V, 50Hz or 277/480V, 60Hz.
Rated power factor acc. to the project-spe-
In case the voltage for lighting and other small cific definition
power equipment differs from this auxiliary volt- No load voltage ratio [kV/kV] acc. to the
age an additional small transformer is required. project-specific definition
This would be apply to the 60Hz grids with a
lighting voltage of e.g.120V. Rated frequency 50 or 60Hz acc. to the
project-specific definition
The electrical energy for the auxiliaries in a typi-
cal powerplant will be transformed to the low Vector Group, Dyn5 or acc. to the project-
voltage level by means of the service-transform- specific definition
er (station transformer). Tapping range on the high voltage side
The number of service-transformers is to be -5% ... +5% or acc. to the project-specific
specified depending of the number of gensets, definition
the required auxiliary power, the short circuit ca- Tap changer, manually operated, off load or
pacity, the required availability and other param- acc. to the project-specific definition
eters. Method of cooling, ONAN
The normal type of service-transformer will be Temperature rise in oil / winding 60C /
an outside standing oil-immersed transformer 65C or acc. to the project-specific definition
but under special circumstances (e.g. on a
barge because of the limited space) it is recom- Impedance voltage at ONAN output 6% (or
mended to use a dry type encapsulated cast acc. to the project-specific definition
resin power transformer for inside installation.
Accessories
The service-transformer will be located outside
of the powerhouse. Bushings on high voltage and low voltage
side
Because of the high current in the low voltage
cables to the low voltage subdistribution the Manual operating device for off-circuit tap-
service-transformer should be placed as near as changer
possible to the import feeder of the low voltage Double float Buchholz relay
main distribution.
Temperature sensors for protection purposes
Description of the service-transformer Dial type oil temperature indicator

Three-phase oil-immersed transformer, for out- Dial type winding temperature indicator
door installation designed in general according Magnetic oil level gauge
to IEC 76 standards, with manual operating off
1101-0501PA.fm

Silicagel breather
load tap changer.

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 15


Electrical system

Figure 11-6 Service transformer

1 Dehydrating breather 9 HV bushings


2 Oil level gauge 10 Buchholz relay
3 Thermometer pocket 11 Rollers
4 Tap changer handle 12 Pulling eye
5 Oil drain valve 13 Fillling plug
6 Rating and diagram plates 14 Pressure relief device
7 Lifting lugs 20 Terminal box
8 LV bushings 21 Oil thermometer
1101-0501PA.fm

Page 11 - 16 Version 5/2003


Electrical system

Figure 11-7 Foundation for service transformer


1101-0501PA.fm

Figure 11-8 Pit for transformer

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 17


Electrical system

11.1.6 Low voltage part


PDS: 70 70, 70 80

The purpose of the low voltage part is to supply


the energy for the auxiliaries of the Diesel power
plant.
The typical low voltage part consists of
Low voltage main distribution with a bus bar
section for common auxiliaries and the black
start Diesel
Engine related auxiliary switch board(s) (one
per Diesel engine)
Common auxiliary switch board(s) inside the
power house
Common auxiliary switch board(s) ouside the
power house

1101-0601PA.fm

Page 11 - 18 Version 5/2003


Generator / alternator

11.2 Generator / alternator

11.2.1 General design


PDS: 210 60 20

The sole device for the conversation of mechan-


ical into electrical power in a Diesel power plant
is the alternator.
In this property the alternator is a mechanical as
well as an electrical main component.
Because of the very complex mechanical and
electrical requirements, MAN B&W Diesel care-
fully selects the generators.
Each new type of alternator for the MAN B&W
Diesel gensets passes through an extensive in-
ternal allowance procedure which will be
worked out in collaboration with the alternator
manufacturer.
1102-0101PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 19


Generator / alternator

11.2.2 Mechanic part


PDS: 20 20

Type of construction Lubrication of the bearings


All generators are generally mounted rigidly Antifriction bearings are designed for re-greas-
ing and shall have a grease volume control sys-
Engine 32/40: on the base frame of the
tem.
genset
Sleeve bearings are fitted as a standard with a
Engine 48/60: on the concrete foundation
lubricating ring for self lubrication. Depending
block.
on the application it may be necessary to pro-
Our normal design for Diesel gensets is with vide forced oil lubrication. In this case the re-
flexible coupling between the Diesel engine and quired fittings, pipes, armatures and pumps
the alternator. have to be supplied and mounted by the gener-
Therefore the standard design according to ator manufacturer.
IEC34-7 is IM1101/7301 or IM1001/7201 This solution may be necessary for lubrication
(2 bearings). during slow rotation speed (start, stop, turning
for maintenance purposes) or for disposal of the
Type of enclosure load losses of the bearings (cooling). If only the
load losses shall be removed from the bearing,
The standard type of enclosure according
we prefer a heat exchanger between the bearing
IEC34-5 is IP23.
lubrication oil and the LT cooling water system
The alternator may be equipped with its own fil- because of the independence from the lubrica-
ter elements which can be exchanged during the tion system of the Diesel engine.
running of the genset.
For water cooled alternators the protection de-
gree will normally be IP54 which can be de-
creased up to IP23 in case of an emergency
mode with opened air flow flaps.

Bearings

General design
Depending on the manufacturer and the alterna-
tor size the machines will be equipped either
with antifriction or sleeve bearings.

Thermal protection
One Pt100 thermometer per bearing shall be fit-
ted to trigger high temperature alarm and to shut
down the Diesel engine in the event of excessive
high bearing temperature. MAN B&W Diesel
uses two stages of over temperature signals,
one for warning and the other for trip of the
1102-0201PA.fm

genset.

Page 11 - 20 Version 5/2003


Generator / alternator

11.2.3 Electrical part


PDS: 20 20

Terminal boxes eas (e.g. with the crane) for maintenance


purposes.
Main terminal box Our standard design (powerhouse layout) is
The main terminal boxes shall be enclosed to based on the decision that the electrical inter-
IP54 and mounted either on the top or at the left face (main and auxiliary terminal box) of the al-
(or right) side with cable outlets to the bottom. ternator shall be on the left side as seen from the
Diesel engine to the alternator shaft.
The terminal boxes respectively the housing of
the alternator normally include the required star
Protection against negative influence of the shaft
point current transformers. Therefore it is only
voltage
required to handle one single star point cable
and the power cables. The alternator maker must guarantee that no
shaft voltage will cause a current through the
Because of the general design of the alternator
shaft to the bearings or via the coupling to the
it is not in every case possible to have star point
Diesel crankshaft.
and power terminals/cables on the same side.
This needs to be considered for the design of This will normally be avoided by means of isolat-
the cable routing. ed bearings and/or additional earthed brushes
on the driven side.
The plate of the main terminal box will be made
of an antimagnetic material. The plate can be
drilled and the required cable glands can be de- Direction of rotation
livered from the alternator manufacturer if the Our Diesel engines are designed for clockwise
quantity and dimensions of the power and star rotation, seen from the driven equipment to the
point cables are known in time. Diesel engines coupling flange.
Therefore, the alternator must consequently be
Auxiliary terminal box
designed for counter clockwise rotation, seen
A separate terminal box shall be fitted for con- from the Diesel engine to the alternator shaft.
nection of voltage regulation, temperature sen- This point must be considered for the connec-
sors, secondary current transformer loops, tion of the three phases between the alternator
exciter current measuring leads, heater and sim- and the grid.
ilar equipment.
The terminal blocks of different voltage levels or Cooling method
function groups shall be separated. The selection of a suitable alternator for each
Heating terminals which remain live when the al- project, especially with regard to the maximum
ternator is shut down shall be of safe touch de- ambient temperature is part of MAN B&W Diesel
sign. detail engineering.

All secondary current transformer loops must be The alternator has a shaft mounted fan inside so
short circuited before the first run of the alterna- that normally no additional forced air stream is
tor. required.
The standard cooling method according to
Location of the electrical terminal boxes IEC34-6 is IC0A1 (open circuit air cooling) with
1102-0301PA.fm

the fresh air direct from the adjacent area.


The cable routing in a Diesel power plant is be-
low the floor because of the free access to all ar-

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 21


Generator / alternator

In case of difficult surrounding conditions ing tolerances must not be exceeded prior to
(dusty, sandy and/or aggressive atmosphere) it closing the circuit breaker:
is also possible to have water cooled alternators
Voltage tolerance 5% of UN
with a cooling method according to IEC34-6 of
IC8A1W7. Frequency tolerance 2% of fN
Water cooled alternators will additionally be Phase angle tolerance 10 (electrical).
equipped with leakage detectors. Please note that these figures are only guiding
The flanges of the cooling water system and the values. In weak networks it could be required to
electrical terminal boxes will be on the opposite increase these tolerances to ensure that the
sides, that means the flanges will be according synchronisation will be possible within an ac-
to MAN B&W Diesel standard design on the right ceptable time.
side. In order to prevent synchronization errors, for
example due to the actions of unqualified oper-
Excitation system and voltage regulator ating personnel, it is advisable to install a syn-
The electrical power for the excitation system is chronizing checking relay in the switchgear
supplied by the alternator itself and the initial ex- which releases the circuit breaker only after the
citation at start-up realized by means of a per- prescribed synchronizing conditions have been
manent magnet in the exciter or by remanence. met. After paralleling the active and reactive
It is no external power source required for the load distribution must be balanced.
excitation (except the control voltage).
Stationary operation / load distribution
The excitation power at short circuit is supplied
by the alternators built in current transformers Active load sharing is achieved by the Diesel en-
through rectifier. gines speed governor. Reactive load sharing is
made by the generators voltage regulator.
In general a digital automatic voltage regulator is
used, which is located outside of the alternator. The following methods of reactive load distribu-
tion may be used:
The automatic voltage regulator is either in-
stalled in the panel of the electrical control sys- Voltage Droop
tem or in a small separate cubicle near the
alternator. The terminal voltage is lowered relative to the re-
active current. The identical voltage droop is re-
Parallel operation quired for maintaining the reactive load
distribution in proportion to the output.
Conditions The voltage droops cos relationship ensures
The generators to be connected to the mains or that in parallel operation with the mains and
operated in parallel must comply with the syn- when the mains voltage fluctuates any apparent
chronization conditions, i.e. they must be identi- change in output is kept to a minimum. This
cal with regard to the following criteria: method can be used up to mains voltage fluctu-
ation of 2%.
Voltage
The voltage droop at nominal current is as fol-
Frequency lows:
Phase sequence / direction of rotation 0% at cos = 1
Phase angle. 1.3% at cos = 0,9
1102-0301PA.fm

To guarantee soft synchronisation (no load step, 1.8% at cos = 0,8


no speed step, no current jump / arc), the follow- 3% at cos = 0

Page 11 - 22 Version 5/2003


Generator / alternator

Proven experience results in a factory setting for eration that, if voltage and frequency deviate
ensuring stable operation of 3% at nominal cur- from the nominal values, the temperature at
rent and cos = 0.1. For alignment purposes constant nominal power will increase. This re-
with different makes, the droop shall be adjust- duces the service life of the winding and, as a re-
able infinitely from 0% - 6% of the nominal volt- sult, that of the overall machine. Voltage
age. increases cause temperature rises in the iron of
the main machine which will be transmitted to
Power Factor Regulation the winding. Drop in voltage cause a rising cur-
rent and, as a result, the winding temperature in-
This method is used for parallel operation with
creases. Since the service life of the winding is
the mains when heavy voltage fluctuations oc-
always compromised if the temperature in the
cur, or in co-generation plants when they have
relevant temperature class is exceeded, it is ad-
to be operated with a defined cos to the
visable to prevent operation at the extreme lim-
mains. A cos regulator energises the voltage
its for longer periods. This will be ensured if the
regulator in order to maintain the pre-set power
generator is built and operated in accordance
factor, i.e. the generator voltage is automatically
with the operating data known during project
adjusted to the mains voltage.
stage.
Mains Parallel Operation
Oscillations
Since in the majority of cases the mains has a
Periodic fluctuations in active and reactive load
much higher short-circuit capacity than the gen-
are caused by the irregular torque variations of
erators, the number of units running in parallel is
internal combustion engines. In order to attenu-
irrelevant so that no significant influence is ex-
ate these fluctuations in parallel operation, a
erted. As a result, almost all voltage fluctuations
damper cage shall be installed in the generator
are determined by the mains.
as standard.
In the event of mains voltage fluctuations of U
2% the voltage droop as described above can
be used.
In the event of mains voltage fluctuations of U
2% a cos regulator is used which automati-
cally adjusts the generator voltage to the mains
voltage by influencing the exciter voltage. This
ensures that the pre-set power factor remains
constant in the event of mains voltage fluctua-
tions or if the generator is subject to various
loads.
If a certain power factor is required at the mains
interface point, the current transformer effecting
the cos regulator must be located at this point,
It is advisable in this case to install an exciter
current limiter in order to prevent the exciter cir-
cuit from being overloaded. It limits the exciter
current to the value of the nominal power rating
at cos =0,8.
1102-0301PA.fm

It is further possible to influence the reactive


power supply by using a reactive power regula-
tor. But in this case it must be taken into consid-

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 23


Generator / alternator

1102-0301PA.fm

Page 11 - 24 Version 5/2003


Control, monitoring and alarm system

11.3 Control, monitoring and alarm system

11.3.1 General design


PDS: 80

The overall plant control and monitoring system


starts and stops the Diesel generating sets - and
power plant related auxiliaries (some of the aux-
iliary systems, e.g. separators, are started man-
ually).
It synchronises the generating sets with each
other and with the grid, and controls loading and
load sharing of the generating sets.
The plant control and monitoring system is re-
sponsible for safe, reliable and easy operation of
the plant. It monitors the operation parameters
of the plant, displays its present operation status
and prints events onto a printer.
Long term trend monitoring and intelligent diag-
nosis functions can be implemented.

Design criteria
As far as possible, the plant control and monitor-
ing system is designed for centralised operation
of the plant.
Centralised operation is realised through a high
degree of automation on all control levels. How-
ever, local start is required for some auxiliary
systems for operational reasons only.
High degree of automation, simplicity of the
control and monitoring architecture and reliabil-
ity of all components allow safe and economic
running of the plant with a minimum of staff.
If desired, the power plant can also be operated
manually by turning the selector switch.

Architecture
The overall plant control and monitoring system
comprises three different levels of automation.
1103-0101PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 25


Control, monitoring and alarm system

Figure 11-9 Control and monitoring system


1103-0101PA.fm

Page 11 - 26 Version 5/2003


Control, monitoring and alarm system

11.3.2 Control system


PDS: 10 30, 80 20, 80 30, 80 40, 210 60 80

Common control and monitoring system Single line diagram with circuit breaker posi-
tion indication and additional electrical meas-
The common control and monitoring system
uring values
starts and stops the generating sets and the
common mechanical power plant systems. It Long term trend monitoring and intelligent di-
controls all common mechanical power plant agnosis functions can be implemented.
systems which do not have individual local con-
trol functions. Operation parameters
The common control and monitoring system
synchronises the power plant with the grid, dis- Mechanical
connects the plant from the grid in case of grid Engine speed
failure and controls and protects all common
electrical systems such as feeders, transform- Turbocharger speed-; exhaust gas tempera-
ers, etc. tures after cylinder, before and after turbo-
charger
The main control & protection features of the
Common control and monitoring system are: Main bearing temperatures

System for network disconnection by moni- Splash oil temperatures from the crankshaft
toring of grid frequency and grid voltage (grid Lube oil temperature before engine
parallel operation only)
Lube oil pressure before engine.
Plant active and reactive load control
Lube oil pressure before turbocharge
Automatic synchronising for the mains feeder
Lube oil temperature after turbocharger
Circuit breaker control and monitoring (low
Cooling water temperatures before and after
voltage, over current, short circuit, earth fault)
engine
Load shedding
Cooling water pressure before engine
Load sharing on the generating sets
Fuel oil pressure before engine
The plant operating panel allows direct influence
Fuel oil temperature before engine
on all plant equipment
Charge air temperature before and after com-
The graphic display of the plant operating panel
pressor
visualises the present operation status of the
generating sets and the complete plant. Charge air temperature after charge air cool-
er
The following system pictures can be displayed
(example): Charge air pressure before cylinder
Engine with essential measuring value Starting air pressure
Alternator with main electrical measuring val- Control air pressure
ues
Lube oil system, fuel oil system, cooling wa-
ter systems, intake air system, exhaust gas
1103-0201PA.fm

system with all relevant information on flows,


temperatures and pressures

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 27


Control, monitoring and alarm system

Electrical Exhaust gas temperature after turbo charger


high
- Alternator bearing temperature
Main bearing temperature high
- Alternator winding temperature
Splash oil temperature high
- Alternator: active power, reactive power,
power factor, voltage, current Lube oil pressure before engine low
- Mains feeder: active power, reactive pow- Lube oil temperature before engine high
er, power factor
Lube oil pressure before turbo charger low
- Station transformer: active power
Lube oil temperature after turbo charger high
- Busbar system: voltage, frequency
HT cooling water pressure low
Various other mechanical and electrical operat-
HT cooling water temperature after engine
ing parameters of all systems can be displayed
high-Nozzle cooling water pressure low
additionally.The common control and monitor-
ing system panels and the Plant operating panel LT cooling water pressure low-Charge air
are located in the control room. temperature after charge air cooler high
Start air pressure low
Generating set control
Control air pressure low-Alternator winding
After having received the start signal from the temperature high
common control and monitoring system the
generating set control system starts the engine Alternator bearing temperature high
auxiliaries and the engine. It synchronizes the al- In case any of these values deviate from the pre-
ternator feeder and loads the generating set, as set operating range, an alarm will be given, en-
requested. gine load will be reduced or the engine will be
Once the engine is running, the operation of the stopped.
generating sets and of all its auxiliaries that are All operation parameters of the generating sets
not individually controlled, are controlled by the are transferred to the common control system
generating set control system. It monitors the for visualisation and monitoring; no staff is re-
generating sets' operation parameters, initiates quired at the engines during normal operation.
necessary action if any parameters are found to
be incorrect and protects the generating set The generating set control system is connected
from any harmful exterior conditions. to the common control and monitoring system
via data link. The panels of the generating set
The power control function of the generating set control system are located in the control room,
control system reduces load in case that ambi- close to the common control and monitoring
ent air temperature rises over a pre-set design system.
temperature.
In addition, the operation parameters of the gen-
The following alarm and safety functions are in- erating set are displayed on a coloured graphic
cluded in the local generating set control sys- screen integrated in the control panel. If desired,
tem: local start and operation of the generating sets
Engine speed high is also possible.

Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder high


Exhaust gas temperature before turbo charg-
1103-0201PA.fm

er high

Page 11 - 28 Version 5/2003


Control, monitoring and alarm system

Local auxiliary control system


Most of the power plant systems and auxiliaries
are arranged on modules and equipped with an
individual local auxiliary control system:
Lube oil separator module (local start/stop)
Fuel oil separator module (local start/stop)
Fuel oil module (remote start/stop)
Fuel oil filter module (remote start/stop)
Nozzle cooling water module (remote start/
stop)
Pre-heating module (remote start/stop)
Starting air module (local start/stop)
Exhaust gas heat recovery module (local
start/stop)
The auxiliary modules are started remotely ei-
ther from the common control and monitoring
system or from the generating set control sys-
tem. For operational reasons some of the mod-
ules have to be started locally.
Once in operation, the modules are controlled
from their individual local auxiliary control sys-
tem. The panels of the local auxiliary control sys-
tems are mounted on the respective auxiliary
modules.
All operation parameters of the modules are
transferred to the control room where they are
shown on the common control and monitoring
system; no staff is required at the modules dur-
ing normal operation.
For all auxiliaries which are not mounted on
modules with individual control system the con-
troller is integrated in the common control and
monitoring system or in the generating set con-
trol system.
1103-0201PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 29


Control, monitoring and alarm system

11.3.3 Engine
PDS: 10 30, 80 10

Engine management system responds prior to the engine alarm system. Thus
CoCoEDS allows the user to take the necessary
Each engine is equipped with an engine man-
countermeasures long before any serious de-
agement system, located near the engine, inside
fects or failures appear. In this way, unneces-
the powerhouse. The system includes modules
sary stoppages of the engines can be avoided,
to realise and control functions related to oper-
maintenance work reduced and availability of
ation. These modules are individual compo-
the plant increased.
nents, which offer the advantage that they can
be optimized, maintained and exchanged inde- To achieve these unique features, CoCoEDS re-
pendently of each other. lies on performance graphs which are generated
by MAN B&W Diesel engineers for each single
The basic functions of the system are:
engine at the place of installation. Thus, the ac-
Cylinder lubrication. tual operating conditions at site are taken into
Control of injection timing. accout. This would not be possible with per-
formance graphs created on the test bed only.
Load control.
As CoCoEDS can be freely configured and ex-
tended, it is also possible to include further plant
Engine diagnostic system
auxiliaries in its functions.
The Computer Controlled Surveillance - Engine
Since its introduction, CoCoEDS has not only
Diagnostic System (CoCoEDS) is a personal
been installed in more than 50 stationary power
computer-based system for the supervision of
plants world-wide, further it monitors and con-
plant operation, which allows the user far more
trols our own testbeds at our works in Augsburg
than simply the visualisation of current operating
without the use of any additional systems.
data in various forms (monitoring function).
In fact, we rely on computer CoCoEDS as our
The trend function of CoCoEDS allows the user
round-the-clock engineer on our testbeds. The
to study all relevant engine operating data, in
computer controlled surveillance - engine diag-
short term trend mode, i.e. at very short inter-
nostic system can also be your round-the-clock
vals, over a period of 2 weeks, and in long term
MAN B&W Diesel service engineer in your power
trend mode, i.e. at longer intervals, over several
plant.
years, and thus to recognise developments and
changes of operating values long before they In addition to CoCoEDS, MAN B&W Diesel op-
have an effect on the plant operation. tionally offers software for
Based on current readings taken during opera- Computer Controlled Surveillance - Mainte-
tion of the plant, the diagnosis function provides nance Planning System (CoCoMPS)
the user with a clear analysis of defects and fail-
Computer Controlled Surveillance - Spare
ures, a list of symptoms that lead to this conclu-
Part Catalogue (CoCoSPC)
sion (operating figures that deviate from the
reference figures) and a list of remedial meas- Computer Controlled Surveillance - Spare
ures to be taken. Part Ordering Software (CoCoSPO)
CoCoEDS, with its functions monitoring, trend
and diagnosis, does not replace the engine
alarm system. It is in fact subordinate to the en-
1103-0301PA.fm

gine alarm system. However, due to its sensitiv-


ity in detecting and reporting occurrences, it

Page 11 - 30 Version 5/2003


Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope

11.4 Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope


PDS: 80 10

In many projects it seems to become quite usual The following items shall be used as a basis for
that MAN B&W Diesel is not responsible for the technical discussion between MAN B&W Diesel
complete turnkey power plant. The scope of and possible suppliers for engine management
supply only consists of main components (e.g. system / genset management system:
Diesel engine, alternator, auxiliaries, etc.) which
The Common Control System as well as the
will be delivered to various contractors.
Plant Control System shall be realized by the
Although the contractor might be responsible contractor.
for the overall function of the power plant it is of
It shall cover all items that are not directly re-
greatest interest to MAN B&W Diesel that Diesel
lated to the Diesel engine (for engine man-
engine and alternator are protected in the best
agement system) or the genset (for genset
possible manner without depending on the con-
management system).
tractors experience and knowledge. Therefore,
MAN B&W Diesel will not deliver Diesel engine We recommend that engine management
and alternator without MAN B&W Diesel stand- system / genset management system panel
ard control panels. and engine MCC-board shall be located ad-
jacent to the genset.
Two alternatives shall be covered by the new
control concept: The PLC concept shall be based on usual
components (e.g. SIEMENS S7 or ABB) to
Engine Management System
get the best acceptance from individual con-
MAN B&W Diesel is supplier of the Diesel en- tractors.
gine and accessories only. The control sys-
Engine management system / genset man-
tem will entirely cover Diesel engine and
agement system panel shall be designed acc.
engine related auxiliaries. It shall also include
to the local operation level / philosophy, e.g.
the MCC-board for engine auxiliaries to sim-
detailed indication of all measuring values is
plify communication and layout during engi-
not required.
neering.
Local operation shall be limited for mainte-
Genset Management System
nance purposes only, e.g. no-load test, indi-
MAN B&W Diesel is supplier of the alternator cation of most important engine values on a
also. In addition to engine management sys- display.
tem the genset management system control
The contractor must provide a genset opera-
system shall also cover the alternator and the
tion / visualization panel to be located in the
genset circuit breaker incl. all necessary pro-
control room. This allows the contractor to
tection relays and synchronizing unit / check
follow his own design / layout criterias in the
synch. relay (for the alternator circuit break-
control room which will not be effected by the
er).
future MAN B&W Diesel concept.
Our solution is to use the engine management
For genset management system the follow-
system as basic module which can be extended
ing alternator protection relays shall be used:
(into genset management system) by an addi-
tional alternator module if necessary. - For differential protection
This modular concept can be used for turnkey - For overall protection.
1104-0101PA.fm

power plants, meaning that the genset manage-


ment system can be easily implemented into the
standard plant control philosophy.

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 31


Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope

1104-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-10 Basic diagram for Engine Management System

Page 11 - 32 Version 5/2003


Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope
1104-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-11 Basic diagram for Genset Management System

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Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope

1104-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-12 Division of Works for Engine Management System / Genset Management System

Page 11 - 34 Version 5/2003


Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope

Figure 11-13 Typical layout of an operator desk in the control room


1104-0101PA.fm

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Concept layout for MAN B&W Diesel standard scope

1104-0101PA.fm

Page 11 - 36 Version 5/2003


Single line diagram

11.5 Single line diagram


PDS: 70

Figure 11-14, Page 11-37, shows a typical ar-


rangement of the electrical power part of a sim-
ple Diesel power plant with only one medium
voltage busbar.
Figure 11-15, Page 11-38, shows a typical ar-
rangement of the electrical power part of a big-
ger Diesel power plant with more than one
medium voltage busbar and separate sections
of low voltage busbars.
1105-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-14 Electrical power part of a smaller Diesel power plant

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 37


Single line diagram

Figure 11-15 Electrical power part of a larger Diesel power plant


1105-0101PA.fm

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Lists for electrical systems

11.6 Lists for electrical systems

11.6.1 List of cables


PDS: 240 30
1106-0101PA.fm

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Lists for electrical systems

11.6.2 List of equipment


PDS: 240 30

1106-0201PA.fm

Page 11 - 40 Version 5/2003


Lists for electrical systems

11.6.3 List of measuring points


PDS: 240 30
1106-0301PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 41


Lists for electrical systems

11.6.4 List of consumers


PDS: 240 30

1106-0401PA.fm

Table 11-1 List of consumers, example, part 1 - engine 16V 32/40

Page 11 - 42 Version 5/2003


Lists for electrical systems

Table 11-2 List of consumers, example, part 2 - engine 18V 48/60


1106-0401PA.fm

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Lists for electrical systems

Table 11-3 List of consumers, example, part 3


1106-0401PA.fm

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Lists for electrical systems

Table 11-4 List of consumers, example, part 4


1106-0401PA.fm

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Lists for electrical systems

11.6.5 List of Electric motors


PDS: 240 30

1106-0501PA.fm

Page 11 - 46 Version 5/2003


Lists for electrical systems

11.6.6 List of measurement and control devices


PDS: 240 30
1106-0601PA.fm

Table 11-5 List of measurement and control devices, example, part 1

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 47


Lists for electrical systems

1106-0601PA.fm

Table 11-6 List of measurement and control devices, example, part 2

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Lists for electrical systems
1106-0601PA.fm

Table 11-7 List of measurement and control devices, example, part 3

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Lists for electrical systems

1106-0601PA.fm

Table 11-8 List of measurement and control devices, example, part 4

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Lists for electrical systems

11.6.7 List of signals


PDS: 240 30
1106-0701PA.fm

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 51


Lists for electrical systems

1106-0701PA.fm

Page 11 - 52 Version 5/2003


Data sheets for electrical system

11.7 Data sheets for electrical system


PDS: 240 30
1107-0101PA.fm

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Data sheets for electrical system

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Earthing and protection system

11.8 Earthing and protection system

11.8.1 Earthing system


PDS: 210 60 100

The earthing system has to be designed, beside connection points have to be provided on the in-
other requirements, according to the short cir- side walls around the power house at a height of
cuit capacity of the network and valid local reg- approx. 700mm above the floor. These connec-
ulations. tion points will later be connected to the equipo-
tential bus bar which is part of the inside
Responsible for the earthing system are
earthing system.
Civil contractor
Electrical contractor Outside earthing

A complete earthing system consists of MAN B&W Diesel requests an outside earthing.

Foundation earthing (design, supply and in- For buildings, standing tanks in the tankfarm
stallation usually by civil contractor) grounding conductors with suitable connectors
forming a complete ring - earthing loop - have to
Outside earthing (design, supply and installa- be provided. For these earthing loops, it is nec-
tion usually by civil contractor) essary to have a nude copper cable with a
Inside earthing (design, supply and installa- cross-section that depends upon the value of
tion or supervision usually by electrical con- failure current and clearing time. It is also possi-
tractor) ble to use two parallel cables each with half this
cross-section. The earthing loop should be laid
Lightning protection connected to the earth- at a distance of at least 1m outside the building
ing system (design, supply and installation and the tank line at least 1m below the surface.
usually by civil contractor)
In order to achieve an acceptable low grounding
In case of order, MAN B&W Diesel will submit a resistance, deep-earthing rods of sufficient
final documentation. length should be connected to the outside
earthing loops according to the specific ground-
Foundation earthing ing resistivity of the soil.
MAN B&W Diesel requests a foundation earth- Natural earthing rods, as e.g.
ing.
reinforcement steel in piles and foundations
In order to achieve low resistance, it is highly
recommended to install a foundation earthing pipe lines
system which consists of hot-dipped galvanised steel parts of buildings
band steel or round steel of at least 120mm.
have to be used and connected to the earthing
Galvanised steel each with connectors creating loops.
a concrete-embedded grid with good contact-
ing nodes has to be laid in the concrete of The earthing loops should be connected togeth-
er, to the foundation earthing and to the inside
Piles earthing. Further, all metal structures such as
Genset foundations exhaust gas stacks, radiator cooling plant, sub-
station, transformers, fence, etc. should be con-
Building foundations
1108-0101PA.fm

nected to the earthing system.


It is also recommended to interconnect the rein-
forcement steel to the earthing system. Several

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 55


Earthing and protection system

Inside earthing higher parts within the power plant. If necessary,


additional collecting rods will be mounted.
MAN B&W Diesel requests an inside earthing.
Down leads will be arranged in such a manner
Inside earthing systems will be designed ac-
that the connections between the collecting de-
cording to the electrical contractor and DIN/
vices and the grounding system will be as short
VDE-standards, if the supplier is a German com-
as possible. The outside earthing system will be
pany.
used for grounding the lightning protection sys-
All metal parts, other than those forming part of tem.
an electrical circuit, will be connected to the
earthing system by suitable connectors (made
of galvanised steel and / or copper). Such parts
are e.g.:
Housing of machines
Auxiliary drives
Transformers
Steel structures
Tanks
Pipes
Cable racks
Cable sealing ends
Lightning arrestors
Barrier grids
Coverings
All these parts will be directly connected to the
earthing system by means of suitable welding or
screw-type connectors.

Lightning protection
The lightning protection system has to protect
buildings, persons etc. against lightning effects
and will be designed according to the local reg-
ulations and / or the DIN/VDE-standards, espe-
cially if it will be supplied from Germany.
The lightning protection system consists of
Collecting device
Down lead
Grounding
Collection devices will be mounted on several
1108-0101PA.fm

points of the roof in a mesh pattern - the size of


each mesh is maximum 10m x 10m - and on

Page 11 - 56 Version 5/2003


Earthing and protection system
1108-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-16 Power house - loop earthing system

Version 5/2003 Page 11 - 57


Earthing and protection system

Figure 11-17 Site plan - outside earthing system


1108-0101PA.fm

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Earthing and protection system

Figure 11-18 Steel reinforcing bars earthing Figure 11-20 Sealed typical connection bar

Figure 11-19 Earthing simple sabot Figure 11-21 Typical civil work for a checking chamber
1108-0101PA.fm

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Earthing and protection system

Figure 11-22 Principle of connection in checking chamber Figure 11-24 Protection of floors crossing on electr. rooms

Figure 11-23 Earthing connection for electronic mass Figure 11-25 Wall crossing
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Earthing and protection system

Figure 11-26 Earthing of low voltage motor frame Figure 11-28 Lightning earthing connection to crows foot

Figure 11-27 Cable in trench Figure 11-29 Metallic door earthing


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Earthing and protection system

Figure 11-30 Road crossing

2) Support tube
Figure 11-31 Cable run down or rising principle on an
3) Way for lightening
equipment
4) U- shaped steel as support for smoke tube welded with
support tube
5) Compensation of potential by welding
6) Brass band as connection between upper and lower part
7) loop for earthing
No additional lightening poles are necessary
1108-0101PA.fm

Figure 11-32 Earthing of the chimney

1) Smoke tube

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Earthing and protection system

11.8.2 Protection
PDS: 210 60 90

Protection relays are of fixed mounted type, mi- Alternator basic protections
cro processor controlled with switches (soft-
24 overfluxing
ware or hardware) for value selection of actual
settings and trippings. 27 under voltage
The protection relays can be installed in the me- 32 Pactive reverse power
dium voltage and low voltage switchboards as 40 loss of excitation
well as in the electrical control panels.
46 neg. phase sequence
Our standard design for Diesel power plants
does not include a special panel for the limited 50 instantaneous overcurrent
purpose of protection because these functions 51 time overcurrent
can easily be included in other panels.
50 Ninstantaneous earth fault overcurrent
The following types of protection will be realized
in a typical Diesel power plant. 51 Nground fault time overcurrent
59 overvoltage
Protections on the medium voltage side
64 ground detector
Alternator protections 81 frequency
Overcurrent
Backup protections
Overload
87 differential protection
Negative phase sequence
50 time overcurrent
Zero sequence fault (current or voltage with
directionality functions) 51 time overcurrent

Reverse power (active) Thus, if multifunction protection relays, in every


case more than one device will be used.
Minimum excitation or reverse reactive pow-
er Neutral earthing
Overfluxing U/F In MAN B&W Diesel standard design, the alter-
Percentage longitudinal differential or re- nator star points are connected to earth through
stricted differential protection a limitation resistor to reduce the effect of de-
struction of the insulation due to earth faults as
Complementary protections for units connected much as possible.
on existing grids Other neutral earthing types are possible and
If the gensets are connected to a grid where the must be examinated individually in accordance
voltage and / or frequency are not under the re- with the system which is already used by the cli-
sponsibility of MAN B&W Diesel and its partner ent on the same type of installation.
electrical company, the protections shall be pro- If the neutral point is earthed, a zero sequence
vided with the minimum and maximum functions current detection is used. If the neutral point is
of frequency and voltage to separate the isolated, zero sequence voltage is used.
gensets from the grid if necessary.
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Earthing and protection system

Protections of the Diesel engine Overfluxing U/F. This function is normally


covered from the alternator protection
All protection and control functions of the
genset will be fed from a safety voltage which is Differential protection
battery buffered (either direct or indirect via an
UPS system). In case of loss of this safety volt- Protections of the station transformer
age the Diesel engine must be stopped and the
Overcurrent
alternator breaker must be tripped to avoid re-
verse power to the Diesel engine. Overload (or thermal image)
The trip of the alternator breaker must also be Earth fault
guaranteed in case of loss of the auxiliary volt-
Buchholz relay
age of the medium voltage switch board (under-
voltage coil).
Protections of lines outgoing feeders
This engine safety feature in our common Diesel
Overcurrent
power plants is a very significant difference to
marine or other special Diesel applications. Overload
Please consider carefully if a deviation from this Earth fault
fundamental safety philosophy, which could be
necessary in some cases, is needed. Protections on the high voltage side

Protections of the busbar connected to the grid Protections of the outgoing line
These protections protect the power plant by Overcurrent
isolating it from the grid during faults from the
Overload
grid which can not be controlled and mastered
by the dedicated protections and the dispatch- Restricted earth fault with high impedance
ing: differential protection (line of 50 to 70m),
Minimum frequency or
Maximum frequency - Longitudinal differential (line of 50 to 70m),
Minimum voltage or
Maximum voltage - Pilot wire differential protection (line of 100
to 1000m),
Detection of zero sequence voltage on the
busbar. or
Protection against ferro resonance to avoid - Distance protection (line of more than
overheating and destruction of voltage trans- 1000m),
formers connected to a busbar operating at
no load or slightly loaded. Protections on the low voltage side

Protections of step up transformer Protections of black start units and service trans-
Overcurrent formers.

Overload (or thermal image) These equipments are generally connected to


the main low voltage distribution board.
Buchholz relay
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Earthing and protection system

Their incomings on the board are normally


equipped with circuit breakers with the following
minimum protections:
Overcurrent
Overload
Earth fault
Reverse power (for the black start Diesel).

Protections of electrical motor feeders


Overcurrent (fuses, circuit breakers)
Overload (thermal device)

Protections of other feeders


Overcurrent (fuses, circuit breakers)
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Earthing and protection system

11.8.3 Touch / step voltages evaluation


PDS: 210 60 110

Purpose and definitions The touch voltage is therefore still kept down to
a safe value.
Dangerous touch / step voltages must be pre-
vented from occurring or persisting in the event No step voltage evaluation is required for low
of a fault phase / earth. voltage system.
Touch voltage UB is the part of the earthing volt-
age that a person can bridge, whereat the cur- 13.8kV system as a typical
rent flows over the human body from hand to Touch voltage is the potential difference which
foot (horizontal distance from the touched part occurs between hand and foot of a person who
approx. 1m) or from hand to hand. touches an earthed structure during a fault.
Step voltage US is the part of the earthing volt- Step voltage is the potential difference which
age that a person can bridge with a step of 1m could be picked off between the feet of a person
length, whereat the current flows over the hu- standing on the soil during a fault.
man body from foot to foot.
The tolerable touch and step voltages depend of
In contrast to the IEEE, the DIN VDE 0141 does surface soil resistivity, duration of shock current,
not give limit values for the step voltage. body resistance etc.
According to IEEE a rough simple evaluation is
480V system as a typical
given by
For low voltage system the limit values for touch
Tolerable touch voltage (body resistance =
voltages are
1000)
50V A.C.
( 1000V + 1.5c s s ) 0.157
120V D.C. ET = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
tol
ts
In the T.N.C. system, in the event of an earth
fault on a phase conductor, the potential of the ETtol Tolerable touch voltage [V]
P.E.N. and the exposed conductive parts con- s Soil resistivity, here 100m
nected to it, relative to "0" voltage "far earth" is cs Correction factor for surface resistivity, here 1
generated according to the following formula. ts Duration of shock current

RB
U B = U 0 --------------------- Tolerable step voltage.
R +R E B
( 1000V + 6c s s ) 0.157
U0 System voltage to earth, here 277V ES = -----------------------------------------------------------------------
RE Resistance of earth fault
tol
ts
RB Earthing resistance, here = 0.9
EStol Tolerable step voltage [V]
s Soil resistivity, here 100m
On the assumption, based on experience, that cs Correction factor for surface resistivity, here 1
the resistance to earth RE at the fault location ts Duration of shock current
will be at least 7, the touch voltage UB is
1108-0301PA.fm

1
U B = 277V ---------------------------- 35V 50V
7 + 0.9

Page 11 - 66 Version 8/2003


Earthing and protection system

For the 13.8kV system If we assume a reduction factor of 10% with


Shock current maximum ......................5sec. Ik1 = 18kA
Tolerable touch voltage ..........................81V. In = 1,000A
Tolerable step voltage ...........................112V.
U E = 1 10% ( 18,000A 1,000A ) 0.4
Taking into account that such phase / earth fault
is not likely to occur within the power house but
more probably outside the power house, MAN UE = 680V
B&W Diesel considers the total earthing resist-
The earthing voltage being higher than the toler-
ance of the plant to be 0.4.
able touch voltages.
In this case, the earthing voltage UE is given by
The system is not safe.
U E = w r I K1 Z E
To make it safer we have to reduce the earthing
resistance of the substation by improving the
UE Earthing voltage [V] earthing grid to a value of approx. 0.5 and to
w Probability factor, here 1 add a crushed rock surface layer of 10cm.
r Reduction factor, here 0.8
Ik1 Single phase short circuit current, here 240A
ZE Earthing impedance (assured to be = RE = 0.33)

U E = 1 0.8 240A 0.4 = 77V < 81V

Touch and step voltages being less than the


earthing voltage which is less than the tolerable
voltages.
The system is safe.

69kV system as a typical


If we consider a duration of shock for 69kV sys-
tem of 0.1 sec.,
The touch step voltage given by formula

1
U B = 277V ---------------------------- 35V 50V
7 + 0.9

is 571V.
The tolerable step voltage is 795V.
The earthing voltage UE in this case is

U E = w r ( I K1 I N ) Z E
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Lighting and small power system

11.9 Lighting and small power system


PDS: 210 60 60

General Outdoor lighting system


The design of the lighting and small power sys- Outdoor lighting will be installed for areas in-
tem will follow the regulation of the local author- cluded in the scope of supply for the utilised ar-
ities and be in accordance with applicable ea.
electrical contractor standards.
High-pressure sodium lamps or fluorescent
The scope will include lighting sub-distribution lamps will be used for outdoor lighting, the
boards, lighting fittings complete with lamps lamps will be controlled by photocell.
and tubes, switches, lighting poles, socket
Lighting fixtures at building doors and gateway
plugs, interconnection cables, etc.
will be mounted on brackets fixed to the building
structures.
Indoor lighting system
Road lighting fixtures will be mounted on hot dip
The luminaries will in general be selected so that galvanized poles 7m high or mounted on brack-
the whole location will be as lit and uniform as ets fixe