3 views

Uploaded by Fer Montesinos

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus

- edu 510 lesson plan
- Using Drawing Tools - Civil Engineering Drawing
- Radiographic Manifestations - Grondahl and Huumonen
- Solutions to Engineering Mechanics "RESULTANT OF ANY FORCE SYSTEM" 3rd Edition by Ferdinand Singer
- Equation for a Line
- Diagnosing lungs cancer Using Neural Networks
- SVUYVUPGCET-2013: Syllabus for Matheematics
- eXplore CT120 Site Prep
- DMC- Bone Grafting Materials and Implant UpdateComp
- Linear Revision
- Maths 001
- n5-revision-booklet-unit-2
- Workshop Apmp
- wikimama Class 12 ch 12 3-D
- g8m4 sg key slope and linear eqns l9-20
- 125544444444
- Straight Lines (1)
- Question 1
- tfdsfdssdffretsd23
- Mc8_dirn

You are on page 1of 58

Modules in

Undergraduate Computed

Mathematics

and Its

Tomography in

Applications Multivariable Calculus

Published in Yves Nievergelt

cooperation with

Industrial and

Applied Mathematics,

The Mathematical

Association of America,

of Teachers of

Mathematics,

The American

Mathematical

Association of

Two-Year Colleges,

Operations Research

and the Management

Sciences, and

The American

Statistical Association.

to Medicine and Imaging

COMAP, Inc., Suite 210, 57 Bedford Street, Lexington, MA 02420 (781) 8627878

136 Tools for Teaching 1996

Dept. of Mathematics, MS 32

Eastern Washington University

526 5th Street

Cheney, WA 990042431

ynievergelt@ewu.edu

strengthen students intuition in multidimensional

geometry,

consolidate students command of multivariable in-

tegrals,

provide exercises at a level between mechanical and

theoretical, and

show applications of calculus that are important but

rarely appear in calculus texts.

This Module provides exercises with line integrals and

multivariable integrals for use in multivariable calcu-

lus courses, at a level intermediate between mechanical

problems and abstract proofs. The exercises do not re-

quire any background on any applications.

come with a canned recipe for its solution. In particular,

from multivariable calculus: limits and partial deriv-

atives of elementary (rational, trigonometric, or expo-

nential) functions, integrals along lines in the plane and

along lines or planes in space, changes and permuta-

tions of variables in multivariable integrals, dot prod-

ucts, and small linear systems.

struction, by Frederick Solomon. The UMAP Journal

1 (4) (1980): 101119.

c 1997 by COMAP, Inc. All rights reserved.

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use

is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial

advantage and that copies bear this notice. Abstracting with credit is permitted, but copyrights

for components of this work owned by others than COMAP must be honored. To copy otherwise,

to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists requires prior permission from COMAP.

(800) 77-COMAP = (800) 772-6627, or (617) 862-7878; http://www.comap.com

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 137

Computed Tomography

in Multivariable Calculus

Yves Nievergelt

Dept. of Mathematics, MS 32

Eastern Washington University

526 5th Street

Cheney, WA 990042431

ynievergelt@ewu.edu

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3.1 Reconstructions from Projections Are Already in Linear Algebra 2

3.2 Planar ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3.3 Spatial ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

4. RADONS TRANSFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

4.1 The Set of All Straight Lines in the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

4.2 Integrals of Functions over Straight Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5. APPROXIMATE IDENTITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5.1 Weight Functions with One Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5.2 Approximate Identities with One Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

5.3 Approximate Identities with Several Dimensions . . . . . . . . . 22

6.1 The Adjoint Radon Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

6.2 Filtered Back-Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

7. FURTHER TOPICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

7.1 Fan-Beam Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

7.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

7.3 Historical Notes on Computed Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

138 Tools for Teaching 1996

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS (UMAP) PROJECT

opers, a system of instructional modules in undergraduate mathematics and

its applications, to be used to supplement existing courses and from which

complete courses may eventually be built.

The Project was guided by a National Advisory Board of mathematicians,

scientists, and educators. UMAP was funded by a grant from the National

Science Foundation and now is supported by the Consortium for Mathemat-

ics and Its Applications (COMAP), Inc., a nonprofit corporation engaged in

research and development in mathematics education.

Solomon Garfunkel Executive Director, COMAP

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 139

mathematics will find application in the real world can be found in our

experience with the x-ray CT problem.

Lawrence A. Shepp [1983, 3]

1. Introduction

Computed tomography earned two of its inventorsG.N. Hounsfield of

EMI and Allan M. Cormak of Tufts Universitythe Nobel Prize in Medicine

in 1979 [Gelfand and Gindikin 1990, 1]. Computed tomography computes a

picture of the interior of an object, on the basis of measurements taken only

on the objects boundary, without direct access to the objects interior. For in-

stance, medical scanners for computed tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic

resonance (NMR) produce pictures of a patients brain from x-rays or electro-

magnetic radiations measured only outside the patients head; computations

directly construct pictures of the brain [Smith et al. 1977, 1231]. Thus, no cam-

era ever photographs the brain: The scanner does not take any picture, it

computes pictures. For examples of such pictures and their uses in medicine,

see Sochurek [1987]. For an interactive demonstration of the use of computed

tomography in an industrial nondestructive testing, see Bossi and Kruse [1994].

The following considerations outline a physical explanation of the relation

between line integrals and measurements of x-rays in a CT scanner.

An x-ray consists of photons that travel along a straight line Lr,a at a dis-

tance r from the origin and perpendicular to a direction ~a . At each point ~x at

position s on the line Lr,a , if N (s) photons strike an object at s with density

(or, more accurately, coefficient of linear absorption) f (~x(s)) and length h along

the line Lr,a , then the object will absorb some of the photons and will allow

only a smaller number N (s + h) < N (s) to traverse and emerge at s + h .

In relative terms, the fraction of photons absorbed equals approximately the

product of the density f (~x(s)) and the length h of the object,

N (s) N (s + h)

f (~x(s)) h,

N (s)

whence

N (s) N (s + h)

f (~x(s)).

h N (s)

1

140 Tools for Teaching 1996

h tends to zero, i.e.,

N (s + h) N (s)

lim = f (~x(s)),

h0 h N (s)

N 0 (s)

= f (~x(s)).

N (s)

Integrating this relation, between the penetration point (in) and exit point

(out) of the x-ray, gives

Z

ln(N (out)) ln(N (in)) = f (~x(s)) ds,

Lr,a

N (in)

ln = (Rf )(r, a).

N (out)

Thus, if the CT scanner measures the number or intensity of the x-ray pho-

tons before (N (in)) and after (N (out)) their passage through the body, then

the scanner produces the numbers ln (N (in)/N (out)) , which form the values

(Rf )(r, a) of the Radon transform of the tissue density f along the lines of the

x-rays. The scanners computer must then reconstruct the yet unknown values

of the tissue density f (~x) at many points ~x in the body. Of course, some-

one must program the computer to this effect, for instance, as outlined in the

following sections.

(ART)

This section introduces the problem of computed tomography at the level

of linear algebra without prerequisites from calculus. The subsequent sections,

which use calculus, do not depend on this section.

In Linear Algebra

Though rarely described in such terms, reconstructions of objects from pro-

jections appear in most courses in linear algebra. Indeed, the coordinates x1

and x2 of a point (x1 , x2 ) in the plane are the orthogonal projections of (x1 , x2 )

onto the axes, and reconstructing the point (x1 , x2 ) from its projections x1

and x2 amounts to solving the trivial linear system

x1 = x1 ,

x2 = x2 .

This observation extends to all linear systems.

2

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 141

Figure 1. Reconstruction of a point in the plane from its projections on two lines.

0.8x1 0.6x2 = 0.5

structing the point (x1 , x2 ) from its orthogonal projections 0.7 and 0.5

on the lines supporting the unit vectors (0.6, 0.8) and (0.8, 0.6) respec-

tively, as shown in Figure 1. With h , i denoting the dot product, we have

the system

0.8x1 0.6x2 = h(0.8, 0.6), (x1 , x2 )i.

the point ~x in space from its scaled orthogonal projections on the lines sup-

porting the not necessarily orthonormal rows of the matrix A .

Other mathematical and applied concepts have algebraic or geometric fea-

tures similar to those just outlined for linear systems, and, because of a lack

of better words, such similar concepts also bear the name of projection. The

following subsections illustrate such projections with prototype models of

computed tomography. In many mathematical and applied situations, how-

ever, vectors become functions and the dot product becomes an inner product

defined by integrals, as illustrated in subsequent sections with another model

of computed tomography.

3

142 Tools for Teaching 1996

Exercises

1. A yet unknown point (w1 , w2 ) has orthogonal projections 2.284 and 1.812

on the lines supporting the vectors (0.936, 0.352) and (0.352, 0.936) . De-

termine w1 and w2 .

2. A yet unknown point (v1 , v2 ) has orthogonal projections 0.26 and 0.18 on

the lines supporting vectors (0.96, 0.28) and (0.28, 0.96) . Determine v1

and v2 .

3. A yet unknown point (z1 , z2 , z3 ) has orthogonal projections 3.16 , 0.88 , and

1.80 on the lines supporting the vectors (0.36, 0.48, 0.80) , (0.48, 0.64, 0.60) ,

and (0.80, 0.60, 0.00) , respectively. Determine z1 , z2 , and z3 .

1 on the lines supporting the vectors ( 2/3, 2/3, 1/3) , ( 1/3, 2/3, 2/3) , and

( 2/3, 1/3, 2/3) , respectively. Determine v1 , v2 , and v3 .

CT scanners send x-rays through a planar cross section of a patient. Mea-

suring instruments in the scanner then compare the intensities of the x-rays

before they penetrate into the patient and after they emerge from the patient.

Because the various tissues inside the patient absorb some of the x-rays en-

ergy, the intensity Iout of an x-ray emerging from the patient is smaller than

the intensity Iin of the same x-ray as it entered the patient: Iout < Iin . The

ratios Iout /Iin measured outside the patients body constitute the only data

measured by the scanners. From such data, the scanners manufacturers must

design and program an algorithm to compute a picture showing the internal

tissues in the patient. Because the absorption of an x-ray depends on the total

mass traversed by that x-ray, the scanners computers must solve a system of

equations to compute the density of mass at many points in the patients body

to produce a picture useful for medical diagnostic purposes.

Figure 2 illustrates the role of mathematics in computed tomography. In the

triangle, the three discs represent three internal organs at known locations but

with yet unknown masses X1 , X2 , and X3 , while the straight lines represent

x-rays. In general, organs lie in front of one another, so that every x-ray traverses

more than one organ. For instance, the x-ray along L12 traverses the total mass

X1 + X2 of the organs with masses X1 and X2 , which absorb an amount B12

of the intensity of the x-ray. Thus, we assume the model X1 + X2 = B12 .

Similarly, X2 and X3 absorb an amount B23 from the x-ray along L23 , while

X3 and X1 absorb an amount B31 from the x-ray along L31 , whence arises

the linear system

X 1 + X2 = B12 ,

X2 + X3 = B23 ,

X1 + X3 = B31 .

4

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 143

Figure 2. The three discs represent three yet unknown masses X1 , X2 , and X3 . The lines L12 ,

L23 , and L31 represent three x-rays passing through the unknown masses. The sums X1 + X2 ,

X2 + X3 , and X3 + X1 represent measurements of the absorptions of the x-rays by the masses.

In such a prototype setting, the problem of computed tomography consists in designing a method

to compute the three masses X1 , X2 , and X3 from the measurements X1 + X2 , X2 + X3 ,

and X3 + X1 .

Because the system has only a single solution, measuring the absorptions

(B12 , B23 , B31 ) and solving the resulting linear system (through elimination or

with a computer) reveals the masses (X1 , X2 , X3 ) .

0.8 , B23 = 0.9 , and B31 = 0.7 . The linear system becomes

X1 + X2 = 0.8

X2 + X3 = 0.9

X1 + X3 = 0.7.

tissues not just at three locations but at thousands of locations in each organ.

Hence arise linear systems of thousands of equations with thousands of unknowns,

with the unknown XN denoting the density (or, more accurately, the coeffi-

cient of linear absorption) at the N th selected point (Herman [1979]).

5

144 Tools for Teaching 1996

Figure 3. The four discs represent four yet unknown masses X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4 . The lines

represent six x-rays passing through the unknown masses. The sums denote measurements of the

absorptions of the x-rays by the masses. In such a prototype setting, the problem of computed

tomography consists in designing a method to compute the four masses X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4

from the measurements.

Indeed, four points already cause problems, because they determine not

four but six x-rays through them, as in Figure 3. Yet six equations with four

unknowns may have no solution. Moreover, selecting only four among six

x-rays may still give a singular system without solution. Furthermore, while

exact formulas exist to calculate each unknown XN in terms of all the x-rays

through all pairs of masses [Strichartz 1982], such formulas do not help in

practice because the locations of the masses remain unknown.

Exercises

5. As in Example 2, and with the same situation as in Figure 2, suppose that the

scanner produces the measurements B12 = 0.9 , B23 = 0.5 , and B31 = 0.8 .

Compute the masses X1 , X2 , and X3 .

6. As in Example 2, and with the same situation as in Figure 2, suppose that the

scanner produces the measurements B12 = 0.9 , B23 = 0.4 , and B31 = 0.9 .

Compute the masses X1 , X2 , and X3 .

In contrast to CT scanners, which measure x-rays along lines in the plane,

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanners measure electromagnetic fields

6

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 145

over planes in space; but the mathematics is similar. For examples of pictures

computed by NMR, also called magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine,

see Sochurek [1987, 1423].

Figure 4. A tetrahedron has four vertices, six edges, and four triangular faces.

space. In general position, they determine four planes through them. (Four

noncoplanar masses lie at the vertices of a tetrahedron, which has four planar

triangular faces, as shown in Figure 4.) With I labeling both the plane PI and

the measurement BI that omits XI , the NMR measurements correspond to

the sum of the three masses on each plane, which give four equations:

X1 + X3 + X4 = B2 (sum along the plane P2 through X1 , X3 , X4 ),

X1 + X 2 + X4 = B3 (sum along the plane P3 through X1 , X2 , X4 ),

X1 + X 2 + X 3 = B4 (sum along the plane P4 through X1 , X2 , X3 ).

the system becomes

X2 + X3 + X4 = 7,

X1 + X3 + X4 = 6,

X1 + X2 + X4 = 9,

X1 + X2 + X3 = 8.

(X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) = (3, 4, 1, 2) .

The four masses serve only as a prototype to explain the nature of NMR

scanners. Accuracy and resolution sufficient for medical diagnostic purposes

require thousands of points, whence arise systems with thousands of equations.

7

146 Tools for Teaching 1996

For such and other reasons, the method just describedcalled the algebraic

reconstruction technique (ART)has remained confined to some particular ap-

plications [Natterer 1986, 138 and 160]. A more detailed presentation of ART

for use in a linear algebra appears in Rorres [1984].

For general computed tomography, however, a different method, based

on multivariable calculus and related mathematical topics, has proved more

effective, as described in the following sections.

There are still other types of computed tomography, for instance, with x-rays

not only within a plane but also through three-dimensional space [Quinto et al.

1994]. For pictures computed by such methods, see Sochurek [1987, 3439].

Exercises

7. In the situation of Example 3, calculate the masses (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) on the

basis of the measurements (B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 ) = (9, 5, 8, 8) .

basis of the measurements (B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 ) = (6, 5, 7, 6) .

4. Radons Transform

Whereas the algebraic reconstruction technique models a patients internal

tissues with finitely many points or cells, the method presented in this section

models internal tissues with a continuous function of two variables that repre-

sents the density of tissue at each point of a planar cross section of the patient.

The measurements from a CT scanner then depend on the total mass traversed

by each x-ray; these measurements correspond to the integrals of the density

over each straight line in the plane. With a large number of points, continuous

models such as this one have proved more effective than discrete models. This

section presents these ideas in detail.

To assign specific measurements to specific x-rays, it becomes necessary to

specify the position of each x-ray. With x-rays modeled by straight lines, how-

ever, specifying the position of each x-ray amounts to specifying the location

and orientation of each straight line in the plane. A common method specifies

each straight line Lr,a R2 in the plane R2 = {(x, y) : x, y R} by two real

numbers: the polar coordinates r and a of the point r (cos a, sin a) on Lr,a

closest to the origin, usuallybut not alwayswith the convention that r R

and 0 a < . Thus, r represents the signed distance measured perpendic-

ularly from the line Lr,a to the origin ~0 = (0, 0) , and a represents the angle

measured counterclockwise from the positive horizontal axis to the direction

perpendicular to Lr,a , as in Figure 5.

8

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 147

Figure 5. For each line Lr,a in the plane, r and a denote the polar coordinates of the point on

Lr,a closest to the origin.

Example 4. For the horizontal line at height 1 above the horizontal axis,

r = 1 and a = /2 .

Also, for the vertical line at distance 1 on the left of the vertical axis,

r = 1 and a = 0 .

Moreover, for the line through the points (1, 0) and (0, 1) , r = 2/2

and a = /4 .

Furthermore, for the line through (1, 0) and (0, 1) , r = 2/2

and a = /4 .

Figure 6. For each point ~x = (x, y) on the line Lr,a , if ~a = r (cos a, sin a) denotes the point

on Lr,a closest to the origin, then h~

x , ~ai = r .

the advantage of allowing for all straight lines with all positions and orien-

tations in the plane. In contrast, specifications involving slopes do not allow

for vertical lines. Yet the two numbers r and a provide enough information

9

148 Tools for Teaching 1996

to recover the Cartesian equation of a line. Indeed, let r (cos a, sin a) repre-

sents the point closest to the origin on the line Lr,a , as in Figure 5. Then the

line Lr,a is perpendicular to the unit vector ~a = (cos a, sin a) . Consequently,

the orthogonal projection of every point ~x = (x, y) on Lr,a coincides with

the point r (cos a, sin a) . Indeed, the orthogonal projection of the entire line

Lr,a reduces to the point r (cos a, sin a) , as in Figure 6. Therefore, with h , i

denoting the dot product,

a = /3 satisfies the Cartesian equation

x cos a + y sin

a = r,

x( 1/2) + y( 3/2) = 5.

Figure 7. The arc length s measures the signed distance from ~

closest to the origin.

The two numbers r and a also give a parametric equation for the straight

line Lr,a . The line Lr,a passes through r~a , and Lr,a is parallel to the direction

~n~a = ( sin a, cos a) perpendicular to ~a . Consequently, for each point ~x =

(x, y) on Lr,a , if s denotes the Euclidean distance from ~x to r~a , counted

positively along ~n~a and negatively in the opposite direction ~n~a , then

~x = r~a + s (~n~a )

= r (cos a, sin a) + s ( sin a, cos a) (2)

= (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) .

10

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 149

a = /3 has the parametric equation

x r cos a s sin a 5 (

1/ ) s ( 3/2)

2

= = .

y r sin a + s cos a 5 ( 3/2) + s ( 1/2)

Exercises

9. Determine a Cartesian equation for the straight line corresponding to the

polar coordinates r = 7 and a = 5/6 .

10. Determine a Cartesian equation for the straight line corresponding to the

polar coordinates r = 5 and a = 3/4 .

11. Determine a parametric equation for the straight line Lr,a corresponding

to the polar coordinates r = 7 and a = 5/6 .

12. Determine a parametric equation for the straight line corresponding to the

polar coordinates r = 5 and a = 3/4 .

13. Use analytic geometry to obtain a formula for the point r (cos a, sin a)

closest to the origin and on the line Lr,a with Cartesian equation ux + vy =

w . Express r and a in terms of u , v , and w .

14. Use Lagrange multipliers to obtain a formula for the point r (cos a, sin a)

closest to the origin and on the line Lr,a with Cartesian equation ux + vy =

w . Express r and a in terms of u , v , and w .

This subsection explains the nature of the measurements from a CT scanner

in terms of line integrals.

Let D R2 denote the subset of the plane corresponding to a patients cross

section. For definiteness, assume that D is closed and bounded. Also, consider

a continuous function f : R2 R such that f (x, y) models the density (more

accurately, the coefficient of linear absorption) of the internal tissues at the point

(x, y) ; in particular, f (x, y) = 0 for every point (x, y) outside D .

Since we use the notation (p, q) to denote a point, let the notation ]p, q[

represent the open segment from p to q (neither endpoint is included): ]p, q[ =

{x R : p < x < q} . Similarly, [p, q[ and ]p, q] stand for half-open segments.

Definition 1. The Radon transform of a function f : R2 R is the function

(Rf ) : R [0, [ R

defined by the integrals of f along each straight line in the plane:

Z Z

(Rf )(r, a) = f ds = f (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) ds.

Lr,a (3)

11

150 Tools for Teaching 1996

Formula (3) results from a substitution into f (x, y) of the parametric equation

of the line, with x = r cos a s sin a and y = r sin a + s cos a , as derived in (1).

p

Figure 8. The function fR,c with fR,c (x, y) = c 1 [ x2 + y 2 /R] , where x2 + y 2 R2 .

fR,c shown in Figure 8, with value

p

fR,c = c 1 [ x2 + y 2 /R] in the closed disc D where x2 + y 2 R2 ,

and constant value 0 everywhere else:

( p

c 1 [ x2 + y 2 /R] , if x2 + y 2 R2 ;

fR,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > R2 .

For each straight line Lr,a with polar coordinates r and a , two cases

arise. If r > R , then Lr,a does not intersect disc D , so that fR,c = 0

everywhere along Lr,a , and, consequently, (RfR,c )(r, a) = 0 .

Figure 9. d = R2 r 2 .

12

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 151

a line segment of

length 2d given by r + d = R , whence d = R r2 , as shown in

2 2 2 2

side of the point r~a on Lr,a , because D and Lr,a are each symmetric

with respect to the diameter supporting ~a .

Figure 10. The value (RfR,c )(r, a) of the Radon transform represents the integral (shaded area)

of fR,c over the line Lr,a .

Hence, the value of the Radon transform, which is the integral over

the shaded area in Figure 10, is

(RfR,c )(r, a)

Z

= fR,c (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) ds

Z d ( p )

(r cos a s sin a)2 + (r sin a + s cos a)2

= c 1 ds

d R

Z R2 r2 ( )

r2 + s2

= c 1 ds

R2 r 2 R

s R2 r2

1 s p 2 r 2

= 2c s r + s2 + Arcsinh

R 2 2 r

( " 0

!#)

p 1 R 2 r2 r 2

R 2 r2

= 2c R2 r 2 R+ Arcsinh

R 2 2 r

( !)

p r2 R2 r 2

=c R2 r 2 Arcsinh .

R r

In practice, each line Lr,a represents an x-ray, and the numbers (Rf )(r, a)

represent the measurements provided by the CT scanner. The problem of com-

puted tomography then consists in starting from the measurements (Rf )(r, a)

and solving for the values f (x, y) of the density of the internal tissues. In

13

152 Tools for Teaching 1996

viding guidance to design scanners, hardly anyone ever calculates the explicit

functional form of the Radon transform of a specific function, except for a

small number of test casesfor instance, as in Example 7 and in the following

exercises. All practical calculation is done with numerical methods.

Exercises

The results of the following exercises are useful as test cases for the design of

CT scanners. Such test cases often simulate cross sections of the skull and other

internal organs by superpositions of ellipses with various densities [Shepp

1983].

15. Calculate the Radon transform (RgR,c )(r, a) of the function gR,c with con-

stant value c in the closed disc D where x2 + y 2 R2 , and constant value

0 everywhere else:

(

c, if x2 + y 2 R2 ;

gR,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > R2 .

16. Calculate the Radon transform (RhR,c )(r, a) of the function hR,c whose

graph represents one-half of an ellipsoid on the closed disc D where x2 +

y 2 R2 , with constant value 0 everywhere else:

( p

c R2 (x2 + y 2 ), if x2 + y 2 R2 ;

hR,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > R2 .

17. Calculate the Radon transform (Rgp,q,c )(r, a) of the function gp,q,c with

constant value c in the closed ellipse E where (x2 /p2 ) + (y 2 /q 2 ) 1 and

constant value 0 everywhere else:

(

c, if x2 /p2 + y 2 /q 2 1;

gp,q,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 /p2 + y 2 /q 2 > 1.

Verify that if p = q , then the result reduces to that for the disc in Exercise 15.

18. (This exercise demonstrates how, in practice, the challenge of changes of

coordinates arises not from the mechanical execution but from setting up

changes of coordinates.) Apply changes of coordinates to Exercise 17 to

calculate the Radon transform (Rgu,v,w,p,q,c )(r, a) of the function gu,v,w,p,q,c

with constant value c inside the closed ellipse E with center at (u, v) ,

angle w from the horizontal axis to the semimajor axis, and semimajor

and semiminor axes with positive lengths p and q , and constant value 0

everywhere else:

(

c, if (x, y) lies inside or on E;

gu,v,w,p,q,c (x, y) =

0, if (x, y) lies outside E.

14

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 153

translation (shift) of the other set of coordinates; invert the transformation

if the need arises.

19. Verify that if f does not depend on a , then neither does Rf .

20. Verify that for all numbers p, q R and for all continuous functions

f, h : R2 R (which equal zero outside of D ), R(pf +qh) = pRf +q Rh .

5. Approximate Identities

In practice, measurements may suffer from inaccuracies, for instance, caused

by limitations in the measuring apparatus or unforeseen external disturbances.

Nevertheless, such inaccuracies may cancel one another on the average, so

that the average of many measurements may be more accurate than any single

measurement. Therefore, practical computations of an image from x-ray mea-

surements involve averages, usually weighted averages with larger weights

near the location of interest and smaller weights farther away, as described in

this section.

The usual average of a continuous function f : [a, b] R over a closed and

bounded interval [a, b] with a < b is

Z b Z b

1 1

f (t) dt = f (t) dt.

ba a a ba

Such an average assigns the same weight 1/(ba) to each value t [a, b] .

Yet many situations require a larger weight near a particular location of interest

and smaller weights farther away. Hence arises a more general and useful

concept of weighted average.

Definition

R 2. A one-dimensional weight function is a function w : R R such

that R |w(t)| dt < and such that

Z

w(t) dt = 1.

R

Specific applications may impose further conditions, for instance, nonneg-

ativity, continuity, or differentiability.

In the sequel, the notation A := B serves to define a yet undefined object

A in terms of an already defined object B .

Figure 11a and defined by

15

154 Tools for Teaching 1996

the multiplicative factor c horizontally and stretched by 1/c vertically. d. h shifted by u ,

compressed by c horizontally, and stretched by 1/c vertically.

0, if t < 1;

1 + t, if 1 t < 0;

h(t) := (4)

1 t, if 0 t < 1;

0, if 1 t

R

is a weight function, because R h(t) dt = 1 . The observation that h is an

even function, which means that h(t) = h(t) , simplifies the verification:

Z Z 0 Z 1 Z 1

h(t) dt = (1 + t) dt + (1 t) dt = 2 (1 t) dt

R 1 0 0

1

t2 1

=2 t =2 1 = 1.

2 0 2

The weight function in Example 8 assigns the largest weight to the origin,

t = 0 , and no weight at all outside the interval [1, 1] . Still, many situations

require the possibility of adjusting the relative size of the largest weights and

the interval where most of the weight lies.

and defined by

16

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 155

0, if t < c;

1 1 + t ,

if c t < 0;

hc (t) := 1c c (5)

c 1 c ,

t

if 0 t < c;

0, if c t

R

is a weight function, because R hc (t) dt = 1 :

Z Z 0 Z c

1 t 1 t

hc (t) dt = 1+ dt + 1 dt

R c c c 0 c c

Z c c

1 t 1 t2 1 c2

=2 1 dt = 2 t =2 c = 1.

0 c c c 2c 0 c 2c

Thus, hc is a weight function that assigns the largest weight to the origin,

t = 0 , with no weight outside [c, c] . Moreover, hc is also nonnegative

and continuous.

With any weight function w that assigns most of its weight near the origin,

composition of sign-reversal and the translation (shift) defined by t 7 u t

produce a weight function t 7 w(u t) that assigns most of its weight near

u.

Example 10. See Figure 11b. Consider the weight function h defined by

(4) in Example 8. For each u R ,

0, if u t < 1, that is, if u + 1 < t;

1 + (u t), if 1 u t < 0, that is, if u < t u + 1;

h(u t) =

1 (u t), if 0 u t < 1, that is, if u 1 < t u;

0, if 1 u t, that is, if t u 1.

variable s := u t gives

Z Z Z u+1

|h(u t)| dt = h(u t) dt = h(u t) dt

R R u1

Z 1 Z 1

= h(s) (ds) = h(s) ds = 1.

1 1

in Example 9 by (5). For each u R , the composition of the weight

function hc and the change of variable t 7 u t produces the shifted

weight function shown in Figure 11d, with

17

156 Tools for Teaching 1996

0, if u t < c, that is, if u + c < t;

1 ut

, if c u t < 0, that is, if u < t u + c;

c 1 + c

hc (ut) =

1 u t

1 , if 0 u t < c, that is, if u c < t u;

c c

0, if c u t, that is, if t u c.

Exercises

21. Verify that for each c > 0 , the function bc : R R (with b for box)

defined by

0, if t < c;

1

bc (t) := , if c t c;

2c

0, if c < t,

is a weight function.

22. (The function introduced here, known as Dirichlets kernel, plays an impor-

tant role in the theory of Fourier series [Hewitt and Stromberg 1965, 291

292].) Verify that for each positive integer N , the function DN defined

by

sin [N + 12 )]t

DN (t) :=

2 sin(t/2)

DN (t) dt = 1 . Hints: by induction or otherwise, verify the trigonomet-

ric identity

that is longer but easier to integrate.

23. (The function introduced here, known as Abels kernel, plays an important

role in the theory of Fourier transforms [Hewitt and Stromberg 1965, 407

and 409].) Verify that for each positive real B > 0 , the function AB : R R

defined by

1 B

AB (w) := 2

B + w2

R

is a weight function on R , so that AB (w) dw = 1 .

24. (The function introduced here, known as Fejers kernel, plays an important

role in the theory of Fourier transforms [Hewitt and Stromberg 1965, 407408

and 413].) Verify that for each positive real B > 0 , the function FB : R R

defined by

18

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 157

2

B sin(Bw/2)

FB (w) :=

2 Bw/2

for

F (w) dw = 1 .

B

Any collection of such weight functions as hc in Example 9 that allows for

the adjustment of the interval containing most of the weight bears the name of

approximate identity, for reasons explained below.

Definition 3. An approximate identity is a set of weight functions, {wc : c > 0} ,

such that the smaller the value of c , the smaller the interval in which the weight

function wc assigns most of the weight: for each interval [R, R] with R > 0 ,

Z R

lim wc (t) dt = 1,

c0 R

R

and such that some M > 0 exists for which R |wc (t)| dt M for every c > 0 .

Example 12. The set {hc : c > 0} defined by (5) in Example 9 forms an

approximate identity. Indeed, for each R > 0 , if 0 < c < R , then

Z R Z R Z c

|hc (t)| dt = hc (t) dt = hc (t) dt = 1.

R R c

Thus, if 0 < c < R , then every weight function hc assigns the entire

Rb

weight to the interval [R, R] , in the sense that a hc (t) dt = 0 for every

interval [a, b] ] , R[ ]R, [ .

The name approximate identity arises from the fact that averaging a func-

tion f with weight functions t 7 wc (x t) from an approximate identity

approximates the value f (x) with increasing accuracy as c tends to zero, as

shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12. The integral of the product of f and the weight function w gives a weighted average

of the values f near the maximum of w .

19

158 Tools for Teaching 1996

approximate identity {wc : c > 0} , we have

Z

f (x) = lim f (t) wc (x t) dt.

c0 R

Proof: The definition of continuity of f at x means that for each > 0 some

> 0 exists for which

whence

Z Z Z

1 f (x) f (t)wc (x t) dt = f (x)wc (t) dt f (t)wc (x t) dt

R ZR R

Z

= f (x)wc (x t) dt f (t)wc (x t) dt

ZR R

= [f (x) f (t)] wc (x t) dt

ZR

|[f (x) f (t)] wc (x t)| dt

Z R

< |wc (x t)| dt

R

Z

= |wc (x t)| dt M,

R

which tends to zero as tends to zero. Thus,

Z

lim f (x) f (t)wc (x t) dt = 0,

c0 R Z

f (x) = lim f (t)wc (x t) dt.

c0 R

Definition 4. For each pair of functions f : R R and h : R R for which

the following integral exists, define the convolution of f and h as the function

denoted by f h with

Z

(f h)(r) := f (s)h(r s) ds.

R

The following results show that any weight function may serve as the build-

ing block for an approximate identity.

20

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 159

every t outside of [1, 1] , the set {wc : c > 0} defined by

1 t

wc (t) := w

c c

Proof: Perform the change of variables t := cs and s := t/c . For each R > 0 ,

if 0 < c < R , then

Z Z c Z c

1 t

wc (t) dt = wc (t) dt = w dt

R c c c c

Z 1 Z 1

1

= w (s) c ds = w (s) ds = 1.

1 c 1

The same change of variable confirms that for each c but for the same M > 0 ,

Z Z c Z c

1

|wc (t)| dt = |wc (t)| dt = w t dt

c

R c c c

Z 1 Z 1

1

= w (s) c ds = |w (s)| ds = M.

c

1 1

A similar result also holds for weight functions that need not equal zero

outside such an interval as [1, 1] , but the following material will not require

such a result.

Exercises

25. (The function introduced here, known as the Gaussian distribution, plays an

important role in the theory of Fourier transforms [Folland 1984, 243] and in

probability [Folland 1984, 299].) Verify that the function g : R R defined

by

1

et /2

2

g(t) :=

2

is a weight function on R . (Hint: consider the square of the integral as

an integral over the plane and then express it with polar coordinates; al-

ternatively, another method consists in verifying that the indefinite integral

satisfies an ordinary differential equation [Weinstock 1990].) Then verify

that the functions defined by

1 t 1

et /2c

2 2

gc (t) := g =

c c 2c2

21

160 Tools for Teaching 1996

26. (The exponential function introduced here plays an important role in the

theory of Fourier transforms [Hewitt and Stromberg 1965, 407 and 409].)

Verify that the function K : R R defined by

1 |x|

K(x) :=e

2

is a weight function on R , and consequently, that the functions defined by

1 x 1 |x/c|

Kc (x) := K = e

c c 2c

form an approximate identity.

DefinitionR 5. An n -dimensional weight function is a function w : Rn R

such that Rn |w(~x)| dx1 dxn < and such that

Z

w(~x) dx1 dxn = 1.

Rn

Example13. Consider the function

fR,c shown in Figure 13, with value

p

fR,c = c 1 [ x2 + y 2 /R] in the closed disc D where x2 + y 2 R2 ,

and constant value 0 everywhere else:

c 1 x2 +y2 , if x2 + y 2 R2 ;

R

fR,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > R2 .

With the particular value c := 3/R2 , polar coordinates confirm that

fR,3/R2 is a weight function:

Z Z

|fR,c (x, y)| dx dy = fR,c (x, y) dx dy

R2 R2 !

Z p

x2 + y 2

= c 1 dx dy

D R

Z r=R Z a=

r

= c 1 r dr da

r=0 a= R

Z r=R r

= 2c 1 r dr

r=0 R

Z r=R

r2

= 2c r dr

r=0 R

2 R 2

r r3 R R3

= 2c = 2c

2 3R 0 2 3R

R2 cR2

= 2c = = 1.

6 3

22

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 161

x2 +y 2

Figure 13. The weight function w defined by w(x, y) = c 1 R

.

Considerations similar to those for one dimension show that with several

dimensions, weight functions also provide averages that approximate the value

of continuous functions, as illustrated in Figure 14.

Figure 14. The multidimensional counterpart to Figure 12. The integral of the product of f and

the weight function w gives a weighted average of the values f near the maximum of w , where

w has nonzero values.

each weight function w : Rn R (with the notation ~x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) ),

Z

1 1

f (~z) = lim f (~x) n w [~z ~x] dx1 dxn .

c0 Rn c c

Proof: With multiple integrals, mimic the proofs for one dimension.

23

162 Tools for Teaching 1996

Exercises

0, if x2 + y 2 > 1;

g(x, y) := 1

, if x2 + y 2 1

is a weight function.

28. Verify that the set of functions {gc : c > 0} with gc : R2 R defined by

0, if x2 + y 2 > c2 ;

gc (x, y) := 1

2 , if x2 + y 2 c2

c

is an approximate identity.

For the following exercises, let k k denote the Euclidean norm, so that k~zk2 =

z12 + + zn2 for each ~z = (z1 , . . . , zn ) .

Figure 15. The bivariate Gaussian distri- Figure 16. Level curves of the bivariate

1 (x2 +y 2 )/2 Gaussian distribution.

bution with g(x, y) = 2 e .

1

e(k~zk

2

g(~z) := p )/2

(2)n

24

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 163

1

e(k~zk

2

)/(2c2 )

gc (~z) := p

(2c2 )n

form an approximate identity.

This section explains the filtered back-projection technique to compute the yet

unknown density values f (x, y) from the measurements (Rf ) (r, a) .

Some of the first but unsuccessful attempts at using computers to solve for

the values f (x, y) from the measurements (Rf ) (r, a) relied on little theory.

According to Shepp [1983], they computed an average of (Rf ) (r, a) over all

lines Lr,a through the point (x, y) . Because the point (x, y) lies on the line

Lr,a if but only if

x cos a + y sin a = r,

it follows that for each point (x, y) R2 and for each angle a [0, [ the line

Lr,a passes through the point (x, y) if but only if

r = x cos a + y sin a.

This formula parametrizes the subset of all straight lines that pass through

the point (x, y) by specifying r for each a . Consequently, the average value

[R (Rf )] (x, y) of all the measurements along all such lines through (x, y)

takes the form

Z

1

[R (Rf )] (x, y) = (Rf ) (x cos a + y sin a, a) da.

0

This formula seems intuitive, since it gives the average over all straight lines

through the point of interest. However, regardless of the computing power

available, it is useless because it does not conform to the theory outlined here [Shepp

1983]. Though the average takes into account all the measurements along all

the lines through the point (x, y) , it does not equal f (x, y) , because it does not

adequately cancel the contributions of other points along those lines. An exact

formula requires a weighted average, over all lines in the plane, of the type

Z Z

1

(Rf ) (x cos a + y sin a r, a) Gc (r, a) dr da

0

with a weight function Gc . Nevertheless, the function R provides a first

step in finding such a weight function Gc and hence in developing an exact

method to compute f (x, y) .

25

164 Tools for Teaching 1996

each continuous function F defined on L(R2 ) to a function R F defined on

R2 by Z

1

(R F ) (x, y) := F (x cos a + y sin a, a) da.

0

Figure 17. For (x, y) on the horizontal axis, p|h(x, y), (cos a, sin a)i| > 1 if but only if

Arccos (1/u) < a < Arccos (1/u) , where u := x2 + y 2

Example 14. On the set L(R2 ) of all straight lines Lr,a in the plane,

identified by their polar coordinates r R and a [0, [ , consider the

function F defined by

(

1, if 1 r 1;

F (r, a) :=

0, if 1 < |r|.

definition of F . In the first case, if x2 +y 2 1 , then the Cauchy-Schwarz

inequality gives

k~xk k~ak = k~xk 1,

that

Z Z

1 1

(R F ) (x, y) = F (x cos a + y sin a, a) da = 1 da = 1.

0 0

arise. If but only if the normal unit vector ~a and the vector ~x = (x, y)

make an angle ](~x, ~a) of magnitude less than Arccos (1/u) , so that

| cos (](~x, ~a)) | > 1/u = 1/k~xk , as shown in Figure 17, then

|x cos a + y sin a| = |h~x, ~ai| = k~xk k~ak | cos (](~x, ~a)) | > 1,

26

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 165

F (x cos a + y sin a, a) = 1 in the complementary arcs, where Arccos (1/u)

a Arccos (1/u) , whence

Z

1

(R F ) (x, y) = F (x cos a + y sin a, a) da

0

Z

1 Arccos (1/u)

= 1 da

Arccos (1/u)

1

= ( 2Arccos (1/u)) .

!

2 1

= Arcsin p .

x2 + y 2

Thus,

1, if x2 + y 2 1;

!

(R F ) (x, y) = 2 1

Arcsin p 2

, if x2 + y 2 > 1.

x + y2

do the ordinary and partial derivatives. For instance, let C (R, R) denote the

set of all functions f : R R for which all derivatives f 0 , f 00 , . . . , f (k) , . . . ex-

ist; then the derivative D defined by Df = f 0 maps C (R, R) to C (R, R) :

f 7 Df := f 0 .

Similarly, let C 0 (L(R2 ), R) denote the set of all continuous functions F defined

on L(R2 ) , and let C 0 (R2 , R) denote the set of all continuous functions defined

on the plane R2 ; then R maps C 0 (L(R2 ), R) to C 0 (R2 , R) :

R : C 0 (L(R2 ), R) C 0 (R2 , R)

F 7 R F,

Z

1

(R F ) (x, y) = F (x cos a + y sin a, a) da.

0

on the abstract set L(R2 ) to integrals on the plane R2 , for integrals of the

following type.

Definition 7. For all functions f, g : R2 R , define

Z

hf, gi := f (x, y) g(x, y) dx dy,

R2

27

166 Tools for Teaching 1996

Similarly, for all continuous functions F, G : L(R2 ) R define

Z Z

1 a=

hF, Gi := F (r, a) G(r, a) dr da.

a=0

Their applications in computed tomography and elsewhere demonstrate the

usefulness of abstract linear algebra.

The following proposition shows that the adjoint R of R has features

similar to those of the transpose AT of a real matrix A , for which

bounded disc D and equal to zero outside of D , and for each continuous

function F : L(R2 ) R ,

hRf, F i = hf, R F i.

Proof: For each point (x, y) in the plane R2 , and for each straight line Lr,a

passing through (x, y) , perform a change to new coordinates (r, s) with two

new orthogonal axes through (x, y) : The first axis coincides with Lr,a , whereas

the second axis lies perpendicularly to Lr,a through (x, y) :

r = x cos a + y sin a,

s = x sin a + y cos a.

cides with the parametrization of Lr,a :

x = r cos a s sin a,

y = r sin a + s cos a.

Because the Jacobian matrix has determinant equal to one, that is,

r/x r/y cos a sin a

det = det = [cos a]2 + [sin a]2 = 1,

s/x s/y sin a cos a

swapping the order of integration and then performing such a change of coor-

dinates yields

hRf, F i

Z Z

1

= (Rf ) (r, a) F (r, a) dr da

0

Z Z Z

1

= f (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) ds F (r, a) dr da

0

28

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 167

Z Z Z

1

= f (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) F (r, a) da dr ds

0

Z Z Z

1

= f (x, y) F (x cos a + y sin a, a) da dx dy

0

Z Z

= {f (x, y) (R F ) (x, y)} dx dy

= hf, R F i.

order of integration require a justification. Such a justification holds for the

continuous functions considered here but still involve a sophistication at the

level of senior mathematical analysis [Fleming 1982; Folland 1984; Hewitt and

Stromberg 1965].)

The formula proposed here to solve for f (x, y) in terms of (Rf ) (r, a) will

involve translations (shifts) of a basic formula for the origin. Consequently, the

following notation will prove useful.

Definition 8. For each function f : R2 R and for each point ~u = (u, v) ,

define ~u f through either of the formulas

u f (~

~ x) := f (~u ~x),

(u,v) f (x, y) := f (u x, v y).

Similarly, for each straight line L R2 , let ~u L denote the central symmetry

of L ~u with respect to the origin:

~u L := {~u ~x : ~x L} .

continuous function f with a weight function g :

Z

1 1

f (u, v) = lim f (x, y) g [(u, v) (x, y)] dx dy

c0 R2 c c

Z

1 1

= lim f ((u, v) (x, y)) g (x, y) dx dy

c0 R2 c c

= lim (f gc ) (u, v)

c0

= lim h[~u f ], gc i

c0

tion Gc on the set of all lines L(R2 ) such that gc = R Gc , because then

29

168 Tools for Teaching 1996

which then yields f (u, v) in terms of R(~u f ) . The following result expresses

R(~u f ) in terms of Rf .

~u L . Hence,

Z

[R(~u f )] (Lr,a ) = [~u f ] ([r cos a s sin a], [r sin a + s cos a]) ds

Z

= f (u [r cos a s sin a], v [r sin a + s cos a]) ds

= (Rf ) (~u Lr,a ).

These results yield the following formula for f (u, v) in terms of the mea-

surements (Rf ) (Lr,a ) along all lines Lr,a in the plane:

c0 c0 c0

Z Z

1

f (u, v) = lim [(Rf ) (u cos a + v sin a r, a)] Gc (r) dr da. (6)

c0 0

instance, the hypotheses made earlier that f equals zero outsided a bounded

domain D R2 [Armitage 1994].

Remark 4. Hardly anyone ever calculates by hand or symbolically with (6).

Instead, the significance of (6) is that it provides a theory useful for the design

of computer programs for computed tomography. In practice, computers as-

sociated with CT scanners receive measured values of (Rf )(rk , a` ) from the

scanner and then approximate the tissue density at selected points f (um , vn )

with a numerical integration of the right-hand side of (6).

The selection of optimal sample values of rk and a` to produce the high-

est accuracy forms a subject of study in itself. Typical algorithms use evenly

spaced directions a` for ` {1, . . . , p} and a subset from evenly spaced dis-

tances rk for k {q, . . . , q} in an optimal ratio p/q , for example,

p = 120 and q = 38 , depending on the desired resolution of the final picture.

Because such a Cartesian choice of polar coordinates does not correspond to a

Cartesian grid of points (um , vn ) , however, additional intermediate interpola-

tions and approximations become necessary. Some scanners use other indexing

schemes, for instance, arranging x-rays not in bundles of parallel lines, but in

fans emanating from a common source.

For a complete derivation of the theory, consult Natterer [1986a]; for an

industrial-grade interactive demonstration, see Bossi and Kruse [1994]; and for

a computer program with various algorithms, see Huesman et al. [1977].

30

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 169

Users of computer-assisted symbolic systems may test their systems on the

following two examples.

ergelt 1986], otherwise similar to that of Example 14, shows that if

1

1, if c r c;

c2

Gc (r, a) = !

1 1

c2 1 p , if |r| > c,

1 c2 /r2

then (

1/c2 , if x2 + y 2 c2 ;

(R Gc ) (x, y) = gc (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > c2 .

ter 1989], otherwise similar to that of Example 14, shows that if

3 r

1 , if c r c;

c2 2c

Hc (r, a) =

3 rArcsin (c/r)

1 , if |r| > c,

c2 c

then

p !

3 x2 + y2

2

1 , if x2 + y 2 c2 ;

(R Hc ) (x, y) = hc (x, y) = c c

0, if x2 + y 2 > c2 .

but it has vertical asymptotes at r = c , which may cause difficulties in the

numerical evaluation of the integrals. In contrast, the weight function Hc

in Example 16 is continuous everywhere, without vertical asymptotes, but it

requires the inverse trigonometric function Arcsin in the computations of the

integrals.

The following exercises demonstrate a method to design weight functions

for filtered back-projection, by means of a concept introduced in the following

definition.

Definition 9. For each continuous function f : R+ R on R+ = [0, [ ,

define Abels transform of f as the function Af : R+ R expressed by the

formula Z v

f (u) du

(Af ) (v) := .

0 v 2 u2

31

170 Tools for Teaching 1996

(This formula conforms to Gardner [1995, 385386], but variants exist [Gelfand

and Gindikin 1990, 146147].) Similarly, for each continuous function F : R+

R on R+ = [0, [ , define a function BF : R+ R by the formula

Z w

F (v) v dv

(BF ) (w) := .

0 w2 v 2

The exercises will show how Abels transform A relates to Radons trans-

form R , and how B arises in the inversion of A .

Exercises

The use of an iterated integral and changes of variables to invert Abels

transform resembles the same operations in the evaluation of the integral of

the Gaussian distribution.

31. (Inversion of Abels transform)

a) Through a permutation of the order of integration with careful changes

of limits of integration, supply the missing steps [ ] in the proof that

Z v=w

[Af ] (v) v dv

{B [Af ]} (w) =

v=0 w2 v 2

Z u=w Z v=w

v dv

= = f (u) p du.

u=0 v=u (w v 2 )(v 2 u2 )

2

prove that Z Z

v=w

[Af ] (v) v dv u=w

= f (u) du.

v=0 w2 v 2 2 u=0

c) Conclude by citing the logical step that guarantees that the following

formula expresses f in terms of Af :

2 0

{B [Af ]} (w) = f (w).

and G : L(R2 ) R are continuous

p even radial functions. This means that

g(x, y) depends on only |v| = x + y 2 and G(u, a) depends on only |u| ,

2

a) Prove that if g = R G , then

2

q(v) = (AQ) (v).

32

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 171

b) Conclude that for each even radial weight function g , the following

formula gives the weight function G such that g = R G :

0

Q(w) = (Bq) (w).

33. With gc as in Example 15, carry out the calculations in Exercise 32 to dis-

cover the required weight function Gc .

34. With hc as in Example 16, carry out the calculations in Exercise 32 to

discover the required weight function Hc .

7. Further Topics

This section briefly describes a few topics related to tomography.

After Cormacks and Hounsfields first parallel-beam scanners, medical to-

mography switched to faster fan-beam scanners (Natterer [1986, 2]). In fan-beam

scanners, the source S of x-rays moves along a fixed circle with radius R and

center at the origin, and it emits x-rays in a fan pattern. Hence, if w denotes

the polar angle of the source S , which thus has polar coordinates (w, R) , and

if c represents the angle of the x-rays, measured counterclockwise from the

line through O and S , then the two angles c and w may serve to identify

the x-ray L , instead of r and a . To relate the two ways to identify x-rays,

however, a transformation of coordinates becomes necessary.

35. Express r and a in terms of c and w , and calculate the Jacobian determi-

nant of the corresponding change of coordinates.

36. Insert the change of coordinates from the preceding exercise into the for-

mula for filtered back-projection, to establish a corresponding numerical

inversion of Radons transform for fan-beam tomography, in terms of c

and w instead of r and a .

NMR scanners emit not x-rays but electromagnetic pulses, and they measure

the electromagnetic field caused by the nuclei of atoms along planes through

tissue [Budinger and Gullberg 1974]. Thus, if f (x, y, z) denotes the density of

the patients tissue at the location (x, y, z) , then for each plane P in space the

NMR scanner measures the integral of f over P ,

Z

(Rf ) (P ) := f dA,

P

33

172 Tools for Teaching 1996

Figure 18. On a fixed circle of radius R , the source S has polar coordinates (w, R) and emits

an x-ray L in a direction denoted by c . Thus c and w may serve to identity L instead of r

and a . (All angles are measured counterclockwise.)

where dA denotes the Euclidean measure of surface on the plane. The math-

ematical methods to solve for f from the measurements Rf include the use

of approximate identities with three spatial variables and an adjoint transform

[Natterer 1986, 8; Nievergelt 1991], but medical scanners also employ methods

based on the Fourier transform [Natterer 1986, 8].

The following formulas from multivariable calculus lead to one of many

methods to parametrize planes in space.

Solving for and shows that for each vector w ~ = (w1 , w2 , w3 ) with unit

length, there exist real numbers and (the spherical coordinates of w ~ ) for

which

w1 cos sin

w2 = sin sin .

w3 cos

Moreover, for all real numbers and with sin 6= 0 , the following three

vectors are orthonormal (mutually perpendicular with unit lengths):

cos sin cos cos sin

~ = sin sin , ~u = sin cos , ~v = cos .

w

cos sin 0

plane and how to set up the corresponding integral. Consider the plane

~ that lies at distance r := /5 away from the origin in the direction

Pr,w 3

34

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 173

parallel to the plane, or, equivalently, perpendicular to w ~ . For instance,

proceed with the spherical formulas above, or with cross products as

in [Nievergelt 1992], or with the factorization w ~ = Q R [Kincaid and

Cheney 1991]. All methods produce equivalent results, up to a rotation

around the axis supporting w ~ , for example, ~u := ( 9/11, 6/11, 2/11) and

~v := ( 6/11, 7/11, 6/11) . Hence, for each point ~x Pr,w ~ , parameters

(p, q) R2 exist such that

2/ 9/ 6/

11 11 11

~ + p ~u + q ~v = ( 3/5) 6/11 + p 6/11 + q 7/11 .

~x = r w

9/

11

2/

11 6/11

The second task involves calculating the Jacobian determinant of the para-

metrization, which, however, always equals 1 with orthonormal vectors:

~x ~x

| det(J )(p, q)| =

p q = k~u ~vk = k~

wk = 1.

Z

(Rf ) (P ) = f dA

Z P

= 2

f (r w

~ + p ~u + q ~v) | det(J )(p, q)| dp dq

ZR

= 2

f (rw1 + pu1 + qv1 , rw2 + pu2 + qv2 , rw3 + pu3 + qv3 ) 1 dp dq

Z R

= 2

f r( 2/11) + p( 9/11) + q( 6/11), r( 6/11) + p( 6/11) + q( 7/11),

R

( 9/11) + p( 2/11) + q( 6/11) 1 dp dq.

Exercises

37. For each real number r and each unit vector w

~ = (w1 , w2 , w3 ) , provide a

method to parametrize the plane perpendicular to w

~ at distance r from

the origin in the direction of w .

~

38. Parametrize the plane passing through (2, 3, 6) and parallel to the vectors

(3, 6, 2) and (6, 2, 3) .

39. Design a method to specify the position of each plane in space R3 . (Such

a specification is necessary for NMR scanners, which measure electromag-

netic radiations over planes through patients.)

35

174 Tools for Teaching 1996

40. Design a method to specify the position of each straight line in space R3 .

(Such a specification is necessary for CT scanners that use x-rays throughout

a three-dimensional region.)

41. Consider the function f : R3 R that assumes a constant value C in the

ball B(~0, R) with radius R and center at the origin ~0 , with the value 0

outside that ball. Also consider the plane Pr,w

~ that lies at distance r away

from the origin in the direction w

~ . Calculate the Radon transformRof f for

the plane Pr,w~ ; in other words, derive a formula for (Rf ) (P ) = P f dA .

1

e(x

2

+y 2 +z 2 )/2

g(x, y, z) = 3/

(2) 2

~ that passes through the origin perpendicularly to the

vector w

~ .

The mathematical literature on computed tomographyincluding the work

of Nobel Prize laureat physicist Allan M. Cormack, whose work [Shepp 1983,

35] provides the basis of this accountcredits the Dutch physicist Hendrik

Antoon Lorentz (18531928) with the first theorem on computed tomography

in a continuum (integrals, as opposed to linear systems). Though Lorentz does

not seem to have published such a theorem, his credit comes from a publication

by H.B.A. Bockwinkel in 1906, which attributes such a result to Lorentz and

applies it to the propagation of light in biaxial crystals.

The literature also widely credits Johann Radon [1917] with first publication

of a proof of the mathematical theorem that later became the crux of computed

tomography under the name of Radons Inversion Theorem. Yet the appli-

cation known as computed tomography did not exist in 1917. Thus, Radon

proved his theory as a piece of abstract mathematics, without example, with-

out application, and perhaps without foreseeing any application to tomogra-

phy. Nevertheless, Radon describes relations between his theory, the Laplacian

( = D12 + D22 + D32 ) of averages of functions along lines or planes, and the

Newtonian potentials in electrostatics and gravity (in the plane, logarithmic; in

space, according to the inverse-square law) [1917, 276277]. Moreover, Radon

also credits two physicists for antecedent work, specifically, Minkowski for

reconstructing functions from their integrals along great circles on a sphere,

and Funk for solving Minkowskis problem with an alternate method that later

provided the foundations for Radons own theory [Radon 1917, 275]. For a

detailed account at the graduate level of the relations between integrals along

lines, planes, circles, and spheres (generalized Radon transforms) and the par-

tial differential equations of physics, consult John [1955].

36

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 175

theoretical generalizations to higher dimensions by physicists Paul Ehrenfest

and George Uhlenbeck in 1925, and to probability by Cramer and Wold in 1936

with the reconstruction of probability distributions from marginal distribu-

tions. Also in 1936, the Armenian astronomer V.A. Abartsumian independently

rediscovered Radons theory and applied it to determine the distribution of ve-

locities of stars from the measurements of their radial velocities. Abartsumians

work apparently constitutes the first application of computed tomography, and,

of course, in 1936, without computers.

A mention of the problemwithout solutionof computed tomography in

medicine appeared in 1947, from Majerek, Szarski, and Wazewski.

In 1956, the radioastronomer R.N. Bracewell applied Radons theory to re-

construct the pattern of radio waves emanating from the sun from measure-

ments of such radiations along thin strips.

Also in 1956, Cormack began his investigations of the application of Radons

transform in medical radiology, which later earned him the joint Nobel Prize

in medicine with G.N. Hounsfield, and led to CT scanners, NMR scanners, and

thence much interplay between other applications and mathematics.

The history makes more precise the opening quotation of Lawrence A.

Shepp: Much sophisticated mathematics has roots in applications, but from

the applied problem much theoretical mathematics develops in abstracto before

yielding a usable solution to the initial problem and to problems different from

the initial problem.

37

176 Tools for Teaching 1996

The notation Lr,a designates the straight line that lies at distance r from

the origin and that is perpendicular to the unit vector ~a = (cos a, sin a) .

and s .

2. Determine the Radon transform of the bivariate Gaussian distribution: cal-

culate the line integral along Lr,a of the function g : R2 R defined

by

1 (x2 +y2 )/2

g(x, y) = e .

2

Express your result as a formula in terms of r and and elementary functions.

The notation Pr,w ~ designates the plane that lies at distance r from the

~

origin 0 in the direction w

~ and that is perpendicular to the unit vector w

~ .

3. Parametrize any plane at distance 9 from the origin and parallel to the two

vectors (4, 1, 8) and (4, 8, 1) .

~ of the function G : R R

3

4. Calculate the integral over the plane Pr,w

defined by

1 (x2 +y 2 +z 2 )/2

G(x, y, z) = 3 e

(2) 2

Express your result as a formula in terms of r and elementary functions.

the straight line in space through a point ~z and parallel to a vector ~c , with

~c not parallel to the plane. In other words, describe a finite number of

operations with elementary functions that results in the three coordinates

of the point of intersection.

38

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 177

Exercises

Figure 19. Reconstructing a point in the plane from its projections on two lines.

h(w1 , w2 ), (0.936, 0.352)i = 2.284,

h(w1 , w2 ), (0.352, 0.936)i = 1.812.

Hence, calculating the dot products on the left-hand sides gives

0.936w1 + 0.352w2 = 2.284

0.352w1 + 0.936w2 = 1.812.

Elimination, a calculator, or a computer yields w1 = 1.5 and w2 = 2.5 .

3. The orthogonal projections mean that

h(z1 , z2 , z3 ), (0.36, 0.48, 0.80)i = 3.16,

h(z1 , z2 , z3 ), (0.48, 0.64, 0.60)i = 0.88,

h(z1 , z2 , z3 ), (0.80, 0.60, 0.00)i = 1.80.

Hence, calculating the dot products on the left-hand sides gives

0.36z1 + 0.48z2 + 0.80z3 = 3.16

0.48z1 + 0.64z2 0.60z3 = 0.88

0.80z1 0.60z2 = 1.80.

Elimination, a calculator, or a computer thence yields z1 = 3 , z2 = 1 , and

z3 = 2 .

39

178 Tools for Teaching 1996

7. (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) = (1, 5, 2, 2) .

9. The line specified by the polarcoordinates r = 7 and a = 5/6 satisfies

the Cartesian equation x ( 3/2) + y ( 1/2) = 7 .

11. The line specified by the polar coordinates r = 7 and a = 5/6 has the

parametric equation

x r cos a s sin a (7) ( 3/2) s ( 1/2)

= = .

y r sin a + s cos a (7) ( 1/2) + s ( 3/2)

13. The Cartesian equation ux+vy = w , rewritten in the form h(x, y), (u, v)i =

w , means that w represents the orthogonal projection of the point (x, y) on

the vector (u, v) , which need

not yet have unit length. Dividing throughout

by the length k(u, v)k = u2 + v 2 gives

u v w

(x, y), , = ,

u2 + v 2 u2 + v 2 u2 + v 2

whence

w u

r= , a = Arccos .

u2 + v 2 u2 + v 2

15. Consider the function gR,c with constant value c in the closed disc D

where x2 + y 2 R2 , and constant value 0 everywhere else:

(

c, if x2 + y 2 R2 ;

gR,c (x, y) =

0, if x2 + y 2 > R2 .

For each straight line Lr,a with polar coordinates r and a , two cases arise.

If r > R , then the line Lr,a does not intersect the disc D , so that gR,c equals

zero everywhere along the line Lr,a , and, consequently, (RgR,c )(r, a) = 0 .

However, if r R , then the straight line Lr,a intersects the disc D

2 2 2

along a straight line segment of length 2` given by r + ` = R , whence

` = R2 r2 . Thus, the segment extends to a distance ` parallel to Lr,a

on either side of the point r~a on Lr,a . Thus,

Z

(RgR,c )(r, a) = gR,c (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) ds

Z ` p

= c ds = 2`c = 2c R2 r2 .

`

Hence, (

0, if r > R;

(RgR,c )(r, a) =

2c R r , if r R.

2 2

40

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 179

metrization of the line Lr,a ,

x r cos a s sin a

= ,

y r sin a + s cos a

gives

q 2 [r cos a s sin a]2 + p2 [r sin a + s cos a]2 = p2 q 2 ,

a quadratic equation for s . Algebraic maniplulations and simplifications

reveal the discriminant

r2 p2 (cos a)2 +q 2 (sin a)2 , then the two solutions s+ and s correspond to

the two points where the line Lr,a intersects the ellipse E . Consequently,

because s represents the arc length along Lr,a , it follows that s+ s

equals the length of the segment of Lr,a inside the ellipse E . Hence, the

quadratic formula followed by algebraic simplifications yield

p

p2 (cos a)2 + q 2 (sin a)2 r2

s+ s = 2pq .

p2 (cos a)2 + q 2 (sin a)2

Therefore,

p

p2 (cos a)2 + q 2 (sin a)2 r2

c 2pq , if D 0;

(Rgp,q,c ) (r, a) = p2 (cos a)2 + q 2 (sin a)2

0, if D < 0.

If p = q = R , then indeed the results reduce to c 2 R2 r2 and 0 .

for every rotation of the plane Rw : R2 R2 by an angle w , with

cos w sin w x (cos w)x (sin w)y

Rw (x, y) := = .

sin w cos w y (sin w)x + (cos w)y

line Lr,a gives the unit vector

cos w sin w cos a

Rw~a = .

sin w cos w sin a

With

cos a sin a r

f (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) = f ,

sin a cos a s

41

180 Tools for Teaching 1996

(Rf ) Rw (Lr,a )

= (Rf ) (Lr,w+a )

Z

= f (r cos(w + a) s sin(w + a), r sin(w + a) + s cos(w + a)) ds

Z

cos w sin w cos a sin a r

= f ds

sin w cos w sin a cos a s

Z

cos a sin a r

= f ds

sin a cos a s

Z

= f (r cos a s sin a, r sin a + s cos a) ds

= (Rf ) (r, a) .

Z Z c Z c c

1 1 t c

bc (t) dt = dt = 2 dt = 2 = 2 = 1.

R c 2c 0 2c 2c 0 2c

Z Z Z

1 B 1 1 1

AB (w) dw = 2 2

dw = 2 2

dw

B + w 1 + w /B B

Z

1 1 1 1

= dt = Arctan t| = = 1.

1 + t2 2 2

25. See Figure 20. First, squaring the integral and switching to polar coordinates

gives

Z 2 Z Z

1 (x2 )/2 1

e(y )/2 dy

2

g(t) dt = e dx

R 2 2

Z Z

1 (r 2 )/2 2 (r 2 )/2

= e r dr d = (1)e = 1.

2 0 2 0

the change of variable t := s/c with dt = (1/c) ds gives R gc (s) ds =

R R RR

R (1/c)g(s/c) ds = R g(t) dt = 1 . To verify that lim c0 R c

g (s) ds = 1

for each R > 0 , observe that if 1 < a then

Z Z Z

1 [(t2 )/2] 1

g(t) dt = e dt < et/2 dt

a 2 a 2 a

2ea/2

1 t/2

1 a/2

< (2)e = 2 (2) 0 e = .

2 a 2

42

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 181

Consequently,

Z Z Z

1 s 2e(a/2)

gc (s) ds = g ds = g (t) dt < .

ac ac c c a 2

Hence, because gc is an even function, which means that gc (s) = gc (s) ,

Z ac Z ac Z Z

gc (s) ds = 2 gc (s) ds = 2 gc (s) ds gc (s) ds

ac 0 0 ac

Z

1 1 2e(a/2) 4e(a/2)

=2 gc (s) ds > 2 =1 ,

2 ac 2 2 2

which tends to 1 as a increases.

Thus, for each > 0 , some A > 0 such

that if A < a then |4e(a/2) / 2| < . Consequently, for each R > 0 , if

43

182 Tools for Teaching 1996

Z R Z ac

1 gc (s) ds > gc (s) ds > 1 .

R ac

Z Z r=1 Z a= Z r=1

1 1

g(x, y) dxdy = r dr da = 2 r dr

R2 r=0 a= r=0

1 r 2 1

1 12

= 2 = 2 = 1.

2 0 2

29. Apply an algebraic property of the exponential function, and iterated inte-

grals:

Z

1 k~ zk2 /2

p e dz1 dzn

(2)n Rn

Z

1

e(z1 ++zn )/2 dz1 dzn

2 2

=p

(2)n R n

Z

1 z12 /2 zn2

= p e e /2

dz1 dzn

(2) R n n

Z Z

1 z12 /2 1

ezn /2 dzn

2

= e dz1

2 R 2 R

= 1 1 = 1.

31. a) The double integral occurs over the triangle where 0 v w and

0 u v . Permuting the limits gives 0 u w and u v w for

the same triangle. Hence,

Z v=w

[Af ] (v) v dv

{B [Af ]} (w) =

w2 v 2

Z v=w Z u=v

v=0

f (u) du v dv

=

v=0 u=0 v u

2 2 w2 v 2

Z u=w Z v=w

v dv

= f (u) du.

u=0 v=u w 2 v 2 v 2 u2

44

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 183

( 2 )

2 2 2 2 2

w + u w + u

= v2 + w 2 u2

2 2

2 2 ( 2 2 )

w u2 2v [w2 + u2 ]

= 1

2 w 2 u2

2 2

w u2

= 1 t2 .

2

Z v=w Z t=1

v dv ( 1/4) dt 1

= = ( 1/2)Arcsin t|1 = .

v=u w v 2 v 2 u2

2

t=1 ( /2) 1 t

1 2 2

Consequently,

Z u=w Z v=w

v dv

{B [Af ]} (w) = f (u) du

u=0 v=u w v 2 v 2 u2

2

Z w Z

w

= f (u) du = f (u) du.

0 2 2 0

33. First, if 0 w c , then

Z w Z w w

gc (v)v dv (1/[c2 ])v dv 1 p 2 w

= = w v = 2 ,

2

0 w2 v 2 0 w2 v 2 c2

0 c

Z w Z c

g (v)v dv (1/[c2 ])v dv

c =

0 w2 v 2 0 w2 v 2

c

1 p 2

= 1

p

= w v 2

w w 2 c2 ,

c2 0 c2

!

1 w 1 1

G(w) = 2 1 = 2 1 p .

c w c2

2 c 1 [c2 /w2 ]

45

184 Tools for Teaching 1996

/2 + c + (w a) = ,

a = w + c /2.

r(c, w) = R sin c,

a(c, w) = w + c /2,

D1 r(c, w) D2 r(c, w) R cos c 0

D1 a(c, w) D2 a(c, w) = 1 1

= R cos c,

~ , each point ~x is the sum of r w

~ (from the origin to the plane) and

a linear combination p~ v (parallel to the plane).

u + q~

37. See Figure 21. First, express the unit vector w ~ = (w1 , w2 , w3 ) in spherical

coordinates,

w1 cos sin

w2 = sin sin .

w3 cos

Second, calculate two mutually orthonormal vectors ~u and ~v by the for-

mulas

cos sin cos cos sin

~ = sin sin , ~u = sin cos , ~v = cos .

w

cos sin 0

46

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 185

~x = r w

~ + p ~u + q ~v

39. A plane in space consists of all the points (x, y, z) that satisfy a given equa-

tion of the type ux + vy + wz = c , or, equivalently, h(u, v, w), (x, y, z)i = c ,

which means that the plane contains the points with a common orthogonal

projection c onto the line supporting the vector (u, v, w) . If (u, v, w) has

unit length, then the projection c also represents the signed distance from

the plane to the origin, and c (u, v, w) represents the point on the plane

closest to the origin. Thus, one method of specifying the position of each

plane in space consists of three numbers c , , and : the signed distance

c R , and the unit perpendicular vector defined by its spherical coordi-

nates (u, v, w) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) , with c R , [0, ] , and

[0, [ , except for the combination = and = /2 . (This range

corresponds to the eastern hemisphere with the redundant southern half of

the boundary meridian removed.)

41. Two cases arise, according to whether |r| > R or whether |r| R .

If |r| > R , then all points on the plane Pr,w

~ lie at distance |r| > R from

the origin, and, consequently, they all lie outside the ball B(0, R) , in other

words, where f equals zero. Therefore, the integral of f over such a plane

equals zero.

If |r| R , then the plane Pr,w ~ intersects

the ball B(0, R) along a disc

~ B(0, R) with radius d = R r2 and center at r w

D = Pr,w 2 ~ . On

that disc, f assumes the constant value C , whereas f equals zero on the

portion of the plane Pr,w ~ outside the disc D . Therefore, the integral of

f over the plane Pr,w ~ equals the product of C and the area of the disc,

d2 = (R2 r2 ) :

Z (

C(R2 r2 ), if |r| R;

(Rf ) (P ) = f dA =

P 0, if |r| > R.

47

186 Tools for Teaching 1996

Examinations

1. Multiply out x2 + y 2 to get k~x ~0k = r2 + s2 :

k~x ~0k2 = x2 + y 2

= (r cos a s sin a)2 + (r sin a + s cos a)2

= r2 + s2 .

integral:

Z Z

e(x e(r

2

+y 2 )/2 2

+s2 )/2

(Rg) (r, a) = ds = ds

Lr,a 2 R 2

Z

er /2 es /2

2 2

= ds

R 2 2

Z

er /2 es /2 er /2

2 2 2

= ds = .

2 R 2 2

ular to their cross product:

Thus,

~u ~v 9 (7, 4, 4)

~ =

w = = ( 1/9) (7, 4, 4).

k~u ~vk 99

Consequently, the plane admits the parametrization

7 4 4

~x = r w

~ + p ~u + q ~v = 4 + p 1 + q 8

4 8 1

optional.

ular to w

~ , and thus parallel to the plane, and with the parametric equation

~x = r w

~ + p ~u + q ~v

48

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 187

Z Z

e(x e(r

2

+y 2 +z 2 )/2 2

+p2 +q 2 )/2

3 dA = 3 dp dq

~

Pr ,w (2) 2 R2 (2) 2

Z Z

er /2 ep /2 eq /2

2 2 2

= dp dq

2 R 2 R 2

er /2

2

= .

2

5. First parametrize the plane, for instance, with r fixed and (p, q) R2 :

~x = r w

~ + p ~u + q ~v.

~x = ~z + s ~c.

Third, observe that the point ~x lies at the intersection of the line and the

plane if but only if

rw

~ + p ~u + q ~v = ~x = ~z + s ~c.

tions just obtained and to solve the linear system

p ~u + q ~v s ~c = ~z r w

~

for the unknowns p , q , and s , and finally to substitute s back into the

equation of the line to get ~x . (The method of elimination may yield s

without requiring the complete calculation of p and q .)

49

188 Tools for Teaching 1996

References

Ahlfors, Lars V. 1979. Complex Analysis. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Armitage, D.H. 1994. A nonconstant, continuous function on the plane whose

integral on every line is zero. American Mathematical Monthly 101 (9): 892

894.

Bossi, Richard H., and Robert J. Kruse. June 1984. Interactive Multimedia Pre-

sentation for Applied Computed Tomography (IMPACT). Seattle, WA: Boeing

Defense & Space Group, The Boeing Company. In Macintosh format from

Wright Laboratory at WL/MLLP, 2230 Tenth Street Suite 1, Wright Patterson

Air Force Base, Ohio 454337817.

Budinger, T.F., and G.T. Gullberg. 1974. Three dimensional reconstruction in

nuclear medicine emission imaging. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

NS21 (3): 220.

Duff, Iain S., and G.W. Stewart. 1979. Sparse Matrix Proceedings. Philadelphia,

PA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM).

Evans, Heidi. 1995. Doctors who perform fetal sonograms often lack sufficient

training and skill. Wall Street Journal (Western Ed.) 132 (19): B1, B6.

Fleming, Wendell. 1982. Functions of Several Variables. 2nd ed., corrected 2nd

printing. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Folland, Gerald B. 1984. Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications.

New York: Wiley.

Gardner, Richard J. 1995. Geometric Tomography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge

University Press.

Gelfand, I.M., and S.G. Gindikin, eds. 1990. Mathematical Problems of Tomogra-

phy. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society.

Greenberg, Eric, and Eric Todd Quinto, eds. 1990. Integral Geometry and Tomog-

raphy. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society.

Herman, Gabor T. 1979. The use of sparse matrices for image reconstruction

from projections. In Duff and Stewart [1979], 176196.

Hewitt, Edwin, and Karl Stromberg. 1965. Real and Abstract Analysis. New

York: Springer-Verlag.

Huesman, R.H., G.T. Gullberg, W.L. Greenberg, and T.F. Budinger. October

1977. RECLBL Library Users Manual: Donner Algorithms for Reconstructed

Tomography. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of Califoria. Man-

ual and program are available electronically through anonymous ftp from

imasun.lbl.gov (in which l stands for the letter ` ).

50

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 189

Jabon, David, Gail Nord, Bryce W. Wilson, Penny Coffman, and John Nord.

1996. Medical applications of systems of linear equations. Mathematics

Teacher 89 (5): 398402, 408410.

John, Fritz. 1955. Plane Waves and Spherical Means. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kincaid, David R., and E. Ward Cheney. 1991. Numerical Analysis: The Mathe-

matics of Scientific Computing. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Lohr, Susanne K. 1990. The Radon transform and its inverse: Some examples.

Masters thesis. Cheney, WA: Eastern Washington University.

McLaughlin, D.W., ed. 1984. Inverse Problems. Providence, RI: American Math-

ematical Society.

Natterer, Frank. 1986. The Mathematics of Computerized Tomography. New York:

Wiley.

Nievergelt, Yves. 1986a. Elementary inversion of Radons transform. SIAM

Review 28 (1): 7984.

. 1986b. Exact reconstruction filters to invert Radon transforms with

finite elements. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 120 (1):

288314.

. 1991. Elementary inversion of the exponential x-ray transform.

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 38 (2) Part II: 873876.

. 1992. 3-D Graphics in Calculus and Linear Algebra. UMAP Modules in

Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications: Module 717. Reprinted

in UMAP Modules: Tools for Teaching 1991, edited by Paul J. Campbell, 125

169. Lexington, MA: COMAP, 1992.

Olson, Kevin E. 1994. Computerized tomography: An application of the Radon

transform and its inverse. Masters thesis. Cheney, WA: Eastern Washing-

ton University.

Quinto, Eric Todd, Margaret Cheney, and Peter Kuchment, eds. 1994. Tomog-

raphy, Impedance Imaging, and Integral Geometry. Providence, RI: American

Mathematical Society.

Radon, Johann. 1917. Uber die Bestimmung von Funktionen durch ihre Inte-

gralwerte langs gewisser Mannifaltigkeiten. Berichte uber die Verhandlungen

der Koniglich Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig Sitzung

vom 30. April 1917, Leipzig, 1917: 262277. (Reprinted in Shepp [1983],

7186].)

Rorres, C., and H. Anton. 1984. Applications of Linear Algebra, 3rd ed. New

York: Wiley.

Rudin, Walter. 1973. Functional Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

51

190 Tools for Teaching 1996

Radon-Probleme. Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization 10 (12):

12031212.

Shepp, Lawrence A. 1983. Computed Tomography. Providence, RI: American

Mathematical Society.

, and J.B. Kruskal. 1978. Computerized tomography: The new med-

ical x-ray technology. American Mathematical Monthly 85 (6): 420439.

, and B.F. Logan. 1974. The Fourier reconstruction of a head section.

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS21: 2143.

Smith, Kennan T., Donald C. Solmon, and Sheldon L. Wagner. 1977. Practical

and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from

radiographs. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 83 (6): 12271270.

Sochurek, Howard. 1987. Medicines new vision. National Geographic 171 (1):

241.

Solomon, Frederick. 1980. Tomography: Three Dimensional Image Reconstruc-

tion. UMAP Modules in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications:

Module 318. Reprinted in The UMAP Journal 1 (4) (1980): 101119.

Spiegel, Murray R. 1964. Complex Variables. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Strichartz, Robert S. 1982. Radon inversionvariations on a theme. American

Mathematical Monthly 89 (6): 377384, 420423.

R R

Weinstock, Robert. 1990. Elementary evaluations of 0 ex dx , 0 cos(x2 ) dx ,

2

R

and 0 sin(x2 ) dx . American Mathematical Monthly 97 (1): 3942.

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the following contributions.

The National Science Foundations grant DUE9455061 supported in part

the preparation of this material and its first uses in workshops for mathematics

instructors.

Dr. David V. Finch, from the Dept. of Mathematics at Oregon State Univer-

sity in Corvallis, OR, generously prepared and presented theoretical and com-

puter demonstrations of computed tomography at such workshops, and he

kindly suggested many improvements now incorporated in the present notes.

Also, John E. Shrader, Manager of Shock Physics & NDE at Boeing Defense

& Space Group, devoted an afternoon to the Interactive Multimedia Presentation

for Applied Computed Tomography (IMPACT), authored by Boeings Richard H.

Bossi and Robert J. Kruse.

Moreover, James DeNiro, M.D., courteously provided a real CT scan for

workshop participants to see and to illustrate their publications [Jabon et al.

1996].

52

Computed Tomography in Multivariable Calculus 191

Olson wrote a documented computer program to demonstrate such test cases

with Natterers algorithm for filtered back-projection, including comparisons

of the effectiveness of various weight functions.

Finally, Prof. Gail Nord at Gonzaga University proofread several drafts of

the manuscript and corrected many errors.

Yves Nievergelt graduated in mathematics from the Ecole Polytechnique

Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland) in 1976, with concentrations in functional

and numerical analysis of PDEs. He obtained a Ph.D. from the University of

Washington in 1984, with a dissertation in several complex variables under the

guidance of James R. King. He now teaches complex and numerical analysis

at Eastern Washington University.

Prof. Nievergelt is an associate editor of The UMAP Journal. He is the au-

thor of several UMAP Modules, a bibliography of case studies of applications

of lower-division mathematics (The UMAP Journal 6 (2) (1985): 3756), and

Mathematics in Business Administration (Irwin, 1989).

53

192 Tools for Teaching 1996

54

- edu 510 lesson planUploaded byapi-284596984
- Using Drawing Tools - Civil Engineering DrawingUploaded byas4d
- Radiographic Manifestations - Grondahl and HuumonenUploaded byDrAhmed Hamza
- Solutions to Engineering Mechanics "RESULTANT OF ANY FORCE SYSTEM" 3rd Edition by Ferdinand SingerUploaded byDane Bautista Jr.
- Equation for a LineUploaded bytutorciecleteam
- Diagnosing lungs cancer Using Neural NetworksUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- SVUYVUPGCET-2013: Syllabus for MatheematicsUploaded bySibe Shanmugam
- eXplore CT120 Site PrepUploaded byStephen Lomnes
- DMC- Bone Grafting Materials and Implant UpdateCompUploaded byRobert Sembiring
- Linear RevisionUploaded byNovaeus
- Maths 001Uploaded byArivananthanMarimuthu
- n5-revision-booklet-unit-2Uploaded byapi-298592212
- Workshop ApmpUploaded byDavide Crippa
- wikimama Class 12 ch 12 3-DUploaded byWikimama
- g8m4 sg key slope and linear eqns l9-20Uploaded byapi-276774049
- 125544444444Uploaded byManoj Kuchi
- Straight Lines (1)Uploaded byRaghav Rathi
- Question 1Uploaded byAmy Mraz
- tfdsfdssdffretsd23Uploaded byKelli Flores
- Mc8_dirnUploaded byjordanrma
- GP E Prestressing Basic AASHTOUploaded byrammiris
- ScalesUploaded byKarolyHaasz1
- 25.Csec Maths June 2016Uploaded byGregory Lewis
- Cardiac CT Acquisition ModesUploaded byDr. Samir M Patel
- Libro Base Briggs - Apéndice AUploaded bykNT
- Algebraic CurvesssssssssssUploaded byChat-Chat Hernandez Reales
- INTRODUCTION TO EUCLD’S GEOMETRY.pptUploaded byvision2010job
- Caartefacts Mrct 141003082331 Phpapp01Uploaded byGarima Bharti
- NDTUploaded byMuhammad Rizki Ash-Shidiq
- MATH 8 - 3RD QT.docxUploaded byFrank Denver H. Ellorquez

- titan2Uploaded byFer Montesinos
- [Advanced Book Classics] Julian Schwinger - Particles, Sources, And Fields Volume 3(1998, Westview Press).pdfUploaded byFer Montesinos
- RadioactivityUploaded byFer Montesinos
- Xray in MedicineUploaded byFer Montesinos
- 189124294-Chapman-2004-Fortran-90-95.pdfUploaded byFer Montesinos

- TransducersUploaded byChandra Shekhar Gohiya
- LCD DisplayUploaded bySuryaa Krishnan
- 2 DifferenceEqtnUploaded byHeng Choc
- 380K Portable TriGas Analyzer 2014Uploaded byArzu Akar
- Roadway Lighting Tech ReportUploaded byhoangpalestine
- Case History for Vibro Stone Column Use at Silverston, Northamptonshire, UK (Roger Bullivant, 2014)Uploaded bysandycastle
- Irreversibility Analysis of Two and Three Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems With Multi Evaporators and Flash-Intercooler UsingUploaded byIjrei Journal
- 304062687-melab1-exp3.docxUploaded byJohn Ferben Sallena Depnag
- DiagrammaticUploaded byapi-3850829
- HorizontalAPNJ001 en 03Uploaded byAna Anuta
- Mongoose Traveller ErrataUploaded byHeavy Metal Elf
- Chapter 30 - Urban Street Segments Supplemental %28Chapter 5%29Uploaded byfuchiguis
- 1_Overview of Gate Operating SystemsUploaded byPradeep VM
- Infineon ApplicationNote PFCCCMBoostConverterDesignGuideUploaded bycalail
- Donner CompanyUploaded bynikitajain021
- Ch26b Final 2005 (Revised)Uploaded byNguyễn Tiến Dũng
- ampicloxUploaded byiabureid7460
- API Compack MeterUploaded bysas999333
- The Solar System Mcq Pract.docUploaded byYousuf Ali Shah
- Shih 2008Uploaded byCarlosDanielXaverius
- How to Size Differential Pressure Regulator for Seal Oil System - (--BEST--)Uploaded byMuhammad Imran
- Khun Tia 2016Uploaded byRylai Crestfall
- Fluid-Statics.pdfUploaded byMukul Chandra
- EC2003Uploaded bySumanth Babu
- Plywood Design SpecificationUploaded bybmndevelop
- Classical Algebraic GeometryUploaded byalin444444
- Plastic BusinessUploaded bydance
- Motivation Letter SampleUploaded bypjuvvadi
- Avr - Unitrol 1000-15 eUploaded bysquare17.gopi
- Ensuring Mold Steel PolishabilityUploaded bykengshing