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1. African Diaspora
2. Carter G. Woodson
3. W.E.B. DuBois
4. Black Nationalism
5. Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
6. Macrus Garvey
7. Cultural Nationalism
8. Maulana Karenga
9. Kwanzaa
10. Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
11. Black Students Union
12. Miseducation
13. diseducation
14. Jim Crow
15. African Studies vs. Africana Studies
16. Kerner Commission Report
17. Students for a Democratic Society
18. social justice
19. intellectual

What is “Black Studies?”

1. Black Studies is the generic term for the reform movement and emerging discipline which
critically and systematically:
a. celebrates the discovery, recording, teaching, learning and utilization of knowledge about
African heritage, the African American experience and African Diaspora experience
b. Seeks initiatives for Black community development.
2. Core Values:
a. underlying social mission requires the practical application of theory to methodology and the
wedding of knowledge to activism toward the resolution of Black community issues.
b. no other discipline in the academy so closely aligned with social protest, student activism,
and violence as Black Studies
3. African Studies: The purpose of (in Cold War Climate) was to train experts for government
and business and for teaching about Africa. These programs, though limited in number in
contrast to the Black Studies programs.

Origins of Black Studies

1. Black Studies traced to Africa from captivity and the Middle Passage
a. both in and outside the academy.
b. three prongs:
i. the discovery, assembling and disseminating of factual historical data pertaining to what
Black people have undergone and achieved;
ii. the use of education and knowledge to defend and vindicate the race against its detractors
iii. the production and application of prescriptive concepts, theories, programs and
movements aimed at resolving or alleviating Black group problems.
2. Military draft into the war in Vietnam, and in part as a result of a system of “tracking” Black and
poor students into schools for vocational education, as opposed to the liberal arts.
3. Precipitous decline in enrollment of Black students partly explains the multiracial coalition of
students who would join together in a student strike.
4. students viewed the formation of a Black Studies department as a remedy for an American
educational system and culture bent on exclusion
5. larger context had to do with a special program the university had instituted to try to recruit
inner-city Black students to the campus.
6. Unintended Consequences of Jim Crow
a. A sense of security about identity and a strong measure of group solidarity.
b. Black schools, churches, and voluntary associations, produced and reinforced an
achievement-oriented middle-class personality type
c. Successful Black men and women role models were in close proximity
7. Black Nationalism
a. 1960s many California-based radical organizations asserted themselves
i. Black Panther Party,
ii. Students for a Democratic Society,
iii. Peace and Freedom Party
b. Karenga’s cultural nationalist theories, inspired by Negritude, African nationalism, the Third
World and African Studies as an academic discipline in the United States.
c. Black nationalisms have been defined by a relationship to a dominant or notable area of
emphasis: politics, economics, culture, and religion
8. Demands for what came to be called Black Studies seem to have simultaneously emerged within
about a four-year period, 1965-1969, in different locations in the United States.
9. Contributions of Black women
a. Delores Aldridge's ground breaking work resulted in the launching, in 1970, of Emory
University's African American and African Studies B.A. program in Atlanta,the first such
effort in the South.
b. Carlene Young was instrumental in implementing a Master of Arts degree offering in
African American Studies at California's San Jose State University in 1970.
c. Maxwell Roddy was responsible for organizing and convening the first national meeting of
scholars to design a national organizational structure of Black Studies.
d. Later Black Women's studies would become an integral part of Black Studies
10. HBCUs which lacked a Black Studies program also lacked a cadre of activist students, faculty
and staff

Significance of Black Studies

1. "What can you do with Black Studies?"
a. Broad range of applicable fields
b. diplomatic, administrative, consultative, organizing, publishing, entrepreneurial,
preservationist and archival services and enterprises,
2. Premature to make judgments and conclusions about the relatively young field of Black Studies
3. Reasons to became an intellectual :
a. talk back to suffering-and if possible, to relieve it
b. the poor, working poor, and working-class black folk I saw in my own tribe and in the ghetto
neighborhoods I lived in – there were the people who suffered because of the skin or class
into which they were born, or the way they had sex, or the way they thought about it
c. there are the folk on whom brutality descends because of their color, their native tongue,
their religion, or the region of land to which their lives are staked
4. To Serve = To Love (Criticism of Cosby)
a. Love shouldn’t cancel out criticism prevent black intellectuals from publicly discussing hard
truths about black life that might embarrass or anger us.
b. The role of the black intellectual is to discover, uncover, and recover truth as best we can
c. Malcolm X: The black freedom struggle is no good without self-criticism and holding each
other morally accountable.
d. black intellectual's desire to tell the truth is seen by many blacks as naive and traitorous

Challenges and Critical Questions

1. How do we sustain an alternative model of success such that it achieves a desired educational
impact on a critical mass of people?
2. What is the relationship between black people inside the universities and those who will never
make it?
3. How can an underdeveloped group create and perpetuate an education for group liberation in a
social climate that emphasizes individual success as opposed to a group liberation ethic and
value system?
4. Black Studies was established as a corrective to the disservice of European American-based,
male dominated and monocultural thought and social practice. So, too, must Black Women's
Studies provide corrections and prescriptions for the patriarchy that has dominated Black women
and also restricted the more optimal development of Black Studies. The incorporation of Black
Women's Studies into Black Studies is necessary for mutual intellectual, curricular, pedagogical
and practical legitimacy and advancement.
5. What is a responsible Black Studies research agenda, who is to set its priorities and how is it to
be carried out?
6. What minimum and common competencies do we value and require of those who are trained and
practice in Black Studies?
7. How can Black Studies be institutionalized given that most formal Black Studies programs were
born as concessions through struggle in others' space which Black people did not control?
8. How can a Black Studies agenda be carried out while relying exclusively on allocations from
established institutional budgets?
9. What is the cost of legitimation and career advancement of individuals? Does institutionalization
and mainstreaming of Black Studies compromise a Black Studies agenda?