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Example, J thermocouple with gain at 20 0C of =51 V/0C and time constant of approx

0.01 sec. or k=5 [10 V/0C] and T=0.01

MATLAB program

k=5;

T=0.01;

num=[0 k];

den=[T 1];

step(num,den);grid

Step Response

5

4.5

3.5

3

Amplitude

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Time (sec)

Bode diagram

MATLAB program

>> bode(num,den);

grid;

Bode Diagram

20

10

Magnitude (dB)

-10

-20

-30

0

Phase (deg)

-45

-90

0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Bandwidth

Cutoff frequency, b ,defining the bandwidth, is defined as the frequency for which the

Magnitude 20 log|G(j)| drops 3 dB below its zero-frequency value 20 log|G(j0)|

20 log|G(j)| <20 log|G(j0)| - 3 dB for > b

In the above case of a first order transfer function G(s)=k/(1+Ts), k=5, T = 0.01 s

G(s)=5/(1+0.01s)

or

G(j)=5/(1+0.01j)

its zero-frequency value is

G(j0)=5

or

20 log|G(j0)|=14 dB

20 log|G(jb)|= 20 log|G(j0)| - 3 =14 3 = 11 dB

b 100 rad/sec

fb 100/(2) 14 Hz

Static calibration of the sensor

For:

Xn in unknown sensor input to the sensor and

Ym is the measured output from the sensor,

static calibration uses steady state sensor gain Kc for calibration, i.e for estimating the

unknown input

Using limit value theorem for unit step input X(s)=1/s for s tending towards zero

Kc = lim s G(s) /s= lim G(s) = G(j0)=5

Y/ Kc = Y/5

In practice, this is considered acceptable within bandwidth, i.e for input signal

frequencies

< b

and unit impulse input (s)=1

k=5;

T=0.01;

Kc=5

MATLAB Simulations

MATLAB program

num=[0 0 0 50];

den=[0.01 1 1 100];

impulse(num,den);

Impulse Response

5

1

Amplitude

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (sec)

MATLAB program

num=[0 0 0 500];

den=[0.01 1 100 10000];

impulse(num,den);

Impulse Response

4

1

Amplitude

-1

-2

-3

-4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (sec)

MATLAB program

num=[0 0 0 5000];

den=[0.01 1 10000 1000000];

impulse(num,den);

Impulse Response

1

0.5

Amplitude

-0.5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time (sec)

Analytical Solutions (K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 4th edition, Prentice Hall

pp. 268-271), where L{}=Laplace transform

where static calibration constant is Kc = G(j0)

For

k=5;

T=0.01;

results

|x(t)|=1

x(t)=1 sin t

G(s) =k/(1+Ts)

G(j) =k/(1+T j)=5/(1+0.01 j)= 5(1-j0.01)/(1+0.0122)= 5(1-j0.01)/(1+0.0122)

|G(j)|= 5/(1+0.0122) 1/2

= tan -1 (-0.01)

Kc = G(j0)=k=5

y(t)=1 |G(j)| sin (t+ )

xest(t)= y(t)/ Kc =(|G(j)|/ Kc) sin (t+ )= (|G(j)|/5) sin (t+ )

|xest(t)|/|x(t)|= |G(j)|/5

For = 10

results

|G(j)|= 5/(1+0.0122) 1/2 =5/(1+0.012102) 1/2 5

= tan -1 (-0.01) =-5.710

y(t)=1 |G(j)| sin (t+ ) 5 sin t

xest(t)= y(t)/k 1 sin t=x(t)

|xest(t)|/|x(t)| 1

Summary of results:

|xest(t)|/|x(t)| 0.7

20 log |xest(t)|/|x(t)| = - 03 dB, i.e = 100 = b

Consequently, for

> b |xest(t)|/|x(t)| <0.7

= 1000 |xest(t)|/|x(t)| 0.1 i.e the estimation is only 10% of the amplitude of the

sensor input signal

Dynamic estimation (calibration) can use inverse problem solution, increasing gains, in

this case 1/0.7 for = 10 for and 1/0.1=10 for = 1000. (E. Doebelin, Measurement

Systems, McGraw Hill, 1990, Ch. 10.5 Dynamic Compensation, pp. 804-808)

Obviously these gains would increase with and can lead to various difficulties

(overflow in numerical computations, over-amplification of noise high frequency-low

amplitude components in the y(t) signal etc), to be studied as part of inverse problem

theory, a topic of advanced mechatronics.

Bode diagram

G-1(s) = (1+Ts)/ k

k=5;

T=0.01;

num=[T 1];

den=[0 k];

bode(num,den);grid;

Bode Diagram

30

20

Magnitude (dB)

10

-10

-20

90

Phase (deg)

45

0

0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

dB/decade increase beyond bandwidth cutoff frequency, b =100, indicating growing

computational difficulties as >> b .

In general, inverse dynamic compensator for increasing sensors bandwidth is subjet to

various difficulties :

- computational difficulties as >> b due to increasing magnitude of the inverse

dynamic compensator |G-1(s)| = |(1+Ts)/ k| for > b ; digital word length

limitation can lead to overflow.

- high frequency noise in the sensor output is amplified by increasing magnitude of

the inverse dynamic compensator |G-1(s)| = |(1+Ts)/ k| for > b reducing signal

to noise ratio

- unmodelled dynamics and parametric uncertainty result in reduced effect of

inverse dynamics compennsator

- non-minimum phase sytems have unstable inverse dynamics

- low pass filter for removing high frequency noise in the sensor output

avoid unstable inverse dynamics

B) Second order Instruments (E. Doebelin, Measurement Systems, McGraw Hill,

1990, pp. 123-157)

b) Second order transfer function (K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall,

1997, Ch. 4-3, pp. 141-187) for example for a servo system (pp.142-146), or a mass-

spring-damper system (Example 4-7, pp. 174-175).

potentiometerv(t)

where

f(t) [N] is the input force to measure

d(t) [m] is the output displacement

v(t) [V]is the output voltage of the potentiometer

M-B-K system moving horizontally (such that gravity effect can be ignored in deriving

motion equation)

F(s)/ D(s)= 1/ (M s2+B s + K)

where

D(s) =L{d(t)}

F(s) =L{f(t)}

Assume the approximate transfer function of the position measurement potentiometer

V(s)/D(s)= Kp

where

V(s)= L{v(t)}

D(s)=L{d(t)}

Kp [V/m] is the calibration constant of the potentiometer

or

G(s)=V(s)/F(s)= k /(s2+2 n s + n2)

where

n2 = K /M

2 / n = B / M

k= Kp / M

Time response of such second order instruments are significantly dependent on the value

of = B n / (2 M)

= 1 critically damped response

> 1 overdamped response

MATLAB Simulations

1) Step response of

G(s) = k /(s2+2 n s + n2) = k /(s2+b s + c)

where

b=2 n

c= n2

Steady state of v(t) for unit step input f(t) is obtained using limit value theorem for unit

step input F(s)=1/s for s tending towards zero

V = lim s G(s) /s= lim G(s) =lim k /(s2+2 n s + n2)= 1/n2 =0.01

a) for = 0, b=2 n =0

MATLAB program for

k=1;

b=0;

c=100;

num=[ 0 0 k];

den=[1 b c];

step(num,den);grid

Fig. v(t) plot shows an undamped oscillatory response, obviously not usefull in practical

applications. Higher values for are required.

Step Response

0.02

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

Amplitude

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (sec)

b) for = 0.1, b= 2 n =2

MATLAB program

k=1;

b=2;

c=100;

num=[ 0 0 k];

den=[1 b c];

step(num,den);grid

The results show significant maximum overshoot of 70% and long 2% settling time of

4/( n ) = 4/ (0.1 x 10)= 4 sec.

Step Response

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

0.01

Amplitude

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (sec)

MATLAB program

k=1;

b=12;

c=100;

num=[ 0 0 k];

den=[1 b c];

step(num,den);grid

The results show significant reduced overshoot of 5% and reduced 2% settling time of

4/( n ) = 4/ (0.6 x 10)= 1.7 sec.

Step Response

0.012

0.01

0.008

Amplitude

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Time (sec)

MATLAB program

k=1;

b=24;

c=100;

num=[ 0 0 k];

den=[1 b c];

step(num,den);grid

Step Response

0.01

0.009

0.008

0.007

0.006

Amplitude

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Time (sec)

range of 0.6-0.7, but selecting a damping coefficient of B = 2 M / n (E. Doebelin,

Measurement Systems, McGraw Hill, 1990, pp. 131).

Bode diagram for such a case

= 0.6, b= 2 n =12

is given by

MATLAB program

k=1;

b=12;

c=100;

num=[ 0 0 k];

den=[1 b c];

bode(num,den);

grid;

Bode Diagram

-20

-40

Magnitude (dB)

-60

-80

-100

-120

0

-45

Phase (deg)

-90

-135

-180

-1 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Cutoff frequency, b ,for the above case of a second order transfer function

G(s) = k /(s2+2 n s + n2) = k /(s2+b s + c)

where

k=1;

b=12;

c=100;

gives

G(j)=1/( -2 +12j + 100)

its zero-frequency value is

G(j0)=1/100=0.01

or

20 log|G(j0)|=- 40 dB

20 log|G(jb)|= 20 log|G(j0)| - 3 =-40 3 = -43 dB

The Magnitude diagram gives

b 10 rad/sec

fb 10/(2) 1.4 Hz

Dynamic estimation (calibration) can use inverse problem solution, increasing gains, in

this case Obviously these gains would increase with and can lead to various difficulties

(overflow in numerical computations, over-amplification of noise high frequency-low

amplitude components in the y(t) signal etc).

Bode diagram

G-1(s) = (s2+b s + c) / k

F(s)G(s)D(s) G-1(s)V(s)

MATLAB program

k=1;

b=12;

c=100;

den =[ 0 0 k];

num =[1 b c];

bode(num,den);

grid;

Bode Diagram

120

100

Magnitude (dB)

80

60

40

20

180

135

Phase (deg)

90

45

0

-1 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

dB/decade increase beyond bandwidth cutoff frequency, b =10 , indicating growing

computational difficulties as >> b , even more significant the in the case of first order

instruments. N-order instrument will have 20 N dB/decade increase beyond bandwidth

cutoff frequency.

Some solutions to the above difficulties were outlined for the case of first oreder

instruments:

- low pass filter for removing high frequency noise in the sensor output

avoid unstable inverse dynamics

In practice the increase beyond bandwidth cutoff frequency, b is normally limited up to

a maximum useful frequency component useful which might be achieved by inverse

dynamic compensator approach without reachng unacceptable high magnitudes of the

inverse dynamic compensator, making this approach advantageus in computer based

instrumentation.

Sinusoidal Response of the second order sensor with =0.6

For

F(s) 1/ (M s2+B s + K)D(s) V(s)

the overall transfer function is

V(s)/F(s)= Kp / (M s2+B s + K)= (Kp / M)/ (s2+( B / M) s +( K /M) )

or

G(s)=V(s)/F(s)= k /(s2+2 n s + n2)

where

n2 = K /M

2 n = B / M

k= Kp / M

Time response of such second order instruments are significantly dependent on the value

of

= B n / (2 M)

where

=0.6

MATLAB simulation of

where static calibration constant is Kc = G(j0)

For X(s)= /(s2+2)

and unit impulse input (s)=1

k /( s4 +as3+ (b +2)s2 +a 2s + b2)

where

a= 2 n

b= n2

Let us assume

k =1,

= 0.6

n = 10 rad/s

such that

a= 2 n =12

b= n2=100

or

a=12;

b=100;

num=[ 0 0 0 0 ];

den=[1 a b+* a** b**];

impulse(num,den);

MATLAB Simulations

MATLAB program is

a=12;

b=100;

num=[ 0 0 0 0 1];

den=[1 a b+1 a b];

impulse(num,den);

Impulse Response

0.015

0.01

0.005

Amplitude

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (sec)

The result agrees to Bode diagram amplitude for =1of -40 dB or 0.01

2) =5 rad/s

a=12;

b=100;

num=[ 0 0 0 0 5];

den=[1 12 125 300 2500];

impulse(num,den);

Impulse Response

0.015

0.01

0.005

Amplitude

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time (sec)

The result agrees to Bode diagram amplitude for =5of -40 dB or 0.01

Analytical Solutions (K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 4th edition, Prentice Hall

pp. 268-271), where L{}=Laplace transform

L{x(t)=sin t } G(s)= k/( s2+2 n s + n2) L{y(t)} 1/ Kc L{ xest(t)}

or for X(s)= /(s2+2) and unit impulse input (s)=1

(s)=1 /(s2+2) k/( s2+2 n s + n2) y(t) 1/ Kc L{ xest(t)}

For

|x(t)|=1

x(t)=1 sin t

= 0.6

n = 10 rad/s

such that

a= 2 n =12

b= n2=100

G(s) = k/( s2+12 s + 100)

G(j) =1/( -2+100+12 j)= ( -2+100-12 j)/ [( -2+100+12 j) ( -2+100-12 j)]

= (100-2-12 j)/( (100-2)2+1222)

|G(j)|= 1/((100-2)2+1222) 1/2

= tan -1 (-12 /(100-2) )

y(t)=1 |G(j)| sin (t+ )

|G(j0)|= 1/((100)2) 1/2 =1/100

Kc =G(j0)=1/100

xest(t)= y(t)/ Kc =(|G(j)|/ Kc) sin (t+ )= (|G(j)|/(1/100)) sin (t+ )

|xest(t)|/|x(t)|= |G(j)|/ Kc =|G(j)|/|G(j0)|

For = 10

results

|G(j)|= 1/((100-2)2+1222) 1/2 =1/((100-102)2+122102) 1/2 =1/120

= tan -1(-12 /(100-2) )= tan -1 (-120/(100-102) ) = tan -1 (-120/0)=-900

y(t)=1 (|G(j)| / Kc)sin (t+ ) ((1/120)/(1/100)) sin( t-90)

|G(j10)|/ |G(j0)| = (1/120)/(1/100)=100/120 = |xest(t)|/|x(t)| 0.83

For = 10, Bode diagram gives appr -42 dB and -900 which agrees with the above result.

Exact calculation of the cutoff frequency, b ,defining the bandwidth, obtained from the

equation

20 log|G(jb)|= 20 log|G(j0)| - 3

or

log|G(j0)| - log|G(jb)| = log(|G(j0)| / |G(jb)| )=3/20

or

|G(j0)| /|G(jb)| = log-1 3/20 = 1.4125

or

|G(jb)| =|G(j0)| /1.4125 =0.0709 |G(j0)|

which shows that, at cutoff frequency, b , the amplitude |G(jb)| drops to 0.0709 of the

|G(j0)|

For the above second order instrument

|G(j)|= 1/((100-2)2+1222) 1/2

results

|G(j0)|= 1/((100-02)2+12202) 1/2 = 1/100

The cutoff frequency, b can be obtained from

|G(jb)| =|G(j0)| /1.4125 =(1/100)/ 1.4125=1/141.25

For obtaining b the equation to solve is then

1/((100-b2)2+122b2) 1/2 =1/141.25

or

((100-b2)2+122b2) 1/2 =141.25

or

(100-b2)2+122b2 =141.252 =19952.6

or

b4 -200 b2 +10000-19952.6+ 144b2 =0

or

b4 -56 b2 -9952.6 =0

The solution for b2 is

b2 =28(282+9952.6) =28103.6 or 131.6 and 75.6

Only the positive solution gives

b =131.6= 11.47 [rad/s]

that can be recognized on the second order Bode diagram for the magnitude of -40-3 =-43

dB

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