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TAGARIAN, AECYANNE B.

BS ARCHITECTURE 5

1. CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE

Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a


fluid cement that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such
as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such
as ciment fondu.
Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile
strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher
tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel
reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the
concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in
particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or
structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials
made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not.
Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in tension), so as to improve the
behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common
methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.

2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced concrete has a high compressive strength compared to other building


materials.
Due to the provided reinforcement, reinforced concrete can also withstand a good
amount tensile stress.
Fire and weather resistance of reinforced concrete is fair.
The reinforced concrete building system is more durable than any other building system.
Reinforced concrete, as a fluid material, in the beginning, can be economically
molded into a nearly limitless range of shapes.
The maintenance cost of reinforced concrete is very low.
In the structure like footings, dams, piers etc. reinforced concrete is the most
economical construction material.
It acts like a rigid member with minimum deflection.
As reinforced concrete can be molded to any shape required, it is widely used in
precast structural components. It yields rigid members with minimum apparent
deflection.
Compared to the use of steel in structure, reinforced concrete requires less skilled labor
for the erection of the structure.

Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete

The tensile strength of reinforced concrete is about one-tenth of its compressive


strength.
The main steps of using reinforced concrete are mixing, casting, and curing. All of this
affect the final strength.
The cost of the forms used for casting is relatively higher.
For multi-storied building the RCC column section for is larger than steel section as the
compressive strength is lower in the case of .
Shrinkage causes crack development and strength loss.
3. COMPONENTS OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE

CONCRETE STEEL
Strength in tension poor Good
Strength in compression good Good, but slender bars will buckle
Strength in shear fair Good
durability good Corrodes if unprotected
Fire resistance good Poor suffers rapid loss of strength at high
temperatures

Components of Reinforced Concrete are complementary. Thus, when they are combined, the
steel can provide the tensile strength and probably some of the shear strength while the concrete,
strong in compression, protects the steel to give durability and fire resistance.

4. PROPERTIES OF THE MATERIALS USED IN REINFORCED CONCRETE

FINE AGGREGATE
is generally a sand which consists of particles that will pass through no. 4 sieve
COARSE AGGREGATE
consists of particles that would be retained on No. 4 sieve
the maximum size aggregates that can be used in reinforced concrete with limiting
values:
1/5 of the narrowest dimension between the sides of the form
1/3 of the depth of the slabs
of the minimum clear spacing between reinforcement
WATER
Shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of substances that may be deleterious
to concrete or reinforcement
Non-potable water shall not be used unless:
o Selection of concrete proportions shall be based on concrete mixes using
water from the same source
o Mortar test cubes made with non-potable mixing water shall have 7-day and
28-day strengths equal to at least 90% of strengths of similar specimens made
with potable water.
STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
Concrete that have 28-day strengths equal to or greater than 17 MPa and air dry
weighs equal or less than 18Kn/m2
ALL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
The results when lightweight aggregates are used for both fine and course aggregates
SAND LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
The result if sand is used for fine aggregate is replaced with lightweight aggregate.
HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE
Concrete with compression strengths exceeding 42MPa