Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5118

ESDEP Course

ESDEP Course

WG 1A : STEEL CONSTRUCTION: ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS

WG 1B : STEEL CONSTRUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

WG 2 : APPLIED METALLURGY

WG 3 : FABRICATION AND ERECTION

WG 4A : PROTECTION: CORROSION

WG 4B : PROTECTION: FIRE

WG 5 : COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE

WG 6 : APPLIED STABILITY

WG 7 : ELEMENTS

WG 8 : PLATES AND SHELLS

WG 9 : THIN-WALLED CONSTRUCTION

WG 10 : COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

WG 11 : CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING

WG 12 : FATIGUE

WG 13 : TUBULAR STRUCTURES

WG 14 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BUILDINGS

WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE

WG 15B : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BRIDGES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/toc.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:11]


ESDEP Course

WG 15C : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: MISCELLANEOUS

WG 16 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: REFURBISHMENT

WG 17 : SEISMIC DESIGN

WG 18 : STAINLESS STEEL

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/toc.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:11]


Course Contents

Course Contents

STEEL CONSTRUCTION: ECONOMIC &


COMMERCIAL FACTORS

Lecture 1A.1 : Introduction to Steel's Role in Construction in Europe

Lecture 1A.2 : Steelmaking and Steel Products

Lecture 1A.3 : Introduction to Structural Steel Costs

Lecture 1A.4 : The European Building Market

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:11]


Course Contents

Course Contents

STEEL CONSTRUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO


DESIGN

Lecture 1B.1 : Process of Design

Lecture 1B.2.1 : Design Philosophies

Lecture 1B.2.2 : Limit State Design Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors

Lecture 1B.3 : Background to Loadings

Lecture 1B.4.1 : Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Structures

Lecture 1B.4.2 : Historical Development of Steelwork Design

Lecture 1B.4.3 : Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Buildings

Lecture 1B.4.4 : Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Bridges

Lecture 1B.5.1 : Introduction to the Design of Simple Industrial Buildings

Lecture 1B.5.2 : Introduction to the Design of Special Industrial Buildings

Lecture 1B.6.1 : Introduction to the Design of Steel and Composite Bridges: Part 1

Lecture 1B.6.2 : Introduction to the Design of Steel and Composite Bridges: Part 2

Lecture 1B.7.1 : Introduction to the Design of Multi-Storey Buildings: Part 1

Lecture 1B.7.2 : Introduction to the Design of Multi-Storey Buildings: Part 2

Lecture 1B.8 : Learning from Failures

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:12]


Course Contents

Course Contents

APPLIED METALLURGY

Lecture 2.1 : Characteristics of Iron-Carbon Alloys

Lecture 2.2 : Manufacturing and Forming Processes

Lecture 2.3.1 : Introduction to the Engineering Properties of Steels

Lecture 2.3.2 : Advanced Engineering Properties of Steels

Lecture 2.4 : Steel Grades and Qualities

Lecture 2.5 : Selection of Steel Quality

Lecture 2.6 : Weldability of Structural Steels

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:13]


Course Contents

Course Contents

FABRICATION AND ERECTION

Lecture 3.1.1 : General Fabrication of Steel Structures I

Lecture 3.1.2 : General Fabrication of Steel Structures II

Lecture 3.2.1 : Erection I

Lecture 3.2.2 : Erection II

Lecture 3.2.3 : Erection III

Lecture 3.3 : Principles of Welding

Lecture 3.4 : Welding Processes

Lecture 3.5 : Fabrication/Erection of Buildings

Lecture 3.6 : Inspection/Quality Assurance

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:13]


Course Contents

Course Contents

PROTECTION: CORROSION

Lecture 4A.1 : General Corrosion

Lecture 4A.2 : Factors Governing Protection of Steelwork

Lecture 4A.3 : Practical Corrosion Protection for Buildings

Lecture 4A.4 : Corrosion Protection of Bridges

Lecture 4A.5 : Corrosion in Offshore and Sheet Piling

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:14]


Course Contents

Course Contents

PROTECTION: FIRE

Lecture 4B.1 : Introduction to Fire Safety

Lecture 4B.2 : Background to Thermal Analysis

Lecture 4B.3 : Background to Structural (Mechanical Fire) Analysis

Lecture 4B.4 : Practical Ways of Achieving Fire Resistance of Steel Structures

Lecture 4B.5 : Calculation Examples

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:14]


Course Contents

Course Contents

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND


MANUFACTURE

Lecture 5.1 : Introduction to Computer Aided Design & Manufacture

Lecture 5.2 : The Future Development of Information Systems for Steel Construction

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg05/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:15]


Course Contents

Course Contents

APPLIED STABILITY

Lecture 6.1 : Concepts of Stable and Unstable Elastic Equilibrium

Lecture 6.2 : General Criteria for Elastic Stability

Lecture 6.3 : Elastic Instability Modes

Lecture 6.4 : General Methods for Assessing Critical Loads

Lecture 6.5 : Iterative Methods for Solving Stability Problems

Lecture 6.6.1 : Buckling of Real Structural Elements I

Lecture 6.6.2 : Buckling of Real Structural Elements II

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:15]


Course Contents

Course Contents

ELEMENTS

Lecture 7.1 : Methods of Analysis of Steel Structures

Lecture 7.2 : Cross-Section Classification

Lecture 7.3 : Local Buckling

Lecture 7.4.1 : Tension Members I

Lecture 7.4.2 : Tension Members II

Lecture 7.5.1 : Columns I

Lecture 7.5.2 : Columns II

Lecture 7.6 : Built-up Columns

Lecture 7.7 : Buckling Lengths

Lecture 7.8.1 : Restrained Beams I

Lecture 7.8.2 : Restrained Beams II

Lecture 7.9.1 : Unrestrained Beams I

Lecture 7.9.2 : Unrestrained Beams II

Lecture 7.10.1 : Beam Columns I

Lecture 7.10.2 : Beam Columns II

Lecture 7.10.3 : Beam Columns III

Lecture 7.11 : Frames

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/toc.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:16]


Course Contents

Lecture 7.12 : Trusses and Lattice Girders

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/toc.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:16]


Course Contents

Course Contents

PLATES AND SHELLS

Lecture 8.1 : Introduction to Plate Behaviour and Design

Lecture 8.2 : Behaviour and Design of Unstiffened Plates

Lecture 8.3 : Behaviour and Design of Stiffened Plates

Lecture 8.4.1 : Plate Girder Behaviour and Design I

Lecture 8.4.2 : Plate Girder Behaviour and Design II

Lecture 8.4.3 : Plate Girder Design - Special Topics

Lecture 8.5.1 : Introduction to Design of Box Girders

Lecture 8.5.2 : Advanced Design of Box Girders

Lecture 8.6 : Introduction to Shell Structures

Lecture 8.7 : Basic Analysis of Shell Structures

Lecture 8.8 : Design of Unstiffened Cylinders

Lecture 8.9 : Design of Stringer-Stiffened Cylindrical Shells

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:16]


Course Contents

Course Contents

THIN-WALLED CONSTRUCTION

Lecture 9.1 : Thin-Walled Members and Sheeting

Lecture 9.2 : Design Procedures for Columns

Lecture 9.3 : Design Procedures for Beams

Lecture 9.4 : Design Procedures for Sheeting

Lecture 9.5 : Stressed Skin Design

Lecture 9.6 : Connections in Thin-Walled Construction

Lecture 9.7 : Application of Thin-Walled Construction

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:17]


Course Contents

Course Contents

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Lecture 10.1 : Composite Construction - General

Lecture 10.2 : The Behaviour of Beams

Lecture 10.3 : Single Span Beams

Lecture 10.4.1 : Continuous Beams I

Lecture 10.4.2 : Continuous Beams II

Lecture 10.5.1 : Design for Serviceability I

Lecture 10.5.2 : Design for Serviceability - II

Lecture 10.6.1 : Shear Connection 1

Lecture 10.6.2 : Shear Connection II

Lecture 10.6.3 : Shear Connection III

Lecture 10.7 : Composite Slabs

Lecture 10.8.1 : Composite Columns I

Lecture 10.8.2 : Composite Columns II

Lecture 10.9 : Composite Buildings

Lecture 10.10 : Composite Bridges

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:17]


Course Contents

Course Contents

CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING

Lecture 11.1.1 : Connections in Buildings

Lecture 11.1.2 : Introduction to Connection Design

Lecture 11.2.1 : Generalities on Welded Connections

Lecture 11.2.2 : Welded Connections - Basis for Weld Calculation

Lecture 11.2.3 : Welded Connections - Applications of Fillet Weld Calculation

Lecture 11.3.1 : Connections with Non-Preloaded Bolts

Lecture 11.3.2 : Connections with Preloaded Bolts

Lecture 11.3.3 : Particular Aspects in Bolted Connections

Lecture 11.4.1 : Analysis of Connections I: Basic Determination of Forces

Lecture 11.4.2 : Analysis of Connections: Distribution of Forces in Groups of Bolts and Welds

Lecture 11.4.3 : Analysis of Connections: Transfer of Direct Tension or Compression and Shear

Lecture 11.4.4 : Analysis of Connections: Resistance to Moment by Combined Tension and


Compression

Lecture 11.5 : Simple Connections for Buildings

Lecture 11.6 : Moment Connections for Continuous Framing

Lecture 11.7 : Partial Strength Connections for Semi-Continuous Framing

Lecture 11.8 : Splices in Buildings

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:18]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 12 : FATIGUE

Lecture 12.1 : Basic Introduction to Fatigue

Lecture 12.2 : Advanced Introduction to Fatigue

Lecture 12.3 : Effect of Workmanship on Fatigue Strength of Longitudinal and Transverse Welds

Lecture 12.4.1 : Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints (I)

Lecture 12.4.2 : Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints II

Lecture 12.5 : Improvement Techniques in Welded Joints

Lecture 12.6 : Fatigue Behaviour of Bolted Connections

Lecture 12.7 : Reliability Analysis and Safety Factors Applied to Fatigue Design

Lecture 12.8 : Basic Fatigue Design Concepts in Eurocode3

Lecture 12.9 : Eurocode 3 Classification of Constructional Details

Lecture 12.10 : Basics of Fracture Mechanics

Lecture 12.11 : Stress Analysis of Cracked Bodies

Lecture 12.12 : Determination of Stress Intensity Factors

Lecture 12.13 : Fracture Mechanics Applied to Fatigue

Lecture 12.14 : Fracture Mechanics: Structural Engineering Applications

Lecture 12.15 : Fracture Mechanics Applied to Fitness for Purpose

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:19]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 13 : TUBULAR STRUCTURES

Lecture 13.1 : Application of Hollow Sections in Steel Structures

Lecture 13.2 : The Behaviour and Design of Welded Connections between Circular Hollow Sections
under Predominantly Static Loading

Lecture 13.3 : The Behaviour and Design of Welded Connections between Rectangular Hollow
Sections Under Predominantly Static Loading

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:19]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 14 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BUILDINGS

Lecture 14.1.1 : Single- Storey Buildings: Introduction and Primary Structure

Lecture 14.1.2 : Single Storey Buildings: Envelope and Secondary Structure

Lecture 14.2 : Analysis of Portal Frames: Introduction and Elastic Analysis

Lecture 14.3 : Analysis of Portal Frames: Plastic Analysis

Lecture 14.4 : Crane Runway Girders

Lecture 14.5 : Space Structure Systems

Lecture 14.6 : Special Single Storey Structures

Lecture 14.7 : Anatomy of Multi-Storey Buildings

Lecture 14.8 : Classification of Multi-Storey Frames

Lecture 14.9 : Methods of Analysis for Multi-Storey Frames

Lecture 14.10 : Simple Braced Non-Sway Multi-Storey Buildings

Lecture 14.11 : Influence of Connections on Behaviour of Frames

Lecture 14.12 : Simplified Method of Design for Low-Rise Frames

Lecture 14.13 : Design of Multi-Storey Frames with Partial Strength and Semi-Rigid Connections

Lecture 14.14 : Methods of Analysis of Rigid Jointed Frames

Lecture 14.15 : Tall Building Design

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:20]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE

Lecture 15A.1 : Offshore Structures: General Introduction

Lecture 15A.2 : Loads (I) : Introduction and Environmental Loads

Lecture 15A.3 : Loads (II) - Other Loads

Lecture 15A.4 : - Analysis I

Lecture 15A.5 : - Analysis II

Lecture 15A.6 : Foundations

Lecture 15A.7 : Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

Lecture 15A.8 : Fabrication

Lecture 15A.9 : Installation

Lecture 15A.10 : Superstructures I

Lecture 15A.11 : - Superstructures II

Lecture 15A.12 : Connections in Offshore Deck Structures

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:20]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 15B : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BRIDGES

Lecture 15B.1 : Conceptual Choice

Lecture 15B.2 : Actions on Bridges

Lecture 15B.3 : Bridge Decks

Lecture 15B.4 : Plate Girder and Beam Bridges

Lecture 15B.5 : Truss Bridges

Lecture 15B.6 : Box Girder Bridges

Lecture 15B.7 : Arch Bridges

Lecture 15B.8 : Cable Stayed Bridges

Lecture 15B.9 : Suspension Bridges

Lecture 15B.10 : Bridge Equipment

Lecture 15B.11 : Splices and other Connections in Bridges

Lecture 15B.12 : Introduction to Bridge Construction

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:21]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 15C : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS:


MISCELLANEOUS

Lecture 15C.1 : Design of Tanks for the Storage of Oil and Water

Lecture 15C.2 : Structural Design of Bins

Lecture 15C.3 : Lattice Towers and Masts

Lecture 15C.4 : Guyed Masts

Lecture 15C.5 : Chimneys

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:21]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 16 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS:
REFURBISHMENT

Lecture 16.1 : Strengthening of Structures

Lecture 16.2 : Transformation and Repair

Lecture 16.3 : Re-use of Buildings

Lecture 16.4 : Traditional Residual Life Assessment for Bridges

Lecture 16.5 : Refurbishment of Bridges: New Approaches

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:22]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 17 : SEISMIC DESIGN

Lecture 17.1 : An Overall View of the Seismic Behaviour of Structural Systems

Lecture 17.2 : Introduction to Seismic Design - Seismic Hazard and Seismic Risk

Lecture 17.3 : The Cyclic Behaviour of Steel Elements and Connections

Lecture 17.4 : Structural Analysis for Seismic Actions

Lecture 17.5 : Requirements and Verification of Seismic Resistant Structures

Lecture 17.6 : Special Topics

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:23]


Course Contents

Course Contents

WG 18 : STAINLESS STEEL

Lecture 18.1 : Introduction to Stainless Steel

Lecture 18.2 : Structural Behaviour and Design

Lecture 18.3 : Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Lecture 18.4 : Fabrication

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/toc.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:23]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1A.1 : Introduction to Steel's Role in


Construction in Europe

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEVELOPMENTS IN PRODUCTION AND DESIGN

2.1 Steel Production

2.2 Range of Steels

2.3 Design

2.4 Fabrication

3. ADVANTAGES OF STEEL

3.1 Speed of Execution

3.2 Lightness, Stiffness and Strength

3.3 Adaptability of Usage of Steel Frames for Refurbishment

3.4 Quality

4. THE FUTURE FOR STEEL: FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS

5. THE FUTURE FOR STEEL: TRAINING AND ESDEP

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:24]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1A.2 : Steelmaking and Steel Products

Top

1. A BRIEF HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF STEELMAKING

2. STEELMAKING TODAY (PERFORMANCE AND OUTPUT)

3. STEELMAKING IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

3.1 Production

3.1.1 World production

3.1.2 International trade

3.2 Consumption

3.3 Steelmaking and the Environment

4. HOW IS STEEL PRODUCED?

4.1 General

4.2 Steelmaking

5. EUROPEAN STANDARDIZATION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

5.1 Standardization Process

5.1.1 The establishment of European Norms within member states for


steel products

5.2 Contents of the Euronorms (EN) for Steel

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:24]


Workgroup Contents

6. STEEL IN CIVIL ENGINEERING AND BUILDING ACTIVITIES

6.1 Steel in Construction

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:24]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1A.3 : Introduction to Structural Steel Costs

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LIFE CYCLE COSTS

2.1 Attitude

2.2 Cost Elements

2.3 Energy Costs

2.4 Maintenance

2.5 ADAPTABILITY

2.6 Benefits and Financial Return

2.7 End of Life Costs

3. TOTAL CONSTRUCTION

3.1 Typical Breakdown of Costs and Interactions

3.2 Speed of Execution

3.3 Weather

3.4 Services, Cladding and Structure

3.5 Foundations

4. STEELWORK COSTS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:25]


Workgroup Contents

4.1 Erection

4.2 Fabrication

4.3 Corrosion and Fire Protection

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:25]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1A.4 : The European Building Market

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CURRENT SITUATION

3. LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK AND TIMETABLE FOR HARMONISATION

4. THE ROLE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROCODES

5. THE CE MARK

6. THE FUTURE FOR CONSTRUCTION IN THE UNIFIED EUROPEAN MARKET

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

ANNEX A: QUESTIONNAIRE - BUILDING


PROCUREMENT IN EUROPE

Austria

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0400.htm (1 of 5) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Belgium

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. LIABILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

Finland

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

France

1. INTRODUCTION

2. INSPECTIONS

3. CONTRACT

4. MAIN METHODS OF OBTAINING CONTRACTS

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0400.htm (2 of 5) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

7. FUTURE CHANGES

Germany

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Greece

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Ireland

1. INTRODUCTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0400.htm (3 of 5) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

7. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

Italy

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

4. RESPONSIBILITIES

5. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

6. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

Luxembourg

1. CONTROLS

2. CONTRACTS

3. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

4. RESPONSIBILITIES

5. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

Spain

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0400.htm (4 of 5) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

Sweden

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. RESPONSIBILITIES

5. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

6. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

United Kingdom

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONTROLS

3. CONTRACTS

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/t0400.htm (5 of 5) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.1 : Process of Design

Top

1. DESIGN OBJECTIVES

2. HOW DOES THE DESIGNER APPROACH HIS NEW TASK?

3. HOW DOES THE DESIGNER DEVELOP HIS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM?

3.1 Pose an Initial Concept that may well Satisfy the Functions

3.2 Recognise the Main Structural Systems and Contemplate the Necessary Strength
and Stiffness

3.3 Assess Loads Accurately and Estimate Sizes of Main Elements

3.4 Full Structural Analysis, using Estimated Element Sizes with Suitable Modelling of
Joints, Related to Actual Details

3.5 Communicate Design Intentions through Drawings and Specifications

3.6 Supervise the Execution Operation

3.7 Conduct Regular Maintenance

3.8 Differences of Emphasis in Design Approach Compared to that of a Medium Sized


Building

3.8.1 Single houses

3.8.2 Bridges

3.8.3 Offshore oil rigs

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:26]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.2.1 : Design Philosophies

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. UNCERTAINTIES IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN

3. DESIGNING TO AVOID COLLAPSE

3.1 Historical Background

3.2 Stability

3.3 Robustness

4. OTHER DESIGN OBJECTIVES

4.1 Deformation

4.2 Vibration

4.3 Fire Resistance

4.4 Fatigue

4.5 Execution

4.6 Maintenance

5. DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0210.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:27]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.2.2 : Limit State Design Philosophy and


Partial Safety Factors

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN

3. ACTIONS

3.1 Characteristic Values of Actions (Gk, Qk and Ak)

3.2 Design Values of Actions (Gd, Qd and Ad)

4. MATERIAL PROPERTIES

4.1 Characteristic Values of Material Properties

4.2 Design Values of Material Properties

5. GEOMETRICAL DATA

6. PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS

7. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

8. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

8.1 Deflections

8.2 Dynamic Effects

9. STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0220.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:27]


Workgroup Contents

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. GLOSSARY

12. REFERENCES

13. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0220.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:27]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.3 : Background to Loadings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PERMANENT ACTIONS

2.1 Dead Loads

3. VARIABLE ACTIONS

3.1 Imposed Loads

3.2 Permitted Reductions in Imposed Load

3.3 Superimposed Bridge Loads

3.4 Crane Loads

3.5 Environmental Loads

3.6 Wind Loads

3.7 Snow Loads

3.8 Wave Loading

3.9 Temperature Effects

3.10 Retained Material

3.11 Seismic Loads

3.12 Accidental Loads

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:28]


Workgroup Contents

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:28]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.4.1 : Historical Development of Iron and


Steel in Structures

Top

1. PROPERTIES OF THE THREE FERROUS METALS: CAST IRON, WROUGHT IRON AND
STEEL

2. EVOLUTION OF FERROUS METALS

2.1 Blacksmith's Wrought Iron

2.2 Molten or Cast Iron

2.3 Industrialised Wrought Iron

2.4 Steel

3. ACHIEVEMENTS WITH STRUCTURAL IRON & STEEL

4. THE PERIOD OF CAST IRON (1780-1850)

4.1 Cast Iron Arched Bridges

4.2 Cast Iron in Buildings

4.3 Composite Cast and Wrought Iron in Building

4.4 Suspension Bridges

5 THE WROUGHT IRON PERIOD (1850-1900)

5.1 Wrought Iron in Bridges

5.2 Wrought Iron in Buildings

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0410.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:29]


Workgroup Contents

6 THE STEEL PERIOD (1880-PRESENT DAY)

7. PRESENT TECHNIQUES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0410.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:29]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.4.2 : Historical Development of Steelwork


Design

Top

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF STEELWORK DESIGN: STATE OF STRUCTURAL


KNOWLEDGE IN THE 18TH CENTURY AND BEFORE

2. STATE OF STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN BRITAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

3. UNDERSTANDING OF TIMBER IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

4. UNDERSTANDING OF CAST IRON IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

5. UNDERSTANDING OF WROUGHT IRON IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

6. THE YEARS OF TESTING 1820-1850

7. TERMINOLOGY: STRAIN, STRESS, COHESION, ETC.

8. STRUCTURAL DESIGN BETWEEN 1850 AND 1900

9. POSTSCRIPT ON THE 20TH CENTURY

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:29]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.4.3 : Historical Development of Iron and


Steel in Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. EARLY STRUCTURAL USES OF IRON IN BUILDINGS

3. INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS AND MILLS

4. LONG SPAN ROOFS

5. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING FRAMES

5.1 Floor Construction

5.2 Beams and Columns

5.3 Frame Construction

5.4 Wind Braced Structures

6. DEVELOPMENTS IN DESIGN FOR STEEL FRAMED BUILDINGS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0430.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:30]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.4.4 : Historical Development of Iron and


Steel in Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ARCH BRIDGES

3. BEAM STRUCTURES INCLUDING TRUSSES AND PLATE/BOX GIRDER BRIDGES

4. SUSPENSION BRIDGES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0440.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:30]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.5.1 : Introduction to the Design of Simple


Industrial Buildings

Top

1. TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDING

2. STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

3. CHOICE OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDING

4. SHAPES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

5. STABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

6. GLOBAL ANALYSIS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0510.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:31]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.5.2 : Introduction to the Design of Special


Industrial Buildings

Top

1. TYPES OF SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

2. HANDLING METHODS

3. DAYLIGHTING

4. SERVICES

5. SPECIAL ROOF LOADING

6. MAINTENANCE

7. FIRE PROTECTION

8. SOME EXAMPLES OF SPECIAL BUILDINGS

8.1 Coal-Fired Power Stations

8.2 Aircraft Maintenance Hangar

8.3 Milk Powder Plant

8.4 Industrial Complex

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0520.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:31]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.6.1 : Introduction to the Design of Steel


and Composite Bridges: Part 1

Top

1. FUNDAMENTALS

2. THE SUBSTRUCTURE

3. INTRODUCTION TO THE SUPERSTRUCTURE

4. STEEL BRIDGES

4.1 General Aspects

4.2 Deck Systems

5. PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES

6. TRUSS GIRDER BRIDGES

7. BOX GIRDER BRIDGES

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0610.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:32]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.6.2 : Introduction to the Design of Steel


and Composite Bridges: Part 2

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FOOTBRIDGES

3. MOVING BRIDGES

3.1 General

3.2 Bascule Bridges

3.3 Swing Bridges

3.4 Lift Bridges

3.5 Other Types of Moving Bridge

4. SERVICE BRIDGES

5. GUIDANCE ON INITIAL DESIGN

5.1 Selection of Bridge Form

5.2 Selection of Span

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0620.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:33]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.7.1 : Introduction to the Design of Multi-


Storey Buildings: Part 1

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE STRUCTURAL SCHEME

3. COLUMNS

4. BEAMS

5. FLOOR STRUCTURES

6. BRACING

7. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

8. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0710.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:33]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.7.2 : Introduction to the Design of Multi-


Storey Buildings: Part 2

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FROM MULTI-STOREY TO HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

3. THE MAIN FEATURES OF LOW-RISE STEEL BUILDINGS

4. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

5. CALCULATION MODELS

5.1 Basic Assumptions

5.2 The Pin-Ended Structure

5.3 The Truss Bracing

6. SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS OF STEEL STRUCTURES

7. BEHAVIOUR UNDER HORIZONTAL LOADS

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0720.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:34]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 1B.8 : Learning from Failures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ANALYSIS OF SOME STRUCTURAL FAILURES

2.1 General

2.2 Contractual Relationship

2.3 Structural Failures

2.3.1 Steel box girder bridges

2.3.2 Steel plate girders bridges

2.3.3 Shell structures

2.3.4 Buildings

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/t0800.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:34]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.1 : Characteristics of Iron-Carbon Alloys

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Why Metallurgy For Civil and Structural Engineers?

1.2 The Scope of Lectures in Group 2

2. STRUCTURE AND COMPONENTS OF STEEL

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Components of Steel

2.3 The Crystal Structure

3. IRON-CARBON PHASES

3.1 Influence of Temperature on Crystal Structure

3.2 Solution of Carbon in bcc and fcc Crystals

3.3 Nomenclature

3.4 The Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram

4. COOLING RATE

4.1 Cooling Rate During Austenite to Ferrite Transformation and Grain Size

4.2 Slowly Cooled Steels

4.2.1 Influence of carbon on the microstructure

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:35]


Workgroup Contents

4.2.2 The need for control of grain size

4.2.3 Grain size control by normalising

4.2.4 Microstructural changes accompanying hot rolling of steels

4.3 Rapidly Cooled Steels

4.3.1 Formation of martensite and bainite

4.3.2 Martensite in welded structures

4.3.3 Quenching and tempering

4.3.4 Control of martensite formation

5. INCLUSIONS

5.1 Sulphur, Phosphorus and Other Impurities

5.2 Manganese in Structural Steels

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:35]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.2 : Manufacturing and Forming Processes

Top

1. STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGY

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Steel Production

1.2.1 The blast-furnace-basic oxygen converter route

1.2.2 The electric arc furnace route (Figure 4)

1.3 Secondary or Ladle Steelmaking

1.3.1 General Aspects

1.3.2 Ladle Steelmaking Process: Deoxidation and Refining (Figure 5)

1.4 Casting and Solidification

1.4.1 General Aspects

1.4.2 Casting Technologies

1.4.2.1 Ingot casting (Figure 6)

1.4.2.2 Continuous casting (Figure 7)

2. FORMING TECHNOLOGY AND HEAT TREATMENTS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Hot Rolling

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:36]


Workgroup Contents

2.2.1 Description of the Rolling Operation

2.2.2 Primary Rolling

2.2.3 Finish Rolling

2.2.4 Hot Rolling Processes

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:36]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.3.1 : Introduction to the Engineering


Properties of Steels

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Nature of Metals

1.2 Structure-Sensitive and Structure-Insensitive Properties

2. STRENGTH

2.1 Dislocations and Plastic Deformation

2.2 Stress-Strain Curve for Simple Tension Specimen

2.3 Multi-axial Response

2.3.1 Poisson's ratio

2.3.2 Multi-axial stress states and their influence on yielding

2.3.3 Strain hardening under multi-axial stresses

2.4 Influence of Temperature and Strain Rate

2.4.1 Temperature

2.4.2 Strain rate

2.5 Means of Strengthening

2.6 Hardness

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0310.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:36]


Workgroup Contents

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0310.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:36]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.3.2 : Advanced Engineering Properties of


Steels

Top

1. TOUGHNESS

1.1 Types of Fracture

1.2 Influence of Temperature, Loading Rate, Multi-axiality and Geometry

1.3 Notched Impact Bend Test

1.4 Fracture Toughness

1.5 Fitness for Purpose

1.5.1 Wide plate testing

1.5.2 Fracture mechanics concepts

2. OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF STRENGTH AND TOUGHNESS

3. FATIGUE PROPERTIES

3.1 Initiation-Controlled Fatigue

3.1.1 Testing

3.1.2 Fatigue damage

3.1.3 Influences of various parameters

3.1.4 Fatigue limit under actual service conditions

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0320.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:37]


Workgroup Contents

3.1.5 Prediction of cumulative damage

3.2 Propagation-Controlled Fatigue

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0320.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:37]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.4 : Steel Grades and Qualities

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEFINITION OF STEEL

3. CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL GRADES

3.1 Classification by Chemical Composition

3.2 Classification by Main Quality Classes

4. QUALITY STANDARDS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS

4.1 General Considerations

4.2 The Main Points

4.2.1 Steel Manufacturing Process

4.2.2 Delivery Conditions

4.2.3 Chemical Composition

4.2.4 Mechanical Properties

4.2.4.1 Tensile properties

4.2.4.2 Notch toughness properties (impact test)

4.2.4.3 Sampling direction

4.2.5 Technological Properties

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0400.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:52:37]


Workgroup Contents

4.2.5.1 Weldability

4.2.5.2 Formability

4.2.6 Surface finish

4.2.7 Inspection and testing

4.2.8 Marking

5. STRUCTURAL STEEL GRADES

5.1 Hot-Rolled Products in Non-Alloy Steels for General Structural Applications to EN


10025 [4]

5.1.1 General Description

5.1.2 Designation of the Steels

5.1.3 Steel Grades

5.2 Hot-Rolled Products in Weldable Fine Grain Structural Steels to EN 10 113 [5]

5.2.1 General Description

5.2.2 Delivery Conditions

5.2.3 Classification of Qualities

5.2.4 Designation

5.2.5 Steel Grades and Qualities

5.3 Structural Steels for Offshore Applications

5.4 Anti-lamellar Steel Grades

5.4.1 General Description

5.4.2 Anti-lamellar Qualities

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0400.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:52:37]


Workgroup Contents

5.5 Weathering Steel to EN 10 155 [6]

5.5.1 General Description

5.5.2 Corrosion Resistance

5.5.3 Steel Grades

5.5.4 Welding

5.6 Steel Grades for Hot Dip Galvanizing

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0400.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:52:37]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.5 : Selection of Steel Quality

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE PHENOMENON OF BRITTLE FAILURE

3. FRACTURE MECHANICS CONCEPTS AND TESTING PROCEDURES

4. METHODOLOGIES FOR STEEL SELECTION

4.1 The French Approach

4.2 The British Approach

4.3 The Belgian Approach

5. METHODOLOGY ADOPTED IN EUROCODE 3

6. PRESENT STATUS OF THE EUROCODE 3 RULES

7. COMPARISON OF SPECIFICATIONS DERIVED FROM VARIOUS APPROACHES

8. DISCUSSION

9. COMMENT ON THE PRESENT EUROCODE 3 RULES

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:38]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 2.6 : Weldability of Structural Steels

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 A Brief Description of the Welding Process

1.2 The Main Welding Processes

1.3 Welded Joint Design and Preparation

1.4 The Effect of the Welding Thermal Cycle on the Microstructure

1.5 Residual Welding Stresses and Distortion

1.6 Residual Stress Relief

2. THE WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking

2.3 Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Cracking

2.3.1 Liquation cracking (burning)

2.3.2 Hydrogen induced cracking

2.4 Lamellar Tearing

2.5 Re-Heat Cracking

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:39]


Workgroup Contents

4. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg02/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:39]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.1.1 : General Fabrication of Steel


Structures I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FORMS OF CONTRACT AND ORGANISATION

2.1 General

2.2 Contract Procedures

2.3 Planning

2.4 Drawing Office

3. FABRICATION PROCEDURES

3.1 Workshop Layout

3.2 Material Handling and Preparation

3.3 Templates and Marking

3.4 Sawing Line and Rolled Sections

3.5 Drilling and the Beam Line System

3.6 Cropping, Guillotines and Punching

3.7 Flame Burning of Plates

3.8 Pressing and Forming

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0110.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:39]


Workgroup Contents

3.9 Methods of Welding

3.10 Welding Design and Control of Distortion

3.11 The Role of the Welding Engineer

3.12 Automatic Production of Plate Girders

3.13 Machine Operations

3.14 Fabrication Tolerances

3.15 Trial Erection in the Fabrication Shop

3.16 Inspection and Quality Control

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0110.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:39]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.1.2 : General Fabrication of Steel


Structures II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COST FACTORS

2.1 Material

2.2 Fabrication

2.3 Protection of the Steelwork

2.4 Delivery

2.5 Commercial Factors

3. IMPROVEMENT OF DESIGN: EXAMPLES

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0120.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:40]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.2.1 : Erection I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

3. SITE ORGANISATION

3.1 Principal Jobs on Site

3.2 Estimation of needs

3.3 Basic Installations and Site Conditions

3.4 Direct Manpower

3.5 Cranes, Tools and other Equipment

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0210.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:40]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.2.2 : Erection II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ERECTION PROCEDURES

2.1. Reception, Unloading and Handling of Construction Material.

2.2 Foundations and Base Plates (Levelling, Measuring, etc.)

2.3 Assembly and Erection

2.4 Bolting Connections on Site

2.4.1 Ordinary bolts

2.4.2 High-strength friction-grip (HSFG) bolts

2.4.2.1 The torque-control method

2.4.2.2 The part-turn method

2.4.2.3 Load-indicating devices

2.4.2.4 Installation

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0220.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:41]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.2.3 : Erection III

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. WELDING CONNECTIONS ON SITE

3. QUALITY CONTROL

3.1 Quality Assurance Manual

3.2 Quality Control Programme

3.3 Inspection Programme

4. SAFETY AT THE ERECTION-SITE

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0230.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:41]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.3 : Principles of Welding

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METHODS OF MAKING A WELDED JOINT

3. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WELDS

4. EDGE PREPARATION FOR BUTT WELDS

5. WELDING PROCEDURES

5.1 Current

5.2 Welding Position

5.3 Environment

6. SHRINKAGE

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:42]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.4 : Welding Processes

Top

1. INTRODUCTION - HEAT SOURCES AND METHODS OF SHIELDING

2. MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING

3. METAL ACTIVE GAS (MAG) WELDING

4. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)

5. STUD WELDING

6. CHOICE OF PROCESS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0400.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:42]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.5 : Fabrication/Erection of Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION - FABRICATION

2. COST STRUCTURE

3. PRODUCTION NETWORK

3.1 Primary/Secondary Production

3.2 Workshop Layout - Material Preparation

3.3 Workshop Layout - Assembly/Finishing

4. DESIGN/DETAILING ECONOMIES

5. GENERAL - ERECTION

5.1 Site Planning

5.2 Site Organisation

5.3 Setting Out

5.4 Operations

5.5 Single-Storey Buildings

5.6 Multi-storey Buildings

5.7 Timing

5.8 Safety

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:43]


Workgroup Contents

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:43]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 3.6 : Inspection/Quality Assurance

Top

1. INTRODUCTION/DEFINITIONS

2. OBJECTIVES

3. SAFETY MARGINS

3.1 Process Variations

3.2 Gross Error

4. RESPONSIBILITIES

4.1 Involvement

4.2 Evolution through Practice

4.3 Causes and Prevention of Failures

4.4 Timing

4.5 Specialisation

4.6 Records

5. MAIN TYPES OF INSPECTION

5.1 Design

5.2 Manufacture

6. STAGES OF INSPECTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:44]


Workgroup Contents

7. METHODS OF INSPECTION, PURPOSE AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

7.1 Identification

7.2 Chemical Analysis

7.3 Mechanical Tests

7.4 Dimensional Measurements

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg03/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:44]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4A.1 : General Corrosion

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Dry Corrosion

1.2 Wet Corrosion

1.3 Why Protect Steel?

2. PROTECTING STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

2.1 Effect of Environment and Surface Conditions

2.2 Protect with What?

2.3 Surface Preparation

2.4 Cathodic Protection

2.5 Stainless Steel

2.6 Weathering Steels

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:44]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4A.2 : Factors Governing Protection of


Steelwork

Top

1. LIFE EXPECTANCY

1.1 Likely Time to First Maintenance

1.2 Life Between Maintenances

1.3 Assessment of Life Requirement

2. DESIGN

2.1 Design for Protective Systems

2.2 Where to Apply Protection

2.3 Special Areas

3. SURFACE PREPARATION

3.1 Degreasing

3.2 Removal of Scale and Rust

3.3 Blast Cleaning

3.4 Blast Cleaning Standard

3.5 Surface Roughness

3.6 Flame Cut Edges

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:45]


Workgroup Contents

3.7 Other Methods of Surface Preparation

4. SURFACE COATINGS

4.1 Paint Systems

4.2 Metallic Coatings

4.3 Metal Spraying

4.4 Metal Plus Paint Systems

4.5 Guidance on Corrosion Prevention

5. MAINTENANCE OF STRUCTURES AND PLANT

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:45]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4A.3 : Practical Corrosion Protection for


Buildings

Top

1. PRACTICAL DESIGN

2. TREATMENTS FOR CONNECTIONS

3. DEALING WITH WELDS

4. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS AND THE BUILDING'S EXTERIOR

5. ENVIRONMENTS INSIDE BUILDINGS

5.1 Hidden Steelwork

5.2 Steelwork in Perimeter Walls

6. SPECIAL CASES

6.1 Steel in Concrete

6.2 Hollow Sections

6.3 Cladding

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:45]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4A.4 : Corrosion Protection of Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. EXPOSURE CONDITIONS

2.1 Environments

2.2 Factors Influencing Corrosivity

2.3 Different Areas

3. PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS

3.1 Coating Systems for Bridges

3.2 Metallic Coatings (see Lecture 4A.2)

3.3 Stainless Steel

3.4 Weathering Steel

3.5 Closed Sections

4. PROTECTION OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS

4.1 Load Bearing Structures

4.2 Cables and Devices

4.3 Secondary Elements

5. DESIGN

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:46]


Workgroup Contents

6. MAINTENANCE

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:46]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4A.5 : Corrosion in Offshore and Sheet


Piling

Top

1. OFFSHORE

2. SHEET PILING

3. CORROSION IN SOILS

4. ELECTRICAL METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL

5. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04a/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:47]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4B.1 : Introduction to Fire Safety

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Fire Losses

1.2 The Fire Risk

1.3 Objectives of Fire Safety

1.4 Fire Safety Concept

1.4.1 Structural fire safety concept

1.4.2 Monitoring concept

1.4.3 Extinguishing concept

1.5 Cost-Effectiveness

2. OVERVIEW ON ASSESSMENT METHODS OF STRUCTURAL FIRE RESISTANCE OF


LOAD- BEARING ELEMENTS

2.1 Current Fire Resistance Requirements = Assessment Method 1

2.2 Fire Resistance Requirements Based on T-Equivalent = Assessment Method 2

2.3 Engineering Design Methods Based on Natural Fires = Assessment Method 3

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Compartment fires = assessment method 3a

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:47]


Workgroup Contents

2.3.3 Fire modelling - assessment method 3b

2.4 Some Thoughts on Fire Resistance Requirements Considering the Effect of Active
Fire Protection

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:47]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4B.2 : Background to Thermal Analysis

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HEAT TRANSFER EQUATION

3. HEATING OF STEEL SECTIONS

4. THERMAL RESPONSE OF COMPOSITE STEEL - CONCRETE ELEMENTS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Thermal Response of Composite Columns

4.3 Thermal Analysis of Composite Slabs

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:48]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4B.3 : Background to Structural (Mechanical


Fire) Analysis

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. APPLIED LOAD

3. DETERMINATION OF THE FIRE LOAD BEARING RESISTANCE

4. LOAD BEARING RESISTANCE OF STEEL MEMBERS

4.1 Tension Member

4.2 Columns

4.3 Beams

4.3.1 Simply Supported Beam

4.3.2 Continuous Beam

4.4 Beam Column

4.5 Main Parameters

4.6 Steel Elements with Non-uniform Temperature Distribution

5. LOAD BEARING RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE MEMBERS

5.1 Composite Beam

5.2 Composite Slabs

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:48]


Workgroup Contents

5.3 Composite Columns

6. CONNECTION BETWEEN MEMBERS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:48]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4B.4 : Practical Ways of Achieving Fire


Resistance of Steel Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BARE STEEL STRUCTURES

3. PROTECTED STEEL STRUCTURES

4. COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

5. PARTIALLY EXPOSED STEEL SECTIONS

6. PROTECTION BY SCREENS

7. EXTERIOR STEELWORK

8. WATER COOLING

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0400.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:49]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 4B.5 : Calculation Examples

Top

EXAMPLE 1 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF TENSION MEMBER

EXAMPLE 2 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF BEAM

EXAMPLE 3 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF COLUMN

EXAMPLE 4 FIRE PROTECTION TO STEEL BEAM

EXAMPLE 5 MOMENT RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE BEAM

EXAMPLE 6 TIME-EQUIVALENT OF NATURAL FIRE

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg04b/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:49]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 5.1 : Introduction to Computer Aided Design


& Manufacture

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPUTER HARDWARE

3. PRINTERS AND PLOTTERS

4. INPUT/OUTPUT AND STORAGE

5. INTERACTION

6. THE USER INTERFACE

7. PROGRAMMING COMPUTERS

8. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN SOFTWARE

9. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN: TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAUGHTING

10. THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL MODELLING

11. NUMERICAL CONTROL IN FABRICATION

12. THE FUTURE

13. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg05/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:50]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 5.2 : The Future Development of Information


Systems for Steel Construction

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. INFORMATION EXCHANGE IN THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

2.1 Information Exchange: The Present

2.2 Information Exchange: The Future

3. A FRAMEWORK FOR CHANGE

3.1 The Product Model

3.2 Information Exchange Between Software Products

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 `Neutral' graphical exchange file formats

3.3 Management Information Systems (MIS)

4. IMPLEMENTATION

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg05/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:51]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.1 : Concepts of Stable and Unstable Elastic


Equilibrium

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. STABLE AND UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM STATES

3. MINIMUM POTENTIAL ENERGY

4. BIFURCATION BUCKLING

5. POSTCRITICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PERFECT AND IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

6. LIMIT POINT BUCKLING

7. COINCIDENCE OF SEVERAL INSTABILITY MODES

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:51]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.2 : General Criteria for Elastic Stability

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL

3. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK

4. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGY

5. STABILITY OF EQUILIBRIUM

6. NEUTRAL EQUILIBRIUM - CRITICAL LOADINGS

7. ILLUSTRATION ON BASIC EXAMPLES

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:52]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.3 : Elastic Instability Modes

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FLEXURAL BUCKLING OF COLUMNS

3. LATERAL BUCKLING

4. BUCKLING OF PLATES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:52]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.4 : General Methods for Assessing Critical


Loads

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL ENERGY METHODS APPLIED TO ELASTIC SYSTEMS

3. RAYLEIGH COEFFICIENT

4. THE RAYLEIGH-RITZ METHOD

5. THE GALERKIN METHOD

6. NUMERICAL METHODS

7. SOME TYPICAL STRAIN ENERGIES

8. EXAMPLE USING THE DIFFERENT METHODS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0400.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:53]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.5 : Iterative Methods for Solving Stability


Problems

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METHOD OF VIANELLO

3. REVIEW OF NEWMARK'S METHOD

3.1 Sign Conventions

3.2 Concepts

4. METHOD OF VIANELLO-NEWMARK

5. EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:54]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.6.1 : Buckling of Real Structural Elements


I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. EFFECT OF MATERIAL PLASTICITY

2.1 Ideal Rigid-Plastic Behaviour Model

2.2 Ideal Elastic-Plastic Behaviour Model

2.3 Strength Curve for an Ideal Strut

2.4 Effects of the Real Elastic-Plastic Behaviour of the Material

3. STRENGTH OF REAL STRUTS

3.1 Effect of Geometric Imperfections

3.1.1 Initial out-of-straightness

3.1.2 Eccentricity of loading

3.2 Effect of Residual Stresses

3.4 Combined Effect of Imperfections

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0610.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:54]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 6.6.2 : Buckling of Real Structural Elements


II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BUCKLING OF PLATES

3. TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF COLUMNS

4. FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING

5. LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS

6. BUCKLING OF SHELLS

7. IMPROVING THE BUCKLING RESISTANCE

8. FRAME INSTABILITY

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg06/t0620.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:55]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.1 : Methods of Analysis of Steel Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ELASTIC GLOBAL ANALYSIS

3. PLASTIC GLOBAL ANALYSIS

4. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:55]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.2 : Cross-Section Classification

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. REQUIREMENTS FOR CROSS-SECTION CLASSIFICATION

3. CRITERIA FOR CROSS-SECTION CLASSIFICATION

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:56]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.3 : Local Buckling

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEFINITION OF THE "EFFECTIVE WIDTHS"

3. DESIGN OF MEMBERS

3.1 Columns in Compression

3.2 Beams in Bending

3.3 Beam-Columns

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:56]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.4.1 : Tension Members I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEHAVIOUR OF CROSS-SECTIONS IN TENSION MEMBERS

2.1 General

2.2 Residual Stresses

2.3 Connections

3. ANALYSIS

3.1 Stiffness Requirements

3.2 Resistance of the Cross-Section

3.2.1 Net area

3.2.2 Resistance of the net sections

3.2.3 Verification

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0410.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:57]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.4.2 : Tension Members II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPOSITION OF ROPES AND CABLES

3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

4. DESIGN VALUES

5. CONNECTIONS

6. BEHAVIOUR OF A CABLE

7. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY DUE TO SAGGING

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:57]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.5.1 : Columns I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MAIN KINDS OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

2.1 Simple Members with Uniform Cross-Section

2.2 Simple Members with Non-Uniform Cross-Sections

2.3 Built-up Columns

3. PURE COMPRESSION WITHOUT BUCKLING

3.1 Stub Columns

3.2 Effective Area

4. STABILITY OF SLENDER STEEL COLUMNS

4.1 Euler Critical Stress

4.2 Buckling of Real Columns

5. THE EUROPEAN BUCKLING CURVES

5.1 Reference Slenderness

5.2 Basis of the ECCS Buckling Curves

5.3 Equivalent Initial Bow Imperfection

5.4 Design Steps for Compression Members

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0510.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:58]


Workgroup Contents

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0510.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:52:58]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.5.2 : Columns II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ANALYTICAL FORMULATION OF THE EUROPEAN BUCKLING CURVES

2.1 Initial Deflection

2.2 Eccentricity of the Applied Load

2.3 Ayrton-Perry Formula

2.4 Generalized Imperfection Factor

2.3 European Formulation

3. TORSIONAL AND FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING

3.1 Cross-section Subjected to Torsional or Flexural-torsional Buckling

3.2 Torsional Buckling

3.3 Flexural-torsional Buckling

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0520.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:59]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.6 : Built-up Columns

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE EFFECT OF SHEAR DEFORMATIONS ON THE ELASTIC CRITICAL COLUMN LOAD

3. EVALUATION OF THE SHEAR STIFFNESS OF LACED AND BATTENED COLUMNS

3.1 Laced Columns

3.2 Battened Built-up Columns

3.3 Quantitative Comparison

4. THE ELASTIC CRITICAL LOADS OF BUILT-UP COLUMNS

5. THE BEARING CAPACITY OF STEEL BUILT-UP COLUMNS AND THE DESIGN


PHILOSOPHY OF EUROCODE 3

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0600.htm [17.07.2010 09:52:59]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.7 : Buckling Lengths

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF COLUMNS

3. COLUMNS OF NON-SWAY FRAMES

4. COLUMNS OF SWAY FRAMES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0700.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:00]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.8.1 : Restrained Beams I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEAM TYPES

3. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR SIMPLE BENDING

4. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR

5. DEFLECTIONS

6. BENDING OF UNSYMMETRICAL SECTIONS

7. BIAXIAL BENDING

8. BENDING AND TORSION

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0810.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:00]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.8.2 : Restrained Beams II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL BEAMS IN BENDING

2.1 Statically Determinate Beams

2.2 Statically Indeterminate Beams

2.3 Bending of I-Sections

2.4 Bending of Singly-symmetrical Sections

3. EFFECT OF SHEAR FORCE

4. PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR UNDER GENERAL COMBINED LOADING

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0820.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:01]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.9.1 : Unrestrained Beams I

Top

1. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS USED AS BEAMS

2. RESPONSE OF SLENDER BEAMS TO VERTICAL LOADING

3. SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODEL

4. FACTORS INFLUENCING LATERAL STABILITY

5. BRACING AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING PERFORMANCE

6. DESIGN APPLICATION

7. METHOD OF EUROCODE 3

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0910.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:01]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.9.2 : Unrestrained Beams II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SOLUTION

3. EXTENSION TO OTHER CASES

3.1 Load Pattern

3.2 Level of Application of Load

3.3 Conditions of Lateral Support

3.4 Continuous Beams

3.5 Beams Other than Doubly-Symmetrical I-sections

3.6 Restrained Beams

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t0920.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:02]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.10.1 : Beam Columns I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CROSS-SECTIONAL BEHAVIOUR

3. OVERALL STABILITY

4. TREATMENT IN DESIGN CODES

5. EFFECT OF PATTERN OF PRIMARY MOMENTS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1010.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:02]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.10.2 : Beam Columns II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FORMS OF BEHAVIOUR

3. FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING

4. DESIGN

5. BIAXIAL BENDING

6. DESIGN FOR BIAXIAL BENDING AND COMPRESSION

7. TREATMENT OF OTHER THAN CLASS 1 OR 2 SECTIONS

8. DETERMINATION OF k-FACTORS

9. CROSS-SECTION CHECKS

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. REFERENCES

12. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1020.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:03]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.10.3 : Beam Columns III

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METHODS OF VERIFICATION FOR ISOLATED MEMBERS

2.1 Beam-columns with Mono-axial Bending only

2.2 Beam-columns with Bi-axial Bending

3. METHOD OF VERIFICATION OF WHOLE FRAMES

3.1 General

3.2 Basic Assumption

3.3 Tools for the Procedure

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1030.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:04]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.11 : Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FRAMING SYSTEMS

3. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION

4. CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION

5. METHODS OF ANALYSIS

5.1 First-Order Elastic Analysis

5.2 First-Order Rigid-Plastic Analysis

5.3 Elastic Critical Load

5.4 Second-Order Elastic Analysis

5.5 Second-Order Rigid-Plastic Analysis

5.6 First-Order, Elastic-Plastic Theory

5.7 Second-Order, Elastic-Plastic Analysis

5.8 Second-Order, Plastic Zone Analysis

6. COMMENTS

7. FRAME CLASSIFICATION

7.1 Braced Frames

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:04]


Workgroup Contents

7.2 Unbraced Frames

7.3 Sway Frames

8. MEMBER CHECK AND FRAME DESIGN

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:04]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 7.12 : Trusses and Lattice Girders

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPICAL MEMBERS

3. LOADS ON TRUSSES AND LATTICE GIRDERS

4. ANALYSIS OF TRUSSES

4.1 General

4.2 Secondary Stresses in Trusses

4.3 Rigorous Elastic Analysis

5. SECONDARY CONSIDERATIONS

5.1 Cross-Braced Trusses in Buildings

5.2 Lateral Bracing for Bridges

5.3 Deflection of Trusses

6. DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS

6.1 Compression Members in Buildings

6.2 Compression Members in Bridges

6.3 Tension Members for Buildings

6.4 Tension Members for Bridges

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:05]


Workgroup Contents

6.5 Members Subject to Reversal of Load

7. PRACTICAL DESIGN

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg07/t1200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:05]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.1 : Introduction to Plate Behaviour and


Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BASIC BEHAVIOUR OF A PLATE PANEL

2.1 Geometric and Boundary Conditions

2.2 In-plane Actions

2.3 Out-of-plane Actions

2.4 Determination of Plate Panel Actions

2.5 Variations in Buckled Mode

2.6 Grillage Analogy for Plate Buckling

2.7 Post Buckling Behaviour and Effective Widths

2.8 The Influences of Imperfections on the Behaviour of Actual Plates

2.9 Elastic Behaviour of Plates Under Lateral Actions

3. BEHAVIOUR OF STIFFENED PLATES

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:05]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.2 : Behaviour and Design of Unstiffened


Plates

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. UNSTIFFENED PLATES UNDER IN-PLANE LOADING

2.1 Load Distribution

2.1.1 Distribution resulting from membrane theory

2.1.2 Distribution resulting from linear elastic theory using Bernouilli's


hypothesis

2.1.3 Distribution resulting from finite element methods

2.2 Stability of Unstiffened Plates

2.1.1 Linear buckling theory

2.2.2 Ultimate resistance of an unstiffened plate

3. UNSTIFFENED PLATES UNDER OUT-OF-PLANE ACTIONS

3.1 Action Distribution

3.1.1 Distribution resulting from plate theory

3.1.2 Distribution resulting from finite element methods (FEM)

3.2 Deflection and Ultimate Resistance

3.2.1 Deflections

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:06]


Workgroup Contents

3.2.2 Ultimate resistance

4. INFLUENCE OF THE OUT-OF-PLANE ACTIONS ON THE STABILITY OF UNSTIFFENED


PLATES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:06]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.3 : Behaviour and Design of Stiffened


Plates

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. STIFFENED PLATES UNDER IN-PLANE LOADING

2.1 Action Distribution

2.1.1 Distribution resulting from membrane theory

2.1.2 Distribution resulting from linear elastic theory using Bernouilli's


hypothesis

2.1.3 Distribution resulting from finite element methods

2.2 Stability of Stiffened Plates

2.2.1 Linear buckling theory

2.2.2 Ultimate resistance of stiffened plates

3. STIFFENED PLATES UNDER OUT-OF-PLANE ACTION APPLICATION

3.1 Action Distribution

3.1.1 Distribution resulting from plate theory

3.1.2 Distribution resulting from a grillage under lateral actions filled in


with unstiffened sub-panels

3.1.3 Distribution resulting from finite element methods (FEM)

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:07]


Workgroup Contents

3.2 Deflection and Ultimate Resistance

4. INFLUENCE OF OUT-OF-PLANE ACTIONS ON THE STABILITY OF STIFFENED PLATES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:07]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.4.1 : Plate Girder Behaviour and Design I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Types

1.2 Proportions

2. DESIGN CONCEPTS

3. INFLUENCE OF BUCKLING ON DESIGN

3.1 Shear Buckling of the Web

3.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of the Girder

3.3 Local Buckling of the Compression Flange

3.4 Compression Buckling of the Web

3.5 Flange Induced Buckling of the Web

3.6 Local Buckling of the Web

4. POST-BUCKLING STRENGTH OF WEB

5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0410.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:07]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.4.2 : Plate Girder Behaviour and Design II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SHEAR BUCKLING RESISTANCE

2.1 Calculation of the Shear Buckling Resistance by the Simple Post-Critical Method

2.2 Calculation of the Shear Buckling Resistance by the Tension Field Method

3. INTERACTION BETWEEN SHEAR AND BENDING

3.1 Interaction between Shear and Bending in the Simple Post-Critical Method

3.2 Interaction between Shear and Bending in the Tension Field Method

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:08]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.4.3 : Plate Girder Design - Special Topics

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TRANSVERSE WEB STIFFENERS

3. END PANELS AND POSTS

4. WEB CRIPPLING

5. LONGITUDINAL WEB STIFFENERS

6. GIRDERS WITH OPENINGS IN SLENDER WEBS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0430.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:08]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.5.1 : Introduction to Design of Box Girders

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MAIN FEATURES OF BOX GIRDERS

3. GLOBAL ANALYSIS

4. TORSION AND DISTORTION

4.1 Torsion and Torsional Warping

4.2 Distortion

5. FLANGE DESIGN

5.1 Tension Flanges

5.2 Compression Flanges

5.3 Orthotropic Steel Decks

6. WEB DESIGN

7. CROSS SECTIONAL RESTRAINTS

7.1 General Function and Description

7.2 Support Diaphragms

7.3 Intermediate restraints

7.4 Load-carrying transverse stiffeners

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0511.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:09]


Workgroup Contents

8. ARTICULATION

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0511.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:09]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.5.2A : Advanced Design of Box Girders

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GLOBAL ANALYSIS METHODS

3. GRILLAGE

3.1 General

3.2 Grillage Modelling for Box Girder Bridges

3.3 Longitudinal Grillage Elements

3.4 Transverse Grillage Elements

3.5 Torsional Rigidities

3.6 Skew Bridges

3.7 Interpretation of the Output of a Grillage Analysis

4. ORTHOTROPIC PLATE ANALYSIS

5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

6. FOLDED PLATE ANALYSIS

7. TORSIONAL WARPING

8. CROSS-SECTION DISTORTION

9. SHEAR LAG

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0521.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:09]


Workgroup Contents

10. DIAPHRAGMS

11. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

12. REFERENCE

13. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0521.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:09]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.6 : Introduction to Shell Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. POSSIBLE FORMS OF BEHAVIOUR

3. IMPORTANCE OF IMPERFECTIONS

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0600.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:10]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.7 : Basic Analysis of Shell Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BENDING AND STRETCHING OF THIN SHELLS

3. BUCKLING OF SHELLS - LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR BUCKLING THEORY

4. POST-BUCKLING BEHAVIOUR OF THIN SHELLS

5. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SHELL BUCKLING

6. BUCKLING AND POST-BUCKLING BEHAVIOUR OF STRUTS, PLATES AND SHELLS

7. IMPERFECTION SENSITIVITY

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0700.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:11]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.8 : Design of Unstiffened Cylinders

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. UNSTIFFENED CYLINDERS UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

3. UNSTIFFENED CYLINDERS UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE

4. UNSTIFFENED CYLINDERS UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXTERNAL PRESSURE

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0800.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:11]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 8.9 : Design of Stringer-Stiffened Cylindrical


Shells

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BUCKLING OF STIFFENED SHELLS

3. CYLINDRICAL SHELLS WITH LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS AND SUBJECTED TO


MERIDIONAL COMPRESSION

4. LIMITATION OF THE IMPERFECTIONS

5. STRENGTH CONDITIONS

6. LOCAL PANEL BUCKLING

7. STIFFENED PANEL BUCKLING

8. LOCAL BUCKLING OF STRINGERS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg08/t0900.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:12]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.1 : Thin-Walled Members and Sheeting

Top

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE DESIGN OF COLD- FORMED SECTIONS

1.1 Typical Products and Uses

1.2 Applications

1.3 Advantages

1.4 Manufacture

1.5 Materials

1.6 Effects of Cold Forming

1.7 Connections

1.8 Codes

2. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOUR

2.1 General

3. LOCAL BUCKLING AND THE EFFECTIVE WIDTH CONCEPT

3.1 Doubly and Singly Supported Elements

3.2 Effective Cross-sections

3.3 Web Buckling and Crippling

3.4 Lateral-torsional Buckling

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:12]


Workgroup Contents

3.5 Interaction of Local and Global Buckling

4. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

4.1 Good Practice Notes

4.2 Influence of Joint Flexibility

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:12]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.2 : Design Procedures for Columns

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PREPARATION OF DESIGN PROCEDURES

3. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:13]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.3 : Design Procedures for Beams

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PREPARATION OF DESIGN PROCEDURES

2.1 Resistance Moment MRd

2.1.1 Plastic resistance moment

2.1.2 MRd with respect to buckling

2.2 Shear Lag

2.3 Flange Curling

2.4 Lateral and Torsional Restraints

3. DESIGN OF BEAMS

3.1 Design of Beams without Lateral-Torsional Buckling

3.2 Design of Beams with Lateral-Torsional Buckling

3.3 Design for Torsion

4. DESIGN OF PURLINS

4.1 Cross-Sections

4.2 Purlin Systems

4.3 Design Models

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:13]


Workgroup Contents

4.4 Stability Check

4.5 Design of Special Purlin Systems

4.5.1 Single span systems

4.5.2 Double span systems with continuous cross-sections

4.5.3 Overlap and sleeve systems

4.6 Further Aspects in Design

4.7 Design by Testing

4.8 Some Practical Aspects

4.8.1 Connection of purlins to frames

4.8.2 In-plane forces in sheeting

4.8.3 Prevention of lateral-torsional buckling

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:13]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.4 : Design Procedures for Sheeting

Top

1. INTRODUCTION - TYPES OF SHEETING

2. DESIGN PROCEDURES

3. CALCULATION PROCEDURES FOR TRAPEZOIDAL SHEETING

3.1 Calculation Procedures for Bending

3.1.1 Effective portions of the web

3.1.2 Effect of flange curling

3.1.3 Effect of shear lag

3.1.4 Effect of intermediate stiffeners in flanges and webs

3.1.5 Effect of plasticity in the tension zone

3.2 Calculation Procedures for Shear

3.3 Calculation Procedures for Web Crippling

3.4 Calculation Procedures for the Interaction of Bending and Support Reactions

3.5 Calculation Procedures for Developing Moment Redistribution

3.6 Calculation Procedures for Estimation of the Bending Stiffness

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:14]


Workgroup Contents

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:14]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.5 : Stressed Skin Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION - DESIGN PRINCIPLES

1.1 Diaphragm Action

1.2 Suitable Forms of Construction

1.3 Benefits, Conditions and Restrictions

1.4 Types of Diaphragm

2. RESISTANCE OF SHEAR DIAPHRAGMS

2.1 Principles

2.2 Design Expressions

3. FLEXIBILITY OF SHEAR DIAPHRAGMS

3.1 Principles

3.2 Design Expressions

4. APPLICATION OF STRESSED SKIN DESIGN

4.1 Shear Diaphragms Alone

4.2 Shear Diaphragms with Rigid Frames

4.3 Complex Diaphragms

4.4 Openings in Diaphragms

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:15]


Workgroup Contents

4.5 Diaphragm Bracing

4.6 Simplified Design Method

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:15]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.6 : Connections in Thin-Walled


Construction

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONNECTION TYPES

3. TYPES OF FASTENERS

3.1 Mechanical Fasteners

3.2 Welds

4. CONNECTION DESIGN

4.1 General Requirements

4.2 Forces in the Connections

4.3 Failure Modes of Connections

4.3.1 Mechanical fasteners

4.3.2 Failure modes of welded attachments

4.4 Applications

4.4.1 Fastening of outer profiled sheeting to cassettes

4.4.2 Fastening of outer profiled sheeting to inner profiled sheeting via Z-


sections

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:15]


Workgroup Contents

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:15]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 9.7 : Application of Thin-Walled


Construction

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Available Products

1.1.1 Profiled sheeting

1.1.2 Members

1.1.3 Sandwich panels

2. COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

2.1 Cold-Formed Sections and Sheeting

2.2 Profiled Sheeting and Concrete

2.3 Fasteners

3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

3.1 Acoustics

3.2 Fire Resistance

3.3 Condensation

3.4 Durability

4. USE IN SERVICE

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0700.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:16]


Workgroup Contents

5. TYPES OF LIGHT-WEIGHT STRUCTURES

5.1 Industrial Buildings

5.2 Housing

5.3 Temporary Accommodation

5.4 Storage

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg09/t0700.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:16]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.1 : Composite Construction - General

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPOSITE ACTION IN BEAMS

3. COMPOSITE MEMBERS

3.1 Composite Beams

3.1.1 Propped construction

3.1.2 Resistance of section

3.1.3 Continuous beams and slabs

3.2 Shear Connection

3.3 Beam-to-Column Connection

3.4 Composite Columns

3.5 Partially Encased Steel Sections

3.6 Composite Slabs

4. COMPOSITE FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

5. COMPOSITE BRIDGES

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:16]


Workgroup Contents

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:16]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.2 : The Behaviour of Beams

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPONENT BEHAVIOUR

3. DESCRIPTION OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED COMPOSITE BEAM

3.1 General

3.2 Structural Behaviour

3.3 Practical Load Situations

3.4 Creep and Shrinkage

3.5 Propped and Unpropped Composite Beams

3.6 Partial Connection

4. CONTINUOUS COMPOSITE BEAMS

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:17]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.3 : Single Span Beams

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Ultimate Limit State

1.2 Serviceability Limit State

2. DESIGN ASPECTS OF THE CONCRETE FLANGE IN COMPRESSION

2.1 Effective width

2.2 Maximum Longitudinal Shear in the Concrete Slab

3. DESIGN CALCULATION

4. PLASTIC DESIGN METHOD

4.1 Positive Bending Moment

4.2 Vertical Shear

4.3 Vertical Shear in Combination with Bending Moment

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:17]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.4.1 : Continuous Beams I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. RIGID-PLASTIC GLOBAL ANALYSIS

3. BEHAVIOUR OF CONTINUOUS COMPOSITE BEAMS

4. ROTATION CAPACITY FOR PLASTIC ANALYSIS

5. RIGID-PLASTIC ANALYSIS IN EUROCODE 4

6. CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS-SECTIONS

7. PLASTIC RESISTANCE MOMENTS

8. DISTRIBUTION OF BENDING MOMENT

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0410.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:18]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.4.2 : Continuous Beams II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2.1 Effective Width of Concrete Flange

2.2 Modular Ratio

2.3 Load Arrangements and Load Cases

3. DISTRIBUTION OF BENDING MOMENT

3.1 Cracked Section Analysis

3.2 Uncracked Section Method

3.3 Redistribution of Support Moments for Elastic Analysis

4. CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS-SECTIONS OF BEAMS

5. ELASTIC RESISTANCE MOMENT

6. LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING

6.1 Lateral Restraint

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:19]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.5.1 : Design for Serviceability I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Serviceability Limit States

1.2.1 Explicit Methods

1.2.1.1 Criteria

1.2.1.2 Calculation of Ed

1.2.1.3 Limits for Cd

1.2.1.4 Design Procedure

1.2.2 Deemed-to-satisfy Provisions

2. ELASTIC ANALYSIS

2.1 General

2.2 Elastic Moduli

2.2.1 Young's modulus for steel

2.2.2 Elastic modulus for concrete - short-term

2.2.3 Elastic modulus for concrete - long term

2.2.4 Modular Ratio

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0510.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:19]


Workgroup Contents

2.3 Geometrical Properties of the Section

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Effective Breadth

2.3.3 Second moment of area

2.3.4 Service stresses

2.4 Section stiffnesses

2.5 Simply supported and continuous composite beams

3. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES: CRACKING

3.1 Explicit Methods

3.2 Deemed-to-satisfy approach

4. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES: DEFLECTION

4.1 Explicit Methods

4.1.1 Criteria

4.1.2 Calculation of Deflection (Ed)

4.1.3 Limit for deflection (Cd)

4.1.4 Design procedure

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0510.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:19]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.5.2 : Design for Serviceability - II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CREEP AND SHRINKAGE

2.1 General

2.2 Creep

2.2.1 Creep: Influencing factors

2.2.2 Creep functions • and creep coefficient •

2.2.2.1 Definitions

2.2.2.2 Creep: Alternative formulations

2.2.2.3 Creep: Eurocode 2 formulation

2.3 Shrinkage

2.4 Methods of Analysis for Creep and Shrinkage

3. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES: CRACKING

3.1 Deemed-To-Satisfy Approach

3.1.1 General

3.1.2 Minimum reinforcement areas

3.2 Explicit Calculation of Crack Widths

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0520.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:20]


Workgroup Contents

3.2.1 Cracking: Limit state design

3.2.2 Maximum design crack widths: limits

3.2.3 Crack width calculations

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0520.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:20]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.6.1 : Shear Connection 1

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Forces Applied to Connectors

1.2 Basic Forms of Connection

2. DESIGN VALUES FOR SHEAR CONNECTORS

3. APPLICATION OF DESIGN VALUES

4. SPACING OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

5. SHEAR CONNECTORS IN SLABS FORMED USING PROFILED STEEL SHEETING

6. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF CONNECTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0610.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:20]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.6.2 : Shear Connection II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CLASSIFICATION OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

3. DESIGN WITH NON-DUCTILE CONNECTORS

4. DESIGN OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS WITH DUCTILE CONNECTORS

4.1 Definition of Full and Partial Shear Connection

4.2 Design Method for Partial Shear Connection

4.3 Checking of the Serviceability Limit State

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0620.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:21]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.6.3 : Shear Connection III

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SHEAR CONNECTION DESIGN IN CONTINUOUS COMPOSITE BEAMS

2.1 General Aspects

2.2 Continuous Beams with Critical Cross-Sections in Class1

2.2.1 Simple Case - Single Point Load Only

2.2.2 General Cases

3. CASE OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS WITH CRITICAL CROSS-SECTIONS IN CLASS 2 AT


INTERNAL SUPPORTS

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0630.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:22]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.7 : Composite Slabs

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definition

1.2 Types of Profiled Sheet

1.3 Steel-Concrete Connection

2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES

2.1 Design Situations

2.2 Actions

2.3 Material Properties

2.4 Deflection Limits

2.5 Verification Conditions

3. BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

3.1 Behaviour of Profiled Sheeting

3.2 Behaviour of Composite Slabs

3.3 Analysis of Composite Slabs

4. RESISTANCES OF SECTIONS

4.1 Positive Bending Resistance

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0700.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:22]


Workgroup Contents

4.2 Negative Bending Resistance

4.3 Vertical and Punching Shear Resistance

4.4 Longitudinal Shear Resistance

4.5 Elastic Properties of Cross-sections

5. VERIFICATIONS

5.1 Verification of the Ultimate Limit States

5.2 Verification of the Serviceability Limit State

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0700.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:22]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.8.1 : Composite Columns I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPES OF CROSS-SECTION FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS AND THEIR ADVANTAGES

3. MATERIAL GRADES AND MATERIAL SAFETY

4. LOCAL BUCKLING FAILURE

5. RESISTANCE OF CROSS-SECTIONS TO AXIAL LOADS

6. RELATIVE SLENDERNESS AND STIFFNESSES

7. RESISTANCE OF MEMBERS TO AXIAL LOADS

8. RESTRICTIONS TO THE APPLICABILITY OF THE SIMPLIFIED METHOD ACCORDING


TO EUROCODE4

9. BEARING IN COMPOSITE COLUMNS

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0810.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:23]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.8.2 : Composite Columns II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL

3. ANALYSIS FOR BENDING MOMENTS

4. COMPRESSION AND UNIAXIAL BENDING

5. INTERACTION CURVE FOR COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING

6. COMPRESSION AND BIAXIAL BENDING

7. INFLUENCE OF SHEAR FORCES

8. REGIONS OF LOAD INTRODUCTION

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0820.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:23]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.9 : Composite Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPOSITE ACTION BETWEEN STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN BUILDINGS

3. BUILDING COMPONENTS

3.1 Floor Structures

3.1.1 Floors

3.1.2 Floor beam arrangement

3.1.3 Composite beams

3.1.4 The structural depth

3.1.5 Assessment criteria

3.2 Framing Systems to Resist Horizontal Loads

3.3 Connections

4. ERECTION METHODS

5. SEISMIC DESIGN

6. DYNAMIC SENSITIVITY

7. FIRE CONDITION

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0900.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:24]


Workgroup Contents

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t0900.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:24]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 10.10 : Composite Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPOSITE BRIDGES - PRINCIPAL TYPES

3. MAIN ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES

4. STRUCTURAL ACTION

4.1 Positive Bending Moment Regions

4.2 Negative Bending Moment Regions

4.2.1 Major factors to be considered

4.2.2 Conceptual aspects

5. SHEAR CONNECTION

6. FABRICATION AND ERECTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg10/t1000.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:25]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.1.1 : Connections in Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. COMPONENTS OF CONNECTIONS

3. TYPES OF CONNECTIONS

3.1 Column Splices (Figure 8)

3.2 Column Bases (Figure 9)

3.3 Simple Beam-to-Column Connections (Figure 10)

3.4 Moment Resisting Beam-to-Column Connections (Figure11)

3.5 Simple Beam-to-Beam Connections (Figure 12)

3.6 Moment Resisting Beam-to-Beam Connections (Figure13)

3.7 Horizontal Bracing Connections (Figure 14)

3.8 Vertical Bracing Connections (Figure 15)

4. REQUIREMENTS FOR ECONOMY

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0110.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:25]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.1.2 : Introduction to Connection Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR

3. CLASSIFICATION AS A BASIS FOR DESIGN

4. LOAD TRANSFER

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0120.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:26]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.2.1 : Generalities on Welded Connections

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPES OF WELDS

2.1 Butt Welds

2.2 Fillet Welds

2.3 Plug and Slot Welds

2.4 Spot Welds

3. DESCRIPTION OF WELDS - DEFINITIONS

4. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

4.1 Parent Metal

4.2 Filler metal

5. EDGE PREPARATION AND FIT-UP

6. WELD QUALITY - DISCONTINUITIES

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0210.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:26]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.2.2 : Welded Connections - Basis for Weld


Calculation

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BUTT WELD CALCULATION

2.1 Full Penetration Butt Welds

2.2 Partial Penetration Butt Welds

2.3 Stress Distribution in Butt Welds

3. FILLET WELD CALCULATION

3.1 Assumptions

3.2 Basic Method

3.3 Mean Stress Method

3.4 Long welds

4. SLOT AND PLUG WELD CALCULATION

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0220.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:27]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.2.3 : Welded Connections - Applications


of Fillet Weld Calculation

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SIDE FILLET WELDS

2.1 Application of the Mean Stress Method

2.2 Application of the Alternative Method

2.3 Connection Strength Equal to Member Strength

3. END FILLET WELDS

3.1 Application of the Mean Stress Method

3.2 Application of the Alternative Method

3.3 Connection Strength Equal to Member Strength

4. OBLIQUE LOADING

5. LOAD-DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR

6. WELD TO UNSTIFFENED FLANGES

7. BASE METAL CHECKING

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0230.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:27]


Workgroup Contents

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0230.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:27]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.3.1 : Connections with Non-Preloaded


Bolts

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRINCIPLE OF LOAD TRANSMISSION

3. DIMENSIONS OF THE BOLTS

4. BOLT GRADES

5. DIAMETER OF THE HOLES

6. NOMINAL AND STRESS SECTIONS OF

7. SHEAR RESISTANCE

7.1 Normal Joints

7.2 Long Joints

8. BEARING RESISTANCE

9. TENSION RESISTANCE

10. BOLTS SUBJECT TO SHEAR AND TENSION

11. SPACING REQUIREMENTS

11.1 Basis

11.2 Connections of plates

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0310.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:28]


Workgroup Contents

11.2.1 Minimum end distance

11.2.2 Minimum edge distance

11.3.3 Maximum end and edge distances

11.2.4 Minimum spacing

11.2.5 Maximum spacing in compression members

11.2.6 Maximum spacing in tension members

11.3 Angles Connected by One Leg

11. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

12. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0310.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:28]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.3.2 : Connections with Preloaded Bolts

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LOAD TRANSMISSION

2.1 Friction Connections

2.2 Tension Connections

3. PRELOAD IN BOLTS

4. TIGHTENING BOLTS

5. NUTS AND WASHERS

6. HOLES

7. SLIP RESISTANCE

8. SHEAR AND TENSION RESISTANCE

9. PROVISIONS FOR FRICTION GRIP CONNECTIONS

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0320.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:29]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.3.3 : Particular Aspects in Bolted


Connections

Top

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

2. OVERSIZE AND SLOTTED HOLES

3. FIT OF CONTACT SURFACES

4. DETERMINATION OF THE SLIP FACTOR

5. FITTED AND INJECTION BOLTS

6. TC BOLTS - LOAD INDICATOR WASHERS

6.1 A "Tension Control" (TC) bolt has a torque control groove and a torque control
spline at the end of the threaded part as shown in Figure 6. When the torque reaches a
definite value determined by the groove, the end of the screw breaks and the tightening
is stopped.

6.2 A Load Indicator washer is a specially hardened washer with protrusions on one
face, illustrated in Figure 7. The protrusions bear against the underside of the bolt head
leaving a gap. As the bolt is tightened the protrusions are flattened and the gap reduced.
At a specified average gap, measured by feeler gauge, the induced shank tension will
not be less than the minimum required by Standards. Figure 8 shows a standard
assembly in place before and after tightening the bolt.

7. PLATES PROTECTED AGAINST CORROSION

8. PROTECTED BOLTS

9. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT - STRESS CORROSION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0330.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:29]


Workgroup Contents

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

12. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0330.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:29]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.4.1 : Analysis of Connections I: Basic


Determination of Forces

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DETERMINATION OF FORCES

2.1 Forces on the Connection

2.2 Force Distribution in the Connection

2.3 Basic Load Cases for Local Elements

3. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES

3.1 Influence of Stiffness Differences

3.2 Free Centre of Rotation and Forced Centre of Rotation

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0410.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:30]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.4.2 : Analysis of Connections: Distribution


of Forces in Groups of Bolts and Welds

Top

1. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES

1.1 LONG CONNECTIONS

1.2 Distribution of Forces in Weld Groups

1.3 Non-Linear Distribution of Bolt Forces

1.4 Combination of Different Types of Fasteners

2. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

3. REFERENCES

4. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:30]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.4.3 : Analysis of Connections: Transfer of


Direct Tension or Compression and Shear

Top

1. TRANSFER OF AXIAL TENSILE OR COMPRESSIVE FORCES

1.1 Butt Welds

1.2 Transfer of Axial Loads using Cover Plates

1.3 Connections to Gusset Plates

2. TRANSFER OF SHEAR FORCES

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0430.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:31]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.4.4 : Analysis of Connections: Resistance


to Moment by Combined Tension and Compression

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TRANSFER OF TENSILE FORCES

2.1 Criteria

2.2 Plastic Failure of the Column Flange

2.3 Yield/Rupture of the Column Web

3. TRANSFER OF COMPRESSION FORCES

4. TRANSFER OF SHEAR FORCES (SHEAR ZONE)

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0440.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:32]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.5 : Simple Connections for Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEAM-TO-BEAM CONNECTIONS

3. BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS

4. COLUMN SPLICES

5. BRACING CONNECTIONS

6. COLUMN BASES

7. BEAM-TO-CONCRETE WALL CONNECTIONS

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:33]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.6 : Moment Connections for Continuous


Framing

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. RESUM OF WHAT 'CONTINUOUS' IMPLIES

3. RIGID AND FULL STRENGTH CONNECTIONS IN PRACTICE

3.1 Full Strength Connections

3.2 Rigid Connections

4. MEANS OF FORMING CONNECTIONS

5. STRENGTH DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS

5.1 Calculation of Bolt Tension

5.2 The Equivalent T-stub Concept

5.3 Multiple Bolt Rows

5.4 Justification for the Plastic Bolt Force Distribution

6. THE PITCHED-ROOF PORTAL FRAME

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0600.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:34]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.7 : Partial Strength Connections for Semi-


Continuous Framing

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEFINING TERMS

3. PLASTIC AND ELASTIC GLOBAL ANALYSIS

4. WHAT MAKES A CONNECTION SUITABLE?

5. THE NEED FOR RIGIDITY

6. STANDARDIZED CONNECTION DESIGNS

7. CALCULATION OF CONNECTION PROPERTIES

8. ECONOMICAL CONNECTION DESIGN

9. UNBRACED FRAMES

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0700.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:34]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 11.8 : Splices in Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Types of Splices

1.2 Loads in Splices

1.3 Scope of Present Lecture

2. SPLICES IN TENSION MEMBERS

2.1 Bolted Splice Plated Connections

2.1.1 Bearing-type connections

2.1.2 Slip Resistant Bolts

2.1.3 Tension bolted connections

2.2 Welded Splice Connections

2.3 Special Connections

3. SPLICES IN COMPRESSION MEMBERS

3.1 Bolted Splice Plated Connections

3.2 Bolted End Plated Connections

3.3 Fully Welded Connections

3.4 Additional Comments

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0800.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:35]


Workgroup Contents

4. SPLICES IN MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BENDING

5. SPLICES IN MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg11/t0800.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:35]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.1 : Basic Introduction to Fatigue

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Nature of Fatigue

1.2 How Welds Fatigue

1.3 Crack Growth History

2. FATIGUE STRENGTH

2.1 Definition of Fatigue Strength and Fatigue Life

2.2 Primary Factors Affecting Fatigue Life

2.3 S-N Curve

2.4 Effect of Mean Stress

2.5 Effect of Mechanical Strength

3. CLASSIFICATION OF DETAILS

3.1 Detail Classes

3.2 Detail Types

3.3 Commonly Used Detail Types

4. STRESS PARAMETERS FOR FATIGUE

4.1 Stress Area

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:36]


Workgroup Contents

4.2 Calculation of Stress Range • •

4.3 Effects of Geometrical Stress Concentrations and Other Effects

4.4 Secondary Effects

5. LOADINGS FOR FATIGUE

5.1 Types of Loading

5.2 Cycle Counting

6. CALCULATION OF DAMAGE

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:36]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.2 : Advanced Introduction to Fatigue

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF FATIGUE FRACTURE SURFACES

3. NATURE OF THE FATIGUE PROCESS

4. FATIGUE LOADING

5. FATIGUE LIFE DATA

5.1 Fatigue Strength Curves

5.2 Fatigue Testing

5.3 Presentation of Fatigue Test Data

6. PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING FATIGUE LIFE

6.1 Material Effects

6.2 Mean Stress Effects

6.3 Notch Effects

6.4 Size Effects

6.5 Effects of Surface Finish

6.6 Residual Stress Effects

6.8 Effects of Corrosion

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:38]


Workgroup Contents

7. CYCLE COUNTING PROCEDURE FOR VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

7.1 The Reservoir Method

7.2 The `Rainflow' Counting Method

7.3 Exceedance Diagram Methods

7.4 Block Loading

7.5 Frequency and Spectrum Aspects

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:38]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.3 : Effect of Workmanship on Fatigue


Strength of Longitudinal and Transverse Welds

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LONGITUDINAL WELDS

3. TRANSVERSE BUTT WELDS

3.1 Effect of Internal Defects.

3.2 Effect of Welding Procedure

4. OTHER WELDS

4.1 General

4.2 Transverse Fillet Welds

4.3 Load-Carrying and Non Load-Carrying Attachments

5. INSPECTION

5.1 Inspection of Longitudinal Welds

5.2 Inspection of Transverse Butt Welds

5.3 Inspection of Other Welds

6. CHOICE OF QUALITY

7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:39]


Workgroup Contents

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:39]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.4.1 : Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section


Joints (I)

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GEOMETRIC STRESS OR HOT SPOT STRESS APPROACH

2.1 Definition of Geometric Stress and Stress Concentration Factors

2.2 Definition of Fatigue Life

2.3 Thickness Effect

2.4 Fatigue Limit

2.5 Fatigue Class and • • -N Curves

2.6 Low Cycle Fatigue

2.7 Design Procedure

3. CLASSIFICATION METHOD

4. OTHER METHODS

4.1 Failure Criterion Method

4.2 Punching Shear Method

4.3 Relation to Static Strength

5. EFFECT OF SECONDARY BENDING MOMENTS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0410.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:40]


Workgroup Contents

6. SIMPLE CONNECTIONS AND ATTACHMENTS

7. PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS

8. CUMULATIVE DAMAGE

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0410.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:40]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.4.2 : Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section


Joints II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MODELLING OF THE STRUCTURE

3. END-TO-END CONNECTIONS AND ATTACHMENTS

4. GEOMETRIC STRESS METHOD

4.1 Reference Curves

4.2 Determination of Geometric Stresses by F.E. Modelling

4.3 Stress Concentration Factors

4.4 Fatigue Life

5. CLASSIFICATION METHOD

6. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDING

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0420.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:40]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.5 : Improvement Techniques in Welded


Joints

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 The Potential for Improving Fatigue Strength

2. IMPROVEMENT METHODS - OPERATING PRINCIPLES

3. SOME IMPROVEMENT METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON FATIGUE STRENGTH

3.1 Improved Welding Techniques

3.1.1 The AWS improved profile

3.1.2 Special electrodes

3.2 Grinding

3.3 Weld Toe Remelting

3.3.1 TIG dressing

3.3.2 Plasma dressing

3.4 Residual Stress Methods

3.4.1 Hammer peening

3.4.2 Shot peening

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:41]


Workgroup Contents

3.5 Compounding

4. APPLYING IMPROVEMENT METHODS TO REAL STRUCTURES

5. IMPROVEMENT METHODS AND DESIGN RULES

5.1 Current design rules incorporating improvement techniques

5.2 Improved Welds and Size Effects

5.3 Future Modification to Design Rules

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:41]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.6 : Fatigue Behaviour of Bolted


Connections

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTS LOADED IN TENSION

2.1 Location of Failure

2.2 Influence of Mean Stress and Material

2.3 The Fatigue Design Curve for Bolts in Tension

2.4 Comparison Between Ultimate and Fatigue Load Resistance of a Bolt

3. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTED CONNECTIONS LOADED IN TENSION

3.1 The Principle of the Effect of Preloading

3.2 The Effect of the Location of the Contact Area

4. FATIGUE OF BOLTED CONNECTIONS LOADED IN SHEAR

4.1 The Principle of Load Transfer

4.2 Stress Concentration Around the Holes

4.3 Location of Failure

5. FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR CONNECTIONS LOADED IN SHEAR

5.1 Non Preloaded Bolts

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:41]


Workgroup Contents

5.2 Preloaded Bolts

6. REMARKS CONCERNING THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PRELOAD

7. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ANCHOR BOLTS

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:41]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.7 : Reliability Analysis and Safety Factors


Applied to Fatigue Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF S-N CURVES

3. SAFETY CONCEPT AND PARTIAL SAFETY COEFFICIENTS

3.1 Derivation of Partial Safety Factors

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0700.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:42]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.8 : Basic Fatigue Design Concepts in


Eurocode3

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION OF DESIGN CRITERIA

2.1 Main Factors Affecting the Fatigue Strength

2.2 Fatigue Failure Criteria

2.3 Design Stresses for Fatigue Assessment

3. DESIGN STRESS SPECTRUM

3.1 Stress History

3.2 Stress Histogram

4. FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES CLASSIFICATION CONCEPT

5. FATIGUE TEST RESULTS

6. CUMULATIVE DAMAGE RULE, EQUIVALENT STRESS RANGE CONCEPT

6.1 Palmgren-Miner Summation

6.2 Equivalent Stress Range

6.3 Equivalent Stress Range for an S-N Curve with a double Slopes Constant

7. RESIDUAL STRESS EFFECT

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0800.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:43]


Workgroup Contents

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0800.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:43]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.9 : Eurocode 3 Classification of


Constructional Details

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL PRESENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY

3. NOTES ON DETAILED FIGURES 2 - 7 OF THE CASE STUDY

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t0900.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:43]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.10 : Basics of Fracture Mechanics

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BACKGROUND TO MODERN FRACTURE MECHANICS

3. EFFECTS OF MODE OF LOADING

4. EFFECTS OF CRACK GEOMETRY

5. EFFECTS OF FINITE COMPONENT GEOMETRY

6. LOCAL YIELDING EFFECTS AT A CRACK TIP

7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1000.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:44]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.11 : Stress Analysis of Cracked Bodies

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BASIC SOLUTION FOR A STRESS FIELD IN A PROBLEM OF PLANE ELASTICITY

2.1 Method of Westergaard

2.2 Definition of z (or its derivatives) for the Case of a Through-Thickness Crack of
Length 2a in an Infinite Plate (Figure 2)

2.3 Determination of z in the Case of the Griffith Problem

3 CRACK TIP ELASTIC STRESS FIELD FOR GENERAL CRACKING CONDITIONS

4. PLASTICITY

4.1 Irwin's Model

4.2 Plastic Zone Contour from Von Mises and Tresca Criteria (Figure 5)

4.2.1 Von Mises Criterion

4.2.2 Tresca Criterion

5. FRONT CRACK YIELDING MODEL OF D S DUGDALE (1960) AND BAREN BLATT (1962)

5.1 Plastic Zone Dimension

5.2 Crack Tip Opening Displacement

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:44]


Workgroup Contents

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:44]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.12 : Determination of Stress Intensity


Factors

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

3. BUECKNER'S PRINCIPLE AND WEIGHT FUNCTIONS

4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CRACKED BODIES

5. REFERENCE SOLUTIONS FROM PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

6. PLASTICITY EFFECTS

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1200.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:45]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.13 : Fracture Mechanics Applied to


Fatigue

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FRACTURE MECHANICS CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOUR

3. DETERMINATION OF LIFE UNDER CONSTANT AMPLITUDE

4. VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

5. THRESHOLD EFFECTS

6. EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1300.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:45]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.14 : Fracture Mechanics: Structural


Engineering Applications

Top

1. SAFETY, DURABILITY AND RELIABILITY

1.1 Introduction to Safety and Durability Concepts

1.2 Damage Growth Concepts

1.3 Design Concepts Accounting for Damage

1.4 Reliability and Risk Analyses

2. LIFE PREDICTION METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Crack Growth Behaviour Effects

2.2.1 Initial Crack Size

2.2.2 Loading

2.2.3 Material Properties

2.2.4 Structural Properties

2.2.5 Critical Crack Length

2.3 Fatigue Crack Growth Prediction Models

2.3.1 Initial Flaw Distribution

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:46]


Workgroup Contents

2.3.2 Usage

2.3.3 Material Properties

2.3.4 Crack Tip Stress Intensity Factor Analysis

2.3.5 Damage Integration Models

2.3.6 Final Crack Length

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:46]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 12.15 : Fracture Mechanics Applied to


Fitness for Purpose

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CRACK SHAPE DEVELOPMENT

3. MULTIPLE CRACK INITIATION

4. FINAL FAILURE CRITERIA

5. ADVANCED TREATMENTS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg12/t1500.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:47]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 13.1 : Application of Hollow Sections in Steel


Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MECHANICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW SECTIONS

2.1 Mechanical Properties

2.2 Geometrical Properties

2.3 Tension Loading

2.4 Compression Loading

2.5 Torsion

2.6 Bending

2.7 Fatigue (see also Lectures 12.4.1 and 12.4.2)

3. OTHER ASPECTS OF APPLICATION OF HOLLOW SECTIONS

3.1 Drag Coefficients

3.2 Corrosion Protection

3.3 Use of Internal Void

3.3.1 Concrete filling

3.3.2 Fire protection by water circulation and concrete-filling

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:47]


Workgroup Contents

3.3.3 Heating and ventilation

3.3.4 Other possibilities

3.3.5 Aesthetics

4. FABRICATION AND ERECTION

4.1 Aspects of Fabrication

4.2 Welding

4.3 End Preparation

4.4 Bending

4.5 Bolting

5. DESIGN APPLICATIONS

5.1 Columns

5.2 Uniplanar Trusses

5.3 Multiplanar Trusses

5.4 Space Structures

5.5 Composite structures

6. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

7. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR A HOLLOW SECTION (CHS OR RHS) TRUSS

8. REASONS FOR USING HOLLOW SECTIONS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:47]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 13.2 : The Behaviour and Design of Welded


Connections between Circular Hollow Sections under
Predominantly Static Loading

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CRITERIA AND MODES OF FAILURE

3. ANALYTICAL MODELS

3.1 Ring Model (Figure 3a)

3.2 Punching Shear Model

3.3 Shear Model

4. TEST EVIDENCE

5. STRENGTH FORMULAE FOR AXIALLY LOADED JOINTS

6. OTHER TYPES OF JOINTS OR OTHER LOAD CONDITIONS

6.1 Special Types of Welded CHS Joints

6.2 Plate or I-Section Connected to CHS Chords

6.3 CHS Joints Loaded by Bending Moments

6.4 Multiplanar CHS Joints (KK- and TT-Connections)

7. DESIGN CHARTS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:48]


Workgroup Contents

8. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR JOINTS IN LATTICE GIRDERS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:48]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 13.3 : The Behaviour and Design of Welded


Connections between Rectangular Hollow Sections
Under Predominantly Static Loading

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CRITERIA AND MODES OF FAILURE

3. ANALYTICAL MODELS

3.1 Yield Line Model

3.2 Punching Shear Model

3.3 Effective Bracing Width Model

3.4 Shear Failure Model of The Chord

3.5 Chord Wall Bearing or Local Buckling Model

4. TEST EVIDENCE

5. JOINT STRENGTH FORMULAE FOR AXIALLY LOADED JOINTS

6. OTHER TYPES OF JOINTS OR OTHER LOAD CONDITIONS

6.1 Joints Between Circular Bracings and a Rectangular Chord

6.2 Plate or I-Section Connected to RHS Chords

6.3 RHS Joints Loaded by Bending Moments

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:48]


Workgroup Contents

6.4 Multiplanar RHS Joints (KK- and TT-Connections)

7. DESIGN CHARTS

8. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR JOINTS IN LATTICE GIRDERS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg13/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:48]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.1.1 : Single- Storey Buildings:


Introduction and Primary Structure

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ANATOMY AND CONCEPTION OF THE STRUCTURE

2.1 Cladding

2.2 Secondary Elements

2.3 The Main Frame of the Structure

2.3.1 Simplest Frames

2.3.2 Portal frames

2.3.3 Lattice Trusses

3. LOADING

3.1 External Gravity Loads

3.2 Wind Loads

3.3 Internal Gravity Loads

3.4 Cranes

3.5 Other Actions

4. FABRICATION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0110.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:49]


Workgroup Contents

5. TRANSPORTATION

6. ERECTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. WIDER READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0110.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:49]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.1.2A : Single Storey Buildings: Envelope


and Secondary Structure

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CLADDING SYSTEMS

2.1 Roof Cladding

2.2 Wall Cladding

3. RESISTANCE OF CLADDING TO LOADS

4. SHAPES OF PURLINS AND RAILS

4.1 Cold-Formed Shapes

4.2 Hot-Rolled Shapes

5. RESISTANCE OF PURLINS AND RAILS TO LOADS

6. MAIN FRAME BRACING

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0121.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:50]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.2 : Analysis of Portal Frames:


Introduction and Elastic Analysis

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF PORTAL FRAMES

2.1 Serviceability Limit States

2.2 Imperfections

2.3 Second Order Global Analysis

2.4 First Order Global Analysis

3. SPECIAL FEATURES OF BEHAVIOUR FOR TAPERED PORTAL FRAMES AND


ASSOCIATED DESIGN RULES

4. PRACTICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF TAPERED PORTAL FRAMES

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:50]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.3 : Analysis of Portal Frames: Plastic


Analysis

Top

1. THE MODERN STEEL PORTAL FRAME

2. REQUIREMENTS FOR PLASTIC ANALYSIS

3. APPLICATION OF PLASTIC ANALYSIS TO A BEAM

4. APPLICATION OF PLASTIC ANALYSIS TO A FLAT TOP PORTAL FRAME

5. THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK

6. PLASTIC ANALYSIS METHODS

7. APPLICATION OF THE SIMPLE RIGID-PLASTIC METHOD OF ANALYSIS TO THE


DESIGN OF A PITCHED PORTAL FRAME

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:51]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.4 : Crane Runway Girders

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Crane Runway Girder and the Structure

2. TYPE OF CRANES

2.1 Classification of Cranes

3. CRANE RAILS

3.1 Rail Splices

3.2 Rail Fastenings

4. LOADS ON THE CRANE RUNWAY GIRDER

4.1 Transfer of Loads to the Top Flange

5. SELECTION OF THE CRANE RUNWAY GIRDER

5.1 Optimum Girder Proportions

6. DESIGN OF THE CRANE RUNWAY GIRDER

6.1 Crane Runway Girder-to-Column Details

6.2 Rigidity Requirements

6.3 Web Stiffeners

6.4 Lateral Forces and Lateral-Torsional Buckling

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:51]


Workgroup Contents

6.5 Fatigue Considerations

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:51]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.5 : Space Structure Systems

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definitions

1.2 Historical Background

1.3 Different Types of System

1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 Two dimensional grids

1.3.2.1 Single layer grids

1.3.2.2 Double layer grids

1.3.3 Cylindrical vaults

1.3.4 Domes

2. DESIGN OF SPATIAL TRUSS SYSTEMS

2.1 Conceptual design

2.2 Design Method

2.3 Initial Sizing

2.4 Choice of the Structural System

2.5 Qualification Procedure

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:52]


Workgroup Contents

3 ANALYSIS OF SPACE TRUSS SYSTEMS

3.1 Different Analysis Methods

3.2 Design Assumptions

3.3 Limit of Validity of the Methods Described

3.4 Displacement Method

4. FABRICATION OF SPACE TRUSSES

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Structural System

4.3 Methods of Fabrication and Erection

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:52]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.6 : Special Single Storey Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Safety

2. AN OUTLINE OF OLDER TYPES OF SPECIAL SINGLE STOREY STRUCTURES

2.1 The Saw-tooth Roof

2.2 The Umbrella and Butterfly Roofs

2.3 Arched Roofs

2.4 Prestressed Frames

2.5 Domes

3. CABLE AND TENSION STRUCTURES

3.1 General

3.2 Stiffness Under Transverse Loading

3.3 Anchorage

4. ADDITIONAL SPECIAL STRUCTURE CATEGORIES

4.1 Hangars

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0602.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:52]


Workgroup Contents

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0602.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:52]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.7 : Anatomy of Multi-Storey Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRIMARY STRUCTURE

2.1 Vertical Load-Bearing Elements

2.1.1 Floors

2.1.2 Structural frame

2.2 Horizontal Load-Bearing Elements

2.2.1 Braced systems

2.2.2 Frame systems

2.2.3 Tall buildings

3. SECONDARY ELEMENTS AND FINISHES

4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0700.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:53]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.8 : Classification of Multi-Storey Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BRACING SYSTEMS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Engineering Definition

2.3 Eurocode Definition

3. FRAMED SYSTEMS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Engineering Definition

3.3 Eurocode Definition

4. BRACED AND UNBRACED FRAMES

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Engineering Definition

4.3 Eurocode Definition

5. SWAY AND NON-SWAY FRAMES

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Engineering Definition

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0800.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:54]


Workgroup Contents

5.3 Eurocode Definition

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0800.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:54]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.9 : Methods of Analysis for Multi-Storey


Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. OBJECTIVES AND PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

3. ACTIONS

3.1 Permanent Actions

3.2 Variable Actions - Imposed Load

3.3 Variable actions - Wind Loads

3.4 Seismic Actions

3.5 Temperature

4. LIMIT STATES

4.1 Ultimate Limit State

4.2 Serviceability Limit State

5. FRAME CLASSIFICATION

5.1 Classification as Braced or Unbraced

5.2 Classification as Sway or Non-Sway

6. ALLOWANCE FOR IMPERFECTIONS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0900.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:54]


Workgroup Contents

7. ANALYSIS MODEL AND METHOD

7.1 Simple Framing

7.2 Continuous Frames

7.2.1 Elastic first order analysis

7.2.2 Plastic global analysis

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t0900.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:54]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.10 : Simple Braced Non-Sway Multi-


Storey Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURE

2.1 Bracing Systems

2.2 Simple Frames

2.3 Floors

3. DESIGN OF THE STRUCTURE

3.1 Loads and Their Combination

3.2 Beam Design

3.3 Column Design

3.4 Bracing System

3.5 Connections

4. ERECTION

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1000.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:55]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.11 : Influence of Connections on


Behaviour of Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS

2.1 Influence of Connection Flexibility on Elastic Frame Stability

2.2 Influence of Connection Flexibility on Frame Strength

2.3 Influence of Connection Strength on Frame Behaviour

3. MODELLING OF THE CONNECTION

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1101.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:55]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.12 : Simplified Method of Design for Low-


Rise Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE METHOD

3. SCOPE

4. GLOBAL ANALYSIS FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

5. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

6. DESIGN OF COLUMNS FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

7. DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1200.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:56]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.13 : Design of Multi-Storey Frames with


Partial Strength and Semi-Rigid Connections

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS

3. RELATION BETWEEN FRAME AND CONNECTION BEHAVIOUR

4. PLASTICALLY DESIGNED CONNECTIONS IN ELASTICALLY DESIGNED FRAMES

5. ELASTICALLY DESIGNED CONNECTIONS IN PLASTICALLY DESIGNED FRAMES

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1300.htm [17.07.2010 09:53:56]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.14 : Methods of Analysis of Rigid Jointed


Frames

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. EUROCODE 3 APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

2.1 General Approach

2.2 Second Order Effects

2.3 Imperfections

2.3.1 Common practice

2.3.2 Definitions and Eurocode 3 provisions

3. METHODS OF GLOBAL ELASTIC ANALYSIS

3.1 Premise

3.2 First Order Elastic Global Analysis

3.3. Second Order Elastic Global Analysis

3.3.1 Local second order effects (P-delta)

3.3.2 Global second order effects (P-Delta)

3.3.3 Approximate evaluation of second order effects

3.4 Calculation of Internal Forces and Moments

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:57]


Workgroup Contents

3.4.1 Effects of deformation

3.4.2 Braced frames

3.4.3 Non-sway frames

3.4.4 Design methods for the elastic analysis of sway frames (direct or
indirect allowances)

3.5 Cross-Section Requirements

4. METHODS OF GLOBAL PLASTIC ANALYSIS

4.1 Rigid-Plastic Analysis

4.1.1 Assumptions, limitations and cross-section requirements

4.1.2 Computation of collapse multiplier of loads

4.2 Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Analysis

4.2.1 Cross-section requirements

4.3 Elasto-Plastic Analysis

4.3.1 Cross-section requirements

4.4 Calculation of Internal Forces and Moments

4.4.1 Plastic analysis of sway frames

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:57]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 14.15 : Tall Building Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SYSTEMS EVOLUTION

2.1 Shear Frame Systems

2.2 Shear Truss and Frame System

2.3 Frames, Vertical Trusses, Belt and Outrigger Trusses

2.4 The Framed Tube

2.5 The Diagonalized Tube

2.6 Bundled Tube or Modular Tube System

2.7 Mixed Steel-Concrete Systems

2.7.1 Composite tube systems

2.7.2 Core braced systems

3. ULTRA HIGH-RISE STRUCTURES

3.1 Superframe or Megaframe

3.2 Super-Trussed Tubes

4. EXPOSED STEEL SYSTEMS

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:58]


Workgroup Contents

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg14/t1500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:58]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.1 : Offshore Structures: General


Introduction

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

2.1 Introduction of Basic Types

2.2 Environment

2.3 Construction

2.4 Codes

2.5 Certification and Warranty Survey

3. OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL/GAS FIELD

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Jacket Based Platform for Shallow Water

3.3 Jacket and Gravity Based Platform for Deep Water

4. JACKETS AND PILE FOUNDATION

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Pile Foundation

4.3 Pile Bearing Resistance

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0100.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:53:58]


Workgroup Contents

4.4 Corrosion Protection

5. TOPSIDES

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Jacket-based Topsides

5.2.1 Concepts

5.2.2 Structural Design for Integrated Topsides

5.2.3 Structural Design for Modularized Jacket-based Topsides

5.3 Structural Design for Modularized Gravity-based Topsides

6. EQUIPMENT AND LIVING QUARTER MODULES

7. CONSTRUCTION

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Construction of Jackets and Topsides

7.2.1 Lift Installed Jackets

7.2.2 Launch Installed Jackets

7.2.3 Topsides for a Gravity-Based Structure (GBS)

7.2.4 Jacket Topsides

7.3 Offshore Lifting

7.3.1 Crane Vessel

7.3.2 Sling-arrangement, Slings and Shackles

7.4 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening

7.5 Load-out

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0100.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:53:58]


Workgroup Contents

7.5.1 Introduction

7.5.2 Skidding

7.5.3 Platform Trailers

7.5.4 Shearlegs

7.6 Platform Removal

8. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

8.1 Introduction

8.2 In-place Phase

8.3 Construction Phase

9. COST ASPECTS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)

9.3 Operational Expenditure (OPEX)

10. DEEP WATER DEVELOPMENTS

11. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

12. GLOSSARY OF TERMS

13. REFERENCES

14. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0100.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:53:58]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.2 : Loads (I) : Introduction and


Environmental Loads

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS

2.1 Wind Loads

2.2 Wave Loads

2.2.1 Wave theories

2.2.2 Wave Statistics

2.2.3 Wave forces on structural members

2.3 Current Loads

2.4 Earthquake Loads

2.5 Ice and Snow Loads

2.6 Loads due to Temperature Variations

2.7 Marine Growth

2.8 Tides

2.9 Sea Floor Movements

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:59]


Workgroup Contents

4. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:53:59]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.3 : Loads (II) - Other Loads

Top

1. PERMANENT (DEAD) LOADS

2. OPERATING (LIVE) LOADS

3. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION LOADS

3.1 Lifting Forces

3.2 Loadout Forces

3.3 Transportation Forces

3.4 Launching and Upending Forces

4. ACCIDENTAL LOADS

5. LOAD COMBINATIONS

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:00]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.4 : - Analysis I

Top

1. ANALYTICAL MODEL

2. ANALYTICAL MODEL

2.1 Stick Models

2.1.1 Joints

2.1.2 Members

2.2 Plate Models

3. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

3.1 Code Checks

3.2 Allowable Stress Method

3.3 Limit State Method

3.3.1 Load factors

3.3.2 Material factors

3.3.3 Classification of Design Conditions

4. PRELIMINARY MEMBER SIZING

4.1 Jacket Pile Sizes

4.2 Deck Leg Sizes

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0400.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:00]


Workgroup Contents

4.3 Jacket Bracings

4.4 Deck Framing

5. STATIC IN-PLACE ANALYSIS

5.1 Structural Model

5.1.1 Main Model

5.1.2 Appurtenances

5.1.3 Foundation Model

5.2 Loadings

5.2.1 Gravity Loads

5.2.2 Environmental Loads

5.3 Loading Combinations

6. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

6.1 Dynamic Model

6.2 Equations of Motion

6.2.1 Mass

6.2.2 Damping

6.2.3 Stiffness

6.3 Free Vibration Mode Shapes and Frequencies

6.4 Modal Superposition Method

6.4.1 Frequency Domain Analysis

6.4.2 Time Domain Analysis

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0400.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:00]


Workgroup Contents

6.5 Direct Integration Methods

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0400.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:00]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.5 : - Analysis II

Top

1. FATIGUE ANALYSIS

1.1 Fatigue Model

1.1.1 Structural Model

1.1.2 Hydrodynamic Loading Model

1.1.3 Joint Stress Model

1.1.4 Fatigue Damage Model

1.1.5 Closed Form Expression

1.2 Deterministic Analysis

1.3 Spectral Analysis

1.4 Wind Fatigue

1.4.1 Wind Gusts

1.4.2 Vortex Shedding

2. ABNORMAL AND ACCIDENTAL CONDITIONS

2.1 Earthquake Analysis

2.1.1 Model

2.1.2 Ductility Requirements

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0500.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:01]


Workgroup Contents

2.1.3 Analysis Method

2.2 Impact

2.2.1 Dropped Object/Boat Impact

2.2.2 Blast and Fire

2.3 Progressive Collapse

3. LOAD OUT & TRANSPORTATION

3.1 Load-Out

3.1.1 Skidding

3.1.2 Load-Out by Trailers

3.2 Transportation

3.2.1 Naval Architectural Model

3.2.2 Structural Model

4. INSTALLATION

4.1 Launching

4.1.1 Naval Architectural Model

4.1.2 Structural Model

4.2 Upending

4.3 Docking

4.4 Unpiled Stability

4.5 Piling

4.6 Lifting

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0500.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:01]


Workgroup Contents

4.6.1 Model

4.6.2 Design Factors

4.6.2.1 Skew Load Factor (SKL)

4.6.2.2 Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF)

4.6.2.3 Tilt Effect Factor (TEF)

4.6.2.4 Yaw Effect Factor (YEF)

4.6.3 Consequence Factors

5. LOCAL ANALYSES AND DESIGN

5.1 Pile/Sleeve Connections

5.2 Members within the Splash Zone

5.3 Straightened Nodes

5.4 Appurtenances

5.4.1 Risers, Caissons & J-Tubes

5.4.2 Conductors

5.5 Helidecks

5.6 Flare Booms

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0500.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:01]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.6 : Foundations

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Classification of Soils

1.2 Granular Soils

1.3 Cohesive Soils

1.4 Multi-Layered Strata

2. DESIGN

2.1 Design Loads

2.1.1 Gravity loads

2.1.2 Environmental loads

2.1.3 Load combinations

2.2 Static Axial Pile Resistance

2.2.1 Lateral friction along the shaft (shaft friction)

2.2.2 End bearing

2.2.3 Pile penetration

2.3 Lateral Pile Resistance

2.3.1 P-y curves

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0600.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

2.3.2 Lateral pile analysis

2.4 Pile Driving

2.4.1 Empirical formulae

2.4.2 Wave equation

3. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PILES

3.1 Driven Piles

3.2 Insert Piles

3.3 Drilled and Grouted Piles

3.4 Belled Piles

4. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION

4.1 Fabrication

4.2 Transportation

4.2.1 Barge transportation

4.2.2 Self floating mode

4.2.3 Transport within the jacket

4.3 Hammers

4.3.1 Steam hammers

4.3.2 Diesel hammers

4.3.3 Hydraulic hammers

4.3.4 Selection of hammer size

4.4 Installation

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0600.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

4.4.1 Pile handling and positioning

4.4.2 Pile connections

4.4.3 Hammer placement

4.4.4 Driving

4.5 Pile-to-Jacket Connections

4.5.1 Welded shims

4.5.2 Mechanical locking system

4.5.3 Grouting

4.6 Quality Control

4.7 Contingency Plan

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0600.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.7 : Tubular Joints in Offshore


Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1 Geometrical definitions

2.2 Geometrical ratios

3. CLASSIFICATION

3.1 T and Y Joints

3.2 X Joints

3.3 N and K Joints

3.4 KT Joints

3.5 Limitations

3.6 How to classify a joint

4. GAP AND OVERLAP

4.1 Definitions

4.2 Limitations

4.3 Multiplanar Joints

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0700.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

5. JOINT ARRANGEMENT

6. STATIC STRENGTH

6.1 Loads taken into account

6.2 Punching shear

6.2.1 Acting punching shear

6.2.2 Allowable punching shear

6.2.3 The API method

6.3 Overlapping joints

6.4 Reinforced joints

6.4.1 Definition

6.4.2 Ring Stiffening

7. STRESS CONCENTRATION

7.1 Stress concentration factor

7.2 Kellog equation

7.3 Parametric formulae

7.3.1 Kuang equations for T/Y joints [4]

7.3.2 Kuang equations for K joints [4]

7.3.3 Kuang equations for KT joints [4]

8. FATIGUE ANALYSIS

8.1 Nominal stress range

8.1.1 Wave histogram

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0700.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

8.2.2 Nominal stress ranges

8.2 Hot spot stress ranges

8.3 S-N Curves

8.4 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Ratio

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0700.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:02]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.8 : Fabrication

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Construction Phases

1.2 Construction Philosophy

2. ENGINEERING OF EXECUTION

3. FABRICATION

3.1 Fabrication Processes

3.2 Node Fabrication

3.3 Jacket Sub-assemblies

3.4 Dimensional Control

4. JACKET ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION

4.1 Jacket Assembly

4.4 Jacket Erection

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0800.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:03]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.9 : Installation

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Phases

1.2 Construction Philosophy

1.3 Installation Planning

2. LOADOUT AND SEAFASTENING

3. OFFSHORE TRANSPORTATION

4. OFFSHORE INSTALLATION

4.1 Removal of Jacket from Barge

4.1.1 Launch

4.1.2 Lift

4.2 Jacket Up-ending and Set-down

4.2.1 Up-ending by Ballast control and Flooding

4.2.2 Up-ending using the crane vessel

4.3 On-bottom Stability

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0900.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:04]


Workgroup Contents

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t0900.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:04]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.10 : Superstructures I

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BASIC ASPECTS OF DESIGN

2.1 Space and Elevations

2.2 Lay-out Requirements

2.3 Loads

2.4 Interface Control

2.5 Weight Engineering

3. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

3.1 Selection of Topside for a Main Jacket-Based Structure

3.2 Selection of Topsides for Gravity Based Structures

3.3 Floor Systems

3.4 Floor Panel Concept for Conventional Steel Floor

3.5 Floor Stabilization Concept

4. DECK FLOORING DESIGN

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Floor Plate

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t1000.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:04]


Workgroup Contents

4.3 Stringers

4.4 Deck Beams

4.5 Horizontal Bracing

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t1000.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:04]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.11 : - Superstructures II

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MAIN STRUCTURE DESIGN

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Main Structure-Portal Frame Design

2.3 Main Structure-Truss Design

2.4 Main Structure-Stressed Skin Design

2.5 Non-Load Bearing Walls

2.6 Crane Pedestals

3. ANALYSIS OF DECK STRUCTURES

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Plate Girder Design

3.3 Strength of Joints

3.4 Lifting Points

3.5 Modelling of Floor Plates

3.6 Support of Modules

4. CONSTRUCTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t1100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:05]


Workgroup Contents

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fabrication

4.2.1 Operations

4.2.2 Design aspects

4.3 Weight Engineering

4.4 Load Out

4.4.1 Operations

4.4.2 Design aspects load out

4.5 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening

4.5.1 Operations

4.5.2 Design aspects of sea transport and sea fastening

4.6 Installation

4.6.1 Operations

4.6.2 Design aspects of installation by lifting

4.7 Hook up

4.8 Commissioning

4.9 Inspection Maintenance and Repair (IMR)

4.10 Removal

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t1100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:05]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15A.12 : Connections in Offshore Deck


Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CONNECTIONS IN OFFSHORE DECK MODULES

3. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DECK STRINGERS AND BEAMS

4. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN INTERMEDIATE AND MAIN DECK BEAMS

5. BEAM TO DECK LEG CONNECTIONS

6. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BEAMS AND COLUMNS

7. TRUSS CONNECTIONS

8. SPECIAL CONNECTIONS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15a/t1200.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:05]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.1 : Conceptual Choice

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FUNDAMENTAL BRIDGE FORMS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Bridges which Carry Loads Mainly in Flexure

2.3 Bridges which Carry their Loads Mainly as Axial Forces

2.4 Truss Bridges

3. THE PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF A BRIDGE

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Clearance Requirements

3.3 Loading

3.4 The Topography and Geology of the Site

4. OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING CONCEPTUAL CHOICE

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Methods of Erection

4.2.1 Assembly in situ

4.2.2 Launching

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:06]


Workgroup Contents

4.2.3 Lifting

4.2.4 Cantilevering

4.2.5 Sliding or rolling-in

4.3 Local Constructional Skills and Materials

4.4 Future Inspection and Maintenance

4.5 Aesthetic and Environmental Aspects

5. DETAILED CONSIDERATIONS - GIRDER BRIDGES

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Deck

5.3 Typical Layouts of Short and Medium Span Bridges

5.4 Long Span Girder Bridges

5.5 Minimum Cost or Minimum Weight?

5.6 Design For Construction

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:06]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.2 : Actions on Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HIGHWAY DESIGN LOADINGS

2.1 Dead Load

2.2 Traffic Loads

2.3 Longitudinal Tractive Forces

2.4 Centrifugal Forces

2.5 Sidewalks and Parapets

3. RAILWAY DESIGN LOADINGS

3.1 Dead Load

3.2 Train Loads

3.3 Dynamic Effects (Impact)

3.4 Longitudinal Tractive and Braking Forces

3.5 Centrifugal Forces

3.6 Lateral Forces From Loads

4. OTHER LOADS ON BRIDGES

4.1 Wind Loads

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:07]


Workgroup Contents

4.2 Thermal Effects on Bridge Structures

4.3 Shrinkage of Concrete

4.4 Settlements of Foundations

4.5 Earthquake Actions

4.6 Forces due to Water Currents or Ice

4.7 Collisions

4.8 Friction in Bearings

4.9 Construction and Erection Loads

5. CRITICAL LOAD CASES FOR DESIGN

5.1 Load Combinations

5.2 Modelling the Construction Process

5.3 Variable Actions on the Completed Structure

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:07]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.3 : Bridge Decks

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

2.1 From Separation to Integration of Functions

2.2 Greater Simplicity

2.3 Evolution of the Stringer in Steel Decks

3. MODERN HIGHWAY BRIDGE DECKS

3.1 Reinforced Concrete Slabs for Composite Bridges

3.1.1 Spans and depths

3.1.2 Methods of construction

3.1.3 Methods of analysis and design

3.2 Orthotropic Steel Decks

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Structural Behaviour of Orthotropic Steel Decks

3.2.3 The "European" orthotropic deck and methods of construction

3.2.4 Methods of analysis and design verification

4. MODERN RAILWAY BRIDGE DECKS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:08]


Workgroup Contents

4.1 Replacement Structures

4.2 New Alignments

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:08]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.4 : Plate Girder and Beam Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Types of Application

1.3 Range of Application

1.4 Types of Through Girder Bridges

2. SPAN ARRANGEMENTS

2.1 Continuous or Simple Spans

2.2 Proportions of Main Girders

2.3 Profile of Main Girders

3. INITIAL DESIGN OF COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGES

3.1 Girder Spacing and Deck Slab Thickness

3.2 Initial Selection of Flange and Web Sizes

3.3 Economic and Practical Considerations

3.3.1 General considerations

3.3.2 Construction considerations

4. INITIAL DESIGN OF NON-COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:08]


Workgroup Contents

4.1 Bridge Cross-Section

4.2 Main Girders

4.3 Deck

4.4 Initial Sizing of the Main Girder

5. GIRDER STABILITY AND BRACING

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Composite Plate Girder Bridges

5.3 Non-Composite Plate Girders

6. DETAILED DESIGN

6.1 Global Analysis

6.2 Actions and Combinations

6.3 Element and Connection Design

6.4 Effects Peculiar to Steel Open Grid Deck Configurations

6.4.1 Bending of the Stringers

6.4.2 Weak axis bending of the end cross girder

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:08]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.5 : Truss Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSS

2.1 Historical Background

2.2 Highway Truss Bridges

2.3 Choice of Truss Configuration For Railway Bridges

2.4 Particular Applications

3. GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES

3.1 Span Range

3.2 Ratio of Span to Depth

3.3 Geometry

3.4 Grade of Steel

3.5 Compression Chord Members

3.6 Tension Chord Members

3.7 Vertical and Diagonal Members

3.8 Maintenance

4. LATERAL BRACING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:09]


Workgroup Contents

5. ANALYSIS

5.1 Global Load Effects

5.2 Local Load Effects

6. CONNECTIONS

6.1 General

6.2 Truss Joints

6.3 Cross Girder Connections

6.4 Lateral Bracing Connections

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:09]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.6 : Box Girder Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY

2. GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES

2.1 Span

2.2 Span-to-Depth Ratio

2.3 Cross-section

2.4 Grade of Steel

3. STRUCTURAL DETAILS

3.1 Longitudinal Stiffeners

3.2 Pier Diaphragms and Intermediate Cross Frames

3.3 Intermediate Transverse Elements Between Boxes

3.4 Bearings

3.5 Corrosion Protection

4. ANALYSIS

4.1 General

4.2 Torsion

4.3 Braced or Unbraced Intermediate Cross Frames

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:09]


Workgroup Contents

5. ERECTION METHODS

6. LEARNING FROM FAILURES

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:09]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.7 : Arch Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Historical Development

1.3 Types of Application

1.4 Range of Application

2. TYPES OF ARCH BRIDGES

2.1 Arch Layout

2.2 Structural Arrangement

3. CHOICE OF ELEMENTS

3.1 The Arch

3.2 The Stiffening Girder

3.3 The Hangers

3.4 The End Portals

4. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Primary Effects

4.1.1 Full Loading

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0700.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:10]


Workgroup Contents

4.1.2 Full Loading over Half the Length of the Bridge

4.1.3 Full Loading on One Side of the Bridge

4.1.4 Alternating Full Loading over Half the Length of the Bridge

4.2 Secondary Effects

4.2.1 Bending of Hangers

4.2.2 Local Effects in the Deck

4.2.3 Hanger Vibrations

5. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TYPES OF ARCH BRIDGES

6. SPECIAL FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. REFERENCES

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0700.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:10]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.8 : Cable Stayed Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPES

2.1 Arrangement of Stay Cables

2.2 Supporting Conditions for the Girder

2.3 Position of Cable Planes and Type of Girder

3. CHOICE OF ELEMENTS

3.1 Stay Cable

3.2 Girder

3.3 Pylon

4. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

5. CONNECTIONS

6. SPECIAL FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0800.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:11]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.9 : Suspension Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPES

3. CHOICE OF ELEMENTS

3.1 The Main Cables

3.2 Pylons

3.3 Stiffening Girder

3.4 Anchorages

4. SPECIAL EFFECTS OF BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Temperature

4.2 Aerodynamic Excitation

4.3 Analysis

5. CONNECTIONS

5.1 Hangers and Cable Bands

6. SPECIAL FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTION

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t0900.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:11]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.10 : Bridge Equipment

Top

1. BEARING SYSTEMS

1.1 Function

1.2 Layout

1.3 Types of Bearing

1.3.1 Steel bearings

1.3.2 Elastomeric bearings

1.3.3 Pot bearings

1.3.4 Spherical bearings

1.4 Setting Conditions for the Bearing Systems

2. FINISHES

2.1 Waterproofing Course

2.1.1 On a concrete slab

2.1.2 On an orthotropic slab

2.2 Wearing Course

2.2.1 On a concrete slab

2.2.2 On an orthotropic slab

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1000.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:12]


Workgroup Contents

3. EXPANSION JOINTS

3.1 Characteristics of Expansion Joints:

3.1.1 Range of movement

3.1.2 Design characteristics

3.2 Types of Expansion Joints

3.2.1 Joints with continuous surfacing (Asphaltic plug joint)

3.2.2 Toothed joints

3.2.3 Elastomeric joints

3.2.4 Roller shutter joints

3.2.5 Multiple steel joints or bellow joints

4. PARAPETS

4.1 Pedestrian Parapets

4.2 Crash Barriers

4.3 Safety Fences

5. ANTI-CORROSION PROTECTION

6. DRAINAGE OF RAINWATER

7. FASCIA

8. INSPECTION FACILITIES

8.1 Fixed Installations

8.2 Movable Installations

8.3 Special Equipment

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1000.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:12]


Workgroup Contents

9. INTEGRATION OF THE EQUIPMENT INTO THE GENERAL DESIGN

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1000.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:12]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.11 : Splices and other Connections in


Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TYPES OF SPLICE

2.1 Welded Splices

2.2 Bolted Splices

2.3 Hybrid Splices

3. DESIGN

4. TYPES OF MEMBER

4.1 Beams and Plate Girders

4.2 Trusses

4.3 Secondary Members

4.4 Orthotropic Decks

5. FATIGUE

6. FABRICATION AND ERECTION

7. INSPECTION/QUALITY ASSURANCE

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:13]


Workgroup Contents

9. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:13]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15B.12 : Introduction to Bridge Construction

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. INITIAL PLANNING

2.1 Promotion

2.2 Planning

2.3 Contract Arrangements

2.4 Independent Supervisor

3. TENDER PROCEDURES

4. ESTIMATION OF THE COST OF A STEEL BRIDGE

5. CRITERIA FOR CHOICE OF A TENDERER AS STEELWORK CONTRACTOR

5.1 Technical Ability

5.2 Programme

5.3 Costs

6. EXECUTION - GENERAL

7. MATERIALS

7.1 Steel Specifications

7.2 Steel Grade and the Fabricator

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1200.htm (1 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:13]


Workgroup Contents

7.3 Weldability and Welding Procedures

8. LAYOUT AND FACILITIES OF THE FABRICATION SHOP

8.1 General

8.2 Objectives

8.3 Fabrication Plant

8.4 Standardisation

9. FABRICATION IN PRACTICE

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fabrication Information

9.3 Size of Fabricated Pieces

9.4 Procedures for a Typical Composite Bridge

9.5 Plate Girders

9.6 Truss or Lattice Girder Bridges

9.7 Box Girder Bridges

10. TRANSPORTATION

11. SITE ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Methods of Erection

11.2.1 General

11.2.2 Assembly in situ

11.2.3 Launching

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1200.htm (2 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:13]


Workgroup Contents

11.2.4 Lifting

11.2.5 Cantilevering

11.2.6 Sliding

11.2.7 Choice of method

11.3 Control of Dimensional Tolerances

11.4 Wind Effects

11.5 Site Connections

12. SITE ORGANISATION

12.1 General

12.2 The Site Agent

12.3 Junior Site Staff

12.4 Information Provided

12.5 Promoter's Site Staff

13. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

14. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15b/t1200.htm (3 of 3) [17.07.2010 09:54:13]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15C.1 : Design of Tanks for the Storage of


Oil and Water

Top

1. DESIGN OF WELDED CYLINDRICAL TANKS

1.1 General

1.2 Design Standards

1.3 Design Pressure and Temperature

1.4 Material

2. DESIGN LOADING

2.1 Dead Load

2.2 Superimposed Load

2.3 Contents

2.4 Wind Loads

2.5 Seismic Loads

3. BOTTOM DESIGN

4. SHELL DESIGN

4.1 Circumferential Stresses

4.2 Axial Stresses in the Shell

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:14]


Workgroup Contents

4.3 Primary Wind Girders

4.4 Secondary Wind Girders

5. FIXED ROOF DESIGN

5.1 General

5.2 Membrane Roofs

5.3 Supported Roofs

5.4 Venting

6. DESIGN OF FLOATING ROOFS AND COVERS

6.1 Use of Floating Roofs and Covers

6.2 Floating Roofs

6.3 Floating Covers

7. MANHOLES, NOZZLES AND OPENINGS

7.1 Manholes

7.2 Nozzles

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:14]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15C.2 : Structural Design of Bins

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BIN CLASSIFICATION

2.1 Bin Size and Geometry

2.2 Type of Flow

2.3 Structural Material of the Bin Wall

3. CALCULATION OF PRESSURES ON BIN WALLS

3.1 General

3.2 Eurocode 1 - Rules for the Calculation of Loads from the Stored Material

3.2.1 Horizontal pressure and wall frictional pressure

3.2.2 Pressure increase for filling and discharge

3.2.3 Hopper and bottom loads

3.3 Other Loading Considerations

4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

4.1 Selection of the Bin Form

4.2 Design of Non-Circular Bins

4.2.1 Wall plates

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:15]


Workgroup Contents

4.2.2 Plate Instability

4.2.3 Stiffener design

4.2.4 Support structure

4.3 Design of Circular Bins

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Cylinder wall stress

4.3.3 Wall buckling

4.3.4 Bottom and hopper

4.3.5 Transition ring beam

4.3.6 Supports

4.3.7 Connections

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:15]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15C.3 : Lattice Towers and Masts

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION TOWERS

2.1 Background

2.2 Types of Towers

2.3 Functional Requirements

2.4 Loads on Towers, Loading Cases

2.5 Overall Design and Truss Configuration

2.6 Structural Analysis

2.7 Detailing of Joints

2.8 Corrosion Protection

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

5. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:15]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15C.4 : Guyed Masts

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE DESCRIPTION OF A GUYED MAST

2.1 The Foundations

2.2 The Steel Mast

2.3 The Guy Ropes

2.4 Structural Accessories

2.5 Equipment

3. THE DESIGN OF GUYED MASTS

3.1 Initial Dimensioning

3.2 Final Dimensioning and Checking

4. SOME OTHER ASPECTS OF GUYED MASTS

4.1 In the Design Phase

4.2 In the Manufacturing Phase

4.3 In the Erection Phase

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0400.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:16]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 15C.5 : Chimneys

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ACTIONS

2.1 Permanent Load

2.2 Dust Load (Temporary load)

2.3 Wind

2.3.1 Basic wind speed Vb

2.3.2 Design wind speed

2.3.3 Mean hourly wind load in the direction of the wind

2.3.4 Design wind load in the direction of the wind

2.3.5 Vortex shedding

2.3.6 Ovalling

2.3.7 Aerodynamic stabilizers

2.4 Earthquake Loading

2.5 Thermal Effects

2.6 Chemical Effects

3. DESIGN OF THE STRUCTURAL SHELL

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:17]


Workgroup Contents

3.1 Resistance Check

3.2 Serviceability Check

3.3 Fatigue Check

4. SOME SPECIFIC ITEMS OF STEEL CHIMNEY DESIGN

4.1 Connections Between the Different Sections of the Cylindrical Shell

4.2 The Support at the Base

4.3 Large Apertures

5. FABRICATION AND ERECTION TOLERANCES

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:17]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 16.1 : Strengthening of Structures

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LEVELS OF RECONSTRUCTION

3. TEMPORARY WORKS

3.1 Needling and Propping

3.2 Stabilising Vertical Elements

4. SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING (REPAIR AND REINFORCING)

4.1 Strengthening Masonry Structures

4.2 Timber Structures

4.3 Concrete Structures

4.4. Iron and Steel Structures

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:17]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 16.2 : Transformation and Repair

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MODIFYING BUILDING STRUCTURES

2.1 Gutting

2.2 Insertion

2.3 Extension

2.4 Reducing Dead Load

3. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN REFURBISHMENT

3.1 Construction

3.2 Replacement of Roofs

3.3 Corrosion of Existing Steelwork

4. CASE STUDY: THE HISTORICAL CENTRE OF ANCONA, ITALY

5. CASE STUDY: VAN LEER OFFICE BUILDING IN AMSTELVEEN, NETHERLANDS

5.1 Assembly of the Main and Support Construction

5.2 Lowering the Floor

5.3 Finishing Construction

6. CASE STUDY: OFFICE BUILDING, SEA CONTAINERS LIMITED, LONDON, GREAT

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:18]


Workgroup Contents

BRITAIN

7. CASE STUDY: GYMNASIUM IN CANTU, COMO, ITALY

8. CASE STUDY: RUE DE L'OURCQ, PARIS, FRANCE

9. CASE STUDY: CHEMISTRY BUILDINGS OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN,


GERMANY

10. CASE STUDY: ALTER BAHNHOF EXHIBITION HALL, ROSENHEIM, GERMANY

11. CASE STUDY: RUE ST. JACQUES - A MODERN APARTMENT ABOVE A LATE 19TH
CENTURY HOUSE

12. CASE STUDY: ABBEY OF VAL SAINT-LAMBERT SERAING, BELGIUM

13. CASE STUDY: EXTENSION TO THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

14. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

15. REFERENCES

16. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:18]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 16.3 : Re-use of Buildings

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRINCIPLES OF RESTRUCTURING

2.1 Typical Construction Sequence

2.2 New Internal Construction - Floor Systems

2.3 Connecting to the Facade

2.4 Retaining System for Facade as Part of Permanent Work

2.5 Restructuring Involving Modifications to Facade

2.6 General Considerations of Steel in Restructuring

3. CASE STUDY: WORKING QUARTERS AT FOLKWANG SCHOOL IN ESSEN-WERDEN,


GERMANY

4. CASE STUDY: KANNERLAND, LIMPERTSBERG, LUXEMBOURG

5. CASE STUDY: THE ROEMERHOF IN ZURICH, SWITZERLAND [2]

6. CASE STUDY: OFFICE BUILDING WETERINGSCHANS 165, AMSTERDAM,


NETHERLANDS

7. CASE STUDY: THE COURT OF JUSTICE IN ANCONA, ITALY

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0300.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:18]


Workgroup Contents

10. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0300.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:18]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 16.4 : Traditional Residual Life Assessment


for Bridges

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL ELEMENTS

2.1 The Wöhler Curves

2.2 The Palmgren - Langer - Miner Rule

2.3 Dynamic Coefficients for Actual Trains

2.4 Dynamic Coefficient for the UIC Loading

3. MAIN STEPS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE FATIGUE SAFETY OF EXISTING


RAILWAY BRIDGES

4. STRENGTHENING OF STEEL BRIDGES

4.1 General Considerations

4.2 Methods of Strengthening

4.2.1 Direct Strengthening

4.2.2 Indirect strengthening

4.2 The Reinforcement of the "Angel Saligny" Bridge Over the Danube

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:19]


Workgroup Contents

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:19]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 16.5 : Refurbishment of Bridges: New


Approaches

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PROBLEM

3. UPDATING OR REPRODUCTION OF DRAWINGS AND STATIC ANALYSIS

4. THE BASIS OF THE TOUGHNESS VERIFICATION

4.1 "Brittleness" and "Ductility"

4.2 Determination of Vital Elements

4.3 Assumption on Initial Cracks

4.4 Basic Verification Principles

4.5 The Use of the J-Integral

5. PRACTICAL VERIFICATION PROCEDURE

5.1 General

5.2 Determination of acrit

5.3 Determination of the Minimum Service Time N(tp)

5.4 Example for the Application

6. VERIFICATION IN CASE OF STRENGTHENING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0500.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:20]


Workgroup Contents

7. PROCEDURE IF MEASURED MATERIAL PROPERTIES ARE NOT AVAILABLE

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

9. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg16/t0500.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:20]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.1 : An Overall View of the Seismic


Behaviour of Structural Systems

Top

1. PRESENTATION OF SLIDES OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE

2. DISCUSSION OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE

3. GROUND BEHAVIOUR

4. SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION

5. THE BEHAVIOUR OF FOUNDATIONS

6. THE RESPONSE OF STEEL FRAMED STRUCTURES

7. THE BEHAVIOUR OF FLOORS

8. THE BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY STRUCTURES AND APPENDAGES

9. THE BEHAVIOUR OF MASONRY AND CLADDING

10. TANKS

11. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

12. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0100.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:20]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.2 : Introduction to Seismic Design -


Seismic Hazard and Seismic Risk

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE SEISMIC EVENT

2.1 General

2.2 Origins of Earthquakes

2.3 Earthquake Characteristic

2.4 Response Spectrum

3. EARTHQUAKE INPUT FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN

4. FINAL REMARKS

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0200.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:21]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.3 : The Cyclic Behaviour of Steel


Elements and Connections

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DUCTILITY

3. MATERIAL

4. LOADING HISTORIES

5. ECCS TESTING PROCEDURE

5.1 Complete Testing Procedure

5.2 Interpretation of Tests

6. BRACING ELEMENTS

7. BEAMS AND COLUMNS

8. CONNECTIONS

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

10. REFERENCES

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:21]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.4 : Structural Analysis for Seismic Actions

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DIRECT METHODS OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS (TIME INTEGRATION)

3. RESPONSE SPECTRUM METHOD OF ANALYSIS

4. INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR AND ITS ROLE IN DESIGN

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

6. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0400.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:22]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.5 : Requirements and Verification of


Seismic Resistant Structures

Top

1. EUROCODE 8 - SAFETY VERIFICATIONS

2. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BUILDINGS IN EARTHQUAKE AREAS

3. DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES IN EARTHQUAKE AREAS

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

5. REFERENCES

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0500.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:22]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 17.6 : Special Topics

Top

1. BRIDGES

1.1 Introduction

1.2 General Guidelines and Basic Requirements

1.3 Seismic Actions

1.3.1 Motion at a point

1.3.2 Spatial variability

1.4 Methods of Analysis

1.5 Non-Linear Behaviour and q-Factors

1.6 Deck Bearings and Longitudinal Restraints

1.7 Provisions for Steel and Composite Bridges

1.8 References

1.9 Additional Reading

2. LIQUID STORAGE TANKS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Anchored Tanks

2.2.1 Horizontal Earthquake Excitation

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0600.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:23]


Workgroup Contents

2.2.2 Vertical Earthquake Excitation

2.2.3 Stability and Strength Analysis

2.3 Unanchored Tanks

2.4 Current Design Codes and Recommendations

2.4.1 American Codes

2.4.2 Austrian Recommendations

2.4.3 Canadian codes

2.4.4 Japanese codes

2.4.5 New Zealand Codes

3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

4. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg17/t0600.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:23]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 18.1 : Introduction to Stainless Steel

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HISTORY

3. WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL?

4. WHY USE STAINLESS STEEL?

4.1 Reasons

4.2 Further Favourable Properties of Stainless Steel

5. TYPES OF STAINLESS STEEL

5.1 Austenitic Stainless Steels

5.2 Further Stainless Alloys

6. DESIGNATION OF STAINLESS STEELS

6.1 Descriptive System

6.2 AISI System

6.3 Material Number System (Werkstoff No.)

6.4 Abbreviated System of Designation

6.5 Application in Standards

7. FABRICATION AND PRODUCTS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0100.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:24]


Workgroup Contents

7.1 Product Forms

7.2 Cold Working

7.3 Weldability

7.4 Finishes

8. BOLTS AND NUTS

9. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

11. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0100.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:24]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 18.2 : Structural Behaviour and Design

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

2.1 General

2.2 Choice of Material Grade

2.3 Availability of Structural Forms

3. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR

3.1 Stress-Strain Relationships

3.1.1 Basic stress-strain behaviour

3.1.2 Factors affecting stress-strain behaviour

3.2 Cold Working

3.3 Effects of Temperature

3.4 Other Properties

4. STRUCTURAL ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR AND DESIGN

4.1 General

4.1.1 Elastic or plastic design

4.1.2 Effect of material non-linearity

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0200.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:24]


Workgroup Contents

4.2 Classification and Local Buckling

4.2.1 Classification

4.2.2 Local buckling

4.3 Column Design

4.4 Beam Design

5. CONNECTIONS

5.1 General Aspects

5.2 Bolted Connections

5.3 Welded Connections

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

8. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0200.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:24]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 18.3 : Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEHAVIOUR OF STAINLESS STEELS IN CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS

2.1 Pitting

2.2 Crevice Corrosion

2.3 Bimetallic Corrosion

2.4 Stress Corrosion Cracking

2.5 General (Uniform) Corrosion

2.6 Intergranular Attack and Weld Decay

3. GRADE SELECTION

4. DETAILING CONSIDERATIONS

5. STORAGE AND HANDLING

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. REFERENCES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0300.htm [17.07.2010 09:54:25]


Workgroup Contents

Workgroup Contents

Lecture 18.4 : Fabrication

Top

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MACHINING OF STAINLESS STEEL

2.1 Cutting

2.2 Drilling and Punching

2.3 Grinding

3. SHAPING AND JOINING OPERATIONS

3.1 Cold Forming

3.1.1 Press bending

3.1.2 Roll forming

3.1.3 Bending

3.1.4 Deep drawing

3.2 Welding

3.2.1 Fusion welding

3.2.2 Resistance welding

3.3 Bolts, Rivets and Screws

3.4 Adhesive Bonding

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0400.htm (1 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:25]


Workgroup Contents

4. INSPECTION

5. FINISHING

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

7. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg18/t0400.htm (2 of 2) [17.07.2010 09:54:25]


L1a_1rev

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1A

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS

Lecture 1A.1: Introduction to Steel's Role


in Construction in Europe
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE:

To inspire students with an enthusiasm for steel construction. To identify the advantages of steel for
construction in Europe, emphasising its future potential and the rewarding challenge it offers to able
students. To introduce ESDEP as a response to this potential.

PREREQUISITES

None

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1A.2: Steelmaking and Steel Products

Lecture 1A.3: Introduction to Structural Steel Costs

Lecture 1A.4: The European Building Market

SUMMARY

Steel has been produced for about 100 years. It is a modern material with an exciting future.

The advantages of steel are described together with recent developments which have enhanced them,
i.e. improvements in manufacture, enhanced range of properties, improvements in fabrication and
speed of construction, adaptability, consistent quality, lightness, stiffness and strength.

The future development of uses of steel, the associated training needs and the role of ESDEP in
meeting those needs are discussed.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (1 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

1. INTRODUCTION
Steel was first produced in the Middle Ages, but it was not until just over a century ago that it was
used for structural engineering.

Today, many remarkable structures demonstrate the possibilities of this well developed material in
their clear and transparent appearance, Slides 1 - 5.

Slide 1 : Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (2 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 2

Slide 3 : Olympic Stadium, Munich, Germany

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (3 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 4 : Faro Bridge, Denmark

Slide 5 : North Sea Oil Platform

The strength-to-volume ratio, the wide range of possible applications, the availability of many
standardised parts, the reliability of the material and the ability to give shape to nearly all
architectural wishes are some of the reasons to choose this material for the main structure and for
other elements of a building or other construction.

Safe and strong steel structures are assured by well-educated designers with a Quality Assured and
Quality Controlled production. A long life with a small amount of maintenance can be guaranteed by
using well designed details, a high level of pre-production in modern well-equipped shops with

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (4 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

skilled employees and modern corrosion-resistant systems.

2. DEVELOPMENTS IN PRODUCTION AND DESIGN


Many of the inherent advantages of steel have been considerably enhanced by the vigour with which
the steel construction industry has improved its performance in an increasingly competitive world.

2.1 Steel Production

Early steels were manufactured by a range of processes which produced a material of uncertain
composition and variable properties. Today almost all structural steel is produced by the BOS (Basic
Oxygen Steelmaking) process together with a modern purification process which produces a fine
grained, weldable material of consistent strength and toughness.

Whilst methods of steel production have improved since the first introduction of the material, the rate
of improvement has been most dramatic in the last decade or so. Since the mid-1970's steel
productivity has increased from 60-100 kg/man hour (depending on producer) to over 250 kg/man
hour for most modern plants. This improvement has had a significant effect on relative material costs,
Slide 6.

Slide 6 : Relative material costs showing the relative change in prices between steel and concrete in
recent years

Improvements in basic production have been matched by investment in better rolling mills. The latest
hot rolling mill can produce sections to a wider variety of shapes with close tolerances, good surface
finish and consistent, homogeneous composition. Slide 7 gives an indication of the range of sections
that are produced. Heat treatments in-line permit the greater control and enhancement of mechanical

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (5 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

properties. Cold rolling can be used to produce thin gauge strip material which can subsequently be
formed into a wide range of shapes, Slide 8.

Slide 7 : Range of typical standard hot-rolled sections manufactured by the steelmaking industry

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (6 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 8 : Range of typical cold-rolled profiles manufactured from thin galvanised sheet

This revolution in manufacturing techniques has been accompanied by, and has probably been
possible because of, a major restructuring of the entire industry. It is worth recalling that the
European Coal and Steel Community (one of the founding components of the European Community)
was established in 1952 to ensure the restructuring of these crucial industries after World War 2. It
has been a difficult and painful process for both traditional industries but a lean, fit and modern steel
industry has finally emerged.

2.2 Range of Steels

While cheap, good quality mild steel remains the backbone of the industry, it is now complemented
by a wider range of commercially available structural steels, Slide 9. High yield steel has increased in
popularity as designers strive for more cost effective structures. Where necessary, thermo-
mechanically controlled rolled steels can be specified. Slide 9 also shows the mechanical properties
that can be obtained with special steels, in this case a very high strength wire.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (7 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 9 : Mechanical properties for a range of steels showing the wide range of characteristics which
different steels exhibit

Improvements in mechanical properties are best typified by a simple example. The Eiffel Tower was
undoubtedly an engineering triumph when it was completed in 1888. Making the best use of the
available materials, it contains around 7000 tonnes of iron. A redesign today would require just 2000
tonnes.

The breadth of steels also encompasses corrosion resistance. Weather resistant steels that can, in
appropriate circumstances, be left unpainted throughout the life of the structure are now used for
many bridges, Slide 10. Stainless steels are available in an almost bewildering range of compositions.
Appropriate choice of chemistry and finish produces a durable and attractive structure, Slide 11.
Coated steel products are very widely used for cladding, Slides 12 and 13.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (8 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 10 : Footbridge - York University, UK

Slide 11 : Opera de la Bastille, Paris, France (1991).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (9 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 12 : Use of cold rolled steel for cladding at Revigny, France

Slide 13 : Use of cold rolled steel for cladding: (Entrepot de la Societe Calberson, France).

2.3 Design

Design in steel used to be regarded as a 'black art' where one only reached a level of competence after
20 years of hardwon experience. Whilst, of course, experience is still very important, the designer is
now much better supported and is able to be more accurate. Computers have made routine, levels of
analysis that would otherwise have taken much manual calculation. Codes of practice have become
more comprehensive. The advent of limit state design concentrates the designer's mind on the most

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (10 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

important aspects of a particular design. The Eurocodes [1 - 4] are the culmination of many years'
hard work, drawing together the best information on steel and composite design.

Two example illustrate the refinements in structural form that have been achieved by the
improvements in understanding of structural behaviour, analysis and design. The portal frame, the
subject of much research from 1950 to the present day, is an elegant, minimalist structure, see Slide
14. Its inherent efficiency of shape (its centreline closely follows the thrust line that would be
associated with an axial equilibrium path, thus minimising bending moments) is enhanced by modern
plastic or elastic design. Plastic design permits redistribution of the moments so that the bending
moment envelope is the closest possible fit to the envelopes of uniform strength associated with
prismatic sections; a haunch is used to resist the peak moment at the eaves. Elastic analysis and
modern methods of fabrication permit the construction of a frame whose varying strength distribution
is a close fit to the elastic bending moment envelope.

Slide 14 : Evolution of portal frame design

The second example is the modern box girder bridge, see Slides 15 and 16. This elegant form of
construction permits the use of wide flanges, thus reducing structural depth. The inherent torsional
stiffness of the closed section is used to distribute the effects of eccentric loading over the full width
of the section, thus reducing maximum bending stresses. Internal diaphragms serve both to jig the

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (11 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

box during fabrication and to resist distortion of the cross-section which could reduce the torsional
resistance of the closed section.

Slide 15 : Box girder bridge near Nijmegen, Netherlands

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (12 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 16 : Behaviour of box girder bridges

2.4 Fabrication

In parallel with the improved efficiency of steel production, there have been significant increases in
the productivity of the steel fabrication industry, with roughly a doubling in output per man between
1980 and 1990. The introduction of numerically controlled machine tools has not only greatly
reduced the time in both preparing and handling the material but has also made an important
contribution to achieving higher quality. The shot blasting of steel sections and the process of
painting can now be carried out automatically, while sawing and drilling operations have also been
automated. In the most modern plants, conveyor systems are available which transfer material from
machine to machine.

A good example of a piece of modern fabrication equipment is the numerically controlled plant for
flame cutting castellated sections. Such equipment offers substantial improvements in quality and
productivity compared to traditional equipment, see Slide 17.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (13 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 17 : Numerically controlled cutting of castellated beams

3. ADVANTAGES OF STEEL

3.1 Speed of Execution

There is increasing pressure on all civil and structural engineering projects to reduce the periods of
execution. Nowhere has this had a more dramatic impact on methods of execution than in the
streamlining and simplification of a modern composite building.

Much execution is now by management contract in which the conventionally sequential activities of
design, substructures execution, superstructure execution, envelope execution and finishing are
overlapped to reduce the overall contract period. The contractor becomes a member of the design
team at an early stage. In many cases the client becomes involved in the buildability of the project
which is divided into self-contained work packages.

Structural steel - fast, accurate, prefabricated - lends itself naturally to fast track execution. Key
elements are metal deck for shuttering and reinforcement; through-deck stud welding for composite
and diaphragm action and lightweight fire protection, Slide 18.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (14 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 18 : Structural steel in fast track construction

Metal deck is easily hoisted in bundles and laid out by hand (Slide 19). Edge trims are available to
level concrete and prevent over-run (Slide 20). The shear studs which provide the key between beam,
deck and concrete can be placed by a single operative at 1000 per day (Slide 21).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (15 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 19 : Metal decking ready to be laid by hand

Slide 20 : Edge trims for metal deck floor construction

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (16 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 21 : Fixing shear studs

Concrete is placed by pumping (Slide 22). Services are easily fixed to the underside of the decking
(Slide 23). Prefabricated stairs can be transported by crane and placed in position to give rapid and
safe access for construction workers (Slide 24). Cladding units - pre-cast granite faced or curtain
walling -can be lifted straight from the lorry and into position to avoid site storage (Slide 25).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (17 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 22 : Concrete being placed by pumping

Slide 23 : Services fixed to underside of decking

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (18 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 24 : Pre-fabricated stairs

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (19 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 25 : Curtain walling

Steel frames with both metal deck and pre-cast concrete planks permit sequential execution with
following trades able to proceed in safety and with protection from the weather.

Traditionally, the greatest disincentives to the use of steel for multi-storey frames were the additional
costs and time for fire protection (Slide 26). However, the use of new, lower-cost, lightweight board
and spray systems have now largely replaced in-situ concrete encasement. Fire protection costs have
thereby been halved and the implications on execution programmes reduced substantially. (The
programme savings outlined above include the fire protection systems).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (20 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 26 : Breakdown of steelwork construction costs

In many cases the benefits of faster speed of execution can be translated into substantial financial
savings for the client. These savings are particularly significant in situations where he has made
substantial initial investment in acquiring the site. Slide 27 shows the execution programme achieved
at the Finsbury Avenue Project in London. This programme represented a 40 week saving over
conventional construction in in-situ concrete. While, for a typical building the costs of the two
solutions are similar, at around 900 ecu/m2 at 1990 prices, studies of London development costs
suggest time-related savings of up to 7 mecu per week (for the whole building) for earlier completion
in a buoyant letting market, potentially dwarfing the total cost of the structure.

Slide 27 : Construction programme for No. 1 Finsbury Avenue, London (1985)

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (21 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

3.2 Lightness, Stiffness and Strength

Steel structures are generally lighter than those in other materials. In almost all cases this lower
weight leads to lower costs for foundations particularly for sites with poor ground. Smaller columns
increase effective floor utilisation and, where longer spans are required, the cost savings between
steel and other forms of construction increase considerably. For large column grids in buildings, steel
is the only feasible solution.

For multi-storey commercial offices a number of new design approaches are being introduced to
achieve clear spans of 12-18m or more (slides 28 and 29) . These approaches include composite
universal beam and lattice girder arrangements; parallel beam approaches; tapered, haunched and
notched beam and storey deep construction, Slide 30. These schemes can increase spans in office
buildings with only a small increase, in many cases less than 15%, in structural costs. Since the
structural cost is only a small proportion (< 20%) of the total development cost, clear span offices can
be achieved for less than 3% of total development cost. This cost is a very small premium to pay for
the increased flexibility in usage that results. Office activities are changing rapidly, following the
high rate of change of information technology; one can only speculate on the requirements 30 years
from now, well within the life of the structure. Clear, column-free space offers the best opportunity of
being able to adapt a building to these changing needs.

Slide 28 : Long span floor systems for office buildings - alternative solutions

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (22 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 29 : Long span floor systems for office buildings

Slide 30 : Long span floor systems for office buildings

For bridges, the strength and toughness of steel have led to the elegant solution of cable stayed and
suspension bridges and the tight tracery of modern truss bridges, Slides 31-33. Similar design
concepts have led to the development of striking structural solutions for long span roofs.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (23 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 31 : Kohlbrand Bridge, Hamburg, Germany

Slide 32 : Humber Suspension Bridge, UK (1982)

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (24 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 33 : Tonegawa Bridge, Saitama Prefecture, Japan

In other contexts triangulated structures have been refined and lightened to the extent that they
become sculptures, Slide 34.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (25 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 34 : Telecommunications mast, Barcelona, Spain

3.3 Adaptability of Usage of Steel Frames for Refurbishment

Structural steel provides maximum adaptability for changes in building use, because structural
alterations can be accommodated with relative ease. Where additional members are required,
connections can be made to the existing frame with minimum disturbance and cost. It is for this
reason that steel frames have been so popular with leading retail and industrial groups.

The importance of adaptability in use is also demonstrated by considering the widely differing life
spans of the components of a modern office building, Slide 35. The benefits of longer spans in this
context have already been discussed in the previous Section. It is likely that some part of the long-life
structure is going to require modification to accommodate some radical change in information
systems or services.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (26 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 35 : Differing life spans of building components

The attribute of adaptability is of particular importance in refurbishment contracts, whether it is a


case of strengthening existing structures or complete re-construction behind retained facades (Slides
36 and 37). Steel is delivered to site pre-fabricated; it does not need propping once in position nor
does it suffer from shrinkage or creep. It can therefore take load immediately. When it is chosen for
the structure behind a retained facade, the frame can be inserted through pockets cut in the structure.
Modern techniques like metal deck floors can be used with advantage in accommodating irregular
floor plans and extensive services can be installed, just as in a new building.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (27 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 36 : Strengthening existing concrete floors

Slide 37 : Reconstruction behind retained facades

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (28 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Steel's adaptability can also be put to good use in bridges. The main towers of the Severn suspension
bridge, Slide 38, were strengthened to absorb a doubling of traffic loading since the structure was
initially designed 40 years ago.

Slide 38 : The Severn Bridge after completion of major strengthening

3.4 Quality

Employment patterns in construction have recently changed considerably. Most site work is now
carried out by small, labour-only subcontractors. These companies have little long-term involvement
in the construction sector and are too informal to make any investment in training. The striving for
further economy has reduced the overall level of site supervision.

In this environment it is difficult to maintain the quality of on-site construction. However, a steel
frame is a factory made, precise product, produced by a stable, well-trained workforce. Only the
erection of pre-fabricated members is left for the site - a process which is easily controlled.

4. THE FUTURE FOR STEEL: FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS


The previous section has drawn attention to the inherent advantages of steel and the way in which

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (29 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

recent developments are strengthening those advantages. It is remarkable that a material that is 100
years old should still be capable of such worthwhile development. It is more remarkable still that the
rate of development in many sectors appears to be increasing. Development is in response to the
greater rate of change of society's demands of its built environment and the greater willingness of an
increasingly competitive commercial industry to respond to the needs of society and its customers.

It is possible to speculate on some of the directions that further development might take.

● Quality Assured and Quality Controlled production methods will give cheaper and better
results with less time consuming repairs.
● An increasing role for computers will lead to a greater refinement of design both to minimise
fabrication and construction costs (for everyday structures) and to permit the more
adventurous use of steel (for monumental structures).
● Developments in steel production. At present very high strength steels (fy>500 N/mm2) carry
a substantial price premium. However further developments in on-line thermo-mechanical
treatment are likely to reduce this premium considerably. As the price of high strength steel
drops so designers will become more adventurous in using their full potential. This will tax
engineers' ingenuity to the full because the stiffness of steel (modulus of elasticity) does not
vary with strength. Structural forms with greater inherent stiffness will have to be developed if
these higher strengths are to be mobilised.
● Greater range of sections and products. Modern rolling techniques, for both hot and cold
products, are increasing in flexibility of use. Thus a greater range of sections will be made
available to the designer, a further spur to him to use his ingenuity for greater structural
efficiency.
● Fire and corrosion resistance. As techniques for fire and corrosion resistance improve further,
designers will have a greater opportunity to express the steelwork leading to more elegant and
exciting structures.
● The environment. As society pays greater attention to environmental issues, its demands for
buildings will evolve. Insulation standards will rise requiring more attention to details of
construction. There will be increasing usage of demountable, recyclable buildings and
components, for which steel is eminently suitable.

5. THE FUTURE FOR STEEL: TRAINING AND ESDEP


It is clear from the foregoing that the demands on engineers' skills and knowledge are going to
increase for the foreseeable future. Within the context of an increasing rate of change, society will
demand an increasing standard from its built environment. Both initial technical education and in-
career training are going to become even more important than they are today.

The greatest training resources for steel in Europe are in its widely distributed network of technical
skills. A particular strength of the steel construction industry is the existence of an infrastructure of
specialist personnel who have learnt to work together through the media of both the ECCS technical
committees and the drafting committees of Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (30 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

ESDEP, the European Steel Design Education Programme, was established in 1988 to draw on both
resources to prepare a comprehensive set of teaching aids on steel design and construction. It
comprises nineteen working groups with an appropriate supporting network of steering committees.
Over 200 specialists from all countries of the European Community and the European Free Trade
Association have contributed to the project, Slides 39 and 40 summarise how the project was
managed and the distribution of contributors and working groups. The projects was sponsored by the
European Commission and the steel industry from every country in both the EC and EFTA.
Steelwork designers and constructors who will benefit from the improved quality and performance of
the industry, have much cause for gratitude for their farsightedness.

Slide 39 : ESDEP: Distribution of working groups throughout Europe

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (31 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


L1a_1rev

Slide 40 : ESDEP: Distribution of contractors throughout Europe

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Steel is a modern material, produced in large quantity with high and reliable quality.
● Steel is available in a wide range of hot and cold rolled products, as plates and profiles.
● Steel is easily manufactured into end products.
● Most of this manufacture takes place in quality controlled workshops.
● Site connections can easily be made and can carry load immediately.
● Given good corrosion protection and maintenance, steel has an indefinite life.
● Erection on site can take place quickly with little risk of delay.
● Steel structures are light and strong and only require simple foundations.
● Existing steel structures can easily be adapted to new demands.
● Quality Control and Quality Assurance will give a further guarantee of the economic
application of steel structures.

7. REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures", CEN (in preparation)

[2] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for
Buildings, CEN Brussels, 1992.

[3] Eurocode 4: "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures": ENV 1994-1-1: Part 1:
General Rules and Rules for Buildings, CEN (in press).

[4] Eurocode 8: "Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures" CEN (in preparation)

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0100.htm (32 of 32) [17.07.2010 09:54:36]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1A

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS

Lecture 1A.2: Steelmaking and Steel


Products
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To introduce the history of steelmaking and steelmaking today. To describe how steel is produced and the standardisation
of steel products. To summarise the consumption of steel in building and civil engineering worldwide.

PREREQUISITES

Lecture 1A.1: Introduction to Steel's Role in Construction in Europe

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1A.3: Introduction to Structural Steel Costs

Lecture 1A.4: The European Building Market

SUMMARY

The history of steelmaking is introduced and the developments described which have led to modern steel production.
The essentials of modern production are summarised.

World production of steel is described and the European standardisation of steel products (Euronorms) is introduced. The
use of steel in civil engineering and building in the different regions of the world is discussed.

1. A BRIEF HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF STEELMAKING


Of the construction materials in common use, steel is the one which offers the greatest load resistance for the smallest
section. It is primarily an alloy of iron and carbon.

The production of industrial steel is relatively recent, dating back only one hundred and twenty years or so. However,
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (1 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

ferrous metals, of which the main component is iron, have been known since antiquity. The first examples were of iron
found in its natural state in Sumer, capital of the ancient Babylonian civilization. The first proof of actual production of
iron goes back to the Chalybes, a tribe living on the South Coast of the Black Sea around the XVIIth Century BC.

The use of iron spread into Europe and Asia, but it was only in the Middle Ages that any significant improvements
in manufacturing can be noted with the introduction of tuyeres, which blew air from bellows powered by hydraulic
energy. Before the discovery of steel, iron was frequently used in the construction of buildings, bridges, railway stations, etc.
In the year 1855 an Englishman by the name of Bessemer improved the process of purifying pig iron by blowing air in at
great pressure. Over the next 25 years, a Frenchman Emile Martin then two Englishmen, Thomas and Gilchrist,
introduced further improvements which allowed us to make the transition from iron to the modern period of steel.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the use of iron in construction was prohibited; in accordance with the new
regulations only steel could be used. Nevertheless, to this day there exist numerous structures made of iron which are still
in service. Renovation of structures built in the second half of the 19th century is to be expected. The most important
question to address is whether the structural material is iron or steel. In order to answer this, a sample must be taken
and laboratory tests performed in order to determine the mechanical and chemical properties of the metal. These results
will enable us to define the techniques which need to be adopted, particularly in relation to welding.

Further developments in substituting coal and subsequently coke for charcoal prepared the way for industrial steel
production which began in the middle of the XIXth century AD.

2. STEELMAKING TODAY (PERFORMANCE AND OUTPUT)


Even though the same principles initially developed over 100 years ago are still used in the majority of steel
production, instruments and techniques have developed considerably:

● in less than a century, blast furnace capacity has been increased by a factor of 100;
● production of 6 to 10 million tonnes per year has become normal for a steelmaking plant;
● some operations, previously independent, are now linked into one uninterrupted operation;
● the intensive use of oxygen was one of the outstanding steps;
● the development of computers has enabled the automation of much of the production and control equipment.

The developments have resulted in:

● more sophisticated products with better control of grades and qualities;


● a notable improvement in productivity: 4 hours to produce a tonne of crude steel today, compared to 9,8 hours 15 years ago;
● a nearly constant price over a long period of years;
● pure and better weldable materials (no preheating);
● quenched and tempered steels with higher strengths;
● higher impact values and better LOD tests (for offshore structures).
● an ability to respond to the changing needs of customers;
● better management of products and flow of stock;
● improvements, through the creation of new jobs, in the qualifications of people working in the steelmaking industry.
Technical skills have taken over from physical effort. One of the results has been to provide a smaller but more
stable workforce and therefore reduced production costs. The cutbacks in the workforce amounted to about one third in
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (2 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

14 years (Figure 1);


● provision of a wide range of specifically dimensioned products for construction, with thicknesses ranging from 0,7 mm to
150 mm; increased lengths and weights of long products; with maximum imperfections (out-of-straightness) of 7 mm/m.

These factors have made it possible to simplify construction thus reducing fabrication, joining and assembly costs whilst at
the same time enabling improvements in aesthetic appearance.

For example in bridge construction, the main beam of a bridge made 100 years ago consisted of a riveted combination of
flats and universal sections. Today, a single plate with a variable thickness permits the optimisation of the section and hence
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (3 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

a saving in weight and manufacturing costs. In addition the maintenance of the bridge is reduced since surfaces are smooth
and encourage the rapid dispersal of water.

All of these factors have made it possible to maintain competitive prices and provide the quality demanded by users.

3. STEELMAKING IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

3.1 Production

3.1.1 World production

In 1989, world crude steel output was approximately 784 million tonnes.

Note: "Crude steel" refer to products which appear either in a liquid form (ready to cast) or in the form of solid ingots
(obtained by liquid steel cast into a mould to be processed later on).

The world steel producers are found geographically as follows (Figure 2):

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (4 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Far East: Japan (108 MT) - China (61 MT) - South Korea (22 MT)
191 MT 24,5%

Former USSR 161 MT 20,0%


EEC12 140 MT 18,0%
USA 89 MT 11,5%
Other countries 203 MT 26,0%
Total 784 MT

The graph of world raw steel production reflects the development of the world economy (Figure 3).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (5 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

3.1.2 International trade

In 1988, more than a fifth of the steel produced in the world (167MT out of 780) was involved in international trade.
Because of its high specific value i.e., the ratio between the price per ton and the density, steel is a product that "travels"
more easily than other materials such as aluminium, wood, cement or glass. Nevertheless, most international steel trade is
over short and middle distances, and seldom over long distances. Exchanges are essentially intra-community exchanges -
41 MT out of the above-mentioned 167 MT were exchanged between the different EEC countries and, on a larger scale, 83
MT between continental European countries. Moreover, 23 MT of steel were exchanged between Asia and Australasia.

3.2 Consumption

The growth of apparent raw steel consumption shows that the need for steel is rising in the world (Figure 4).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (6 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Improvements in the making of steel and its intrinsic properties have led to a decrease in its specific consumption, i.e.
the weight of steel used for a specific purpose. Although Figure 4 indicates only a slow increase in raw steel
consumption, greater use occurs because the improved quality of products, reduces the weight of steel in them.

Global changes in the world economy, the possible growth of steel needs, the developing areas and the arrival of
"new" producers are all factors that influence the economy of the steel industry.

Certain patterns of production have gradually appeared:

● Developing countries disposing of raw materials, make and export semi-finished products and simple products for direct
use, such as rebars.
● Industrialized countries concentrate on the production of more sophisticated products with a higher added value due to
their appearance (for example coated sheets) or their composition (for example stainless steel).

3.3 Steelmaking and the Environment

The environmental nuisance created by the steel industry has been considerably reduced. Considerable investment has
been made in connection with environmental factors:

● industrial waters are recycled;


http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (7 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

● air is filtered;
● gases are used as an energy source;
● slag is used for substructure construction;
● scrap steel is reprocessed.

4. HOW IS STEEL PRODUCED?

4.1 General

The basis for industrial production of steel is pig iron, and although the fundamentals of the production method are
largely unchanged, instruments and techniques of production have been greatly improved.

There are several types of steel. Depending on whether the metal will be used, for example, in building, electronics,
automobile or packaging industries, it will require suitable physical, chemical and mechanical properties for that
purpose. These properties are obtained through:

● the adjustment of the carbon content: the lower it is, the more malleable the steel is; the higher it is, the more resistant
and harder the steel is (the hardening or "mildening" can also be adjusted using some additional elements).

4.2 Steelmaking

Iron is, as a chemical element (Fe), the main constituent of pig iron (96% iron and 3-4% carbon). It provides the basis for
the refining of steel.

Iron, pig iron and steel are three manufactured products that appeared in this order in the history of materials. They
represent different chemical combinations of iron and carbon. The carbon content determines the nature of very
different products:

● Iron: minute carbon content. As a soft and malleable material it is the ancestor of "mild" steel (today: "low-carbon steel").
It was formed initially by forging and then later by rolling.
● Pig iron: high carbon content (from 2 to 5-6%). There are several qualities of pig iron, from "hard and resistant" to
"malleable and ductile". It is formed by casting.
● Steel: carbon content from about 0,03% to 2% maximum. It is malleable and resistant. It is formed, in its solid state, by
rolling (squeezing between two cylinders in order to make it thinner and stretch it) or forging.

There are three steps in the steelmaking process:

1. From raw materials to liquid steel


aim: to adjust the chemical content of the steel
two processes: "integrated" steelmaking

"electric" steelmaking.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (8 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

2. From liquid steel to semi-finished products


aim: to solidify the steel into blanks
two processes: continuous casting

ingot casting.

3. From semi-finished products to finished products


aim: to shape and size through rolling, and finish for sale.
two groups of products: long products (beams, bars, wire)

flat products (plate, sheet, coil).

Note: Not all steels are formed by rolling; they may also be forged, cast or manufactured from alloy powders.

The process is described in Lecture 2.2.

5. EUROPEAN STANDARDIZATION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

5.1 Standardization Process

Steel products have been standardized in order to ensure a common language between producers and customers of
steel products. Since the beginning of the XXth century, countries have developed their own standards defining and
classifying steel products. The creation of the EEC has made it necessary to establish common standards named
"European Norms" (EN).

5.1.1 The establishment of European Norms within member states for steel products

The "Commission de Coordination et de Normalisation des Produits Sidérurgiques" COCOR, founded in 1953 to service
the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), was commissioned to coordinate standards. Since 1965 COCOR has
been placed under the authority of the European Commission and has published about 175 Euronorms. Each country is free
to adopt or not, fully or partially, the Euronorms and Background Documents.

The completion of the European Single Market scheduled to occur at the end of 1992 has required the speeding up
of standardization. The Commission created and financed, within COCOR, an independent technical department
exclusively devoted to standardization activities: the ECISS (European Committee for Iron and Steel Standardization).
ECISS, with the assistance of Technical Committees (TC), has developed documents which are submitted to COCOR

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (9 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

for approval before being proposed to the CEN (Comite European de Normalisation) for adoption as Euronorms.

When a Euronorm (EN) is adopted by the CEN members, it must be fully applied as a national norm by all EEC
Countries (even if they voted against it) and by EFTA members which voted for it. The EN, once adopted, invalidates
and replaces the Euronorm and the corresponding national standard.

5.2 Contents of the Euronorms (EN) for Steel

The EN is concerned with the standardization of the manufacture, chemical composition and mechanical characteristics of
steel products. By way of illustration, consider one aspect of these norms, the way steels are designated.

The specification of steel quality is essentially composed of:

● the norm number;


● the Fe symbol;
● the minimum guaranteed tensile strength expressed in N/mm2.

Example: A hot-rolled non-alloy structural steel (for use in the manufacture of welded or assembled structural elements to
be used at ambient temperatures) is designated:

EN 10 025 S355

The designation may be followed by symbols concerning:

⋅ the weldability and guaranteed values of impact energy (B);

⋅ the deoxidation method used, if applicable (FU);

⋅ the steel's suitability for a particular application, if applicable (KP);

⋅ whether the steel is delivered in an effectively normalised condition (N).

The range of symbols is detailed, for this example, in the text of EN 10 025.

The relevant Euronorms and current national equivalents are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Corresponding Table of Euronorms, ISO Standards and National Standards for EC Countries

European Euronorm ISO Germany Belgium NBN (2) Denmark Spain France Greece Italy Ireland Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal UK
Standard (I) Standard DIN DS UNE (3) NF UNI NEN NP BS (4)
EH

17-1970 8457 TI 59110 = 524 38 089 A 45-051 5598 EU 17 = 330

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (10 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

18-1979 377 50125 A 03-001 36 300 38 A 03-111 UNI-EU 18 EU 18 2451 4360


400

19-1957 657/8 1025 T5 533 38 526 A 45-205 5398 EU 19 2116

21-1978 404 17010 500- A 02-001 38 007 A 03-115 UNI-EU 21 EU 21 2149


49

22-1970 783 50145 A 11-201 7 223 A 03-351 3918 EU 22 3688/1

23-1971 642 50191 A 11-181 7 279 A 04-303 3150 4437

24-1962 DP 657/10 1025 T1 632-01 38 521 36 A 45-210 5879 EU 24 4


1028 522 5680

10025 (25-1986) 630-1052 17100 A 21-101 38 080 A 35-501 7070 EU 25 1729 / 4360
4995

27-1974 DIR 4949 147 38 009 A 02-005 UNI-EU 27 EU 27 1818

28-1985 883/1 17155 / 829 38 087/1 A 38-205 A 7070 EU 28 = 1501/1-2


2604/4 / 830 38-208

29-1981 7452 1543 = A 43-101 38 559 A 48-503 A UNI-EU 29 EU 29 1501/1 /4360


46-505

30-1969 17100 A 33-101 3063 EU 30


(= EU 25 =
EU 30)

31-1969 A 43-301 7063 EU 31 / 970/1

34-1962 657/13 1025 T2 T3 = 632-02 36 527 36 A 45-211 5397 EU 34 2117 4


et T4 528 36 529

36-1983 437 EU / 271 7 014 A 06-301 UNI-ISO 437 6200 5381

6. STEEL IN CIVIL ENGINEERING AND BUILDING ACTIVITIES

6.1 Steel in Construction

In construction, the penetration of steel in civil engineering and building activities is very variable across the regions of
the world. In 1988 steel consumption in three major regions of the world was as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Steel consumption in major regions

(Kt) Kg/inhabitant

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (11 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

JAPAN 9050/10400(1) 74/85

USA 5200 21

WESTERN EUROPE 5700/6200 17/18

(1) with or without "composite construction"

For each type of work, these consumptions are spread across different types of construction as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Steel consumption by type of construction

(% tonnages) JAPAN USA EUROPE

housing 21 4 2

industrial 34 33 58

other buildings 34 45 31

pylons 3 5 5

bridges and hydraulic 8 13 4


engineering

TOTAL 100 100 100

Table 3 shows, for all constructional steelwork, the particular importance of:

● housing in Japan;
● tertiary buildings in the USA;
● industrial buildings in Europe.

There are marked differences between countries in the consumption of constructional steelwork, for example in Europe in
1988 (Table 4).

Table 4 Consumption of constructional steelwork (1988)

(Kt) Kg/inhabitant

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (12 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

United Kingdom 1227 22

West Germany 1045 16

France 683 15

Italy 570 11

Spain 500 13

Netherlands 727 31

Luxembourg 100 28

Sweden 94 17

Finland 185 25

Switzerland 89 18

Portugal 100 10

Austria 94 11

Norway 80 20

Denmark 73 11

Greece 50 5

Ireland 60 17

Belgium 195 28

estimated TOTAL 5867 17

Source: European Convention for Constructional Steelwork

Several "small" countries have a very high constructional steelwork consumption/ inhabitant (Netherlands,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Finland, Norway). In the United Kingdom, which is the European country with the
largest constructional steelwork industry, the use of steelwork/inhabitant is higher than in any other major country.

Steel product tonnages of all construction steelwork are globally distributed as follows:
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (13 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Steel products:

Hot rolled sections H, I, U, L about 60%

Plates about 20%

First processing products:

Coated sheets,

Cold rolled sections, pipes about 20%.

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Although iron has been in use for a very long time, steel production is relatively recent.
● Developments in production methods have improved both efficiency and quality. Energy consumption has been reduced
and environmental factors improved.
● European Norms are being established to achieve common standards throughout Europe.
● Steel consumption shows some marked difference between individual countries, worldwide and within Europe.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0200.htm (14 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:54:39]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1A:

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS

Lecture 1A.3: Introduction to Structural


Steel Costs
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To introduce the different factors affecting the cost of a steel construction. To show how the factors are considered
in developing a design taking into account technical and recurrent and environmental costs.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1A.1 : European Construction Industry

Lecture 1B.1 : Process of Design

SUMMARY

Total costs of a steel construction are affected by technical and environmental factors and recurrent costs. The steel costs,
the energy, maintenance, adaptability and end of life costs must all be appreciated from the very beginning of a project in
order to lead to a well designed construction, which meets the requirements of the client. Different parameters such as speed
of construction, or choice of foundations are studied so that they may be taken into account in the design of the
construction and in determining its cost. Secondary activities such as erection, fabrication and protection against corrosion
and fire complete this analysis.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (1 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

1. INTRODUCTION
Costs of construction works can be considered in various categories. Technical costs, relating to material and labour
in completing the project, are those which can most easily be quantified. Recurrent costs should also be considered in
studying whole life economics, and again these can be estimated. Environmental costs are more difficult to establish; there
are signs that an environmental audit will increasingly be required as a part of the consideration given to proposed
projects. Environmental aspects can be considered in terms of local and global effects and include issues such as
appearance, safety, local economics, use of natural resources, and energy consumption.

This lecture concentrates on the technical costs of steel construction. It deals with the topic in a broad way. Whole life
costing is dealt with first before examining the costs of execution, which are concerned initially with total construction,
leading onto structural costs and finally economic considerations applied to individual activities such as fabrication
and erection. This sequence has been chosen deliberately to emphasise the need to examine overall costs in an
integrated manner.

2. LIFE CYCLE COSTS

2.1 Attitude

Traditionally designers have considered only the initial cost of that part of the project for which they are responsible and
have sought the most cost-effective solution for it. There is increasing recognition that the sum of optimum cost components
do not necessarily lead to the most economic solution overall. However, there is still relatively little regard given to whole
life costs. This is in marked contrast to the consideration given to running costs when purchasing a new car, for instance.
Then fuel consumption, likely service costs, repair costs and depreciation are often carefully accounted for alongside
initial price, when making cost comparisons between different models.

2.2 Cost Elements

Initial costs of execution, including the fabric, structure, foundations and services, are an important and
immediate consideration. In addition to these items, the need to finance the construction, and the associated costs, should
be quantified and included as part of the debate on the form of the design. The way in which the cost of finance influences
the project is discussed in more detail in Section 3.2. In some cases, it might be a major factor.

Other recurrent costs, which should be considered in the overall economic discussions surrounding a proposed project,
include maintenance, future alterations and running costs associated with environmental control of building interiors
(heating, ventilation and lighting). Another factor which should be considered is the likely benefit or financial return.
For instance, projected traffic density will clearly be an important influence on required highway bridge capacity, whilst
clearer floor areas and greater flexibility in the use of floor space may attract higher revenue in commercial
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (2 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

developments. These factors are discussed in more detail in Section 2.6.

2.3 Energy Costs

Energy costs for lighting, heating and ventilation remain a significant recurrent cost item. For buildings, initial
expenditure related to energy requirements is concerned with such aspects as the balance of provision of natural and
artificial lighting, and the heating/ventilation requirements, which are clearly affected by the insulation specification for
the external skin.

Artificial lighting represents a surprisingly high proportion of energy consumption in commercial and residential
buildings. Adequate provision of windows and rooflights can therefore mean significant long-term savings. These
provisions need to be assessed against higher initial expenditure, and secondary considerations, such as security. Heat gain
and glare are two potential problems which should also be considered since they may effectively neutralise any
potential savings.

Space heating and ventilation are both related to insulation levels and the volume of air to be treated. One of the reasons
why low-pitch portal frames have become more popular than the traditional column and truss construction for
industrial applications is that the enclosed building volume is reduced and includes very little wasted space.

2.4 Maintenance

All structures (buildings, bridges and others) should be inspected and maintained on a regular basis. There is often a trade-
off between costs associated with these activities and initial costs. Areas which are difficult or impossible to inspect
need careful treatment. In many cases there is a trade-off between capital expenditure and life expectancy/
maintenance requirements.

For steels, corrosion and its prevention is a major concern. Cost factors associated with corrosion prevention relate to
exposure conditions, planned inspection and maintenance, design detailing, the protection specification, and the quality of
the first application.

Good detailing in fact has very little cost implication and is an important part of all designs. For instance, arrangements
which allow water to collect should be avoided and inaccessible areas sealed (Figure 1).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (3 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (4 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

The specification for the corrosion protection system should be appropriate to the exposure conditions expected.
Although some extremely good systems are now available, there is little point in using such systems where corrosion risks
are low. This point is discussed in more detail in Section 4.3.

2.5 ADAPTABILITY

Although it is not always possible to predict future client requirements, alterations and extensions to projects are often
carried out subsequent to the initial development. Such projects can be disproportionately expensive. Specific provision
for future alterations can only be made if details are known at the outset, but significant savings are possible if the
original design takes account of possible changes. Although the initial development costs may be marginally increased,
long-term costs overall can be reduced.

The building life is always longer than the life expectancy of services, so the construction should be able to
accommodate likely changes in use. This capability can be provided by adopting a "loose fit" approach, giving additional
space without disproportionate increase in cost.

Shell and core construction, in which the building consists of the structure and major services only, with the more
specific services for floors installed by the tenant, is becoming increasingly popular for speculative commercial
developments. In such cases there is an even clearer need for a "loose fit" approach from the outset.

It is very common for the use of building to change. Change of use may require upgrading floor loadings, modifications
to floor layouts, installation of new lifts, or extending the structure to provide more usable space. Allowing for
such developments in the original design could lead to significant subsequent savings.

Steel structures can be adapted or extended without great difficulty. The potential exists for making connections to the
existing frame, and the strength of the existing structure, and any new attachments to it, can be determined with
confidence. Nevertheless, where future changes are envisaged, it is often more efficient to provide for these at the
outset. Where future extension is planned, simple modifications to the fabrication details and appropriate sizing of
critical members for the new conditions should be incorporated. For instance, pre-drilling of steelwork for new connections
at the interface with the possible extension and sizing columns for increased loads facilitates later construction.

If unforeseen changes arise, it is not difficult to strengthen individual beams and columns, for instance, by attaching
flange plates to the existing section. Strengthening connections is very much less simple, and some designers
therefore overspecify the shear capacity for connections to minimise the need for strengthening in subsequent alterations.

2.6 Benefits and Financial Return

Costs should not be considered in isolation but set against perceived benefit. The benefit may be clearly quantifiable in terms
of rental income or relate to the provision of additional facilities. In either case usable floor area is a key factor. This
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (5 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

might suggest fewer, smaller columns, and should certainly encourage the designer to avoid unusable space, for
instance between columns and adjacent perimeter walls. Minimising the thickness of partition walls and the external skin
may also yield an increased floor area, but their performance should not be compromised in doing so.

2.7 End of Life Costs

For many structures there comes a time when demolition is necessary. The cost associated with this activity can be offset
by income from the sale of recyclable materials. For steel structures the material can be re-used either as scrap in
the manufacture of liquid steel or as secondhand products which can be re-used in new structures. The nature of
steel construction lends itself to dismantling rather than demolition.

Some structures take this principle further and are designed as demountable. Such structures are generally for short-term
use such as exhibition facilities, temporary car parks and highway crossings. With careful design the complete structure can
be dismantled and erected elsewhere.

3. TOTAL CONSTRUCTION
Total building cost is a complex issue due to the interaction of various elements. Usually the best design of one aspect (e.
g. structure) conflicts with others (e.g. services or cladding). It is not, therefore, simply a case of optimising each to achieve
an optimum solution for the whole building, but rather the costings should be examined in an integrated, holistic manner.

Buildability is also important. It is concerned not simply with the development of new details or erection systems which
might facilitate work on site, but with an understanding of how design and construction can be dealt with in an
integrated fashion to produce a building which is simple, quick and cost-effective to execute and maintain. This
approach involves harmonisation of structural, service and planning grids.

At a more detailed level, standardisation, particularly of connection and fixing details, can lead to significant economies,
even if it implies some apparent wastage of materials. Co-ordination between different elements, such as cladding
and structure, achieved by simplicity of the interfaces between them, is particularly important. Non-typical areas such as
corner panels for cladding and edge details for floors need special consideration. All too often these areas are ignored
until execution is well under way and last minute solutions can be both inelegant and costly.

Bridges and other structures are much less sensitive than buildings to interactions between structural and non-
structural components. However, for offshore structures for instance, aspects such as appropriate construction sites
and transparency of the structure to wave loadings, installation procedures and fitting out all influence the total costing.

3.1 Typical Breakdown of Costs and Interactions

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (6 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

An important cost element in a steel framed building is that of the frame itself. Other major items include foundations,
flooring, cladding/external finishes and services. The relative contributions of these items vary considerably from one project
to another, but typical cost proportions are 9% for the steel frame compared with 25-35% each for cladding and services.
Land prices can sometimes be as high as the direct costs of the construction, in which case speed of execution becomes
a predominant factor as discussed in Section 3.2.

For multi-storey buildings, the importance of lateral bracing becomes a primary consideration. For low-rise construction,
a rigid jointed frame is often an economic solution, but as overall height increases, this system becomes too flexible.
Cross-bracing or shear walls might then be preferred, despite possible restrictions on internal planning imposed by the
location of the bracing. With greater building heights, more sophisticated lateral bracing systems become necessary.
These systems include derivatives of both rigid frames and cross-bracing such as outrigger trusses, braced tubes and
facade frames. Some of these systems are shown in Figure 5 which includes indications of their appropriate ranges of use.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (7 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

A similar discussion of the use of rigid and simple frames can be held in relation to gravity loads. The effect of rigid
frame action is typically to reduce beam sizes but increase column sections. In general, whilst the total weight of steel is less
in rigid construction, savings are often more than offset by the increased complexity of the connections. However there may
be other considerations - reduced structural depth, the undesirability of bracing (if rigid frame action is not used to
provide lateral stability) and reduced deflections resulting from improved stiffness. For longer spans, material savings for
rigid construction are likely to be greater. Not only does the increased rigidity become more important in
controlling deflections, but the relative saving in steel weight of beams compared with the increased weight of
columns becomes more significant.

Important advantages of steel construction are speed of execution, prefabrication and lightness. To maximise the
advantages the concepts must be followed through in the design of the building as a whole, including cladding, finishes
and services. For example the use of smaller foundations can only be achieved if the lightness of the structure is reflected
in appropriate design of other building components. This example again emphasises the need for co-ordinating the design
of services, cladding and structure and associated with this approach, the discipline of producing the final design at an
early stage.

This approach also implies that the steelwork contractor should be involved at the earliest opportunity as part of the
project team and it also places additional responsibilities on other members of that team to avoid late changes.

3.2 Speed of Execution

The costs of financing a project may be a major consideration. High land prices and staged payments to the contractor
mean that the client may have to sustain a high borrowing requirement throughout the period of execution without any return
in terms of either rental income or use of the building. With high interest rates the borrowing requirement can represent a
major element in the total project cost and, under these circumstances, the speed with which the project can be
completed becomes an extremely important factor.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (8 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

The importance of speed has been highlighted in a comparison of costs for typical 3, 7, and 10-storey office buildings
using three different building systems (steel frame and precast concrete floor, steel frame and composite floor, and in-
situ reinforced concrete). Construction programmes and cost estimates prepared independently for each building
clearly showed the importance of execution time. The study also demonstrated the benefits of steel deck composite flooring
in avoiding the need for temporary propping or scaffolding, the advantages of simplicity, and the need to ensure that
various trades are able to complete work at one level in a single operation. Providing access by programming staircases to
rise with the frame and installing floors as quickly as possible after the frame also streamlines site work.

The trend towards greater prefabrication and sub-assembly with reduced site work has spread from simply the steel frame
to include other elements such as cladding panels and accommodation modules. Prefabrication all helps to save execution
time but it places more pressure on the design phase. It also improves quality, reduces reliance on a skilled, mobile
workforce, and enables deficiencies to be rectified more easily than on site. Precommissioning should also produce a
greater awareness of, and provision for, future maintenance requirements.

Late changes and traditional reliance on resolving problems on site may be suitable for insitu construction. However,
more emphasis on prefabrication in modern construction means that the site becomes an assembly shop where the
components must fit first time if expensive delays and corrections are to be avoided.

Fast build rather than fast track is perhaps the optimum solution. In the latter the construction programme overlaps with
the design phase, implying incomplete information. In contrast fast build construction does not start until all design
is complete, and embodies the best features of efficient building.

3.3 Weather

Any construction can be affected by adverse weather. Execution programmes and methods themselves are generally
organised with this in mind. For instance when industrial sheds are built it is normal practice to complete the frame
and envelope at the earliest opportunity, with the concrete ground slabs subsequently being cast within a relatively
controlled and sheltered environment. Multi-storey construction utilising composite floor decks offers similar advantages
of rapid isolation from the worst effects of adverse weather.

Some building systems have been developed on the basis of providing a dry envelope for the work of execution.

3.4 Services, Cladding and Structure

The greatest cost interactions between building components are probably those between structure, main services and
cladding. The total floor depth includes the structure (slab and beam) and services. The greater this depth the greater will be
the total height of the building, increasing the area of cladding. Even for simple enclosure systems, increased costs will
result. For sophisticated curtain walling systems these increases could be very high. In extreme cases, where

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (9 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

planning constraints are particularly severe with regard to total building height, it is possible that the selection of a
shallow floor zone could result in the inclusion of an additional storey compared with the case for a deeper floor
construction depth.

Smaller scale services (electrics, telecommunication wiring) can be accommodated within raised floors, or in trunking set in
the screed or within the structural concrete slab. They have little implication for the structure. Large ducted air
conditioning systems involve greatest interaction. Here the objective is to produce an efficient floor structure, which
can accommodate the required size of ducts (including cross-overs), and which also allows the addition or increase of sizes
as servicing needs change.

Possible strategic solutions are separation or integration. Separation gives greatest flexibility and provision for future
changes. Allowing the services to pass through the structure may result in some savings in overall construction depth
but installation may be difficult and cause possible damage to paint and fire protection; future changes may also be limited.

Structural forms to facilitate accommodation of services relate particularly to different arrangements of beams. There
is generally much more space available between beams where only slab depth contributes to construction depth.
Possible solutions (Figure 2) include standard I beams, castellated beams (which, although deeper, provide limited
opportunity for accommodating service ducts), trusses and stub girders (both deeper again but with greater provision
for ductwork). The parallel beam arrangement, which separates on two levels both structure and service runs in two
directions, has proved to be a successful solution for a number of projects (Figure 3). Other possibilities include various
forms of tapered and haunched beams, used to optimise overall depth and structural efficiency, but at the expense of
greater fabrication costs (Figure 4).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (10 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (11 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (12 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (13 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (14 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

3.5 Foundations

Foundation costs are an important factor in the overall economics of building construction. For small scale buildings on
sites with good foundation conditions, simple foundation solutions are likely to be suitable. Where foundation loads are
high and/or foundation conditions are poor, more sophisticated and expensive solutions such as piling may be necessary,
Figure 6. In such circumstances the weight of the superstructure may be critical and suggest a lighter, possibly less
efficient form. For instance closely spaced beams to reduce the thickness of floor slabs, which might themselves be
constructed using lightweight concrete can reduce foundation loads considerably. Steel as a structural material is also
lighter than other structural materials for a given load resistance.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (15 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (16 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

4. STEELWORK COSTS
At a more detailed level the economics of steelwork construction can be affected by decisions regarding the precise form
of element, type of steel used and the method of connection. Some of these decisions are influenced by the purchase route
for the steel itself. For large projects, steel can be purchased directly from the mill in the exact lengths required and in
the desired grade. The price of individual structural products varies not only with type (hollow sections are generally
more expensive than open sections such as I-beams and H-columns) but also within a product range, with little
apparent rationale behind the pricing policy. Thus selecting a section of minimum weight does not guarantee an
optimum solution in terms of cost, even for an individual element. Specifiers should therefore be aware of pricing policies.

Small orders cannot be processed in this way and the steel is then purchased from stockholders. In this case the steel is
only available in a limited range of grades, (probably only mild steel) and a premium is payable to the stockholder. In
addition certain sizes of standard section may not be stocked and the sections will only be available in a limited range
of lengths.

These considerations clearly have important implications for the specifier.

Where higher grades of steel are available they may offer the opportunity for improved efficiency. For instance, high yield
steel has a yield strength approximately 25% higher than normal mild steel yet costs only about 10% more. However,
where strength is not a critical design condition, for instance in the case of very long span beams where deflection control
may be dominant, the use of high grade steel may simply be wasteful.

A breakdown of costs for structural steelwork in a multi-storey building might typically be as follows:

steel 47%

corrosion protection 5%

fabrication 22%

erection 8%

fire protection 18%

Clearly optimising the cost of the steelwork (within an optimum solution for structure and construction as a whole)
is dependent on minimising the total cost of these contributory elements, rather than optimising each independently. A
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (17 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

balance is needed between structural efficiency, simplicity of construction and building use.

It is clear that there is more potential for reducing costs in fabrication and erection than in the steel itself. In this respect,
work on site is of most importance - easier assembly is likely to lead to overall economy. Transport is also important, not as
a cost item in itself but as an aid to more efficient erection.

4.1 Erection

Because erection is carried out in the open, often under difficult conditions, and it is the essential interface with
other construction trades, it is in many ways the most important part of the design and execution process for a steel
structure. Problems at this stage can be costly to rectify and involve long delays to the programme. Apparently trivial
issues, such as steelwork delivered out of sequence, lack of bolts or fittings, long lead times for minor additional
items, extensive double handling of materials and misfit of members, can cause significant reductions in construction efficiency.

Much depends on good planning. Preparation of an erection scheme should be made on receipt of first construction
issue drawings prior to detailed drawing office work by the fabricator. At this stage items for delivery as sub-assemblies can
be identified and the need for temporary bracing assessed. Attachments for bracing should be incorporated within
initial fabrication drawings to avoid double handling of both drawings and materials.

The need for safe access for erectors must be recognised. Time can be saved and material re-used if temporary stagings are
pre-engineered and delivered with steelwork rather than relying on makeshift methods on site.

Loose temporary landing cleats under major beams and girders, shop-bolted to columns greatly facilitate erection.
Erection drawings should be clear, unambiguous and complete, including on a single drawing all details such as bolt
sizes, weights of members, presence of fittings, etc.

4.2 Fabrication

The size of individual components is limited by the lifting capacity of available cranes and transportation. This applies also
to other parts of the construction such as finishes and cladding. Within these constraints however the general principle is
to maximise work at the fabrication stage and minimise work on site, pre-assembling units in sections which are as large
as possible.

Connection design and detailing which standardises details, bolt diameters and lengths (HSFG and 8.8 bolts of same
diameter should never be used on the same job) simplifies erection and minimises risk of error. Although material
and fabrication costs may be increased marginally, savings on site far outweigh such increases. Simplicity and repetition
of frame components is related to design; for instance special fabricated sections such as tapered beams become
more economic in larger numbers.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (18 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Preferred details should be incorporated to facilitate site erection. For instance fin plates are preferable to end plates or
cleats since they enable beams to be swung directly into position (Figure 7). Moment connections should be avoided
if possible, but where necessary the erector should be consulted with regard to the preferred type of detail.

A loading schedule should be prepared by the erector showing when steel is to be delivered, how it is to be bundled, where
to be placed on the trailer for optimum off-loading and where to be set down in its correct location on the building frame.
Lack of vigorous production control often requires a buffer store on site to maintain the erection programme. This procedure
is inefficient in terms of storage space, cranage and multi-handling. Programmed site erection should be the control and
'pull' on fabrication, with delivery scheduled to accord with the daily erection programme. One of the most notable examples
of erection programming was the construction of the Empire State Building in New York.

There is a clear need for a production engineering philosophy in the design office, factory and on site. For example, a
careful study of the fabrication process can significantly reduce material handling. The productivity of the most efficient
shops is based on a labour content of 2 man hours per tonne for simple multi-storey construction compared with more than
20 man hours per tonne average for all steelwork.

Some structurally efficient solutions, even based on standard rolled sections, may be less efficient in terms of
fabrication. Column sections with bigger overall dimensions generally have larger radii of gyration and hence, for a

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (19 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

given application, have lower slenderness ratios and higher buckling strength; they may therefore be lighter in weight than
a comparable section of more compact shape. Where these sections are used as part of a moment resisting frame, however,
the reduced flange thickness of the bigger section may well mean that local stiffening is required, increasing fabrication costs.

Computer controlled cold sawing, punching and drilling machines mean that bolting for low to medium rise construction
is often cheaper than welding which involves more labour, cost and time. This is particularly so on site where special
access, weather protection, inspection and temporary erection supports are required.

Linking of CAD/CAM and management information systems avoids transcription of information, saving time and
eliminating possible errors.

4.3 Corrosion and Fire Protection

The cost of initial corrosion protection is unlikely to be greatly influenced by the steelwork details, although maintenance
costs and performance can be significantly affected. Appropriate specification of the corrosion protection system is
important. Steel within a heated building is unlikely to need any long term protection at all, whereas exposed steel or
steel within the external envelope may need a high level of protection. Detailed advice is available. Painting costs are
partly dependent on the area to be painted, whilst galvanising costs are related to the weight of steelwork. The latter
therefore becomes a more attractive alternative for lightweight structures with a large surface area such as trusses and
lattice girders.

Regulations relating to fire protection requirements now allow calculation methods to prove reduced or indeed the
elimination of such protection. A range of relatively cheap, lightweight proprietary systems is also available and, if
these systems are adopted, performance, appearance, and wet or dry application influence the final selection. Some
structural solutions such as slimfloor beams offer the potential for adequate fire resistance without protection. Although
the weight of steel is greater than for conventional systems, the overall effect may be some savings. In addition,
slimfloors offer a reduction in structural depth and are, therefore, attractive in terms of accommodation for services.

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Costing of construction projects is a complex issue and should include all aspects in an integrated fashion.
● Evaluation of whole life costs should be encouraged rather than focusing only on initial construction costs.
● Buildability and good planning are important aspects in minimising costs.
● Efficient integration of structural and non-structural items is dependent on detailed information being available at an
early stage, but is essential if efficient construction is to be achieved.

6. ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (20 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

1. British Steel Corrosion Protection Guides.


2. Brett, P. Design of Continuous Composite Beams in Buildings; Parallel Beam Approach. The Steel Construction
Institute, 1989.
3. Owens, G.W. An Evaluation of Different Solutions for Steel Frames, ECCS International Symposium, "Building in Steel -
The Way Ahead", No: 57 September 1989, pp 6/1 - 6/28.
4. Glover, M.J. Buildability and Services Integration, Ibid.
5. Horridge, J.F. and Morris, L.J. Comparative Costs of Single-Storey Steel Framed Buildings, The Structural Engineer,
Vol. 64A, No. 7, July1986, pp. 177-181.
6. Iyengar, H. High Rise Buildings, ECCS International Symposium, "Building in Steel - The Way Ahead", No: 57
September 1989, pp 1/1 - 1/30.
7. Copeland, B., Glover, M.J., Hart, A., Haryott, R. and Marshall, S. Designing for Steel, Architects Journal, 24 & 31
August 1983.
8. Hayward, A.C.G. Composite Steel Highway Bridges, Constrado.
9. Customer Led - Construction Led, Steel Construction, Vol 7, No. 1, (BCSA), February 1991.
10. Horridge, J. F. and Morris, L. J., "Comparative Costs of Single Storey Steel Framed Structures", The Structural Engineer,
Vol 64A, No. 7, July 1986.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0300.htm (21 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:54:44]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1A:

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS

Lecture 1A.4: The European Building


Market
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To explain both the need and the difficulty of harmonising construction in Europe in accordance with
the Single European Act.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

None.

SUMMARY

Construction in Europe is a complex and important industry. At present legal, regulatory and
contractual frameworks vary significantly throughout the European Community. There are also
considerable differences in procurement methods. The framework and timetable for harmonisation is
presented, highlighting the importance of the Construction Products Directive. The role and
development of the Eurocodes, European Standards and the CE mark are summarised. The future
implications and development of harmonisation are postulated. Annex A provides a summary of
current practice in some Member States.

1. INTRODUCTION
European construction is an extremely complex industry encompassing a wide range of activities and
professions. It is also the largest employer in the European Community, employing 6,6% of the active
population and accounting for 9,1% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1985, when the last survey
was conducted.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (1 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Major groups within the industry include public authorities such as local government or town
planning authorities, and private clients, contractors, specialist sub-contractors, design and technical
service professionals, consultants, building product manufacturers and specialists in the financial
sector dealing with construction and property.

The ways in which these groups operate and the controls and procedures they use vary considerably
throughout the European Community, according to a comprehensive study commissioned by the
Commission of European Communities (CEC) [1]. The study was originally instigated in response to
a resolution calling for the standardisation of contracts and controls in the construction industry and
the harmonisation of responsibility and standards governing after-sales guarantees on housing;
subsequently it was extended to encompass all building construction.

It has been widely recognised that construction presents the greatest challenge to European
harmonisation. The Commission decided to tackle this most difficult task first. Successful
harmonisation of the construction industry would be a major step towards the objectives of the Single
European Act, which calls for a Unified European Market by the end of 1992. A special terminology
has developed for harmonisation. Words are given specific meanings that may have legal
significance. For this reason a glossary of terms is given in Annex A.

2. CURRENT SITUATION
The report of the study examined the Construction Industry across Europe and found that most
Member States were in favour of harmonised controls and procedures [1]. Many also wished to see
more precise definitions of the responsibilities and liabilities of the participating parties.

The report found that there was wide support for more measures to protect the buyer of the final
product through an insurance scheme. This is consistent with the objectives of the Single European
Act, which are not just confined to the establishment of a free market for the trading of goods and
services, but also to improve consumer protection, health, safety and the environment throughout the
Community.

Information sheets containing details of the present methods of procurement, form of contracts,
controls and responsibilities used in the various Member States are given in Annex B. For these
methods to be successfully harmonised the report listed 14 "elements" which should be considered in
any common Community rules [1]. These elements included:

1. Definition of the role of the client and the task of the engineer,
2. Specific liability
3. Insurance (for professional liability)
4. Qualification of contractors,
5. Design codes and specifications
6. External inspections
7. Acceptance criteria
8. Contractual documents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (2 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

9. Tenders

The Community already recognises the professional qualifications of its members under the Treaty of
Rome. However, there is much diversity between Member States in the length of university courses
and the amount of practical experience required to become a professional engineer. The requirements
for architects, on the other hand, are less diverse and they may be the first profession to be fully
harmonised within the Construction Industry.

3. LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK AND TIMETABLE FOR


HARMONISATION
The European Parliament is at the top of the legislative framework. It debates all legislation and has
the power to amend or add further details to the proposed action. A typical proposal passes through
the following stages:

1. One of the 25 Directorates General of the Commission (CEC), or a sub-division of it


responsible for the particular area of policy, e.g. DG III responsible for the Internal Market
and Industrial Affairs, will draw up the measures required to implement the proposed action.
2. The Council of Ministers agrees the proposal, often only by a majority vote.
3. The European Parliament debates the proposed legislation.
4. After the inclusion of any amendments or additions resulting from the debate, the Council of
Ministers agrees the legislation.
5. The Commission then implements the legislation through directives, which are then adopted
by each Member State through legislation in their national parliaments and associated
regulations, recommendations, guidelines or standards. This ensures that the autonomy of
individual Member States is not threatened.

The way the Commission implements the removal of technical barriers to trade was dealt with by the
European Parliament under the New Approach or "Nouvelle Approach" Resolution. It was conceived
to accelerate the completion of the Single European Market and consists of a framework of directives
that cover general principles only. This approach allows each Member State the freedom to use their
own design and manufacturing traditions and skills which have often been developed from centuries
of use.

The most fundamental directive affecting the Construction Industry is the Construction Products
Directive. It was conceived under the New Approach Resolution and applies to construction products
for permanent use in building or civil engineering works. A product is deemed fit for use and may
carry the CE mark if it complies with the Directive.

The Directive is implemented by relying on the product's conformity with harmonised standards or,
in the absence of such a standard, with European Technical Approvals (ETA) as proof of compliance
with its essential requirements.

The harmonised standards and guidelines to establish European Technical Approvals are initiated as a

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (3 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

mandate to CEN from the Commission's Standing Committee on Construction (SCC). They may be
accompanied by interpretive documents to assist in the preparation of standards. It is at this stage that
the first detailed technical requirements are considered. The preparation of harmonised standards is
undertaken by the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). It produces standards through the
following structure:

Mandates for standards preparation are issued by the Commission of the European Communities
(CEC) to the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). The CEN Technical Board
(responsible for controlling the standards programme and includes delegations from the CEN
members, i.e. the natural standards organisations, establishes Technical Committees (TC's) (formed
to prepare standards and includes representatives from the CEN members with relevant technical
expertise) and Technical Working Groups (TWG's) (formed to undertake specific short term tasks for
the committee and may include representatives from product manufacturers, trade associations and
standards authorities).

The timetable for the harmonisation process and the key legal steps are summarised in Table 1.

4. THE ROLE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROCODES


The Eurocodes and their associated European Standards provide a framework for the implementation
of the Construction Products Directive and the award of the CE mark. This is the reason for their
urgent introduction and their ENV status.

They will only be given full EN status after a period of trial use in Member States and incorporation
of comments through the Technical Committee. The timetable for the issue of the Eurocodes as EN is
not yet established but it is likely that the principal Eurocodes will achieve EN status during the
period 1995-1998.

The framework of European Standards will take a similar time to implement. In the interim,
Provisional Guides are available as Annexes to the main Eurocodes, e.g. Annex T to Eurocode 3:
Fabrication of Structural Steelwork - Provisional Guide.

During the ENV phase, it is intended that the Eurocodes are implemented in Member States by
National Application Documents. These documents provide national values of partial safety factors
and also incorporate any specific material requirements. For example:

● In the UK the requirements for providing minimum ties to ensure adequate structural integrity
and resistance to accidental damage are maintained.
● In France, there are certain clarifications on the detailed application of rules for calculating the
semi-rigid action of connections.

The Eurocodes present best available European design practice. They offer the opportunity of
superseding and improving upon traditional practices. They should therefore improve the overall
economy of construction as well as offering more consistent safety and reliability.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (4 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

5. THE CE MARK
The CE mark may be used on products that comply with European Standards, or in the absence of
such standards, European Technical Approvals as demonstration of compliance with the Construction
Products Directive (CPD). The objective behind this approach is to ensure compatibility between
design, execution procedures and products. In the transitional stages before the full harmonisation of
standards, certain technical specifications which are recognised by the Community may also provide
compliance. In exceptional cases, certification of conformity by an approved body or a declaration of
conformity by the manufacturer (provided certain conditions are met involving approved bodies
during the testing) is acceptable.

The use of the CE mark implies compliance with the essential requirements of the CPD which relate
to:

1. mechanical resistance and stability


2. safety in case of fire
3. health, hygiene and the environment
4. safety in use
5. protection against noise
6. energy economy and heat retention

The use of the CE mark is not a guarantee of performance, only of minimum acceptable compliance
with the essential requirements listed above. Compared to other marks of quality it may well be a
levelling down to a lowest acceptable, safe quality. Other marks of quality, particularly those relating
to performance beyond the essential requirements are therefore likely to remain in operation
throughout Europe. However the situation is intended to be sufficiently transparent for the individual
purchaser to be able to weigh up quality versus price for a particular product or structure.

6. THE FUTURE FOR CONSTRUCTION IN THE UNIFIED


EUROPEAN MARKET
The emphasis on quality, even the lowest acceptable quality implied by the CE mark, gives greater
priority to the wishes of both the building owner and his tenant. For the designer and constructor it is
likely to lead to the development of minimum guarantees and associated provisions for damages.
Differential insurance premiums may develop, favouring more reputable contractors and offering
tangible benefit from quality. For the owner there will be responsibilities for `fair play' towards both
his contractors during construction and his tenants during the service life of the building.

Harmonised standards imply larger potential markets and greater opportunities for economies of
scale. Trade should be simpler with reduced certification, documentation and administration.
Minimum standards imply better consumer protection which should lead to greater consumer
confidence; this should act as a direct stimulus to investment.

Of course the greater formality of harmonised, regulated construction is likely to create some

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (5 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

problems, especially for small and medium enterprises. Generally, the cost of entry into steelwork
construction will increase because of the need to be conversant with the details of European
legislation prior to trading. To the benefit of the owner and tenant it will be more difficult to cut
corners either in product standards or in safety in execution.

There could be a concern that the introduction of harmonised construction may lead to a reduction in
the range and individuality of construction. In reality all the regulations are so general in nature that
they are unlikely to inhibit individuality or innovation in any way. What may happen is that the
establishment of a common design base makes it easier to export and import forms of construction.
Thus the only individual forms of construction at risk are those which are inherently uneconomic and
deserve to become extinct from commercial pressures.

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● European construction in a complex and important industry, accounting for 9% of Europe's
GDP.
● Harmonisation of European construction is an important but difficult part of the establishment
of the Unified European Market.
● Currently there are significant differences in technical, legal, regulatory and contractual
frameworks between Member States.
● The Single European Act in 1987 and the implementation of the Construction Products
Directive in 1991 were important steps in the creation of the Unified European Market,
notionally to be established by December 1992.
● The Eurocodes and their associated European Standards provide the framework for the
implementation of the CPD and the award of the CE mark.
● A harmonised construction market is expected to improve minimum standards of quality and
assist the transfer of best construction practice throughout Europe.

REFERENCES
[1] Mathurin, C. Controls, Contracts, Responsibilities and Insurance in Construction in the European
Community, Commission of the European Communities, 1988.

Date Event Objective/Outcome

1957 Treaty of Rome EEC Established.

26.07.71 Public Works Directive Co-ordination of procedures for


the award of public works contract.

07.05.85 New Approach to Technical Proposals to accelerate the


Harmonisation and Standards completion of the Single European
Market.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (6 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

10.07.85 Architects Directive Mutual recognition of


qualifications.

01.07.87 Single European Act Removal of internal barriers to


trade. Majority voting introduced.

01.10.88 Resolution calling for Standardisation of contracts and


Standardisation in the controls. Harmonisation of
Construction Industry responsibility and standards
governing guarantees.

21.12.88 Construction Products Directive Removal of technical barriers to


trade.
(CPD)
Essential requirements to establish
fitness for use.

12.07.89 Safety at Work Directive Encourage improvement in health


and safety at work.

18.07.89 Public Works Directive Amendment to 1971 Directive.

21.10.89 Testing and Certification Regulations & Approved Bodies.

27.07.91 CPD in force Implemented by Member States.

31.12.92 Deadline for Unified European


Market

TABLE 1 - Timetable for harmonisation

ANNEX A: QUESTIONNAIRE - BUILDING


PROCUREMENT IN EUROPE
Represented here are the following countries:

Austria

Belgium

Finland

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (7 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

France

Germany

Greece

Ireland

Italy

Luxembourg

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

AUSTRIA

1. INTRODUCTION
Technical Standards are generally complete and coherent. Requirements for certification and quality
marks sometimes could cause expensive implications.

There is a good framework for planning and controlling the maintenance of structures during their
lifetime.

2. CONTROLS
Town planning regulations are tightly controlled. Obtaining planning permission can sometimes
delay construction for a long time.

National technical building standards, e.g. ONORM and other rules and guidelines prepared by such
organisations as OIAV, OSTV in some cases are established by federal law.

There are different building laws "Bauordnungen" in the Austrian Federal Countries and some Towns
covering administrative regulations and execution of construction. In those laws, there are additional
directives for certain types of construction such as schools, warehouses, car parks, theatres, etc. and
for some actions, e.g. fire.

In addition to compulsory special rules for energy supply, environmental protection, technical and

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (8 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

mechanical services and installations, there are industrial guidelines which only have to be followed
when contractually agreed.

Where materials and components are not generally used, special federal country government approval
or test marks are required. In addition, formal quality assurance is necessary for some materials and
components that are incorporated into permanent works. Government approval, test marks and
quality assurance have to be executed by authorised organisations such as technical institutes,
consulting engineers, etc.

3. CONTRACTS
3. General

Public sector contracts always adopt specified standard forms. In the private sector modifications to
those standard forms are usual. The principal standard form is regulated in ONORM A 2050 and
consecutive standards. Multi-storey-buildings relate to the LB-H "Leistungsbeschreibung Hochbau".

Pre-qualification is only adopted for large, complex or unusual projects in order to check the
capability and craftsmanship of contractors. It is used in conjunction with the restricted tender
procedures.

2. Forms of Contract

(a) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of works with detailed technical specifications and a bill of
quantities. Fixed quantities are defined for all items on the bill.

(b) Lump Sum Contract

Lump sum contracts require a general description of the works with a programme of execution. This
type of contract is used in order to find the best technical, economic and functional solution.

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


Separation of Design and Construction is usual

(a) Individual Contracting

The client places separate contracts with the designer and several package contractors, in order to
separate design and construction responsibilities.

(b) General Contracting

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (9 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(i) Design and construction arranged separately by the client. The general contractor is responsible
for the execution of the total scope of work and undertakes the main parts of the work itself. He also
places individual packages to subcontractors. Detailed design is sometimes the responsibility of the
general contractor.

(ii) 'Design and Build' construction: the general contractor takes responsibility for the complete
design and construction. He places several individual package contracts with subcontractors and
carries out the main part of the work himself.

(c) Management Contracting

The management contractor undertakes responsibility for all design and execution works, but does
not do any work directly. The work is carried out by a series of contractors who are contractually
bound to the management contractor.

The most popular forms in Austria are (a) and (b i).

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
There are general clear divisions of responsibilities.

The client is responsible for contract award, taking over the works when they are completed and
payments.

The architect or the master-building ("Baumeister") is responsible for pre-design, detailed design and
drawings, obtaining planning permission, defining bills of quantities, tendering and site management
including architectural and technical supervision. He has the principal responsibility for quality,
safety and compliance with the law.

Consulting engineers are responsible for the technical input in their specialised fields, such as
structural design, etc. The responsibilities cover detailed design, drawings, tendering and supervision.

The contractor is responsible to the client for carrying out the work, warranties, maintaining
programme and for some aspects of detailed design and shop drawings.

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


It is not general practice to insure against damage during execution. However, architects and
consulting engineers are constrained to carry professional insurance.

Generally, the client is offered a guarantee on the completion of the works for three to five years.
Grave defects can be asserted in thirty five years.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (10 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
Unification of different building laws should be the main target for Austria.

BELGIUM

1. INTRODUCTION
Technical Standards are generally complete and coherent. However, requirements for certification
and quality marks are sometimes requested. Specifications are not always updated as frequently as is
desirable.

2. CONTROLS
The procedure of obtaining building permits can sometimes delay construction for a long period of
time.

National building standards, e.g. NBN, EN, ENV, and guidelines prepared by such organisations as
CSTC, Technical Agreement (Union Belge pour l'Agrement technique dans la Construction) have to
be respected.

For some buildings, special requirements in relation with workers safety have to be respected.

Testing by regional Authorities can be required in some cases (Charpy, welding tests ...).

3. CONTRACTS
1. Public Sector

Public sector contracts always adopt specified standard forms, e.g. "Cahier special des
charges" (Special conditions of contract).

There are 5 methods of tendering:

• open tender: the contract is awarded to the contractor offering the lowest price. Any
contractor certified for the type of construction work concerned may tender.

• limited tender: same procedure as open tender, however, reserved for a limited
number of selected contractors.

• general call for tender: the contract is awarded to the best bid in terms of price,
technical solution proposed and financial soundness of the contractor.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (11 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

• restricted call for tender: same procedure as the general call for tender, however,
reserved for a limited number of contractors.

• by mutual agreement: the contract is awarded to a contractor who is asked to submit a


bid. This procedure is only used in a limited number of cases and remains an exception.

2. Private Sector

In the private sector the principal standard form is the "Cahier des charges" (conditions
of contract).

3. Forms of contract

(a) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of works with detailed technical specifications and a bill of
quantities. Fixed prices are defined for all items on the bill. The risk on quantities is with the client.

(b) Lump Sum Contract

Lump sum contracts require a general description of the works with a programme of construction.
The risk on quantities is with the contractor. This type of contract is normally used for 'turnkey'
projects by general contractors in order to find the best technical, economic and functional solution.

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


(a) Individual Contracting

The client places separate contracts with the designer and several package contractors. Design and
construction responsibilities are separate.

(b) General Contracting

Usually the contracts are lump sum and fixed price.

The general contractor takes responsibility for the complete design and construction. He places
several individual package contracts with subcontractors and carries out the main part of the work
himself.

(c) Project Manager Contracting

The Project Manager undertakes responsibility for all design and construction works, but does not do
any work directly. The work is carried out by a series of contractors who are contractually bound to

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (12 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

the project manager who is acting on behalf of the client. Sometimes, these contracts are on a
percentage of global cost.

The most popular forms of contract are (a) and (b).

5. LIABILITIES
5. Contractors

(a) Liability Before Acceptance ("reception")

All contractors are subject to the principles of contractual liability in ordinary law.

Example: completion of execution within the contractual deadline.

(b) Liability After Acceptance

The contractor is liable for:

- Decennial liability

Civil code provides for a special liability of 10 years (for stability aspects only).

This liability is public policy which means that it is forbidden to attenuate it by conventional clauses.

• So-called latent defects considered minor which are not discovered at the time of acceptance. The
defects listed in this category are those which do not affect the stability of a building or of a
construction.

This liability if not public policy.

Conditions for liability are:

• a contract referring to the "gros oeuvre" must exist.

• a serious defect affecting the solidity or the stability of a building must be pointed out.

5. Architects

Architects are subject to liability under ordinary law applicable to contractors as well as to decennial
liability.

They are not liable for tasks assigned to a specialised design office (design and planning which is

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (13 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

outside their normal qualification) except for the incorporation of these designs into the entire plan.

5. Sharing out of liabilities

The architect is the project leader, in charge of designing the building. In principle, any design defect
is, therefore, the exclusive liability of the architect.

The contractor is responsible for any defects which stem from the implementation of the plans drafted
by the architect, or defects linked with the execution of the construction project.

4. Sub-contracting

Architects and contractors are solely liable to the contracting authority for any errors made by their
sub-contractors.

Sub-contractors are only liable to the contracting authority if a contractual relationship exists between
them.

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


Architects and contractors ordinarily subscribe to an insurance policy designed to cover their
commitments in connection with the decennial liability. Furthermore, the contractors are required to
subscribe to a civil liability insurance covering "company risks".

In the case of construction projects carried out on behalf of the State and for the majority of important
construction projects, the contracting authority specifies in its tender that two additional policies have
to be subscribed:

• An "all risks at the work site" insurance policy covering any risks inherent in a construction site. It
includes:

• financial compensation for damages incurred to insured property

• civil liability towards third parties

• proximity disturbances, i.e. any damage incurred by adjacent buildings

This insurance takes effect at the beginning of execution and ends when the building is occupied or
with the provisional acceptance.

It is ordinarily subscribed by the general contractor on his behalf and on behalf of the sub-contractors.
However, it may also be subscribed by the contracting authority or the developer.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (14 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

• So-called "liability insurance and inspections" guaranteeing compensation for damage to the
building which occurs within the ten-year period following acceptance of the building irrespective of
the subscriber of the policy (contractor, sub-contractors, architects, engineers, contracting authorities).

The guarantee of the liability insurance and inspections may be implemented only on the condition
that the construction work which is the object of the guarantees is submitted for inspection to an
independent body - the SECO Bureau - which is in charge of inspecting design and execution of
works.

FINLAND

1. INTRODUCTION
Contractual methods have been long established, but their relative importance is changing.
Construction management agreements are becoming more popular and system unit procurement is
being introduced as a method of procurement.

In product approval, a change of policy is taking place. Rules that demanded an approval by one
specific body are being abolished in preparation for the European Economic Space Agreement. This
is most notably the case in electric appliances but also elsewhere.

2. CONTROLS
Every building needs a building permit admitted by the local authorities before it can be built. The
local authorities check that the building is designed in accordance with the valid technical and city
planning regulations. Hierarchically the highest level of regulation is incorporated into the Building
Law and Byelaw, which cover both the technical and city planning rules.

The technical regulations are given in the National Building Code, which the Ministry of the
Environment issues. The Building Code includes two kinds of regulations: requirements that are
compulsory and guidelines, which present one approved solution to a specific problem In practice,
the guidelines are semi-compulsory because it may be difficult to persuade the local authorities to
approve a solution not presented in the guidelines although they have the right to do so if the solution
satisfies the compulsory requirements.

Several ministries and National Boards (e.g. the National Board for Housing) have their own
technical rules governing special types of buildings (housing, hotels, etc.). These rules, however, are
being abolished and all technical regulations will be presented in the National Building Code.

The guidelines in the Building Code do not give guidance to all problems that arise in building. In
these cases it is customary to refer to recommendations issued by various industrial organisations or
to standards issued by SFS, the Finnish Standards' Organisation.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (15 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

The local authorities can also make local rules additional to the national regulations. The local rules
mostly cover subjects related to city planning: the architecture of buildings, the size of building site,
sewage treatment, fire protection, etc. City plans have lagged behind in many major cities, which has
been an obstacle to building in these areas.

The Building Code specifies standards (SFS-standards) for several products that have to be met
before a product can be approved. Such materials are, for instance, heat insulation and fire protection
materials. The guidelines also specify quality control systems for steel, concrete and glued timber
structures. The producer has to be accepted and inspected by a special quality control organisation
(TLT for steel structures) or the satisfactory quality has to be proved by quality control documents in
every single case.

3. CONTRACTS
The standard form used in most contracts is the Contract Agreement (RT 16-10193) prepared by the
Association of Employers of Finland together with several other organisations. This form is used
together with General Contract Conditions (YSE 1983) prepared by the same organisations.

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


(a) Traditional Contracting

Design and building are separated in this form of procurement. The client has separate agreements
with architects, engineers and contractors. The main contractor is responsible for carrying out the
actual building work, procurement of labour and materials and for co-ordinating the work of sub-
contractors and material suppliers. The sub-contractors can have their contracts either directly with
the client or with the main contractor.

This form of contracting is the most widely used at the moment, but it is losing ground both to
management contracting and system unit procurement.

In traditional contracting, the contractor is payed either on a lump sum or unit price basis. Unit price
contracts are often used in industrial buildings and repair works, where the full extent of work is not
exactly known when the contract agreement is signed.

(b) Management Contracting

In this form of contracting, the client has an agreement with the management contactor who is
responsible for co-ordinating the design of the project and for co-ordinating the actual construction
work, which is carried out by sub-contractors. The sub-contractors are contractually bound to the
management contractor.

The management contractor is usually paid on a cost plus fee basis.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (16 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(c) Design and Build

The contractor is responsible both for the design and construction of the building.

The contractor may also enlarge his responsibilities to the procurement of the building site and
marketing of the building, in which case he becomes a developer. This is often the case in office
buildings and housing projects.

(d) System Unit Procurement

The disadvantage of traditional methods of procurement, where the work is carried out according to
detailed plans prepared by the client and his consultants, is that they do not fully utilise the building
component producers' and sub-contractors' know-how in developing the most cost-effective solutions
for a specific building project. A new form of procurement called "System Unit Procurement" has
been developed to overcome this disadvantage. In this form of procurement the client gives
functional specifications for the building units to be procured and the material supplier or sub-
contractor is responsible for the design and erection of the unit.

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
See items 4 and 6.

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


Unless the documents state otherwise, the contractor is obliged to take out a fire insurance that covers
the building materials, supplies and components that can be damaged by fire.

He is also obliged to given the client a guarantee for fulfilling the contract and refunding advance
payments. If not stated otherwise, the guarantee is 10% of the contract sum during the building
operations and 2% during the guarantee period.

The guarantee period is one year if not stated otherwise in the documents. The contractor is, after the
guarantee period, still responsible for such defects, omissions, inconveniences or incomplete work
that the client could not reasonably notice during the handing-over inspection or guarantee period.
This responsibility terminates 10 years after the handing-over inspection. There is a tendency for the
courts of law to include an increasing amount of defects within this extended period of guarantee.

The law or the General Contract Conditions for Consultants (KSE 1983) do not require a professional
insurance for the architects and engineers. It is common practice for them to take a voluntary
professional insurance.

The upper limit of the damages a consultant may have to pay for professional omissions is equal to
the consultants fee, if not stated otherwise in the contract documents. His responsibility covers the
same periods of time according to the same principles as those of the contractors.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (17 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

FRANCE

1. INTRODUCTION
All buildings are subject to standards, technical instructions, standardised technical documents,
professional rules of application, or any other statutory tests which enable all the building clauses to
be defined.

2. INSPECTIONS
The construction of new buildings is subject to a building license being obtained, which is issued
today by the mayor of the district* where the project is located. The license application must contain
a description of the project (purpose, number of M2 ...) as well as the main architectural aspects (type
of structure, architectural concept ...).

After obtaining the licence, the main building contractor draws up a user file on the technical
specifications and the drawings of the operation. In this context the materials are chosen according to:

• standards for the products, e.g. steel sections

• technical instructions or standardised technical documents (DTU) for building systems, e.g. curtain
wall elevations, matching sheet with trapezoidal corrugations for flat floors and ceilings

• particular specifications for certain types of building (energy, buildings with public access)

• regional requirements for certain products, e.g. thatched roofing, bricks, etc.

For all public-sector contracts (Government, communes, departments and regions) there is a "public-
sector contracts code" giving the statutory reference texts, for example the computational regulations.

Certification (or label adoption) is not very widespread in France, except for certain products and
industries (e.g. nuclear power stations).

3. CONTRACT
1. General

(a) Public-sector Contract

All public-sector contracts are subject to a "public-sector contracts code". Furthermore, certain
managements or national enterprises (SNCF*, EDF**) have issued their own technical specifications

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (18 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

and material inspection procedures (stipulation of approved suppliers, administrative documents,


quality assurance procedure, qualifying firms).

The opening up of the European market means that today foreign firms are able to tender for this type
of contract, which was often not possible before.

(b) Private Contract

There is a "private contracts code" which defines relations between customers and firms. The clauses
of the contract are drawn up by the main building contractor in agreement with the building owner. It
is possible to issue only one call to tender to a limited number of firms, but it is also possible to
negotiate with only one firm (a so-called order "by private contract".

2. Form of Contract

Contracts usually include price review clauses defined by official formulae and indices. It is possible,
however, to come across contracts with firm, non-renewable prices. This is true for small, short-term
sites.

4. MAIN METHODS OF OBTAINING CONTRACTS


There are mainly three types of contract entered into:

4. General Firm

A firm commits itself to the building price and deadline. It is responsible for the whole site, sub-
contracts certain works to other firms and ensures co-ordination throughout.

It is an easy solution for the end customer and the architect because they only have dealings with a
single manager. In return, this gives the firm considerable power in negotiating with sub-contractors
for certain technical and economic choices and enables him in the end to increase his margin through
negotiation with sub-contractors. This type of contract corresponds to "turnkey" contracts.

4. Contract in Separate Lots

The building owner and architect define lots of works for which they issue separate calls to tender to
firms. This formula means that the most advantageous prices can often by obtained for each lot. It
requires in return great co-ordination on the site, which the architects are not always able to ensure
since there are a number of managers.

There are formulae which limit the number of lots and, therefore, the number of firms.

Moreover, general building firms are increasingly involved in property development. They buy land
on which they construct a building for a customer. This formula generally gives them better margins.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (19 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
As a rule, responsibilities are clearly defined.

The building owner, who is often the building's customer, is responsible for paying the firms and the
main building contractor (architect + BBT*). He generally calls on an inspection office (e.g. Veritas,
Socotec) for the technical aspects to check that the building complies with regulations.

There are different types of tasks for the architect, but he is generally responsible for choosing and
following-up technical solutions. He chooses a BBT* who is responsible for the calculation of the
works, the technical design (electricity, fluids, etc.).

Finally, firms are responsible for performance on the site. They are responsible for assembly in
compliance with the rules and often for implementing the site plans (a task which can be devolved to
the architect in some cases).

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEE


In general, the customer is insured for damage during building. In addition, the architect and the
BBT* underwrite insurance covering risks associated with the design of the work.

One specifically French detail is the existence of the "ten-year" guarantee affecting certain parts of
the building. This guarantee period is the result of a law voted in 1978. The various guarantee periods
are, therefore, as follows (as from the date of acceptance of the works to the end of building):

• two years for parts which come under the design and completion of the building (e.g. paper wall
covering)

• ten years for the entire framework and functions of use of the building (roofing, floors)

• thirty years for parts which involve people's safety (balconies, structural elements)

This is a so-called "public liability" guarantee.

Furthermore, there is a one-year guarantee after acceptance of the works on the entire building called
a flawless completion guarantee. In fact, the situation is a complex one because the ten-year
guarantee affects both the assembly firms and the manufacturers of the materials.

In the event of disputes, the guarantees can be transferred from the firm to the manufacturer.
Manufacturers of products may, therefore, be responsible for the use of their own product.

7. FUTURE CHANGES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (20 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

The future enactment of the European Construction Products Directive will change guarantee and
manufacturers' liability criteria.

In this instance, it is possible that the architects may be obliged to have a more technical vision of the
use of materials because their responsibility will be more heavily involved.

Finally, problems of maintenance, life cycle and demolition of future buildings will have to be
considered when building, which will bring about changes in building techniques.

GERMANY

1. INTRODUCTION
Technical standards are generally complete and coherent. However, requirements for certification and
quality marks sometimes have expensive implications. Specifications are not always updated as
frequently as is desirable.

There is a good framework for planning and controlling the maintenance of structures during their
life.

2. CONTROLS
Town planning regulations are tightly controlled. Obtaining planning permission can sometimes
delay construction for a long period of time.

National technical building standards, e.g. DIN, and other rules and guidelines prepared by such
organisations as DASt, DAf, StB, IfBT, Argebau and STLB are established by government edict.

There are also state building laws covering administrative regulations and execution of construction.
There are additional directives for certain types of construction such as schools, warehouses, garages,
assembly halls, etc.

In addition to compulsory special rules for energy supply, environmental protection, technical and
mechanical services and installations, there are industrial guidelines, e.g. AGI, VDI, ISO, which only
have to be followed when contractually agreed.

Where materials and components are not generally used special government approval or test marks
are required. In addition, formal quality assurance is necessary for some materials and components
that are incorporated into permanent works. Materials and components that require test marks or
quality assurance are listed in relevant government regulations. Government approval, test marks and
quality assurance have to be executed by authorised organisations such as technical institutes or
acknowledged academic experts.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (21 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

3. CONTRACTS
2. General

Public sector contracts always adopt specified standard forms. In the private sector modifications to
these standard forms are possible. The principal standard form is the "Verdingungsordnung fur
Bauleistungen" (VOB). Part A defines the procedures prior to award of contract. Parts B and C
provide general conditions of contract and the technical requirements for construction.

Pre-qualification procedures are only adopted for large, complex or unusual projects in order to check
the capability and craftsmanship of contractors. They are used in conjunction with tender procedures.

2. Forms of Contract

(a) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of works with detailed technical


specifications and a bill of quantities. Fixed prices are defined for all items on the bill.
The risk on quantities is with the client.

(b) Lump Sum Contract

Lump sum contracts require a general description of the works with a programme of
construction. The risk on quantities is with the contractor. This type of contract is
normally used for 'turnkey' projects by general contracts in order to find the best
technical, economic and functional solution.

4. METHODS OF PROCUREMENT
(a) Individual Contracting

Here the client places separate contracts with the designer and several package
contractors. Design and construction responsibilities are separate.

(b) General Contracting

Usually these contracts are lump sum and fixed price.

(i) Design and construction are arranged separately by the client. The general
contractor is responsible for the execution of the total scope of work and undertakes th
main parts of the work. He also places individual packages to subcontractors. Detailed
design is often the responsibility of the general contractor.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (22 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(ii) 'Design and build' construction

Here, the general contractor takes responsibility for the complete design and
construction. He places several individual package contracts with subcontractors and
carries out the main part of the work himself. The main field of application is for
industrial buildings.

(c) Management Contracting

The management contractor undertakes responsibility for all design and construction
works, but does not do any work directly. The work is carried out by a series of
contractors who are contractually bound to the management contractor who is fulfilling
the role of the client. Sometimes these contracts are on a cost plus fee basis.

The most popular forms of contract are (a) and (bi).

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
There are general clear divisions of responsibilities.

The client is responsible for contract award, taking over the works when they are
completed and payments.

The architect is responsible for pre-design, detailed design and drawings, obtaining
planning permission, defining bills of quantities, tendering and site management
including architectural and technical supervision. He has the principal responsibility for
quality, safety and compliance with the law.

Engineers are responsible for the technical input in their specialised fields, such as
structural design, services, etc. The responsibilities cover detailed design, drawings,
tendering and supervision.

The contractor is responsible to the client for carrying out the work, warranties,
maintaining programme and for some aspects of detailed design and shop drawings.
Subcontractors have the same responsibilities as the contractor.

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


It is not general practice to insure against damage during construction.

Architects are required to carry professional insurance. The contractors are required to
carry insurance for responsibilities under civil law.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (23 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Generally, the client is offered a two year guarantee on the completion of the works.
This is regarded as being too advantageous to the contractors and offering insufficient
protection to the client.

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
Means are being sought to make contractors more responsible.

More emphasis will be given to providing a practical education for designers and
builders. Specifications are becoming more practical and comprehensible.

It is likely that the law will be changed imposing more responsibility on the contractor
in the case of defects after construction.

More research is intended on the behaviour of buildings during their service lives so
that shortcomings in construction that lead to subsequent malfunction of the building
can be identified. The outcome of this work will be transmitted primarily to the
contractors to improve the effective quality of construction.

GREECE

1. INTRODUCTION
National technical codes are not generally complete for all kinds of structures, leading
to the use of foreign ones, e.g. DIN, etc. Some of them are not always updated as
frequently as is desirable.

2. CONTROLS
There are strict planning regulations for all kinds of areas (towns, villages, seasides,
etc.).

There are also additional directives for certain types of structures such as schools,
warehouses, garages, industrial buildings, hospitals, hotels, etc.

It is always necessary for all types of construction to obtain permission from public
authorities.

The whole design of structures is covered by compulsory national technical codes (or
in some cases by foreign ones, e.g. DIN). In addition, there are also guidelines which
only have to be followed when contractually agreed.

Formal quality assurance is necessary for some materials that are incorporated into

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (24 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

permanent works. All the test marks or quality assurance required have to be executed
by authorised organisations.

3. CONTRACTS
Public sector contracts adopt specified standard forms, while in the private sector any
different type of form is possible. The forms of contract are as follows:

(a) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of works with detailed technical


specifications and a bill of quantities. Fixed prices are defined for all items on the bill.
The risk on quantities is with the client.

(b) Lump Sum Contract

Lump sum contracts require a general description of the works with a programme of
construction. The risk on quantities is with the contractor.

This type of contract is normally used for 'turnkey' projects by general contractors in
order to find the best technical, economic and functional solution.

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


(a) Individual Contracting

Here the client places separate contracts with the designer and several package
contractors. Design and construction responsibilities are separate.

(b) General Contracting

Usually these contracts are lump sum and fixed price.

(i) Design and construction are arranged separately by the client. The general
contractor is responsible for the execution of the total scope of work and undertakes the
main parts of the work. He also places individual packages to sub-contractors. Detailed
design is often the responsibility of the general contractor.

(ii) 'Design and build' construction

Here the general contractor takes responsibility for the complete design and
construction. He places several individual package contracts with subcontractors and
carries out the main part of the work himself.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (25 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(c) Management Contracting

The management contractor undertakes responsibility for all design and construction
works, but does not do any work directly. The work is carried out by a series of
contractors who are contractually bound to the management contractor, who is
fulfilling the role of the client.

The most popular forms of contract in the private or in public sector are (a) and (bi).

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
There are general clear divisions of responsibilities.

The client is responsible for contract award, taking over the works when they are
completed and payments.

The architect is responsible for pre-design, detailed design and drawings, obtaining
planning permission according to the laws, defining bills of quantities, tendering and
site management including architectural and technical supervision. He has the principal
responsibility for quality, safety and compliance with the law.

Engineers are responsible for the technical input in their specialised fields, such as
structural design, etc. The responsibilities cover detailed design, drawings, tendering
and supervision.

The contractor is responsible to the client for carrying out the work, warranties,
maintaining programme and for some aspects of detailed design and shop drawings.
Sub-contractors have the same responsibilities as the contractor.

6. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


There are no legal requirements, but in order to insure against damage during
construction, the client can buy a professional insurance for a two year period.

Generally, the client is offered a short period (one to five years) guarantee on the
completion of the works.

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
Means are being sought to make contractors generally more responsible.

IRELAND

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (26 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

1. INTRODUCTION
The construction industry in Ireland is effectively divided into three sectors, with
contractors tending to specialise in one of these:

(a) Civil engineering construction - mostly projects funded by central government in


the areas of roads, bridges, water supply, sewerage, etc.

(b) General building construction - mostly private developments, with exceptions such
as schools and hospitals. On local authority or government projects, there is an
increasing tendency for developers to construct and lease back.

(c) Housing construction - largely speculative. Local authority involvement has been
severely curtailed in recent years.

2. CONTROL
Planning is governed by a succession of Planning Acts and Planning Regulations
issued thereunder. These require local authorities to prepare and adopt development
plans. Most developments require the formal permission of the planning authorities.

Building Regulations (1991) were issued under the Building Control Act (1990) under
which the large local authorities were invested with the power of Building Control
Authorities, with powers of inspection and enforcement. These authorities are also Fire
Authorities. Certain aspects relating to the nature of and responsibility for, Certificates
of Compliance with the Building Regulations are still under discussion between
Building Control Authorities and the professional bodies representing consulting
engineers and architects.

Health and safety is governed by the Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Act (1989)
and EC safety directives embodied in the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work
Regulations (1993). These require employers to carry out an analysis of hazards in the
workplace, and include for casual, temporary as well as permanent employees.
Previous legislation on health and safety related in the main to industrial employment,
the principal acts being the Factories Act (1955) and Safety in Industry Act (1980)
under which regulations such as The Construction (Safety, Health and Welfare)
Regulations (1975) were enacted. These remain in force.

Design and materials are governed by standards issued by the National Standards
Authority of Ireland (NSAI). Where NSAI do not provide a standard, British Standards
(BS) or International Standards (ISO) are frequently substituted. NSAI have
responsibility for the issue of Eurocodes and associated National Application
Documents in Ireland.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (27 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

3. CONTRACTS
(a) RIAI Contract conditions 1989 - with quantities/

- without quantities

Used in conjunction with:

• Subcontract conditions issued by the Construction Industry Federation for use in


conjunction with the RIAI conditions of contract

• Quantities measured in accordance with SMM6 (1976), SMM7 (1988) and PCMI.

(b) GDLA Contract conditions 1982 - with quantities/

- without quantities

Used in conjunction with:

• Subcontract conditions issued by the Construction Industry Federation for use in


conjunction with the GDLA conditions of contract

• Quantities measured in accordance with SMM6, SMM7 and POMI.

(c) IEI Conditions of contract 1980

Used in conjunction with:

• ICE subcontract conditions

• Quantities measured in accordance with CESMM2 or CESMM3.

also

RISI Short Form Contract - for minor works.

Abbreviations

RIAI - Royal Institution of Architects of Ireland.

GDLA - Government department and local authorities.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (28 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

IEI - Institution of Engineers of Ireland.

ICE - Institution of Civil Engineers (UK).

SMM6 - Standard Method of measurement of Building Works, Sixth Edition (1979)

SMM7 - Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works, Seventh Edition (1988).

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and Building Employers Federation (UK).

CESMM2 - Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement, Third Edition (1985)

CESMM3 - Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement, Third Edition (1992).

Institution of Civil Engineers and Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors (UK).

POMI - Principles of Measurement (International).

Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (UK).

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


(a) Negotiated tendering

(b) Open tendering

(c) Selective list

The IEI form of contract nearly always entails open tendering. Selected tendering is
frequently adopted with RIAI and GDLA contract conditions. The selected list
typically extends to 6 to 8 firms, and sometimes entails pre-qualification.

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
The various forms of contract are broadly similar in regard to responsibilities placed on
the parties to the tender - with the exception of 'Design and Build'.

In building contracts, the architect is generally responsible for development of the


design brief, for obtaining permissions, for managing the design through its stages, for
site supervision and budgetary control. To assist in the discharge of these
responsibilities the architect will usually recommend to the client the appointment of
civil or structural engineers, service engineers and quantity surveyors, reporting to the
architect.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (29 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

In civil engineering contracts, the engineer has primary responsibility for all aspects of
design, site supervision and budgetary control.

In both types of contract, the main responsibility for safety during execution lies with
the contractor.

6. INSURANCES AND GUARANTEES


(a) Employees liability insurance

(b) Public liability insurance

(c) All-risk insurance

(d) Non-negligence insurance

(e) Contract guarantee bonds

7. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
(a) Introduction of Eurocodes into design practice.

(b) Implementation of EC safety legislation, e.g. the Construction Sites Directive 1992,
placing responsibilities for Health and Safety on engineering and architectural
consultants as well as on the contractor.

(c) Resolution of outstanding issues relating to Certificates of Compliance with the


Building Regulations.

(d) Greater prevalence of 'Design and Build'.

ITALY

1. INTRODUCTION
Technical standards are generally complete and coherent. There are problems about
quality marks of many products: this depends on the fact that in Italy CE marks are not
yet adopted and there is no law about the "Quality Mark".

Frameworks for controlling and planning the maintenance of structures are adopted for
some of the largest companies only, such as State Railways and State Highways.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (30 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

2. CONTROLS
Town planning regulations are not often tightly controlled especially in the south of
Italy.

Quality marks are not yet defined by law but many products have a proper quality mark.

Obtaining planning permission is difficult.

National building standards, e.g. UNI, and other rules and guidelines prepared by
different organisations such as CAR, are established by government edict.

There are some other building laws covering administrative regulations and execution
of construction. There are additional directives for certain types of construction such as
schools, hospitals, garages, etc.

Where materials and components are not generally used, special government approval
is required. In addition, formal quality assurance is necessary for some materials and
components that are incorporated into permanent works.

Government approval, test marks and quality assurance have to be executed by


authorised organisations such as technical institutes.

3. General

Public sector contracts always adopt specified standard forms. In the private sector modifications are
frequent. The principal standard form is the "Capitolato generale e speciale per l'appalto dei Lavori
pubblici". The first part defines procedures prior to the award of the contract. The second and third
parts provide general conditions of contract and technical requirements for construction.

The weak point of many contracts concerns the requirements for drawings and the description of the
scope of work which are often imprecise. This lack of precision causes claims, delays, etc.

Pre-qualification procedures are widely adopted. In Italy there is a specific "Builders List" - "Albo
Nazionale dei Costruttori" - where the companies are included in relation to their capability to
undertake in different works, such as reinforced concrete, earth movements, buildings, etc. and in
relation to their financial means.

2. Forms of Contract

(a) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of works with detailed technical specifications and a rough
bill of quantities. The risk on quantities is with the client. Programme of execution is required.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (31 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(b) Lump Sum Contract

Lump sum contracts require a description of works with detailed technical specifications. A
programme of execution is also required. The risk on quantities is with the contractor.

(c) A variant of the second type is the lump sum contract related to a bill of quantities with unit
prices. Variations required by the client are regulated in conformity to unit fixed prices: otherwise the
risk on quantities is with the contractor.

3. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


(a) Individual Contracting

The client places separate contacts with the designers and several package contractors. Design and
construction responsibilities are separated

(b) General Contracting

There are unit prices and lump sum contracts, depending on the scope of works.

(i) Design and Construction Arranged Separately by the Client

The general contractor is responsible for the execution of the total scope of work and undertakes the
main parts of the works himself. He also places individual packages to subcontractors. Workshop
design is often the responsibility of the contractor.

(ii) 'Design and Build' Construction

The general contractor takes responsibility for the complete design and construction. He places
several individual package contracts with sub-contractors and carries out the main part of the work
himself. This is the main field of application of industrial buildings.

(iii) Management Contracting

Rarely used in Italy

The most popular forms of contract are (a) and (bi)

4. RESPONSIBILITIES
Italian laws and regulations give a clear division of responsibilities. Problems arise with the
instructions for a complete, finished work. Often, in fact, drawings and specifications are incomplete

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (32 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

and not detailed enough; this causes, as mentioned before, controversies among the parties and delays.

The client is responsible for the contract award, tendering, taking over the works when they are
completed, and payments.

The architect is responsible for pre-design, detailed design and architectural drawings, obtaining
planning permission, architectural and technical supervision, quality, compliance with the law
relating to his role (architectural).

The clerk of works, often an engineer, has the responsibility for the site management and the erection
of the building according to the approved drawings, the control of the bill of quantities, the control of
the programme, safety and compliance with the law relating to his role.

The engineers are responsible for the technical inputs in their specialised fields, such as structural
design, services, etc.

The contractor is responsible to the client for carrying out the work, warranties, maintaining the
programme, and for shop drawings. The contractor is responsible to the client for the subcontractors.

5. INSURANCES AND GUARANTEES


Contractors are required to be insured against damage during the construction and for responsibilities
under civil law.

Architects and engineers are not required to carry professional insurance (if not carried by the
contractor).

The contractor must offer a guarantee valid for ten years as far as serious defects of the construction
are concerned.

6. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
Many changes are foreseen and requested in the future, as outlined below:

• Drawings and specifications must be ready " for construction" at the time of the award, in order to
avoid claims and disputes during execution and further delays and damages.

• Architects and engineers must be insured against damages.

• For public works, an independent surveyor dedicated to the control of quality and the bill of
quantities is strongly required.

LUXEMBOURG
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (33 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

1. CONTROLS
Apart from building permits, administrative approvals for building products are not required in
Luxembourg. As Luxembourg has no building standards, reference is normally made to Euronorms
(EN) and Eurocodes or to the standards of neighbouring countries. Quality certificates from an
acknowledged foreign testing institute are often requested.

2. CONTRACTS
Pubic sector contracts always adopt specific standard forms. In the private sector modifications to
these standard forms are possible. The German standard form "Verdingungsordnung fur
Bauleistungen" is commonly used as a basis for contracts.

Usually contracts are awarded in the form of unit price contracts. Lump sum contracts are rather an
exception.

3. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


In public works, individual contracting is the rule. The private sector may use general contacting as a
method of procurement.

4. RESPONSIBILITIES
The architect and the engineer are responsible for the design and the bill of quantities.

The contractor is responsible for the executed work or the delivered equipment according to
specifications, drawings and bill of quantities.

5. INSURANCE AND GUARANTEES


In addition to the insurance for responsibility under civil law, major contracts are executed under an
all-risks insurance, covering damage during construction.

Guarantees are at two levels, a two-year guarantee for secondary work and a ten-year guarantee for
the structural part of buildings.

SPAIN
1. Controls
1. Planning and Approvals

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (34 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

The seventeen autonomous communities (comunidad autonoma) or regional governments, not the
State, have ultimate responsibility for planning and control of construction. The powers are exercised
by the local authorities (ayuntamientos), of which there are some 8000 grouped into fifty-two
provinces. The responsibilities were set out in Law 19 of 2 May 1975.

All local authorities of over 50,000 inhabitants have to produce a structure plan (plan general), which
is approved by the planning commission of the autonomous communities. All urban areas each have
a more detailed town plan (plan parcial), which is approved by the local authority as and when new
areas are developed.

Each local authority grants building permits but does not exercise direct technical control. Control of
building regulations and initial control in the light of the structure plan and town plan are exercised
entirely by the architect via the local college of architects.

The building permit (licencia de construccion) is a legal requirement before construction can begin,
and is required before gas, water and electricity connection can be made. It is only given when the
developer or client presents the project documents together with a permit (visado) issued by the
college of architects.

As well as checking from the point of view of urban planning, the local authority also verifies where
appropriate that fire regulations, health regulations, or other specific local regulations are satisfied,
particularly for public buildings.

At the end of construction, the architect signs the acceptance certificate, which must be stamped by
the college of architects after the client has paid the architect's fees in full to the college. The
certificate is then submitted to the local authority for the occupation licence (licencia de apertura).

1. Standards and Regulations

Building regulations in Spain are passed principally by the national government, but since 1980 the
autonomous communities also have the power to do so.

The legislation has been divided since 1977 explicitly into two classes:

· The basic norms (normas basicas de la edificacion) (NBEs) which are the only obligatory standards.

· The technical norms (normas technologicas de la edificacion) (NTEs) which are advisory but not
obligatory.

An index to the legislation on building, the Indice de Disposiciones Relacionadas con la Edificacion
(latest edition 1987), is published by MOPU.

The Directorate-General of Architecture and Building Technology of MOPU produces or approves


codes of practice (Soluciones Homologadas de Edificacion) (SHEs) whose use guarantees meeting
the minimum requirements of the NBEs.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (35 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Product standards in Spain, for all industries, are set by the Spanish Association for the Normalisation
of Certification (Asociacion Espanol de Normalisacion y Certificacion) (AENOR).

There is, in general, no legal requirement to use approved products, and no import restriction on
products which do not meet or are not approved to UNE standards.

Testing for certification of suppliers and product approval is carried out by approved laboratories. In
1986 a new accreditation system for laboratories was set up as Red Espanola de Laboratorios de
Ensayo (RELE).

1. Contract Forms

In the private sector there are no regulated procurement practices or standard contract forms.
The public sector, on the other hand, is regulated tightly, as in other Napoleonic Code
countries.

Basic principles of contracts are laid down in the Civil Code and the Commercial Code. The
drafting of each contract is a matter for the parties involved. There are no standard forms.

· Fixed price lump sum contract (por ajuste alzado global y precio cerrado). This formula is
used rarely except for single family housing.

· Unitary quantities contract (por precio determinado en funcion de la unidad y cantidad).


This is the most common form of contract.

· Management contract (por administracion). This is used rarely.

Public contracts are regulated by:

· The Law of State Contracts (Ley de Contratos del Estado).

· The General Regulations for State Contracts (Regulacion General de Contratos del Estado).

· The General Administrative Clauses (Pliego de Clausulas Administrativas Generales)


(PCAG)

The autonomous communities have the power to pass their own public procurement
legislation, but have followed the State legislation.

Public contracts are normally based on a fixed price, subject to cost escalation formulae which
are laid down in considerable detail in the regulations.

2. PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (36 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

2. Private Sector Procurement

The selection of a contractor by a private developer may often by influenced by the complex inter-
relationships of Spanish business.

2. Public Procurement

Further new legislation will need to be introduced to adopt the new EC directives on public
procurement. The existing EC directives were incorporated in decree 2528/1986. Existing procedures
are set out in the legislation on State contracts described in the previous section.

The existing legislation (as modified in 1986) specifies three types of tendering procedure as follows:

· Subasta (auction) in which the tender documents include a fully priced bill of quantities.

· Concurso (competition) in which the bill of quantities is unpriced or not included, and the contract
is awarded to the 'most advantageous offer'.

· Contratacion directa (negotiation) in which the price is negotiated directly with a candidate selected
on general technical criteria.

1. Responsibilities

4. Architects Responsibilities

The architect is totally responsible for ground investigations, design and site supervision and advises
on the appointment of a contractor.

4. Technical Architects Responsibilities

A technical architect is normally responsible for the bills of quantities, cost estimates, detailed
budgets and control of payments in the architect's service.

1. Insurance and Guarantees

The Spanish Civil Code adopted a simple approach to construction liability, similar to the Napoleonic
Code. The code is based on the following two basic principles.

· Ten-year strict liability for serious defects.

· Responsibility shared between the main contractor and two independent professionals acting in a
personal capacity - the architect and the technical architect, or aparejador.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (37 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Both architects and technical architects have public liability insurance arranged through their colleges.

There is no obligation to carry insurance cover, and some professionals who are not in independent
practice or have low workloads do not bother to insure.

SWEDEN

1. INTRODUCTION
The Swedish contractual situation within the building sector is standardised and well established
between the various parties. In 1992 a new general regulation, called AB 92, was established (the
former was AB 72).

There is a good framework for planning and maintenance of buildings during their lifetime.

2. CONTROLS
Planning regulations are tightly controlled by state and municipalities. Obtaining planning permission
can sometimes delay construction for a very long period of time.

Examples of various Swedish building-regulations and codes are "Boverkets


nybyggnadsregler" (regulations and general recommendations), BBK (concrete structures), BSK
(steel structures), etc.

There are also state building laws covering administrative regulations and execution of construction.
There are also additional laws and directives for certain types of constructions and installations.

There is a strong movement in Sweden to give the industry a higher degree of responsibility for its
products and works.

In addition to compulsory special regulations for energy supply, environmental protection and
mechanical services and installations, there are also industrial guidelines.

Where materials and components are not generally tested and used special government approval or
test marks are required. In addition, formal quality assurance is necessary for some materials and
components that are incorporated into permanent construction. Materials and components that require
test marks or quality assurance are listed in relevant government regulations. Testing and approvals
have to be executed by authorised bodies.

3. CONTRACTS
2. General

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (38 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Public sector contracts always adopt specified standard forms according to the new "AB 92" (general
regulations for contractual works). The principal standard form is the "AB 92".

Pre-qualification procedures are seldom used for projects in order to check capability and
craftsmanship of contractors. They are now used in conjunction with restricted tender procedures and
their use will increase in the next few years.

2. Forms of Contract

(a) Lump Sum Contract

The parties agree on a fixed lump sum for the contractual work. If the extent of the
work does not change, the price is fixed. The fixed price can be subjected to price
adjustment.

This type of contract is normally used in turn-key and general contracting.

(b) Unit Price Contract

Unit price contracts require a description of the works with technical specifications and
a bill of quantities. Fixed prices are given by the contractor for all items on the bill. The
quantities given by the client are estimates. The final cost is determined when the work
is completed. This is a normal contract form in road projects.

(c) Cost-plus Contract

The contractor is paid in accordance with his actual costs.

3. Methods of Procurement

(a) Divided Contract

Here the client places separate contracts with the designer and several package contractors. Design
and construction responsibilities are separate.

(b) General Contracting

Contracts are lump sum and fixed price with or without price adjustment.

(i) Design and construction is arranged separately by the client. The general contractor is responsible
for the execution of the total scope of work and undertakes the main parts of the work himself. He
also places individual packages to subcontractors. Detailed design is often the responsibility of the
general contractor.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (39 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

(ii) 'Design and Build' Construction

Here, the general contractor takes total responsibility for the complete design and construction. He
places several individual package contracts with subcontractors and carries out the main part of the
work himself.

(iii) 'Design, Build and Operate' Construction

This is an extension of 'Design and Build' Construction where the contractor is also responsible for
the management of the finished building.

(c) Management Contracting

The contractor takes responsibility for all design and construction works, but does not do any work
directly. The work is carried out by a series of contractors who are contractually bound to the main
contractor, who fulfils the role of the client. Sometimes these contracts are on a cost plus fee basis.

4. RESPONSIBILITIES
There are generally clear divisions of responsibilities. The client is responsible for contract award,
taking over as the works are completed, and payments.

Engineers are responsible for the technical input in their specialised fields such as structural design.
The responsibilities cover detailed design, drawings, tendering and supervision by the rule of
"YOKEL 72".

The contractor is responsible to the client for carrying out the work, warranties, maintaining
programme and some aspects of detailed design and shop drawings. Sub-contractors have equal
responsibilities.

5. INSURANCES AND GUARANTEES


Sometimes contractors insure against damage during construction, e.g. "Contractors all risk".

Generally, the client is offered a two-year guarantee on completion of the work. It is under discussion
to establish an eight-year responsibility assurance for contracts, which is expected to increase
contract costs by 1-2%.

6. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
Means are being sought to make contractors more responsible, see above.

More emphasis will be given to providing a practical education for designers and builders.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (40 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

UNITED KINGDOM

1. INTRODUCTION
The market is well developed with suitable technical standards available. There are various routes
used for building procurement depending on the size and type of building and the client preference.
In the particular case of steel frames, responsibility for frame design and the detail design of
connections is often split between different organisations. A Consulting Engineer is often employed
for the frame design, including selection of sections, while the Fabricator will normally detail design
the connections to resist the loads provided by the Designer. There are, therefore, separate contracts
involved for the different operations. An increasing number of jobs are carried out through the
"Design & Build" method where responsibility for the whole rests with one organisation. Some sub-
contracting is normal.

2. CONTROLS
In addition to the overall requirement to obtain planning permission for the whole works, it is
necessary to satisfy the Building Regulations. These regulations are administered by the local
authority where the building is to be built. For structural frames, this work will involve a check of the
calculations to ensure the regulations have been satisfied. This is normally achieved by conforming to
the appropriate European or national standard but exceptionally, the Building Control Officer can
accept alternatives.

For products for which the codes are not appropriate, test results verified by the British Board of
Agreement or other reputable independent bodies, such as Universities, will usually be accepted.

3. CONTRACTS
Most structural steelwork is carried out as a subcontract to the main or management contractor. The
form of contract is usually JCT 80, although many variants are used. Where the steelwork is
measured, as opposed to a lump sum arrangement, then the measurement will usually be to SMM7
(RICS Standard Method of Measurement 7th edition).

One of the problems in the industry is the lack of a standard approach and contract. Care must be
taken to understand the legal and technical requirements of each contract. The publication of the
"National Structural Steelwork Specification" assists this process.

4. MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT


The three main procurement routes are:

4. Traditional

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (41 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

In this method, the building is designed by the client's professional team who then select a main
contractor who organises the work and appoints his

Sub-contractors. The sub-contractors may be pre-selected and nominated by the Design Team.

4. Management Contracting

In this arrangement, a Management Contractor is appointed by the client in the early phases of the
work. He works alongside the Design Team and advises on the practical aspects of the design as well
as ensuring this work proceeds to programme. He also appoints and manages the work of the various
Sub-contractors.

The specialist Sub-contractors, of which the Steelwork Supplier is one, are responsible for the detail
design, fabrication and erection of the various work packages.

The steel sub-contract includes the frame and secondary members and, depending on the type of
work, the cladding, floors, hand railing, etc.

3. On Site Design and Build

The client provides, with professional assistance, an outline scheme and a performance specification.
The remainder of the design and its construction are then put out to competitive tender.

It is the job of each tendering contractor to manage the work. The structural steel frame is usually
provided by a subcontractor as before but with the additional responsibility for the frame design in
addition to the normal detail design, fabrication and erection.

5. RESPONSIBILITIES
The professional team, involving architects, engineers, quality surveyors are responsible for
producing the overall design of the building, How far they proceed with the detail design depends on
the form of contract being employed and the types of specialist sub-contractors.

The main or management contractor is responsible for organising the work on site, safely and to
programme, and for coordinating the various subcontractors. He is responsible to the client for their
work.

6. INSURANCES AND GUARANTEES


There are statutory insurance requirements such as Public Liability to cover damage and injury to
personnel. The completed work is subject to a contractual maintenance period, often of 12 months.
After that, responsibilities are covered by the law.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (42 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1A]

Guarantees of performance, particularly corrosion of some components, are sometimes requested but
are not normal.

7. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
The major improvements are likely to come from a less adversarial approach to construction. This
change is inhibited by the litigatious attitude of Contractors and

Sub-contractors at present, and the temptation to increase profits through claims.

A greater understanding by Designers and Quantity Surveyors of modern construction and fabrication
techniques would assist.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01a/l0400.htm (43 of 43) [17.07.2010 09:54:49]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.1: Process of Design


OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To introduce the challenge of creative design and to explain approaches by which it may be achieved.

PREREQUISITES

A general knowledge of basic applied mechanics is assumed and prior encouragement should be given to read J E
Gordon's three books [1,2,3].

RELATED LECTURES

Since this lecture deals with the process of design in general terms almost all other lectures are related to it in some way.
Those sections which are most closely associated with it are 1B:Introduction to Design, 14: Structural Systems:
Buildings, 15A: Structural Systems: Offshore, 15B: Structural Systems: Bridges, and 15C: Structural Systems: Miscellaneous

SUMMARY

The lecture begins by considering a definition of design and some objectives. It discusses how a designer can approach a
new problem in general and how a structural designer can develop a structural system. It concludes by considering
differences of emphasis in design approach for different classes of structure.

1. DESIGN OBJECTIVES
The results of successful design in structural engineering can be seen and used by everyone, see Figure 1.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (1 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The question is: how can professional designers be developed and eventually produce better designs than those
previously encountered, to benefit and enhance the performance of human activities? In particular how can steel be
utilised effectively in structures for:
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (2 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● travelling more easily over awkward terrain, requiring bridges.


● enabling basic industrial processes to function requiring, for example, machinery supports, docks and oil rig installations.
● aiding communications, requiring masts.
● enclosing space within buildings, as in Figure 2.

Design is 'the process of defining the means of manufacturing a product to satisfy a required need': from the first
conceptual ideas, through study of human intentions, to the detailed technical and manufacture stages, with the ideas
and studies communicated with drawings, words and models.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (3 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

'Designers'? All people are capable of creative conceptual ideas - they are continuously processing information and
making conscious imaginative choices, e.g. of the clothes they wear, of the activities they engage in, and the development
of ideas they pursue, causing changes.

In structural design, prime objectives are to ensure the best possible:

● unhindered functioning of the designed artefact over a desired life-span.


● safe construction system, completed on time and to the original budget cost.
● imaginative and delightful solution for both users and casual observers.

These points could possibly be satisfied by either:

● simply making an exact copy of a previous artefact, or,


● 're-inventing the wheel', by designing every system and component afresh.

Both these extreme approaches are unlikely to be entirely satisfactory. In the former case, the problem may well be
slightly different, e.g. the previous bridge may have stimulated more traffic flow than predicted, or vehicle weights may
have increased. Economic and material conditions may have changed, e.g. the cost of labour to fabricate small built-up
steel elements and joints has increased compared to the production cost of large rolled or continuously welded elements;
also, corrosion resistant steels have reduced maintenance costs relative to mild steel. Deficiencies of performance may
have been discovered with time, e.g. vibrations may have caused fatigue failures around joints. Energy consumption
conditions may have changed, e.g. relating to the global discharge of certain chemicals, the cost of production of
certain materials, or the need for greater thermal control of an enclosed space. Finally, too much repetition of a visual
solution may have induced boredom and adverse cultural response, e.g. every adjacent building is produced in the
"Post Modern Style".

With the latter approach, 'life is often just too short' to achieve the optimal solution whilst the client frets.... Civil and
structural engineering projects are usually large and occur infrequently, so a disenchanted client will not make a
second invitation. Realisation of new theoretical ideas and innovations invariably takes much time; history shows
this repeatedly. Thus methodical analysis of potential risks and errors must temper the pioneering enthusiast's flair.

Positive creative solutions must be achieved for all aspects of every new problem. The solutions will incorporate
components from the extremes above, both of fundamental principles and recent developments. However, throughout
the Design Process it is prudent to maintain a clear grasp of final objectives and utilise relatively simple technical means
and solutions.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (4 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

2. HOW DOES THE DESIGNER APPROACH HIS NEW TASK?


At the outset of a new task an "instant of blind panic" may occur. There are a variety of Design Methods to help progress [4,
5] with the new task, but the following methodical approach is suggested:

1. Recognise that a challenge exists and clearly define the overall objectives for a design, see Figure 3.
2. Research around the task and investigate likely relevant information (Analysis).
3. Evolve possible solutions to the task (Synthesis).
4. Decide on, and refine, the best solution (Evaluation), establishing clear priorities for action (in terms of
manufacture, construction, operation and maintenance).
5. Communicate decisions to others involved in the task.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (5 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

At the outset, these five phases appear as a simple linear chain; in fact the design process is highly complex, as all factors in
the design are interdependent to a greater or lesser degree. Hence there will be many steps and loops within and between
the phases, as seen in Figure 4. The first rapid passage through phases 1, 2 and 3 will decide if there is 'any problem', e.g. is
the likely traffic flow adequate to justify a convenient but high cost bridge?

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (6 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

All factors and combinations must be explored comprehensively from idea to detail, with many compromises having to
be finely balanced to achieve a feasible solution. Ideas may be developed: verbally, e.g 'brainstorming' or Edward de
Bono's 'lateral thinking' approaches [6], graphically, numerically or physically. Always qualitative assessment should
proceed quantitative evaluation.

The starting point for Analysis may thus be the designer's current preconceived notion or visual imagination, but the
Synthesis will reveal the flexibility of his mind to assimilate new ideas critically, free of preconception.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (7 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

A designer can prepare himself for the compromises and inversions of thought and interaction with other members of
the Design Team leading to successful synthesis, through 'Roleplay Games', e.g. see 'The Monkey House' game, in Appendix 1.

3. HOW DOES THE DESIGNER DEVELOP HIS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM?


An example of structural design, and the various decision phases, will be briefly considered for a simple two-lorry
garage building with an office, toilet and tea room, shown completed in Figure 2. It is assumed in this hypothetical case that
an initial decision has already been made by the client to have this set of requirements designed and built.

3.1 Pose an Initial Concept that may well Satisfy the Functions

It is invariably the best idea to start by looking at the functions (performance) required and their relationships. Make a list
of individual functions; then generate a 'bubble' (or flow) diagram of relationships between different functional areas to
decide possible interconnections and locations, see Figure 5. Find, or assume, suitable plan areas and minimum clear heights
of each three-dimensional 'volume of space'. A possible plan layout may then be indicated, noting any particular
complications of the site, e.g. plan shape, proximity of old buildings, slope or soil consistency.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (8 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Many other plan arrangements will be possible and should be considered quickly at this phase.

The requirements of each 'volume of space' and its interfaces must be examined for all functional, cost and aesthetic criteria,
e.g. what structural applied live loads must be resisted; what heating, ventilating, lighting and acoustic requirements are
likely to be desired, see Figure 6.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (9 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The main criteria can easily be recognised and then followed up and tested by numerical assessment. Incompatibilities may
be 'designed out' by re-arranging the planned spaces or making other compromises, see Figure 7, e.g. would you accept
an office telephone being very close to the workshop drill or lorry engine, without any acoustic insulation?

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (10 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Prepare a set of initial assumptions for possible materials and the structural 'Frame', 'Planar' or 'Membrane' load-bearing
system [7] that might be compatible with the 'volumes of space' as shown in Figure 8. These assumptions will be based
on previous knowledge and understanding of actual constructions[8-13] or structural theory, see Figure 9 a, b, as well as
the current availability of materials and skills. Initial consultations may be needed with suppliers and fabricators, e.g. for
large quantities or special qualities of steel.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (11 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (12 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (13 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (14 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (15 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (16 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (17 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (18 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Steelwork, with its properties of strength, isotropy and stiffness, and its straight and compact linear elements, lends itself
to 'Frame' systems, see Figure 9 c-e, which gather and transfer the major structural loads as directly as possible to
the foundations, as a tree gathers loads from its leaves through branches and main trunk to the roots.

Next (and continuously) elucidate and test your ideas by making quick 3D sketches, or simple physical models, to explore
the likely compatibility and aesthetic impact.

A range of stimulating evocative patterns viewed at different distances from, all around, and inside the buildings must
be developed:

Long range the skyline silhouette or "landscape" pattern

Middle distance when the whole built object can be seen

Close up when a detail is clearly seen

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (19 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Very close when the texture of the materials can be seen.

All these conditions should be satisfied, and especially for very large buildings for most of the time. Deficiencies may be
made up in some people's minds if their social conditions change for the better or natural or changing phenomena occur, e.
g. the rays of the setting sun suddenly give a completely different colour appearance or after sunset the interior lighting
creates patterns previously unnoticed.

Form, colour, warmth and definition can be achieved with skilful use of steel, especially with "human scale" elements
though repetition will soon induce boredom; but only as part of the complete sensory experience which must include
elegant solutions to all aspects - especially those easily visible - of the total building design.

It is very important that all principal specialists (architects, engineers for structure and environmental services, and also
major suppliers and contractors who should all have common education and understanding of basic design
principles) collaborate and communicate freely with each other - also with the client - at this conceptual design phase.
Bad initial decisions cannot subsequently be easily and cheaply rectified at the more detailed design phases.

Be prepared to modify the concept readily (use 4B pencils) and work quickly. Timescale for an initial structural
design concept: seconds/minutes. But hours will be needed for discussion and communication with others in researching
an initial complete design idea.

3.2 Recognise the Main Structural Systems and Contemplate the Necessary Strength and Stiffness

Consider the applied live loads from roofs, floors or walls, and trace the 'load paths' through the integral 3D array of
elements to the foundations, see Figure 10.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (20 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

If the roof is assumed to be profiled steel decking, the rainwater should run to the sides, and a manufacturers' data table
will indicate both the slope angle to be provided (4° - 6° minimum) and the secondary beam (purlin) spacing required, e.
g. commonly 1,4m - 2,6m. The purlins must be supported, e.g. commonly 3m - 8m, by a sloped main beam or truss,
usually spanning the shorter direction in plan, and supported by columns stabilised in three dimensions.

Wind loads on the longer side of the building can be resisted by cladding that spans directly to the main columns, or
onto sidewall rails spanning between columns. The columns could resist overturning by:

● cross-bracing (in this case the large entry door would be impeded).
● or rigidly fixing the columns to the foundation bases ("linked cantilevers"); can the soil resist the extra overturning effect at
the base?

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (21 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● or rigidly fixing the tops of the columns to the main beams (creating 'portals') and giving smaller, cheaper "pin"
base foundations.

Wind loads on the open short side of the building can be resisted by the opening door spanning top or bottom, or side to
side. At the closed short side the wind loads can be resisted by cladding that either spans directly between secondary end
wall columns, or onto rails to these columns.

At both ends of the building, longitudinal forces are likely to be induced at the tops of the columns. Trussed bracing can
be introduced, usually at both ends of the roof plate, to transfer these loads to the tops of a column bay on the long side -
which must then be braced to the ground.

Identify the prime force actions (compression C; tension T; bending B) in the elements and the likely forms of overall
and element deflections for all applied loadings both separately and when combined.

It is always useful to have the elements drawn to an approximate scale, which can be done using manufacturers' data tables
for decking and cladding, from observations of existing similar buildings, or using 'Rules of Thumb', e.g. the span/depth
ratio for a simply-supported beam equals about 20 for uniform light roof loading, see Figure 11.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (22 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

At this phase the structural design becomes more definite (use B pencil) and takes longer. Timescale: minutes.

3.3 Assess Loads Accurately and Estimate Sizes of Main Elements

Establish the dead load of the construction and, with the live loads, calculate the following, see Figure 12:

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (23 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● beam reactions and column loads (taking half the span to either side of an internal column).
● maximum bending moments, e.g. wL2/8 for a simply supported beam, under uniform load.
● maximum shearing forces in beams.
● deflection values, e.g. 5/384 wL4/EI for a simply supported beam with uniform load.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (24 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The size of columns carrying little moment can be estimated from Safe Load Tables by using a suitable effective
length. Significant bending moments should be allowed for by a suitable increase, i.e. twice or more, in section modulus for
the axis of bending.

Beam sizes should be estimated by checking bending strength and stiffness under limiting deflections. Structure/service duct
or pipe integration may require beams to be as shallow as possible, or deeper and with holes in the web.

Likely jointing methods must be considered carefully: is the beam to be simply supported or fully continuous and what are
the fabrication, erection and cost implications?

Structural calculations are now being performed (use HB pencil with slide rule, simple calculator or computer) and the
time involved is more significant. Timescale: minutes/hours.

3.4 Full Structural Analysis, using Estimated Element Sizes with Suitable Modelling of Joints,
Related to Actual Details

Carry out a full structural analysis of the framework, either elastically or plastically. A computer may well be used,
though some established 'hand' techniques will often prove adequate; the former is appropriate when accurate deflections
are required, see Figure 13.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (25 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

For the analysis of statically indeterminate structures, an initial estimate of element stiffnesses (I) and joint rigidity must
be determined by the third phase above, before it is possible to find the disposition of bending moments and deflections.
If subsequent checking of the design of elements leads to significant changes in element stiffness, the analysis will have to
be repeated. The role of the individual element flanges and web in resiting local forces within connections must also
be considered very carefully when determining final element sizes. Excessive stiffening to light sections can be
prohibitively expensive.

The analysis cannot be completed without careful structural integration and consideration of the compatibility of the
entire construction system including its fabrication details.

Element joints will usually be prepared in the factory using welding, with bolts usually completing joints of

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (26 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

large untransportable elements at site. Bracings, deckings and claddings will usually be fixed on site with bolts or self-
tapping screws. It is important to remember that failures most frequently arise from poor jointing, details and their integration.

The structural calculations and details are now progressing (use HB pencil with slide rule, calculators and
computers). Timescale: hours/days.

Iteration of phases 1-4 above will undoubtedly be required, in particular to ensure that the early structural decisions
are compatible with the subsequent investigations concerning the functional, environment, cost and aesthetic aspects.
The effect of any change must be considered throughout the complete design. Changes usually necessitate a partial 're-design'.

3.5 Communicate Design Intentions through Drawings and Specifications

Prepare detail drawings and specifications for contractors' tenders, see Figure 14. Iteration of the design may again
be necessary, due to variations in contractors' prices and/or preferred methods, e.g. welding equipment available, difficulties
in handling steelwork in the fabricating shop or for transportation and erection. Changes and innovations in the design must
be communicated and specified very carefully and explicitly.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (27 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (28 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In many cases it is common practice for a Consulting Structural Engineer to prepare preliminary designs with choice of
main sections, leaving a Steelwork Fabricator to complete the detailed design and jointing system, before checking by
the Consultant.

The structural design is now being finalised (use 2 to 4 H pencils and pens, or computers). Timescale: days/weeks.

3.6 Supervise the Execution Operation

Stability of the structure must be ensured at all stages of the execution, see Figure 15. High quality components and
skilled erectors must be available at the right place and time, calling for very careful organisation. If 'all goes to plan'
every piece will fit into the complete jigsaw.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (29 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The design ideas are now being put into operation (use gumboots). Timescale: weeks/months.

3.7 Conduct Regular Maintenance

Only regular maintenance already thoroughly planned into the design will be needed, with occasional change and
renovation needed with change of use or occupation. Correction of design faults due to innovation and errors should not
be needed.

This is the operation phase. (Use a serene outlook on life!) Timescale: years/decades.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (30 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.8 Differences of Emphasis in Design Approach Compared to that of a Medium Sized Building

3.8.1 Single houses

Most "traditionally" built timber and masonry houses include some standard steel elements, e.g. hot-rolled steel beams to
span larger rooms and support walls, hollow section columns for stair flights, cold-rolled lintels over window
openings, stainless steel wall ties and straps, also nails, screws and truss-rafter nail plates.

Cold-rolled galvanised or stainless steel sections can be made up into truss-rafters and replace timber in repetitive
conditions. Similar sections can be made up as stud walls, but fire protection of the thin-walled sections will require
careful attention, especially for multi-storey houses.

A main steel structural frame may be used for houses, but integration of services, thermal control, fire protection in
multi-storeys, corrosion and fabrication costs of elegant jointing must be designed appropriately. Various types of profiled
or composite panel cladding can be used for the exterior.

3.8.2 Bridges

The magnitudes of gravity loading are often relatively greater in bridges, and particular load patterns need to be assessed;
also trains of moving wheel loads will occur giving marked dynamic effects. Dynamic effects of wind loading are significant
in long-span structures. Accessibility of site, constructability of massive foundations, type of deck structure and
regular maintenance cost will govern the system adopted. Aesthetics for users and other observers are important; long
distance scale should be appropriately slender but psychologically strong; careful attention is needed for fairly close viewing
of abutments and deck underside.

3.8.3 Offshore oil rigs

The scale of the whole operation will be very many times that of an onshore building. Gravity loading, wind speeds,
wave heights and depth of water are significant design parameters for structure size and stability (here larger elements
cause larger wind and wave loads). The scale of the structure also poses special problems for fabrication control, floating
out, anchorage at depth by divers and, not least, cost, see Figure 1. Later when the design life is complete, the problems
of dismantling should be easy, if considered during the initial design.

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● This lecture introduces the challenge of creative design and suggests a holistic strategy for designing structural steelwork.
It seeks to answer questions about what a designer is trying the achieve and how he can start putting pen to paper. It
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (31 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

illustrates how a successful design is iterated, through qualitative ideas to quantitative verification and finally execution.
● Creative and imaginative design of structures is most challenging and fun - now try it and gain confidence for yourself. Do
not be afraid of making mistakes. They will only be eliminated by repeating and exploring many other solutions. Make sure
the design is right before it is built, using your own personal in-built checking mechanisms.

5. REFERENCES
[1] Gordon, J. E. 'The New Science of Strong Materials', Pelican.

[2] Gordon, J. E. 'Structures', Pelican.

[3] Gordon, J. E. 'The Science of Structures and Materials', Scientific American Library, 1988.

[4] Jones, J. C. 'Design Methods', Wiley 2nd Edition 1981.

A good overview of general design methods and techniques.

[5] Broadbent, G. H. 'Design in Architecture', Wiley, 1973.

Chapters 2, 13, 19 and 20 useful for designing buildings.

[6] De Bono, E. eg: 'Lateral Thinking' or 'Practical Thinking' or 'The Use of Lateral Thinking', Pelican.

[7] LeGood, J. P, 'Principles of Structural Steelwork for Architectural Students', SCI, 1983 (Amended 1990).

A general introduction and reference booklet to buildings for students.

[8] Francis, A. J, 'Introducing Structures, Pergamon, 1980.

A good overview text, especially Chapter 11 on Structural Design.

[9] Lin, T. Y. and Stotesbury, S. D, 'Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers', Wiley, 1981.

Chapters 1-4 give a very simple and thoughtful approach to total overall structural design, especially for tallish buildings.

[10] Schodek, D. L, 'Structures', Prentice Hall, 1980.


http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (32 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Good clear introductory approach to structural understanding of simple concepts, also especially chapter 13 on structural
grids and patterns for buildings.

[11] Otto, F, 'Nets in Nature and Technics', Institute of Light Weight Structures, University of Stuttgart, 1975.

Just one of Otto's excellent booklets which observe patterns in nature and make or suggest possible designed forms.

[12] Torroja, E, 'Philosophy of Structures', University of California Press, 1962.

Still a unique source book.

[13] Mainstone, R. J, 'Developments in Structural Form', Allen Lane, 1975.

Excellent scholarly historical work, also chapter 16 on 'Structural Understanding and Design'.

APPENDIX 1
'The Monkey House' roleplay game for a group of students at a seminar, Figure 16

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (33 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Between 10 and 12 acting roles are created, one for each student in the group, to consider design requirements and
interactions. Each actor sees an outline sketch plan of a possible building and has about 3 minutes to prepare his
role's requirements, likes and dislikes. These requirements are propounded for about 2/3 minutes to his uninterrupting
fellow participants, who note points of agreement/disagreement. When all actors have spoken, the many conflicts are
then generally discussed and explored by the actors for about 30 minutes. Then the chairperson seeks a conclusion - who is
The Monkey House really for?

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (34 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0100.htm (35 of 35) [17.07.2010 09:54:58]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.2.1: Design Philosophies


OBJECTIVE/SCOPE:

To explain the objectives of structural design and the uncertainties which affect it; to outline how different priorities
might influence the design, and to describe different approaches to quantifying the design process.

RELATED LECTURES:

Lecture 1B.1: Process of Design

Lecture 1B.3: Background to Loadings

Lecture 1B.8: Learning from Failures

Lecture 2.4: Steel Grades and Qualities

Lecture 2.5: Selection of Steel Quality

SUMMARY:

The fundamental objectives of structural design are discussed. The uncertainties associated with designing structures in
terms of loading and material properties are considered. The development of structural design methods for strength
and resistance is reviewed briefly and the importance of achieving structural stability is explained. Other design
considerations such as deflections, vibration, force resistance and fatigue are discussed. Matters of construction
and maintenance are included. The importance of considering these aspects and others, such as accommodating services
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (1 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

and cladding costs, in developing an efficient design is emphasised. The responsibilities of the designer and the need
for effective communication are considered.

1. INTRODUCTION
The precise objectives of structural design vary from one project to another. In all cases, the avoidance of collapse is
an important - if not the most important - requirement and an adequate factor of safety must be provided. In this context,
the structure must be designed in order to fulfil both strength and stability requirements. These concepts are illustrated
in Figure 1 in which a long thin rod is subject to tension (Figure 1a) and compression (Figure 1b). In the case of tension,
the load resistance of the rod is governed by strength, that is the ability of the material to carry load without rupturing. The
rod can only carry this load in compression if it remains stable, i.e. it does not deform significantly in a direction
perpendicular to the line of action of the applied load. The stiffness of the structure is yet another important
characteristic, concerned with resistance to deformation rather than collapse. This is particulary important in the case of
beams whose deflection under a particular load is related to their stiffness (Figure 1c). Large deformations are not
necessarily associated with collapse, and some brittle materials, such as glass, may rupture with little prior deformation.
Other considerations may also need to be included in the design process. They include: quantifiable behaviour such
as deformation, fatigue, fire resistance and dynamic behaviour; considerations such as corrosion and service
accommodation which may influence both detail and overall concept, but in a more qualitative way; and appearance, which
is largely a subjective judgement. In addition considerations of economy are likely to be a significant influence on the
great majority of structural designs. In this context questions of speed and ease of construction, maintenance and running
costs, as well as basic building costs, are all relevant. The relative importance of each of these aspects will vary depending
on circumstances.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (2 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The approach to structural design is dealt with in Lecture 1B.1, which describes how the designer might begin to
accommodate so many different requirements, many of which will exert conflicting pressures. In this lecture the focus is
on how a satisfactory structural design can be achieved through a rational analysis of various aspects of the
structure's performance. It is worth emphasising that the process of structural design can be considered as two groups of
highly interrelated stages. The first group is concerned with defining the overall structural form - the type of structure, e.g.
rigid frame or load bearing walls, the arrangement of structural elements (typically in terms of a structural grid), and the type
of structural elements and material to be used, e.g. steel beams, columns and composite floor slabs. A high degree of
creativity is required. The synthesis of a solution is developed on the basis of a broad understanding of a wide range of
topics. The topics include structural and material behaviour, as well as a feel for the detailed implications of design
decisions made at this stage - for instance recognising how deep a beam may need to be for a particular purpose.
Formalised procedures are of little use at this stage. A satisfactory solution depends more on the creative ability of the designer.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (3 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The later stages are concerned with the more detailed sizing of structural components and the connections between them.
By now the problem has become clearly defined and the process can become more formalised. In the case of steelwork
the process generally involves selecting an appropriate standard section size, although in some circumstances the designer
may wish to use a non-standard cross-section which, for execution, would then need to be made up, typically by welding
plates or standard sections together into plate girders or trusses.

Design regulations are largely concerned with this stage of detailed element design. Their intention is to help ensure
that buildings are designed and constructed to be safe and fit for purpose. Such design legislation can vary considerably
in approach. It may be based simply on performance specification, giving the designer great flexibility as to how a
satisfactory solution is achieved. An early example of this is the building laws published by King Hummarabi of Babylon
in about 2200BC. They are preserved as a cuneiform inscription on a clay tablet and include such provisions as 'If a
builder builds a house for a man and does not make its construction firm and if the house which he has built collapses
and causes the death of the owner of the house, then that builder shall be put to death. If it causes the death of the son of
the owner of the house, then a son of the builder shall be put to death. If it causes the death of a slave of the owner of the
house, then the builder shall give the owner a slave of equal value'. The danger, and at the same time the attraction, of such
an approach is that it depends heavily on the ability of the designer. Formal constraints, based on current wisdom, are
not included and the engineer has the freedom to justify the design in any way.

The other extreme is a highly prescriptive set of design rules providing 'recipes' for satisfactory solutions. Since these
can incorporate the results of previous experience gained over many years, supplemented by more recent research work
they might appear to be more secure. However, such an approach cannot be applied to the conceptual stages of design and
there are many cases where actual circumstances faced by the designer differ somewhat from those envisaged in the
rules. There is also a psychological danger that such design rules assume an 'absolute' validity and a blind faith in the results
of using the rules may be adopted.

Clearly there is a role for both the above approaches. Perhaps the best approach would be achieved by specifying
satisfactory performance criteria to minimise the possibility of collapse or any other type of 'failure'. Engineers should then
be given the freedom to achieve the criteria in a variety of ways, but also be provided with the benefit of available data to
be used if appropriate. Perhaps the most important aspect is the attitude of the engineer which should be based on
simple 'common sense' and include a healthy element of scepticism of the design rules themselves.

2. UNCERTAINTIES IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN


Simply quantifying the design process, using sophisticated analytical techniques and employing powerful computers does
not eliminate the uncertainties associated with structural design, although it may reduce some of them.

These uncertainties include the following:


http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (4 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● loading.
● constitutive laws of the material.
● structural modelling.
● structural imperfections.

Loading is discussed in more detail in Lecture 1B.3. Although it is possible to quantify loads on a structure, it is important
to recognise that in most cases these represent little more than an estimate of the likely maximum load intensity to which
a structure will be exposed. Some loads, such as the self weight of the structure, may appear to be more easily defined
than others, such as wind loads or gravity waves on offshore structures. However, there is a significant degree of
uncertainty associated with all loads and this should always be recognised.

Constitutive laws are typically based on the results of tests carried out on small specimens. For convenience, the
mathematical representation of the behaviour, for instance in the form of a stress-strain curve, is considered in a
simplified form for the purpose of structural design. In the case of steel the normal representation is linear elastic behaviour
up to the yield point with plastic behaviour at higher strains (Figure 2). Although this representation provides a
reasonable measure of the performance of the material, it is clearly not absolutely precise. Furthermore, any material will
show a natural variability - two different samples taken from the same batch will typically fail at different stresses when
tested. Compared with other materials, steel is remarkably consistent in this respect, but nevertheless variations exist
and represent a further source of uncertainty.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (5 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Methods of analysing structural behaviour have advanced significantly in recent years, particularly as a result of
developments in computing. Despite this, structural analysis is always based on some idealisation of the real behaviour.
In some cases, such as isolated beams supported on simple bearings, the idealisation may be quite accurate. In
other circumstances, however, the difference between the model and the real structure may be quite significant. One
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (6 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

example of this is the truss which is typically assumed to have pinned joints, although the joints may in fact be quite rigid
and some members may be continuous. The assumption that loadings are applied only at joint positions may be
unrealistic. Whilst these simplifications may be adequate in modelling overall performance the implications, at least
with regard to secondary effects, must be recognised.

Yet another source of uncertainty results from structural imperfections which are of two types: geometrical, i.e. out
of straightness or lack of fit, and mechanical, i.e. residual stresses due to fabrication procedures or inhomogenities in
the material properties. It is not possible to manufacture steel sections to absolute dimensions - wear on machinery
and inevitable variations in the manufacturing process will lead to small variations which must be recognised. In the same
way, although steel construction is carried out to much tighter tolerances than for most other structural materials,
some variations (for instance in the alignment of individual members) will occur (Figure 3).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (7 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In adopting a quantified approach to structural design, all these uncertainties must be recognised, and taken into account.
They are allowed for by the following means:

● specifying load levels which, based on previous experience, represent the worst conditions which might relate to a
particular structural type.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (8 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● specifying a sampling procedure, a test plan and limits on material properties.


● specifying limits or tolerances for both manufacture and execution.
● using appropriate methods of analysis, whilst recognising the difference between real and idealised behaviour.

These measures do not eliminate the uncertainties but simply help to control them within defined bounds.

3. DESIGNING TO AVOID COLLAPSE

3.1 Historical Background

Structural design is not something which is new. Ever since man started building - dwellings, places of worship, bridges -
some design philosophy has been followed, albeit often unconsciously. For many centuries the basis of design was simply
to copy previous "designs". Where "new developments" or modifications were introduced, trial and error techniques were
all that was available. As a result many structures were built, or partially built only to collapse or perform inadequately.
Yet these failures did have a positive value in that they contributed to the fund of knowledge about what is workable and
what is not.

This unscientific approach persisted for many centuries. Indeed it still forms part of the design approach adopted today.
Rules of thumb and empirical design recommendations are frequently used, and these are largely based on previous
experience. Nor is structural engineering today totally free of failures, despite the apparent sophistication of design
methods and the power of computers. The dramatic box girder bridge collapses in the early 1970s were a grim reminder
of what can happen if new developments are too far ahead of existing experience.

The emergence of new materials, notably cast and wrought iron, required a new approach and the development of
more scientific methods. The new approach included testing, both of samples of the material and proof testing of
structural components and assemblies. New concepts too were sometimes justified in this way, for instance in the case of
the Forth Rail Bridge.

The first moves to rationalise structural design in a quantitative way came at the beginning of the 19th century with
the development of elastic analysis. This type of analysis allowed engineers to determine the effect (on individual
structural components) of forces applied to a complete structure.

Testing of materials provided information concerning strength and, in the case of iron and steel, other characteristics such
as the elastic limit. Of course there were often great variations in the values measured, as indeed there are even today
with some materials. In order to ensure a safe design, a lower bound on the test results - a value below which experimental
data did not fall - was normally adopted as the 'strength'. Recognising some of the uncertainties associated with design

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (9 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

methods based on calculation, stresses under maximum working load conditions were limited to a value equal to the
elastic limit divided by a factor of safety. This factor of safety was specified in an apparently arbitrary fashion with values of
4 or 5 being quite typical.

This approach provided the basis of almost all structural design calculations until quite recently, and for some applications
is still used today. As understanding of material behaviour has increased and safety factors have become more rationalised,
so design strengths have changed. Changes in construction practice, and the development of new, higher strength
materials, have necessitated detailed changes in design rules, particularly with regard to buckling behaviour. However the
basic approach remained unchanged until quite recently when certain limitations in classical allowable-stress design
became apparent. The limitations can be summarised as follows:

i. there is no recognition of the different levels of uncertainty associated with different types of load.

ii. different types of structure may have significantly different factors of safety in terms of collapse, and these differences
do not appear in any quantifiable form.

iii. there is no recognition of the ductility and post-yield reserve of strength characteristic of structural steelwork.

The last of these limitations was overcome by the work of Baker [1] and his colleagues in the 1930s when plastic design
was developed. This method was based upon ensuring a global factor of safety against collapse, allowing localised 'failure'
with a redistribution of bending stresses. A comparison of elastic and plastic design is given by Beal [2].

In recognition of the disadvantages of the allowable stress design method, an alternative approach, known as limit state
design has been adopted. Limit state design procedures have now become well established for most structural types
and materials. The approach recognises the inevitable variability and uncertainty in quantifying structural
performance, including the uncertainties of material characteristics and loading levels. Ideally, each uncertainty is
typically treated in a similar manner using statistical techniques to identify typical or characteristic values and the degree
of variation to be expected from this norm [3]. It is then possible to derive partial safety factors, one for each aspect of
design uncertainty, which are consistent. Thus different load types, for instance, have different factors applied to them.
The structure is then examined for a variety of limit states. In that case the structure is designed to fail under factored
loading conditions, giving a clearer picture of the margins of safety than was previously the case with allowable stress design.

3.2 Stability

Inadequate strength is not the only cause of collapse. In particular the designer must ensure adequate stability, both of
the complete structure (a function of the overall structural form) and of each part of it (dependent on individual
member proportions and materials). The latter is generally dealt with by modifying the material strength to account
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (10 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

for individual conditions. Overall stability is very much more difficult to quantify and must be carefully considered at
the earliest stage of structural design. In this sense structural stability can be defined by the conditions that a structure
will neither collapse (completely or partially) due to minor changes, for instance in its form, condition or normal loading,
nor be unduly sensitive to accidental actions. Some examples are shown in Figure 4.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (11 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In designing for stability the positioning of the main load-bearing elements should provide a clearly defined path
for transmitting loads, including wind and seismic actions to the foundations. In considering wind loads on buildings it
is important to provide bracing in two orthogonal vertical planes, distributed in such a way as to avoid undue torsional
effects, and to recognise the role of the floor structure in transmitting wind loads to these braced areas (Figure 5). The
bracing can be provided in a variety of ways, for instance by cross-bracing elements or rigid frame action.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (12 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Consideration of accidental actions, such as explosions or impact, is more difficult, but the principle is to limit the extent of
any damage caused. Limitation of damage can be achieved by designing for very high loads (not generally appropriate)
or providing multiple load paths. Design requires consideration of local damage rendering individual elements of the
structure ineffective, and ensuring the remaining structure is able to carry the new distribution of loads, albeit at a lower
factor of safety. Alternative strategies are to provide for dissipation of accidental actions, for instance by venting
explosions, and to protect the structure, for instance by installing bollards to prevent vehicle impact on columns (Figure 6).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (13 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Structural stability must of course be ensured when alterations are to be carried out to existing structures. In all cases
stability during execution must be very carefully considered.

3.3 Robustness

In many ways robustness is associated with stability. Construction forms which fulfil the primary function of
accommodating normal loading conditions - which are highly idealised for design purposes - may not perform a
secondary function when the structure is subject to real loading conditions. For instance the floor of a building is
normally expected to transmit wind loads in the horizontal plane to the braced positions. Transmission of wind loads can
only be achieved if there is adequate connection between the floor and other parts of the structure and building fabric, and
the floor itself is of a suitable form of construction.

4. OTHER DESIGN OBJECTIVES


Although design against collapse is a principal consideration for the structural engineer, there are many other aspects
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (14 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

of performance which must be considered. None of these aspects can be quantified and only certain ones will normally
apply. However, for a successful solution, the designer must decide which considerations can be ignored, what the
most important criteria are in developing the design, and which can be checked simply to ensure satisfactory performance.

4.1 Deformation

The deflection characteristics of a structure are concerned with stiffness rather than strength. Excessive deflections may cause
a number of undesirable effects. They include damage to finishes, (particularly where brittle materials such as glass or
plaster are used), ponding of water on flat roofs (which can lead to leaks and even collapse in extreme cases), visual alarm
to users and, in extreme cases, changes in the structural behaviour which are sufficient to cause collapse. Perhaps the
most common example of deflection effects occurs in columns, which are designed for largely compressive loads but
may become subject to significant bending effects when the column deforms in a horizontal plane - the so called P-delta effect.

The normal approach in design is to check that calculated deflections do not exceed allowable levels, which are
dependent upon structural type and finishes used. For instance, deflection limits for roof structures are not normally as
severe as those for floor structures. In performing these checks it is important to recognise that the total deflection δmax
consists of various components, as shown in Figure 7, namely:

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (15 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

δmax = δ1 + δ2 - δ0

where δ1 is the deflection due to permanent loads

δ2 is the deflection due to variable loads

δ0 is the precamber (if any) of the beam in the unloaded state.

In controlling deflections it is often necessary to consider both δmax and δ2, with more severe limits applying in the latter case.

Although the calculated deflections do not necessarily provide an accurate prediction of likely values, they do give a
measure of the stiffness of the structure. They are therefore a reasonable guide to structural performance in this respect.
With the trend towards longer spans and higher strength materials, design for deflection has become more important in
recent years. In many cases this consideration dictates the size of structural elements rather than their resistance. In the case
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (16 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

of certain structures, deflection control is of paramount importance. Examples include structures supporting overhead
cranes and those housing sensitive equipment. Design for deflection is likely to be the critical condition in such cases.

4.2 Vibration

The vibration characteristics of a structure are, like deflection behaviour, dependent upon stiffness rather than strength.
The design principle is to adopt a solution for which the natural frequency of vibration is sufficiently different from any
source of excitation, such as machines, to avoid resonance. Longer spans, lighter structures and a reduction in the mass
and stiffness of partitions and cladding have all contributed to a general lowering of the natural frequencies for
building structures. Cases of human discomfort have been recorded and Eurocode 3 [4] now requires a minimum
natural frequency of 3 cycles per second for floors in normal use and 5 cycles per second for dance floors.

Wind excited oscillations may also need to be considered for unusually flexible structures such as very slender, tall
buildings, long-span bridges, large roofs, and unusually flexible elements such as light tie rods. These flexible structures
should be investigated under dynamic wind loads for vibrations both in-plane and normal to the wind direction, and
be examined for gust and vortex induced vibrations. The dynamic characteristics of the structure may be the principal
design criterion in such cases.

4.3 Fire Resistance

The provision for safety in the event of fire is dealt with in Group 4B. It is a common requirement that structural integrity
is maintained for a specified period to allow building occupants to escape and fire-fighting to be carried out without the
danger of structural collapse. For steel structures alternative design strategies can be adopted to achieve this requirement.
The traditional approach has been to complete the structural design 'cold' and to provide some form of insulation to
the steelwork. This approach can give an expensive solution and alternative methods have now been developed,
allowing reductions, and in some cases complete elimination, of fire protection. In order to implement these alternatives in
an effective manner, it is important that, at an early stage in the design process, the structural design considers how the
fire resistance of the steelwork is to be achieved. Adopting a design solution which may be relatively inefficient in terms of
the weight of steel for normal conditions may be more than offset by savings in fire protection (Figure 8).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (17 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Buildings close to a site boundary may require special consideration to prevent an outbreak of fire spreading to adjacent
sites due to structural collapse. Again quantitative design procedures have been developed for such circumstances [5].

4.4 Fatigue

Where structures, or individual structural elements, are subject to significant fluctuations in stress, fatigue failure can
occur after a number of loading cycles at stress levels well below the normal static resistance. The principal factors
affecting fatigue behaviour are the range of stresses experienced, the number of cycles of loading and the
environment. Structures which need particular consideration in this respect are crane gantry girders, road and rail bridges,
and structures subject to repeated cycles from vibrating machinery or wind-induced oscillations. Design guidance is included
in Eurocode 3 [4].

4.5 Execution

One of the principal advantages of steelwork is the speed with which execution can proceed. In order to maximise
this advantage it may be necessary to adopt a structurally less efficient solution, for instance by using the same profile for
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (18 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

all members in a floor construction, even though some floor beams are less highly loaded than others (Figure 9).
Temporary propping should be avoided as must late changes in detail which might affect fabrication.

It is important that the structure is not considered in isolation, but rather treated as one part of the complete construction,
along with services, cladding and finishes. By adopting a co-ordinated approach to the design, integrating the parts
and eliminating or reducing wet trades, speed of execution of the project as a whole can be maximised. A good example of
this is the two-way continuous grillage system used for the BMW Headquarters at Bracknell and other projects [6].

The installation of services can have significant implications for speed, cost and detail of construction. In buildings with
major service requirements, the cost of the services can be considerably greater than the cost of the structure. In
such circumstances it may well be better to sacrifice structural efficiency for ease of accommodating the services. The
design of the total floor zone including finishes, structure, fire protection and services also has implications for other aspects
of the building construction. The greater the depth of floor construction, the greater the overall height of the building and
hence the quantity of external cladding required. In many commercial developments very sophisticated and expensive
cladding systems are used. Savings in cladding systems may more than offset the use of shallower, but less efficient,
floor construction. Where there is strict planning control of overall building height, it may even be possible to
accommodate additional storeys in this way.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (19 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

4.6 Maintenance

All structures should be inspected and maintained on a regular basis, although some conditions are likely to be
more demanding in this respect. For instance, steelwork within a dry, heated interior environment should not suffer
from corrosion, whilst a bridge structure in a coastal area will need rigorous maintenance schedules. Some structural forms
are easier to maintain than others, and where exposure conditions are severe, ease of inspection and maintenance should be
an important criterion. Principal objectives in this context are the avoidance of inaccessible parts, dirt and moisture traps,
and the use of rolled or tubular individual sections in preference to truss-like assemblies composed of smaller sections.

5. DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES
One engineer should be responsible for ensuring that the design and details of all components are compatible and comply
with the overall design requirements. This responsibility is most important when different designers or organisations
are responsible for individual parts of the structure, such as foundations, superstructure and cladding. It should include
an appraisal of the working drawings and other documents to establish, inter alia, that requirements for stability have
been incorporated in all elements, and that they can be met during the execution stage.

Effective communication both within the design team and between the designer and constructor before and during execution
is essential. Good communication will help to avoid potential design conflicts, for instance when services have to penetrate
the structure, and also to promote safe completion of the structure in accordance with the drawings and specification.
The constructor may also require information concerning results of site surveys and soil investigations, design loadings,
load resistance of members, limits on positions of construction joints, and lifting positions on members to be erected as
single pieces. A statement accompanied by sketches detailing any special requirements should be prepared when necessary, e.
g. for any unusual design or for any particularly sensitive aspects of the structure or construction. This statement should
be made available to the contractor for appropriate action regarding temporary works and execution procedures.

The designer should be made aware of the proposed construction methods, erection procedures, use of plant, and
temporary works. The execution programme and sequence of erection should be agreed between the designer and constructor.

Full and effective communication between all parties involved will help not only to promote safe and efficient execution
but may also improve design concepts and details. Design should not be seen as an end in itself, but rather as an important
part of any construction project.

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● There are very many uncertainties associated with structural design. However powerful the tools available, the engineer
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (20 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

should always recognise that the design model is no more than an idealisation and simplification of the real condition.
● A quantified approach to structural design can take different forms with a view to providing a framework for
satisfactory solutions. The application of design rules should be tempered with common sense and understanding.
● Structural design must consider many aspects of both performance and cost. The most efficient structural solution may
not result in the most efficient solution overall if other interdependent aspects of the construction are not considered in a
co-ordinated fashion.

7. REFERENCES
[1] Baker, J.F., and Heyman, J. "Plastic Design of Frames 1: Fundamentals", Cambridge University Press, 1969.

[2] Beal, A.N. "What's wrong with load factor design?", Proc. ICE, Vol. 66, 1979.

[3] Armer, G.S.T., and Mayne, J.R. "Modern Structural Design Codes - The case for a more rational format", CIB
Journal Building Research and Practice, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 212-217, 1986.

[4] Eurocode 3 "Design of Steel Structures" ENV1992-1-1: Part 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, CEN, 1992.

[5] Newman, G.J. "The behaviour of portal frames in boundary conditions", Steel Construction Institute.

[6] Brett, P.R. 'An alternative approach to industrial building", The Structural Engineer, Nov. 1982.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0210.htm (21 of 21) [17.07.2010 09:55:02]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.2.2: Limit State Design


Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To explain the philosophy of limit state design in the context of Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. To provide
information on partial safety factors for loads and resistance and to consider how the particular values can be justified.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1B.1: Process of Design

Lecture 1B.3: Background to Loadings

Lecture 1B.8: Learning from Failures

Lecture 2.4: Steel Grades and Qualities

Lecture 2.5: Selection of Steel Quality

SUMMARY
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (1 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The need for structural idealisations is explained in the context of developing quantitative analysis and design
procedures. Alternative ways of introducing safety margins are discussed and the role of design regulations is introduced.
The philosophy of limit state design is explained and appropriate values for partial safety factors for loads and strength
are discussed. A glossary of terms is included.

1. INTRODUCTION
The fundamental objectives of structural design are to provide a structure which is safe and serviceable to use, economical
to build and maintain, and which satisfactorily performs its intended function. All design rules, whatever the philosophy, aim
to assist the designer to fulfil these basic requirements. Early design was highly empirical. It was initially based largely
upon previous experience, and inevitably involved a considerable number of failures. Physical testing approaches
were subsequently developed as a means of proving innovative designs. The first approaches to design based upon
calculation methods used elastic theory. They have been used almost exclusively as the basis for quantitative structural
design until quite recently. Limit state design is now superseding the previous elastic permissible stress approaches and
forms the basis for Eurocode 3 [1] which is concerned with the design of steel structures. In the following sections
the principles of limit state design are explained and their implementation within design codes, in particular Eurocode 3,
is described.

2. PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN


The procedures of limit state design encourage the engineer to examine conditions which may be considered as failure
- referred to as limit states. These conditions are classified into ultimate and serviceability limit states. Within each of
these classifications, various aspects of the behaviour of the steel structure may need to be checked.

Ultimate limit states concern safety, such as load-carrying resistance and equilibrium, when the structure reaches the
point where it is substantially unsafe for its intended purpose. The designer checks to ensure that the maximum resistance of
a structure (or element of a structure) is adequate to sustain the maximum actions (loads or deformations) that will be
imposed upon it with a reasonable margin of safety. For steelwork design the aspects which must be checked are
notably resistance (including yielding, buckling, and transformation into a mechanism) and stability against overturning
(Figure 1). In some cases it will also be necessary to consider other possible failure modes such as fracture due to
material fatigue and brittle fracture.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (2 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (3 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Serviceability limit states concern those states at which the structure, although standing, starts to behave in an
unsatisfactory fashion due to, say, excessive deformations or vibration (Figure 2). Thus the designer would check to ensure
that the structure will fulfil its function satisfactorily when subject to its service, or working, loads.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (4 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

These aspects of behaviour may need to be checked under different conditions. Eurocode 3 for instance defines three
design situations, corresponding to normal use of the structure, transient situations, for example during construction or
repair, and accidental situations. Different actions, i.e. various load combinations and other effects such as temperature
or settlement, may also need to be considered (Figure 3).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (5 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (6 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Despite the apparently large number of cases which should be considered, in many cases it will be sufficient to design on
the basis of resistance and stability and then to check that the deflection limit will not be exceeded. Other limit states
will clearly not apply or may be shown not to govern the design by means of quite simple calculation.

At its most basic level limit state design simply provides a framework within which explicit and separate consideration is
given to a number of distinct performance requirements. It need not necessarily imply the automatic use of statistical
and probabilistic concepts, partial safety factors, etc., nor of plastic design, ultimate load design, etc. Rather it is a
formal procedure which recognises the inherent variability of loads, materials, construction practices, approximations made
in design, etc., and attempts to take these into account in such a way that the probability of the structure becoming unfit for
use is suitably small. The concept of variability is important because the steelwork designer must accept that, in performing
his design calculations, he is using quantities which are not absolutely fixed or deterministic. Examples include values
for loadings and the yield stress of steel which, although much less variable than the properties of some other
structural materials, is known to exhibit a certain scatter (Figure 4). Account must be taken of these variations in order
to ensure that the effects of loading do not exceed the resistance of the structure to collapse. This approach is
represented schematically in Figure 5 which shows hypothetical frequency distribution curves for the effect of loads on
a structural element and its strength or resistance. Where the two curves overlap, shown by the shaded area, the effect of
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (7 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

the loads is greater than the resistance of the element, and the element will fail.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (8 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Proper consideration of each of the limits eliminates the inconsistencies of attempting to control deflection by limiting
stresses or of avoiding yield at working load by modifying the design basis (formula, mathematical model, etc.) for an
ultimate resistance determination.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (9 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The procedure of limit state design can therefore be summarised as follows:

● define relevant limit states at which the structural behaviour is to be checked.


● for each limit state determine appropriate actions to be considered.
● using appropriate structural models for design, and taking account of the inevitable variability of parameters such as
material properties and geometrical data, verify that none of the relevant limit states is exceeded.

3. ACTIONS
An action on a structure may be a force or an imposed deformation, such as that due to temperature or settlement. Actions
are referred to as direct and indirect actions respectively in Eurocode 3.

Actions may be permanent, e.g. self-weight of the structure and permanent fixtures and finishes, variable, e.g. imposed,
wind and snow loads, or accidental, e.g. explosions and impact (Figure 6). For earthquake actions, see Lectures 17
and Eurocode 8 [2]. Eurocode 1 [3] represents these by the symbols G, Q and A respectively, together with a subscript - k or
d to denote characteristic or design load values respectively. An action may also be classified as fixed or free depending
upon whether or not it acts in a fixed position relative to the structure.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (10 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (11 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.1 Characteristic Values of Actions (Gk, Qk and Ak)

The actual loadings applied to a structure can seldom be defined with precision; liquid retaining structures may
provide exceptions. To design a structure for the maximum combination of loads which could conceivably be applied would
in many instances be unreasonable. A more realistic approach is to design the structure for 'characteristic loads', i.e.
those which are deemed to have just acceptable probability of not being exceeded during the lifetime of the structure. The
term 'characteristic load' normally refers to a load of such magnitude that statistically only a small probability, referred to as
the fractile, exists of it being exceeded.

Imposed loadings are open to considerable variability and idealisation, typically being related to the type of occupancy
and represented as a uniform load intensity (Figure 7). Dead loads are less variable although there is evidence that
variations arising in execution and errors can be substantial, particularly in the case of in-situ concrete and finishes such
as tarmac surfacing on road bridges.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (12 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Loadings due to snow, wind, etc. are highly variable. Considerable statistical data on their incidence have been
collated. Consequently it is possible to predict with some degree of certainty the risk that these environmental loads will
exceed a specified severity for a particular location.

3.2 Design Values of Actions (Gd, Qd and Ad)

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (13 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The design value of an action is its characteristic value multiplied by an appropriate partial safety factor. The actual values
of the partial factors to be used depend upon the design situation (normal, transient or accidental), the limit state and
the particular combination of actions being considered. Corresponding values for the design effects of actions, such as
internal forces and moments, stresses and deflections, are determined from the design values of the actions, geometrical
data and material properties.

4. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Variability of loading is only one aspect of uncertainty relating to structural behaviour. Another important one is the
variability of the structural material which is reflected in variations in strength of the components of the structure. Again,
the variability is formally accounted for by applying appropriate partial safety factors to characteristic values. For
structural steel, the most important property in this context is the yield strength.

4.1 Characteristic Values of Material Properties

The characteristic yield strength is normally defined as that value below which only a small proportion of all values would
be expected to fall. Theoretically this can only be calculated from reliable statistical data. In the case of steel, for
practical reasons a nominal value, corresponding typically to the specified minimum yield strength, is generally used as
the characteristic value for structural design purposes. This is the case in Eurocode 3 which tabulates nominal values of
yield strength for different grades of steel.

4.2 Design Values of Material Properties

The design value for the strength of steel is defined as the characteristic value divided by the appropriate partial safety
factor. Other material properties, notably modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, coefficient of linear
thermal expansion and density, are much less variable than strength and their design values are typically quoted
as deterministic.

In addition to the quantified values used directly in structural design, certain other material properties are normally specified
to ensure the validity of the design procedures included within codified rules. For instance Eurocode 3 stipulates
minimum requirements for the ratio of ultimate to yield strength, elongation at failure and ultimate strain if plastic analysis is
to be used [1].

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (14 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

5. GEOMETRICAL DATA
Geometrical data are generally represented by their nominal values. They are the values to be used for design purposes.
The variability, for instance in cross-section dimensions, is accounted for in partial safety factors applied elsewhere.
Other imperfections such as lack of verticality, lack of straightness, lack of fit and unavoidable minor eccentricities present
in practical connections should be allowed for. They may influence the global structural analysis, the analysis of the
bracing system, or the design of individual structural elements and are generally accounted for in the design rules themselves.

6. PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS


Instead of the traditional single factor of safety used in permissible stress design, limit state design provides for a number
of partial safety factors to relate the characteristic values of loads and strength to design values. ISO Standard 2394 [4]
suggests the use of seven partial safety factors but these are often combined to simplify design procedures. This is the case
in the Eurocodes [1,3] which include factors for actions and resistance. Further details are given in the Appendix.

In principle, the magnitude of a partial safety factor should be related to the degree of uncertainty or variability of a
particular quantity (action or material property) determined statistically. In practice, whilst this appears to be the case,
the actual values of the partial safety factors used incorporate significant elements of the global safety factor and do
not represent a rigorous probabilistic treatment of the uncertainties [5-8].

In essence the characteristic actions (Fk) are multiplied by the partial safety factors on loads (γF) to obtain the design loads
(Fd), that is:

Fd = γf Fk

The effects of the application of the design loads to the structure, i.e. bending moment, shear force, etc. are termed the
'design effects' Ed.

The design resistance Rd is obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths Rk by the partial safety factors on material
γM, modified as appropriate to take account of other considerations such as buckling. For a satisfactory design the
design resistance should be greater than the 'design effect'.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (15 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

7. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE


The following conditions may need to be verified under appropriate design actions:

a. Ed,dst ≤ Ed,stb

where Ed,dst and Ed,stb are the design effects of destabilising and stabilising actions respectively. This is the ultimate limit
state of static equilibrium.

b. Ed ≤ Rd

where Ed and Rd are the internal action and resistance respectively. In this context it may be necessary to check several
aspects of an element's resistance. These aspects might include the resistance of the cross-section (as a check on local
buckling and yielding), and resistance to various forms of buckling (such as overall buckling in compression, lateral-
torsional buckling and shear buckling of webs), as well as a check that the structure does not transform into a mechanism.

c. no part of the structure becomes unstable due to second order effects.

d. the limit state of rupture is not induced by fatigue.

8. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE


The serviceability limit state is generally concerned with ensuring that deflections are not excessive under normal conditions
of use. In some cases it may also be necessary to ensure that the structure is not subject to excessive vibrations. Cases
where this is particularly important include structures exposed to significant dynamic forces or those accommodating
sensitive equipment. Both deflection and vibration are associated with the stiffness rather than strength of the structure.

8.1 Deflections

At the serviceability limit state, the calculated deflection of a member or of a structure is seldom meaningful in itself since
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (16 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

the design assumptions are rarely realised because, for example:

● the actual load may be quite unlike the assumed design load.
● beams are seldom "simply supported" or "fixed" and in reality a beam is usually in some intermediate condition.
● composite action may occur.

The calculated deflection is, however, valuable as an index of the stiffness of a member or structure, i.e. to assess
whether adequate provision is made in relation to the limit state of deflection or local damage. For this purpose,
sophisticated analytical methods are seldom justified. Whatever methods are adopted to assess the resistance and stability of
a member or structure, calculations of deflection should relate to the structure of the elastic state. Thus, when analysis to
check compliance with the strength limit is based on rigid-elastic or elastic-plastic concepts, the structural behaviour in
the elastic phase must also be considered.

Calculated deflections should be compared with specified maximum values, which will depend upon circumstances.
Eurocode 3 [1] for instance tabulates limiting vertical deflections for beams in six categories as follows:

● roofs generally.
● roofs frequently carrying personnel other than for maintenance.
● floors generally.
● floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions.
● floors supporting columns (unless the deflection has been included in the global analysis for the ultimate limit state).
● situations in which the deflection can impair the appearance of the building.

In determining the deflection it may be necessary to consider the effects of precamber, permanent loads and variable
loads separately. The design should also consider the implications of the deflection values calculated. For roofs, for
instance, regardless of the limits specified in design rules, there is a clear need to maintain a minimum slope for run-off.
More stringent limits may need therefore to be considered for nearly flat roof structures.

8.2 Dynamic Effects

The dynamic effects to be considered at the serviceability limit state are vibration caused by machinery and self-
induced vibrations, e.g. vortex shedding. Resonance can be avoided by ensuring that the natural frequencies of the structure
(or any part of it) are sufficiently different from those of the excitation source. The oscillation and vibration of structures
on which the public can walk should be limited to avoid significant discomfort to the users. This situation can be checked
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (17 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

by performing a dynamic analysis and limiting the lowest natural frequency of the floor. Eurocode 3 recommends a lower
limit of 3 cycles per second for floors over which people walk regularly, with a more severe limit of 5 cycles per second
for floors used for dancing or jumping, such as gymnasia or dance halls [1]. An alternative method is to ensure
adequate stiffness by limiting deflections to appropriate values.

9. STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS


No structural theory, whether elastic or plastic, can predict the load-carrying resistance of a structure in all circumstances
and for all types of construction. The design of individual members and connections entails the use of an appropriate
structural theory to check the mode of failure; sometimes alternative types of failure may need to be checked and these
may require different types of analysis. For example, bending failure by general yielding can only occur when the
plastic moment is attained; however bending failure is only possible if failure does not occur at a lower load level by
either local or overall buckling.

Serviceability limit states are concerned with the performance of the structure under service loading conditions. The
behaviour should therefore be checked on the basis of an elastic analysis, regardless of the model used for the ultimate
limit state design.

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY


● Limit state design procedures require formal examination of different conditions which might lead to collapse or
inadequate performance.
● The effect of various actions is compared with the corresponding resistance of the structure under defined failure criteria
(limit states).
● The most important failure critera are the ultimate limit state (collapse) and the serviceability limit state of deflection.
● In checking each limit state, appropriate design models must be used to provide an accurate model of the
corresponding structural behaviour.
● Separate partial safety factors are introduced for loading and material. These factors are variable quantities and the
precise values to be used in design reflect the degree of variability in the action or resistance to be factored.
● Different combinations of action may also require different values of safety factor.
● This flexible approach helps provide a more consistent level of safety compared with other design approaches.

11. GLOSSARY
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (18 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

A limit state is a condition beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements.

The ultimate limit state is a state associated with collapse and denotes inability to sustain increased load.

The serviceability limit state is a state beyond which specified service requirements are no longer met. It denotes loss of
utility and/or a requirement for remedial action.

Characteristic loads (Gk, Qk, Ak) are those loads which have an acceptably small probability of not being exceeded during
the lifetime of the structure.

The characteristic strength (fy) of a material is the specified strength below which not more than a small percentage
(typically 5%) of the results of tests may be expected to fall.

Partial safety factors (γ G, γ Q, γ M) are the factors applied to the characteristic loads, strengths, and properties of materials
to take account of the probability of the loads being exceeded and the assessed design strength not being reached.

The design (or factored) load (Gd, Qd, Ad) is the characteristic load multiplied by the relevant partial safety factor.

The design strength is the characteristic strength divided by the appropriate partial safety factor for the material.

12. REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures" ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, CEN, 1992.

[2] Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regions-Design", CEN (in preparation).

[3] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures" CEN (in preparation).

[4] ISO 2394, General Principles for the Verification of the Safety of Structures, International Standards Organisation, 1973.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (19 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:05]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

[5] Rationalisation of Safety and Serviceability Factors in Structural Codes, CIRIA Report 63, London, 1972.

[6] Allen, D. E., "Limit States Design - A Probabilistic Study", Canadian Journal of Civil Engineers, March 1975.

[7] Augusti, G., Baratta, A., and Casciati, F., "Probabilistic Methods in Structural Engineering", Chapman and Hall,
London 1984.

[8] Armer, G. S. T., and Mayne, J. R, "Modern Structural Design Codes - The Case for a More Rational Format", CIB
Journal Building Research and Practice, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp 212-217, 1986.

13. ADDITIONAL READING


1. Pugsley, A., "The Safety of Structures", Edward Arnold, London 1966.

2. Thoft-Christensen, P., and Baker, M. J., "Structural Reliability Theory and its Application", Springer-Verlag, 1982.

3. "The Steel Skeleton", Cambridge University Press, Vol 1 1960, Vol II 1965.

4. Blockley, D., "The Nature of Structural Design and Safety", Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1980.

5. Fukumoto, Y., Itoh, Y. and Kubo, M., "Strength Variation of Laterally Unsupported Steel Beams", ASCE, Vol 106,
ST1, 1980.

6. ISO 8930: General Principles on Reliability of Structures - List of Equivalent Terms, 1987.

APPENDIX - PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS


Partial safety factors for actions

Eurocodes 1 and 3 define three partial safety factors as follows:

γG permanent actions
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (20 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:06]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

γQ variable actions

γA accidental actions

Two values are specified for γG. These are γG,sup and γG,inf representing 'upper' and 'lower' values respectively.
Where permanent actions have an adverse effect on the design condition under consideration, the partial safety factor should
be the upper value. However, where the effect of a permanent action is favourable (for instance in the case of loads applied to
a cantilever when considering the design of the adjacent span), the lower value for the partial safety factor should be used,
see Figure 8.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (21 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:06]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The treatment of load combinations is quite sophisticated, and involves the definition of 'representative' values, determined
by applying a further factor to the design loads, depending upon the particular combination considered. However,
simplified procedures are generally permitted. They are outlined below. Note that the values of partial safety factors
are indicative only. Although they are specified in Eurocode 3, their precise value may be adjusted by individual countries
for use within the country.

Load combinations for the ultimate limit state

Either, all permanent loads plus one variable load, all factored, i.e:

Σ γG Gki + γQ Qk1

where γG and γQ are taken as 1,35 and 1,5 respectively,

or, all permanent loads plus all variable loads, all factored, i.e:

Σ γG Gki + Σ γQ Qki

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (22 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:06]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

where γG and γQ are both taken as 1,35.

These values recognise the reduced probability of more than one variable load existing simultaneously. For instance, although
a structure may on occasions be subject to its maximum wind load, it is much less likely that it will be exposed to
a combination of maximum wind and imposed loads.

Load combinations for the serviceability limit state

Either, all permanent loads plus one variable load are considered. In each case the partial safety factor is unity, i.e. the loads
are unfactored characteristic values:

Σ Gki + Qk1

or, all permanent loads (partial safety factor unity) plus all variable loads (with a partial safety factor of 0,9), i.e:

Σ Gki + 0,9 Σ Qki

Where simplified compliance rules are provided for serviceability, there is no need to perform detailed calculations
with different load combinations.

Partial safety factors for material

Alternative partial safety factors for material are specified as follows:

γM0 = 1,1 for consideration of resistance of Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section.

γM2 = 1,1 for consideration of resistance of Class 4 cross-section and resistance to buckling.

γM2 = 1,25 for resistance consideration of cross-section at holes

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (23 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:06]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0220.htm (24 of 24) [17.07.2010 09:55:06]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.3: Background to Loadings


OBJECTIVE/SCOPE:

To provide an introduction to the sources of loads on structures and how loads can be quantified for the purpose of
structural design.

RELATED LECTURES:

Lecture 1B.2.1: Design Philosophies

SUMMARY:

Various types of loads (dead, imposed and environmental) and their classification as permanent, transient or accidental
within Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, is considered. Calculations for dead loads on the basis
of material densities and component sizes are explained. Means of estimating imposed loads based upon usage and
the implications of change of use are discussed. Loads due to snow, temperature and seismic effects are considered briefly.
The statistical treatment of wind and wave loads, and their dependence upon wind speed and wave height respectively,
are described. The importance of load characteristics, other than simply their magnitude, is considered. These
characteristics include fatigue, dynamic and aerodynamic effects. Simplified treatments for dynamic loads are described.

1. INTRODUCTION
Structures are subject directly to loads from various sources. These loads are referred to as direct actions and include
gravity and environmental effects, such as wind and snow. In addition deformations may be imposed on a structure,
for instance due to settlement or thermal expansion. These 'loads' are indirect actions. In applying any quantitative approach
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (1 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

to structural analysis, the magnitudes of the actions need to be identified. Furthermore, if the structure is to
perform satisfactorily throughout its design life, the nature of the loads should be understood and appropriate measures taken
to avoid problems of, for instance, fatigue or vibration.

The magnitude of loads cannot be determined precisely. In some cases, for instance in considering loads due to the self-
weight of the structure, it might be thought that values can be calculated fairly accurately. In other cases, such as wind loads,
it is only possible to estimate likely levels of load. The estimate can be based on observation of previous conditions
and applying a probabilistic approach to predict maximum effects which might occur within the design life of the structure.
(In fact, the extensive wind records which are now available mean that wind loads can often be predicted with greater
accuracy than self-weight). Loads associated with the use of the structure can only be estimated based on the nature of
usage. Insufficient data is available in most cases for a fully statistical approach and nominal values are therefore assigned.
In addition, problems of change of use and fashion can occur.

In analysing structures it is rare to consider all loadings acting simultaneously. This approach may be because the most
severe condition for parts of the structure occurs when some other combination of load is considered. Alternatively it may
be that the possibility of such a condition actually occurring is extremely small. However, the risk of coexistence of
apparently unrelated loads may be greater than is first imagined. Correlations can be produced from unexpected sources
or from coincidences which, although physically unconnected, are temporarily connected. For example, floor and wind
loads would normally be considered as unrelated. However, in hurricane areas residents on the coast might be expected
to move their ground floor contents to upper floors if a hurricane warning, with associated tidal surge, were given.
This circumstance could very easily produce extreme floor loads in combination with extreme wind loads. This case may be
a very special one but there are others. The risk of fire may not be considered correlated with high wind loads, yet in
many parts of the world high winds are more likely in winter, which is also the period of greatest fire risk.

For these reasons it is convenient to consider loads under various categories. The categories can then be ascribed
different safety factors and applied in various combinations as required. Traditionally, loadings have been classified as
dead, superimposed and environmental loads. These classes include a wide range of gravity effects, seismic action,
pressures due to retained material or liquids, temperature induced movement, and, for marine structures, water movement.
The Eurocodes on actions and steelwork design [1, 2] classify loads and other actions as permanent, variable and
accidental. These classes of action will be considered in more detail in the following Sections.

In limit state design, characteristic values of actions are used as the basis of all calculations. They are values which
statistically have only a small probability of being exceeded during the life of the structure. To provide a margin of
safety, particularly against collapse, partial safety factors are applied to these characteristic values to obtain design
quantities. In principle, different partial safety factors can be applied depending on the degree of uncertainty or variability of
a particular type of action. In practice, whilst this appears to be the case, the actual values of partial safety factors
used incorporate significant elements of the global safety factor and do not represent a rigorous probabilistic treatment of

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (2 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

the uncertainties of the actions.

2. PERMANENT ACTIONS
Permanent actions, as the name implies, are always present and must be considered in all cases. They comprise what
are traditionally referred to as dead loads, but may also include permanent imposed loads due, for instance, to machinery
or stored material.

2.1 Dead Loads

Dead loads are gravity loads due to the self weight of the structure and any fixtures or finishes attached to it (Figure 1).
Their magnitudes can be estimated with reasonable confidence based on prescribed dimensions and a knowledge of
material density. Even so, variations due to constructional tolerances and natural variations in materials, will
exist. Furthermore, fixtures, fittings and finishes may be replaced or modified during the life of the structure. This
possibility has been recognised in calculating loads on bridge decks, for which a separate load category of 'superimposed
dead load' is included to allow for surfacing which is likely to be replaced a number of times during the life of the bridge.
For this situation there is consequently a much greater potential for variability than for other dead loads.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (3 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

A similar condition exists within certain types of building with respect to partitions (Figure 2). Where the position of walls
is predetermined their weight can simply be included as a dead load. For more speculative development, internal partitions
will be the responsibility of the client and their layout is likely to change many times during the life of the building.
An allowance, as an equivalent uniformly distributed load, is therefore normally made.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (4 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Schedules of densities for common building materials are listed in Eurocode 1 [1] and manufacturers of proprietary
products, such as cladding, blockwork, raised floors, etc. provide information on weights. Together with specified
dimensions, these data enable dead loads to be calculated. Where dead loads are not strictly evenly distributed over a plan
area, such as timber floor joists located at discrete intervals, they are often represented as an equivalent uniformly
distributed load for convenience in design calculations. As long as the equivalent magnitude is determined in a rational
manner, any differences between this simplified approach and a more rigorous analysis taking account of the actual location

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (5 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

of the joists will be negligible.

To determine dead loads, consider, for example, the case of a floor consisting of a 150mm thick reinforced concrete slab
with 50mm lightweight screed and a 15mm plaster soffit. Details are shown in Figure 3 together with densities for
each material. The total dead load per square metre of floor plan can be calculated as follows:

lightweight screed 15 x 0,05 = 0,75 kN/m2

rc slab 24 x 0,15 = 3,60

plaster 12 x 0,015 = 0,18

total dead load = 4,53 kN/m2

In addition an allowance would normally be made for any services or fittings (electric lighting, pipework, etc.) fitted to
the underside of the slab or located within the screed or under a raised floor (Figure 4). This case is another where
an equivalent uniformly distributed load is used to represent load sources distributed in an uneven manner. A value between
0,1 and 0,3 kN/m2 is normally adequate to cover such installations.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (6 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (7 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The weight of walls can be treated in a similar manner to floors by considering the various component parts and summing
the weights per square metre on elevation. For example, consider a cavity wall consisting of a tile-hung brick outer
leaf (100mm thick) and a plastered blockwork inner leaf (150mm thick) as shown in cross-section in Figure 5.

The total dead load is determined as follows:

tiles 0,6 kN/m2

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (8 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

brickwork 2,1

blockwork 1,4

plaster 0,2

total dead load of wall 4,3 kN/m2

By multiplying this value by the height of the wall, the load intensity as a line load on the supporting structure can
be determined.

Loads due to internal lightweight stud or blockwork partitions cannot normally be treated in such a rigorous manner since
their location is often not known at the design stage and in any case may change during the life of the building. Instead
an allowance is made within the assessment of imposed loads which is described under variable actions.

3. VARIABLE ACTIONS
Variable actions comprise loads which are not always acting but may exist at various times during the normal use of
the structure. They include loads due to the occupation of a building and traffic on bridges (imposed loads), snow and
wind loads (environmental loads), and temperature effects (Figure 6). They do not include accidental conditions such as
fire, explosion or impact.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (9 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.1 Imposed Loads

Imposed loads - sometimes referred to as "superimposed", "super" or "live" loads - are those loads due directly to the use of
the structure. For buildings, they are concerned with the occupancy by people, furniture, equipment, etc. For bridges they
are due to traffic, whether pedestrian or vehicular.

Clearly these conditions will be almost constantly changing and are rather more difficult to quantify than dead loads.
For buildings, the approach has therefore been to relate imposed load levels to occupancy, and to base them on observation
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (10 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

and sensible deduction. Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures [1] distinguishes between four classes of
loaded floor area as follows:

● areas of dwellings, offices, etc.


● garage and traffic areas.
● areas for storage, production machinery and filing.
● areas serving as escape routes.

The first class is further subdivided into four categories according to their specific use. They are residential (including
hospital wards, hotel bedrooms etc.), public premises (such as offices, hotels, hospitals, schools, leisure centres etc.),
public premises susceptible to overcrowding (including assembly halls, conference rooms, theatres, shopping areas
and exhibition rooms), and public premises susceptible to overcrowding and accumulation of goods (including areas
in warehouses and department stores).

The characteristic values of the imposed loads for these different categories are given in Table 1. Thus domestic
residences attract a lower imposed load than office accommodation; areas of public assembly, where large numbers of
people could gather at any one time, are prescribed a high superimposed load. Storage areas must be particularly
carefully considered and Eurocode 1 includes details of densities for a range of stored materials. Some of these, such as
steel strip, will generate high loads, but even apparently innocuous conditions, such as filing stores, can experience very
high loading levels. Escape routes must be designed for relatively high imposed loads.

Although such loads are used in limit state design in a semi-probabilistic way and are referred to as characteristic
values (implying a statistical basis for their derivation) little data is available. A proper statistical analysis is not
therefore possible and values specified are nominal quantities. One study which was conducted into office accommodation
in the UK [4] revealed a wide variation in actual load levels for similar building occupancies. In all cases the load
levels measured were considerably less than the characteristic values specified for the structural design. However,
this observation must be viewed with some caution since design must allow for extreme conditions, misuse and panic situations.

Note that, although imposed loading will rarely be evenly distributed, a uniform distribution of load intensity is
normally assumed (Figure 7).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (11 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.2 Permitted Reductions in Imposed Load

The nominal values of imposed load associated with different classifications of building occupancy and use represent
extreme conditions. In many cases the probability of such conditions existing simultaneously throughout a building is
remote. In recognition of this remote possibility some reductions in imposed load intensity may be permitted.
Reduction applies particularly to columns in multi-storey buildings where it increases with the number of floors supported by
a particular length of column. Typical reductions range from 10% to 30% and apply to imposed loads only. No reductions
are permitted in dead load or for certain types of imposed load - notably in the case of storage areas, crane loads, and
loads explicitly allowed for such as those due to machinery or due to people in public premises susceptible to overcrowding.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (12 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.3 Superimposed Bridge Loads

In practice a highway bridge is loaded in a very complex way by vehicles of varying sizes and groupings. In order to
simplify the design process this real loading is typically simulated by two basic imposed loads - a uniformly distributed
load and a knife edge load - representing an extreme condition of normal usage (Figure 8). The design is then checked for
a further load arrangement representing the passage of an abnormal load. The magnitudes of all these loads are
generally related to the road classification, the highway authority's requirements and the loaded length of the bridge.

For vehicular traffic within buildings, lightweight conditions (less than 16 tonnes) can be dealt with in categories such as
cars, light vehicles and medium vehicles. For heavier traffic, highway loading must be considered.

Railway bridge design must take account of static loading and forces associated with the movement of vehicles. As
for highway bridges, two models of loading are specified for consideration as separate load cases. They represent
ordinary traffic on mainline railways and, where appropriate, abnormal heavy loads. They are expressed as static loads due
to stationary vehicles and are factored to allow for dynamic effects associated with train speeds up to 300km/h. Eurocode 1
also gives guidance on the distribution of loads and their effects and specifies horizontal forces due to vehicle
motion. Centrifugal forces associated with the movement around curves, lateral forces due to oscillation of vehicles
(nosing) and longitudinal forces due to traction and braking are included.

Other aspects of bridge loading which need to be considered include accidental loads and the possibility of premature
failure due to fatigue under traffic loading.

3.4 Crane Loads


http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (13 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

For buildings fitted with travelling overhead cranes, the loads due to the crane itself and the lifted load are
considered separately. The self weight of the crane installation is generally readily available from the manufacturer, and
the load lifted corresponds to the maximum lifting capacity of the crane. When a load is lifted from rest, there is an
associated acceleration in the vertical direction. In the same way that gravity loads are equal to mass multiplied by
the acceleration due to gravity, so the lifting movement causes an additional force. If the load is lifted very gently - that is
with little acceleration - this force will be very small, but a sudden snatch, i.e. a rapid rate of acceleration, would result in
a significant force. This force is of course in addition to the normal force due to gravity, and is generally allowed for
by factoring the normal static crane loads.

Movements of the crane, both along the length and across the width of the building, are also associated with accelerations
and retardations, this time in the horizontal plane. The associated horizontal forces must be taken into account in the design
of the supporting structure. The magnitude of the forces will depend, as before, on the rates of acceleration. The
normal procedure is to calculate the magnitudes on the basis of a proportion of the vertical wheel load.

The approach yields an equivalent static force which can be used in designing the structure for strength. However, the nature
of crane loads must also be recognised. The possibility of premature failure due to fatigue under the cyclic loading
conditions should be considered.

3.5 Environmental Loads

Environmental loads are clearly variable actions. For bridges and buildings the most important environmental loads are
those due to snow and wind. For marine structures, particularly offshore installations such as oil platforms, loads due to
water movements are often dominant. The action of waves generally represents the most severe condition. In
certain geographical locations, the effects of earthquakes must be included in the structural analysis. All of these loads
from environmental sources are beyond the control of man. It has therefore been recognised that a statistical approach must
be adopted in order to quantify corresponding design loads.

The approach is based on the 'return period' which is a length of time to which recorded environmental data, such as
wind speeds, snowfall or wave heights, is related. If records are only available over a relatively short period, data for the
'return period' may be predicted. The most severe condition on average over the return period then represents the design
value. For a return period of 100 years, for example, it is referred to as the 1 in 100 year wind speed or wave height, etc.
The return period normally corresponds to the design life of the structure. Clearly there is a degree of uncertainty about
the process of predicting the most severe conditions likely to be encountered. Further simplifications are implicit in
translating measured environmental data such as wind speeds or wave heights into loads.

3.6 Wind Loads

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (14 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Wind forces fluctuate with time but for many structures the dynamic effect is small and the wind load can be treated
using normal static methods. Such structures are defined as 'rigid' and Eurocode 1 [1] provides guidance on this
classification. For slender structures the dynamic effect may be significant. Such structures are classified as 'flexible'
structures and their dynamic behaviour must be taken into account.

The most important parameter in quantifying wind loads is the wind speed. The basis for design is the maximum wind
speed (gust) predicted for the design life of the structure. Factors which influence its magnitude are:

● geographical location; wind speeds are statistically greater in certain regions than others. For many areas
considerable statistical data is now available and basic wind speeds are published usually in the form of isopleths (Figure
9) which are lines of equal basic wind speed superimposed on a map. The basic wind speed is referred to in Eurocode 1 [1]
as the reference wind speed and corresponds to the mean velocity at 10m above flat open country averaged over a period of
10 minutes with a return period of 50 years.
● physical location; winds gust to higher speeds in exposed locations such as coasts than in more sheltered places such as
city centres (Figure 10), because of varying surface roughness which reduces the wind speed at ground level. This variation
is taken into account by a roughness coefficient which is related to the roughness of the terrain and the height above
ground level.
● topography; the particular features of a site in relation to hills or escarpments are taken into account by a topography coefficient.
● building dimensions; height is important in particular because wind speeds increase with height above ground level (Figure 11).
● the mean wind velocity is determined by the reference wind velocity factored to account for the building height,
ground roughness and topography. The wind pressure is proportional to the square of the mean wind speed. In addition
the following parameters are important:
● structural shape; it is important to recognise that wind loads are not simply a frontal pressure applied to the facade of a
structure but are the result of a complex pressure distribution on all faces due to the movement of air around the
whole structure. The distribution is further complicated by adjacent structures and natural obstructions/variations such as
hills, valleys, woodland which may all influence the pattern of air movement and associated pressure distribution.
● roof pitch; this parameter is really a special aspect of structural shape. It is worth noting that roofs with a very shallow
pitch may be subject to uplift or suction, whilst steeper roofs - say greater than about 20° - are likely to be subject to
a downwards pressure (Figure 12).
● wind direction; pressure distributions will change for different wind directions (Figure 13).
● gust response factor; this factor is used to take into account the reduction of the spatial average of the wind pressure
with increasing area due to the non-coincidence of maximum local pressures acting on the external surface of the
structure. Thus small parts of a building, such as cladding units and their fixings, must be designed for higher wind
pressures than the whole structure. The gust response factor is related to an equivalent height, which
corresponds approximately to the centroid of the net wind force on a structure.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (15 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (16 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (17 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (18 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (19 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Tabulated procedures enable the above parameters to be accounted for firstly in calculating the design wind speed,
and secondly in translating that wind speed into a system of forces on the structure. These equivalent static forces can then
be used in the analysis and resistance design of the structure, as a whole. However, certain additional features of wind
should also be taken into account:

● local pressures, particularly at corners and around obstructions in an otherwise 'smooth' surface, can be significantly
higher than the general level (Figure 14). High local pressures particularly affect cladding and fixing details, but can also be
a consideration for structural elements in these areas.
● structures sensitive to wind should be given a more sophisticated treatment. It might involve wind tunnel testing and
include the influence of surrounding buildings. Structures which might need to be treated in this way include high-
rise buildings, long or slender bridges, masts and towers.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (20 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● aerodynamic instability may be a consideration for certain types of structure or component, for example chimneys and
masts. Vortex shedding can normally be avoided by the use of strakes (Figure 15). Galloping may be a problem in cables.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (21 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.7 Snow Loads

Loads due to snow have traditionally been treated by specifying a single load intensity, with possible reductions for steep
roof slopes. This approach takes no account of such aspects as the increased snowfall at higher altitudes or of locally
higher loads due to drifting. Cases of complete or partial collapse due to snow load are not unknown [5]. A more
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (22 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

rational approach is to use a snow map giving basic snow load intensities for a specified altitude and return period similar to
the treatment for basic wind speeds (Figure 16). Corrections for different altitudes or design life can then be applied as
shown in Table 2. At present the European snow map is provisional and further work is under way to acquire more data.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (23 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Allowance for different roof configurations can be dealt with by means of a shape coefficient. It provides for conditions such
as accumulations of snow behind parapets, in valleys and at abrupt changes of roof height (Figure 17). In addition to
snow falling in calm conditions, it may be necessary to consider the effects of wind. Wind may cause a redistribution of
snow, and in some cases its partial removal from roofs. Any changes in snow distribution on roofs due to excessive heat
loss through part of the roof or snow clearing operations should be accounted for if such loading patterns are critical.
Eurocode 1 [1] does not cover additional wind loads due to the presence of snow or the accretion of ice, nor loads in
areas where snow is present throughout the year.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (24 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.8 Wave Loading

For offshore structures in deep and hostile waters, wave loads can be particularly severe. The loads arise due to movement
of water associated with wave action. These movements can be described mathematically to relate forces to physical
wave characteristics such as height and wavelength.

The treatment is therefore similar to wind loads in that these physical characteristics are predicted and corresponding forces
on the particular structural arrangement then calculated. These calculation procedures are, however, very complicated and
must realistically be performed on a computer.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (25 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

3.9 Temperature Effects

Exposed structures such as bridges may be subject to significant temperature variation which must be taken into account in
the design. If it is not provided for in terms of allowing for expansion, significant forces may develop and must be included
in the design calculations. In addition, differential temperatures, e.g. between the concrete deck and steel girders of a
composite bridge, can induce a stress distribution which must be considered by the designer.

3.10 Retained Material

Structures for retaining and containing material (granular or liquid) will be subject to a lateral pressure. For liquids it is
simply the hydrostatic pressure. For granular material a similar approach can be adopted, but with a reduction in
pressure depending on the ability of the material to maintain a stable slope - this is the Rankine approach. Ponding of water
on flat roofs should be avoided by ensuring adequate falls (1:60 or more) to gutters.

3.11 Seismic Loads

In some parts of the world earthquakes are a very important design consideration. Seismic actions on structures are due
to strong ground motion. They are a function of the ground motion itself and of the dynamic characteristics of the structure.

Strong ground motion can be measured by one of its parameters, the maximum ground acceleration being the parameter
most usually adopted for engineering purposes. These parameters are expressed on a probabilistic basis, i.e. they are
associated with a certain probability of occurrence or to a return period, in conjunction with the life period of the structure [3].

3.12 Accidental Loads

Accidental actions may occur as a result of accidental situations. The situations include fire, impact or explosion. It is
very difficult to quantify these effects. In many cases it may be preferable to avoid the problem, for instance by providing
crash barriers to avoid collision from vehicles or roof vents to dissipate pressures from explosions.

Where structures such as crash barriers for vehicles and crowds must be designed for 'impact' the loading is treated as
an equivalent static load.

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● There are many sources of structural loads, notably dead loads, those due to the use of the structure and environmental
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (26 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

effects such as wind, earthquake, snow and temperature. The loads must be quantified for the purpose of structural
design. Dead loads can be calculated. Imposed loads can only be related to type of use through observation on other
similar structures. Environmental loads are based on a statistical treatment of recorded data.
● Calculated or prescribed values of loads are factored to provide an adequate margin of safety. The nature, as well as
the magnitude, of the loads must be recognised, particularly in terms of dynamic and fatigue behaviour.

5. REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, CEN (in preparation).

[2] Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1.1, General principles and rules for buildings, CEN, 1992.

[3] Eurocode 8: Structures in Seismic Regions - Design, CEN (in preparation).

[4] Floor Loadings in Office Buildings - the Results of a Survey, BRE Current Paper 3/71, Building Research
Establishment, Watford, 1971.

[5] Design Practice and Snow Loading - Lessons from a Roof Collapse, The Structural Engineer, Vol 64A, No 3, 1986.

6. ADDITIONAL READING
1. Monograph on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, Volume CL, Tall Building Criteria and Loading, American Society
of Civil Engineers, 1980.
2. Civil Engineer's Handbook, Butterworths, London, 1974.
3. Bridge Aerodynamics Conference, Institute of Civil Engineers, Thomas Telford, London, 1981.
4. On Methods of Load Calculation, CIB Report No 9, Rotterdam, 1967.
5. BRE The Designer's Guide to Wind Loading of Building Structures

Part 1 Butterworths, 1985

Part 2, Butterworths, 1990.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (27 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Loaded α
Areas
[kN/m2]

Category - general 2,0


A
- stairs 3,0

- 4,0
balconies

3,0
Category - general
B 4,0
- stairs,
balconies

4,0

Category - with 5,0


C fixed
seats

- other 5,0

Category
D - general

Table 1 Imposed loads on floors in buildings

Snow load so [kN/m2]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (28 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Altitude [m]

Zone 0 200 400 600

1 0,40 0,49 0,70 0,95

2 0,80 0,98 1,40 1,89

3 1,20 1,47 2,09 2,84

4 1,60 1,97 2,79 3,78

5 2,00 2,46 2,49 4,73

Table 2 Snow loads for zones given in Figure 16

so = 0,412z

where:

A is the altitude of the site above mean sea level [m]

z is a constant, depending on the snow load zone.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0300.htm (29 of 29) [17.07.2010 09:55:13]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.4.1: Historical Development of


Iron and Steel in Structures
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To appreciate how steel became the dominant structural material that it is today, it is essential to understand how it relates
to cast iron and to wrought iron, both in its properties and in the way that all three materials evolved.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1A.2: Steelmaking and Steel Products

SUMMARY

The properties of the three ferrous metals, cast iron, wrought iron, and steel, are described and the evolution of their
production is summarized. The evolution of their structural use is also given and the prospects for further
development introduced.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (1 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

1. PROPERTIES OF THE THREE FERROUS METALS: CAST IRON,


WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL
Cast iron, as the name implies, is "cast" or shaped by pouring molten metal into a mould and letting it solidify; a wide
variety of often very intricate forms is thus possible. It is very strong in compression, relatively weak in tension, much
stiffer than timber, but brittle.

Wrought iron is strong both in tension and compression and ductile, thus making it a much safer material for beams than
cast iron. Its main disadvantage is that, never reaching a fully molten state, it can only be shaped by rolling or forging,
thus limiting its possible structural and decorative forms.

The properties of mild steel are similar to those of wrought iron but it is generally stronger and can be cast as well as
rolled. However, it has a lower resistance to corrosion than wrought iron and is less malleable and thus not so suitable
for working into elegant, flowing shapes.

These properties, in terms of strength and carbon content, are shown in Figure 1; the values shown should be considered
as indicative rather than absolute limits. They do not include malleable or ductile cast irons which have strengths in
tension considerably above those shown.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (2 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

2. EVOLUTION OF FERROUS METALS

2.1 Blacksmith's Wrought Iron

Iron has been known and used for more than three thousand years, but it was not until the development of the blast
furnace around 1500 AD that it could be produced in molten form. In China, molten iron goes back much earlier but this is
not generally thought to have been known in the Western World until well after the independent invention of the blast
furnace. There is slender evidence that the Romans knew how to produce cast iron but, if they did, the knowledge was
certainly lost.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (3 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Before the blast furnace, iron was extracted from ore by chemical reduction in simple furnaces or hearths. Inevitably, the
scale of the operation was small and the process quite laborious, the iron coming in a hard pasty form, far from liquid,
which was then refined and shaped by hammering. Essentially, this was 'blacksmith's iron'.

2.2 Molten or Cast Iron

Although possible in the 16th Century, molten or cast iron was hard to produce on a large scale before the change
from charcoal as a fuel to coke. With charcoal, the practical size of furnace was limited by the crushing of the fuel by
the weight of the charge of the ore and thus the stifling of the blast. Abraham Darby I is generally credited with the mastery
of coke smelting and, even though this was in 1709, coke smelting did not dominate the industry until about 1750 in
Britain and considerably later in other parts of Europe.

2.3 Industrialised Wrought Iron

Large scale wrought iron, as opposed to blacksmith's iron, became possible mainly as a result of the developments
culminating in Henry Cort's puddling furnace patented in 1793. In this furnace, the carbon in cast pig iron was burnt off in
a reverbatory furnace while the impurities were drawn off by 'puddling'. As the process continued and the iron became
purer, its melting point rose and the furnace charge became more viscous, eventually being removed in a stiff plastic form
for rolling or forging. It was the enlarged scale of the operation which was significant rather than any change in the
actual material which was effectively the same as the blacksmith's variety.

The modernising of wrought iron depended not only on the puddling process, but the idea of grooved rollers which
made possible the economic production of angle and tee sections, and later channels and joists. Here again, Henry Cort,
who patented the grooved rollers in 1784, gets the credit although the due financial rewards eluded him.

2.4 Steel

Although steel-type iron had existed for many centuries, steel as used today dates from the 18th Century. It was produced
either by cementation, a process by which bars of pure wrought iron absorbed carbon during prolonged heat treatment, or
after about 1750 in molten form by Hunsman's crucible process. Cementation was largely confined to the cutlery and
tool trades and has no real relevance to construction. Crucible steel continued to be made, although at a decreasing level
of production, until after the Second World War; however it is uncertain how much of this was used structurally in
construction works.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (4 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

It is a common fallacy that the use of steel dates from Bessemer's converter of the mid 1850s; not only did Kelly in
America get there first with an almost identical process, but the amount of steel already being produced was quite
substantial. Some 60,000 tons of steel were produced each year around 1850 in Britain alone which is far from
negligible, except perhaps when compared with an annual world production of 2,5 million tons of iron in the same
period. Bessemer's steel was certainly cheaper and could be made in larger quantities, but its quality was uncertain. It was
not until the perfection of the Siemens-Martin open-hearth process in the 1880s that steel moved in a big way into
the construction and shipbuilding industries.

Today, very little truly structural cast iron is being used and no wrought iron is being made. Steel is wholly dominant.
There are, however, some signs of a limited revival of cast iron, particularly in the new ductile form only available since
the 1940s.

3. ACHIEVEMENTS WITH STRUCTURAL IRON & STEEL


In looking at the structural achievements with iron and steel in the last 250 years, it is convenient to class these in relation
to the period, or age, when each of the three ferrous metals was dominant. Inevitably, these periods overlap and it is
significant that in each case it took quite a long time - up to 50 years - before what was found to be possible
became commercially widespread. The periods are broadly as follows:

Cast Iron Period 1780-1850 (Columns up to 1900)

Wrought Iron Period 1850-1900

Steel Period 1880 - Present Day

These dates are essentially based on Britain where the iron industry was more developed in the first half of the 19th
Century than elsewhere. In France, there was no real cast iron period, while in America both cast iron and wrought iron
were comparatively little used before the middle of the 19th Century, after which there was a positive explosion in
their application. Steel on the other hand, became popular at roughly the same time throughout Europe and America. Figure
2 emphasises how short the overall period of structural use of iron and steel has been in relation to man's knowledge of iron.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (5 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (6 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

4. THE PERIOD OF CAST IRON (1780-1850)


Given availability, new materials are introduced either for greater economy or to solve specific problems.

4.1 Cast Iron Arched Bridges

All the early cast iron bridges were arched forms in which cast iron merely replaced masonry, the advantages being
greatly reduced weight and horizontal thrust, economy and speed of erection. The first iron bridge of any magnitude was
the famous Coalbrookdale one completed in 1779 and spanning some 33 metres (Slide 1), a structure full of
apparent illogicalities mixing carpenter's and mason's detailing but still standing proudly today. The construction of this
bridge was followed by a whole succession of cast iron arch bridges in Britain, including Thomas Wilson's Wear Bridge
of 1792-6 with wrought iron strapping to the cast voussoirs and a span of 72 metres (Slide 2) and Rennie's Southwark Bridge
of 73 metre span completed in 1819. The climax, but by no means the last, cast iron bridge, was perhaps Telford's
Mythe Bridge at Tewkesbury (1823-26) with a span of only 52 metres but great lightness and total structural logic (Slide 3).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (7 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 1

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (8 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 2

Slide 3

In other parts of Europe, cast iron arch bridges were a rarity until well into the 19th Century, the number of schemes
greatly exceeding the number built. Le Pont des Arts in Paris of 1801-3 by Cessart was, perhaps, the most famous, now,
alas, replaced by a not wholly convincing welded lookalike. There were several early cast iron arch bridges in Russia.

4.2 Cast Iron in Buildings

With all buildings, fire was a recurring problem with timber structures. It was almost certainly the reason for one very
early application of cast iron, the columns supporting the vast cooker hood and chimney of 1752 at the Monastery of
Alcobaca in Portugal. In Britain, cast iron was used in the early 1770s in churches, partly for the cheap reproduction of
Gothic ornament, but also for structural columns. In Russia architectural cast iron was used extensively throughout the
18th Century but it is not clear to what extent it was also used to support floors and roofs.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (9 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

It is hard to see any trend arising from these early applications of iron to buildings. It was in the multi-storey textile mills
in Britain in the 1790s that cast iron was first shown to have a major future in building structures. The disastrous fire at
Albion Mill in 1791 was perhaps the biggest incentive for change. Bage and Strutt were the great pioneers. Between them,
they developed totally incombustible interiors in cast iron and brick but with floor spans still of only about 2,5 to 3,0 metres
in each direction, as had been the case with timber interiors. Later, this iron mill construction spread to warehouses with
a gradual increase of spans.

While fire was the main reason for change in the mills, there was a growing desire in public buildings and large houses for
long-span floors which did not sag or bounce. Timber had generally proved inadequate for spans above 6-7 metres.
Between about 1810 and the early 1840s there was an increasing interest in cast iron floor beams, some with spans of 12
metres or more such as those in the British Museum of the early 1820s (Figure 3). Sometimes these castings were used
as simple substitutes for the main timbers in essentially timber flooring, but in other cases brick jack arches, as in the mills
of around 1800, or stone slabs were combined with long span cast iron beams to give rigidity, sound insulation and
fire protection. Another form of 'fire proofing' consisted of wrought iron plates within the ceiling space arching between
the cast iron beams. The climax of the development of cast iron flooring was reached in Barry's Palace of Westminster of
the 1840s. Up to the mid 1840s, cast iron was seen as the wonder material everyone was looking for.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (10 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

It is tantalising how little is known about who actually fixed the size and shape of the beams used by Nash, Barry and
other architects of this period. Thomas Tredgold's book on cast iron of 1824 was undoubtedly influential but dangerously
in error in some respects. In most cases, it is probable that proof-loading of beams, which was widely used, provided the
main safeguard against misconceptions and poor workmanship.

Apart from the mills and the long span floors, there was a whole range of new uses of cast iron between 1810 and
1840, sometimes on its own for complete structures as in Hungerford Market of 1836, or Bunning's highly decorated
Coal Exchange of 1847-49. In Russia, there was also a considerable quantity of cast iron building construction in the first
half of the 19th Century, as in the Alexandrinsky theatre of 1829-32 and the Dome of St Isaacs Cathedral (1837-41).

Towards the close of the 1840s, cast iron had lost much of its golden image and was being seen as an unreliable
material, especially for beams. The progressive collapse of five storeys of Radcliffe's Mill in Oldham in 1844 and the failure
of the Dee Bridge in 1847 were both highly damaging to its image.

4.3 Composite Cast and Wrought Iron in Building

Not all iron in the 'cast iron period' was cast. Some of it was composite cast and wrought iron and some simply wrought
iron. There is little evidence of steel being used structurally in this period.

In Britain, cast iron was sometimes used in combination with timber as at New Tobacco Dock of 1811-14 or with wrought
iron, as in the 1837 roof at Euston Station (Slide 4).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (11 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 4

After 1840, the scale of iron construction and the proportion of wrought to cast iron in composite structures,
increased substantially. The Palm House at Kew 1844-47, by Richard Turner and Decimus Burton, was a marked advance
on earlier glasshouses and arguably incorporates the world's first rolled I sections. Wrought iron roofs of increasing span
on cast iron columns proliferated both in the naval dockyards and for railway stations culminating in Turner's roof of 47
metres span at Lime Street, Liverpool (1849).

In France, some highly innovative wrought iron floors and roofs had been built before the Revolution, such as Victor
Louis's 21 metre span roof of 1786 at the Palais Royal Theatre in Paris (Figure 4). In this roof, as in the case of the bridge
at Coalbrookdale, the structural logic is not altogether clear. However, the flooring system of arched wrought iron flats
devised by M. Ango in the 1780s (Figure 5) is clearly understandable and derivatives of this system continued in use until
they were largely replaced by a number of 'fire-proof' systems, still based on wrought iron, in the late 1840s. Cast
iron impinged in France to quite an extent in the 1830s and after, notably in the great iron roof of 1837-38 at Chartres
Cathedral and the Bibliotheque St Genevieve 1843-50, but it seems that wrought iron always retained its dominance.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (12 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (13 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Composite construction featured quite widely in Russia. In St Petersburg, a form of riveted plate girder was devised in 1838
for the repair of the Winter Palace after the fire of 1837. This development was just ten years before the
independent development of riveted wrought iron beams in Britain.

4.4 Suspension Bridges

Some of the most creative work on the suspension bridge dates from the 'cast iron period' but is wholly related to wrought
iron, although Tredgold did have the temerity to suggest cast iron support cables. In most fields of construction, America
clung to timber rather than iron in the first half of the 19th Century, but must be given credit for introducing the level
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (14 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

deck suspension bridge, as patented by James Finley in 1808 with wrought iron chassis (Slide 5). Thereafter, there was a
minor battle of principles on the form of cable. Britain favoured wrought iron chains with eye-bar links, as had Finley,
while the French preferred wire cables, the difference being largely due to the states of the iron industries in the two countries.

Slide 5

By 1850, France had built several hundred suspension bridges, mainly due to the enterprise of the Seguin brothers,
while Britain could claim scarcely more than a dozen. If the French had confined the wires to the sections of the cables
above ground, all might have been well, but they did not. Corrosion became a major problem brought to a head by the
collapse in 1850 of the Basse-Chaine suspension bridge with a death toll of 226. Thereafter, substantial remedial
works followed and the building of suspension bridges all but stopped in France for many years. Nevertheless, based on
French influence, wire cables did take over from eye bar chains in America and became virtually standard throughout the world.

5 THE WROUGHT IRON PERIOD (1850-1900)

5.1 Wrought Iron in Bridges

The wrought iron period was primarily the period of the riveted wrought iron beam which dates from the late 1840s,
although by then wrought iron had established a fairly firm position in composite construction. Seen in the long term,
wrought iron beams owe their birth, in part, to growing doubts both on the safety of cast iron in bending and in part
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (15 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

to successful experience with iron ships. However, by far the biggest single contribution, not only to the development of
riveted beams, but to the whole establishment of wrought iron as the dominant material of the period, was the design
and construction of the Britannia and Conway tubular bridges, particularly the former.

The key figures here were Robert Stephenson, engineer to the Chester and Holyhead Railway; William Fairbairn, the
practical man with experience of iron ships; and Eaton Hodgkinson, the theorist and experimenter.

Faced in 1845 with the then seemingly impossible task of taking trains over the Menai Straits, when shipping interests ruled
out arches and suspension bridges as they had been shown to be inadequate for railway loads, they developed a new
structural form, the box girder, and demonstrated it on a large enough scale for trains to run inside (Slide 6). However, it
was not the bridges which mattered so much as the understanding which resulted from the crash programme of research
and testing which made them possible.

Slide 6

Between them, these three men dispelled the initial belief that wrought iron was weaker in compression than in tension,
proved that a rectangular tube was stronger in bending than a circular or oval one, isolated the problem of plate buckling,
and showed how to counteract this behaviour with cellular flanges and web stiffeners. Thus, these three men and
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (16 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

their assistants established riveted wrought iron as a calculable material for beams of almost limitless size. Further,
they demonstrated the benefits of continuity in beams, even for deadload (based on theoretical work from France) and
proved that the strength of rivets depended on clamping as much as on dowel action. The extent of material and model
testing for these bridges was prodigious.

The speed of the work was almost as remarkable as the result. The problem of crossing the Menai straits was posed early
in 1845, the Conway Bridge was opened in December 1848 and the Britannia Bridge in March 1850. In both cases, work on
the supporting masonry started in the spring of 1846 well before all the problems of the spanning structures had been
solved. Other smaller wrought iron bridges of the same period, with cellular compression flanges were, it seems, all spin-
offs from this basic development.

It is, perhaps, worth noting that concurrently with this major innovative work, Stephenson was responsible for a mass of
other railway construction, including the six-span Newcastle High Level Bridge with cast iron tied arches of 1846-49 (Slide
7) and the ill-conceived Dee Bridge at Chester based on trussed

Slide 7

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (17 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

cast-iron beams, which collapsed disastrously in 1847 soon after it was opened. The pressure on the leaders of the
engineering profession at this time are hard to imagine and it is no surprise that, sometimes, relationships became strained,
as they did between Stephenson and Fairbairn.

The evolution of the plate girders of today from these beams with cellular compression flanges took place largely in the
1850s. Figure 6 shows some steps in this transformation.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (18 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The rationalisation of truss forms and their full structural evolution is another feature of the 1850s. Many of these
forms derived from timber construction in America but given riveting and wrought iron the scope opened up enormously.
The Britannia Bridge has been criticised for wasting material in comparison to an equivalent structure with open trussed
sides, but this is unfair when one considers how little was known about true truss action in the mid 1840s. Figures 7a and
7b show typical intuitive and mathematically rational truss forms of this period. There were many variations on these forms.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (19 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Numerous wrought iron bridges of all forms and sizes followed in all countries. In Britain, I.K. Brunel's Saltash
Bridge completed in 1859 and Thomas Bouch's fatal Tay Bridge opened in 1878, stand out for very different reasons.
In France, Gustave Eiffel's great arches at Oporto and Garabit, of 1875-7 and 1880-84 respectively, are now world famous.
In America, Charles Ellet's Wheeling Suspension Bridge of 1847-9, Roebling's Niagara Bridge completed 1855, and
James Ead's St Louis Arch Bridge of 1867-1874 are all rightly famous, although one must add that the last of these is partly
of steel.

5.2 Wrought Iron in Buildings

In buildings the scope for drama in the use of iron was generally more modest, the largest outlet being in flooring systems
both in Britain and in other parts of Europe. It was almost certainly the development of these flooring systems in France in
the late 1840s and early 1850s which provided the impetus for the commercial development of rolled joists, regardless
of whether the first ones of all were rolled there or in Britain. The size of the joist sections gradually increased but until
liquid steel took over, size was limited by the problems of handling large quantities of puddled iron.

Cast iron continued to be used extensively for columns well after 1850. In America there was a great vogue for cast
iron facades which lasted for several decades. Bogardus and Badger were the two main suppliers. Internally, the
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (20 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

structures vary, with iron, masonry and timber all represented.

Apart from these useful, but often unseen, applications of iron to traditional buildings, some spectacular iron build
structures, mainly long span roofs, were built in all countries. Most commonly, but far from exclusively, they were
over railway stations. They included the ribbed iron dome of the British Museum Reading Room (1854-57), the 73
metre wrought iron arches at St Pancras Station (1868) and the dome of the Albert Hall (1867-71). These buildings
were matched in France, for instance, by the Bibliotheque National (1868), Les Halles (1854-68) and the Bon
Marche Department Store (1867-78); and in America by the dome of the Capitol in Washington (1856-64).

Throughout this period most buildings, particularly those of more than one storey, depended on masonry walls for
stability, whether or not the floors and roof were of iron. The route to full structural framing in iron or steel is uncertain. It
is often stated that the Home Insurance Building in Chicago of 1884-85 was the first fully framed tall building which
formed part of a continuing development. Perhaps the earliest example of a stiff-jointed frame was Godfrey Greene's
four-storey Boat Store at Sheerness of 1858-60. The Great Exhibition Building in London of 1851 and the Chocolat
Menier Factory outside Paris of 1870-71 have also been claimed for this 'first', but they both had diagonal bracing and,
anyway, had no apparently direct influence on the multi-storey steel construction of today.

6 THE STEEL PERIOD (1880-PRESENT DAY)


Steel is not only stronger than wrought iron, but being produced in a molten state made larger rolled or forged units
practicable. However, it is not easy to identify which is which; for several decades, steelwork was fabricated by riveting in
the same way as wrought iron and, when riveted, the two look almost exactly the same. The Forth Bridge in steel and the
Eiffel Tower in wrought iron, were completed at almost exactly the same time (1889-90). Looking at them, who could tell
the difference?

Figure 8 shows how steel took over in quantity from wrought iron in Britain. Figure 9 shows how the proportion of open-
hearth steel increased until it had all but cornered the market by 1920. The biggest incentive for change to steel lay in the
ship-building industry. Lloyds Register allowed steel plating of 4/5 the thickness of wrought iron and, by 1908, Lloyds
was insisting that all steel for shipbuilding should be produced by the open-hearth process.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (21 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (22 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In bridges, the steel period was mainly one of increasing size and span. Here the initiative shifted away from Britain mainly
to America where the need for major bridges, was greatest at this time. All the great suspension bridges up to 1945
(Golden Gate, George Washington, Transbay, etc.) were built of riveted steel with spun cables of high tensile steel wire.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (23 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In buildings the 'Skyscraper' came of age in steel, again with the initiative mainly in America. Long span roofs also took a
leap in scale with steel both in France and America. First there were the great three-pin arch structures over the
Philadelphia railway stations of 1893 (79 and 91 metre spans) followed by the Galerie des Machines for the 1889
Paris Exhibition of 111 metres span - over 50% up on St Pancras. These spans, in turn, have been dwarfed by the post-
war domes over sports arenas. The span of the Louisiana Superdome of 1975 at 207 metres is more than 3½ times that of
the Albert Hall.

The one big change in technique with steel was the introduction of welding, mainly from the 1930s, although possibly
earlier. Today, the rivet is as dead as the production of wrought iron. Now welds and bolts dominate all construction in steel.

In all fields, new developments tend to follow new needs and this certainly seems to have been the case with bridges. Since
the Second World War, most new thinking on suspension bridges, especially aerodynamic design and weight-saving, has
been in Britain while Germany has led the field on the design of cable-stayed bridges.

7. PRESENT TECHNIQUES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS


One of the most noticeable moves in construction in the last ten years, in Britain certainly, but it seems elsewhere in Europe
as well, has been towards a revival of structural steel for bridges and buildings. Fashions change in constructions, as
in clothing, and so do needs and costs. It is, thus, interesting to look at some of the recent variants on normal structural
steel and at rival materials to see how they have fared and to speculate on what may happen in the future.

Weathering steel (unpainted with stabilised corrosion) and exposed steelwork fire-proofed by water in hollow sections are
both innovations of the 1960s but neither shows signs of wide adoption. On the other hand, stainless steel, although in
itself much more expensive than mild steel or even high tensile steel, is being found to be increasingly worthwhile when
the cost of maintenance is considered.

Plastics have yet to make any significant impact except as a protective coating or for architectural trim.

Aluminium was once thought to be a dangerous rival to structural steel but, so far, it has made little impact in bridge
or building structures. Reinforced concrete - still dependent on steel - has been a strong and growing competitor of
fabricated steelwork since the 1890s, largely because of its in-built fire resistance, helped in the 1950s and 1960s by
an architectural desire to 'expose the structure'. This trend is now being reversed and, since 1980, there has been a
vigorous rebirth of structural steel. The increasing use of structural steel has been encouraged by the pursuit of 'fast-
track' construction and the realisation that reinforced concrete is not a maintenance-free material. There has also been a
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (24 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

swing in taste from visually expressed concrete to 'high tech' styling or to the complete wrapping of buildings in glass
or masonry.

Future developments with structural steel in buildings are likely to be associated with fire protection. Thin intumescent
coatings which froth up when heated and form a protective layer, are becoming still thinner - more like paint - but the need
for such protection may be substantially reduced by the development of fire engineering. This development could lead to a
new era of exposed steelwork with increasing attention to the shape and form of members and the appearance of
joints. Castings of steel or ductile iron could well be in demand once more.

8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● The use of iron and steel in structures evolved through development in the production and properties of the three
ferrous metals, cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
● Cast iron is formed into its final shape from molten metal a liquid which is poured into a mould and solidifies. Wrought
iron never reaches a fully molten state and is shaped by rolling and forging. Mild steel can be cast as well as rolled but has
a lower resistance to corrosion than wrought iron.
● Iron has been known and used for more than three thousand years but it is only in the last 250 years that new
production methods have allowed the large scale use, first of cast iron, then wrought iron and finally steel. Cast iron was
widely used in bridges and buildings in the period between 1750 - 1850.
● Wrought iron became popular during 1850 - 1900 allowing the construction of many novel bridges and building structures
of increasing size and span.
● Steel came into increasing use from about 1880, and being stronger than wrought iron, has been used to build even
larger structures. The introduction of welding of steel was a major innovation in connection techniques which facilitates
the wider use of steel.
● For the future, stainless steel is being found to be increasingly attractive despite its greater cost. The development of
fire engineering may lead to a new era of exposed steelwork together with a wider use of coatings of steel or ductile iron.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0410.htm (25 of 25) [17.07.2010 09:55:19]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.4.2: Historical Development of Steelwork Design


OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To outline the developments in the design of iron and steel for structures.

PRE-REQUISITES

Lecture 1B.4.1: Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Structures

RELATED LECTURES

Lectures on the metallurgy of steel; a useful background to many other lectures, notably those dealing with the design
of particular structural types.

SUMMARY

Structural theory as known today owes most of the intellectuals of France while in the late 18th Century and the early part
of the 19th, Britain took the lead in practical design and application. 18th Century empiricism was replaced first by large-
scale proof-loading and tentative calculation, followed after 1850 by component testing allied to elastic analysis with
testing soon relegated to quality control. In the late 19th Century, the powerhouse of engineering thought shifted gradually
to France, Germany and America. Elasticity and graphical analysis held sway for about 100 years until they were challenged
by plastic theory and the computer, with automation replacing hand work in production and erection.

The developments in materials, theory and technique were all related but varied from country to country due to different
needs, shortages and opportunities. This lecture outlines the developments in design methods for structural
steelwork, illustrating this with a number of examples of iron and steel structures.

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF STEELWORK DESIGN: STATE


OF STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE 18TH CENTURY AND BEFORE
Up to the late 18th Century, structures were designed essentially on the basis of proportion. To some extent, this meant no
more than deciding whether sizes looked right - that is, familiar - but in many, perhaps almost all periods, there were
some rules or statements by authorities which were almost as firm as our codes of practice today. The difference is that
they were not based on strength or stress but on shape and scale. Stress, in the sense that the word is used in engineering
today, did not exist. The materials were essentially masonry and timber with a little iron.

With masonry the real problem has almost always been one of stability rather than crushing of the material and, until
quite recently, stability was usually established visually. Early tie-bars of iron in masonry construction were, it seems,
also sized by eye.

With timber in the 18th and early 19th Centuries, deflection was the main problem. If it was stiff enough, it must be
strong enough. This may seem illogical to us today but with timber, which tends to indicate its distress by creaking,
sagging and even splitting long before failure, stiffness was not a bad criterion for adequacy. Nevertheless, timber floors
did sometimes collapse, perhaps most often due to ill-conceived joints.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (1 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Until the early 19th Century it is far from clear who fixed the sizes of timbers or the connections in trusses. Probably, it was
the carpenters working on experience, observation and possibly copy books of details. In spite of growing knowledge of
the strength and stiffness of different materials, this unscientific approach sufficed for the majority of construction until
well into the 19th Century - at least in Britain, but perhaps less so in other parts of Europe.

2. STATE OF STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN BRITAIN IN THE EARLY


19TH CENTURY
In the early 19th Century, intuition gave way to calculation for all materials and theory took over to an ever increasing
extent. However, the aim of this lecture is not to outline the development of structural theories for which most credit must go
to the intellectuals of France, but to show how, in Britain particularly but also elsewhere, these theories were
gradually incorporated in the work of ordinary engineering designers.

The fact that some of the theories were incorrect was of no importance provided that these were related to tests and that
like was being compared with like. For instance, having established that for a rectangular beam the bending strength
was proportional to:

(bd2) x (a constant depending on the material)

where b and d are breadth and depth of section, respectively, it did not matter whether you used Galileo's or Mariotte's
incorrect theories of the 17th Century or Parent's elastically correct one of the 18th, provided that the constant was
derived from bending tests and used in comparable circumstances for the assessment of the bending strength of other
cross-sections. In 1803, Charles Bage developed a perfectly valid method of designing cast iron beams on the basis of tests
and Galileo's bending theory.

Among the earliest mathematical design handbooks in Britain, if not actually the first, were Peter Barlow's book on
timber, originally issued in 1817, and Thomas Tredgold's books on timber and cast iron, first issued in 1820 and
1822, respectively. Both Barlow and Tredgold made acknowledgements to earlier work by Girard and others on the
Continent. It is worth looking quickly at the methods advocated in these books to get some idea of how at least a
British engineer could have tackled the problems of fixing the sizes of structural members in the 1820s. The extent to
which these handbooks were actually used is uncertain.

3. UNDERSTANDING OF TIMBER IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY


Much of the present practice with steel derived originally from timber which makes a good starting point.

In the simple case of direct tension, Barlow used the word 'cohesion' which is 'proportional to the number of fibres or to
the area of section'. He tabulated 'cohesion on a square inch', as did Tredgold, both basing their values on their
own experiments or those by Musschenbroek, Emerson, Rondolet and others. Thus, for direct force, the concept of stress
was there in all but the name.

For timber, Barlow stated in relation to 'absolute strength' that 'practical men assert that not more than one fourth of this
ought to be employed' but implied that so large a reduction was not necessary. Neither the effect of knots and other defects
nor the concept of an overall factor of safety to cover all variables seemed to come into his thinking. Tredgold merely
accepted a factor of safety of 4 on the ultimate strength of timber as disclosed by tests.

With timber, there was little need to consider beams of anything other than rectangular section. Barlow and Tredgold
gave practical rules both for strength and deflection. For instance, for a rectangular beam of length L with a load of
W, Tredgold's rule for strength amounted to:

W=

where the constant C allowed for the strength of the material, the loading conditions and different units for length and
cross-section. There was no reference to bending moments or section moduli. All was direct, the tabulated values of C

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (2 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

being derived from tests on small sections of comparable timber loaded in the same way.

It is notable that both Barlow and Tredgold devoted as much space to deflection as to strength, a clear follow-on from the
time when sagging was the first and, perhaps the only, indication of inadequacy.

Tredgold suggested 1 in 480 as a reasonable limit for deflection in relation to span.

When considering floor joists, Tredgold's emphasis on deflection was particularly strong. He gave a rule, again controlled by
a mysterious constant, which rightly relates the span, spacing and breadth of the joists to the cube (not the square) of their
depth but, curiously, is independent of the load. He explained that the constant was based on scantlings 'found to be
sufficiently strong' whereas 'it is difficult to calculate the weight that a floor has to support'. Thus, in this field anyway,
the dominance of strength rather than proportion was not yet complete.

4. UNDERSTANDING OF CAST IRON IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY


For cast iron, Tredgold, who certainly produced the first real calculator's guide to the material, moved closer to
modern thinking than in his book on timber, but in some respects went very wrong, although pardonably so.

Again, he advocated a deflection limit of 1 in 480 for beams but also what we would call a safe working stress (f) of
the frighteningly high value of 106 N/mm2 (6,8 tonf/in2). This value he considered to be the elastic limit in bending (based
on tests on 25 x 25mm bars of cast iron). He also found the 'absolute strength of cast iron bars to resist a cross-
strain' (modulus of rupture) of these small bars to be 280-400 N/mm2 and thus thought he had what amounted to a factor
of safety of 2,6 to 3,8.

He then assumed, or so it seems because he said very little directly about it, that using the same working stress (f) in
direct tension he would have a similar margin of safety as in bending. He assumed further and with more justification that
using this stress (f) again in compression, the safety margin would be at least as high. Thus all one needed to do was to
design to the elastic limit as a working stress and all would be well.

In the case of direct tension, Tredgold discounted the testing techniques which had given ultimate tensile strengths of
around 110-120 N/mm2 and had no reason to know that later bending tests on larger beam castings were to show a modulus
of rupture of as low as 110 N/mm2 for comparable iron. The last of these errors was specially understandable because
the variation in the modulus of rupture with size of casting has still not been fully explained. Nevertheless, his thinking led to
a potentially dangerous set of assumptions. He even suggested cast iron links at his universal working stress of 106 N/mm2
as more robust than wrought iron ones for suspension bridges.

It must not be implied that Tredgold got it all wrong. His method of calculating deflection appears to be generally
correct. Further, with cast iron, there was a demand for cross-sections other than rectangular and Tredgold went into
the properties of these sections at some length, getting the right answer with the symmetrical ones, but possibly not for
quite the right reason, and going only slightly astray on the position of the neutral axis with T-sections and similar shapes.

On cast iron columns, as on timber ones, Tredgold's recommendations were basically sound. He was certainly aware of
the problem of buckling and Timoshenko gives him credit for being the first to introduce a formula for calculating safe
stresses for columns (see comparison in Figure 1). However, for ties he got into a tangle once more on the effect of length.
He thought long ties to be stronger than short ones, visualising them as being subject to something like buckling in
reverse which increased their strength with length.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (3 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The sad point about Tredgold's safe working stress, apart from his curious error on direct tension which had only a
limited effect, is that if it had been applied to wrought iron it would have been almost universally sound. Also it would
have been well ahead of any other practical guidance of the time, at least in Britain. The detailed thinking behind some
of Tredgold's methods is not always easy to understand today, and it is doubtful whether many of his contemporary
readers succeeded or even tried to follow this in detail. It is even more doubtful how many engineers in Britain read
or understood the writings of men like Thomas Young or John Robinson or the works of the vast galaxy of theorists in
other parts of Europe. Some certainly tried and the level of success would be hard to measure today.

Tredgold's book on cast iron was translated into French and German and ran into five editions, with the same
errors perpetuated, the last being issued in 1860. However, from the 1830s onwards his practical advice was challenged
by Eaton Hodgkinson's advocacy of his 'ideal section' for cast iron beams and his simple formula related to this.

Eaton Hodgkinson showed by direct loading tests that cast iron was about six times as strong in compression as in tension
and proportioned his beam accordingly. His simple formula (Figure 2) has been repeated in engineering handbooks until
well into this century.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (4 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

All was derived from bending tests and would be equivalent to saying:

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (5 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Ultimate resistance moment = N.D.A.t

where t is the ultimate tensile strength of cast iron. If N = say 0,9, the value of t derived from his formula would be 6,7 to
7,2 tonf/in2 which is a very plausible range. The significant point is that even Eaton Hodgkinson was not thinking in terms
of stress but of a constant relating tests under one set of conditions to practical use in the same form. Eaton Hodgkinson
also made extensive tests on cast iron columns and published the results with practical advice in 1840. This advice formed
the basis for further recommendations for many decades.

5. UNDERSTANDING OF WROUGHT IRON IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY


Until towards the middle of the 19th Century, wrought iron was used almost exclusively in tension for such applications
as chains, straps, tie rods and boiler plates.

The tensile strength of wrought iron was fairly well understood throughout Europe from early in the 19th Century, the
mean value being about 400 N/mm2. Thus, even allowing for quite wide variations, its tensile strength could be relied upon
to be about three or four times that of cast iron and with an incomparably greater ductility.

It was the behaviour of wrought iron in bending which eluded engineers until towards the middle of the 19th Century.
There were, of course, the French wrought iron flooring units associated with Ango and St. Fart but these units were really
tied arches.

Discounting the seemingly empirical wrought iron beams of 1839 (Figure 3) used in the Winter Palace at St Petersburgh
which had no wider influence, the wrought iron beam dates from the mid 1840s when small rolled I beams were produced
both in Britain and France. However, the really important breakthrough came from the research and testing for the
Britannia and Conway tubular bridges. This work was a major achievement which, more than any other event, established
the technique of building up structural sections of all sizes from rolled angles and plates by riveting. It made riveted
wrought iron the premier structural material for almost 50 years. It also marked the climax of an era of component testing
and proof-loading and heralded its end.

6. THE YEARS OF TESTING 1820-1850


Whatever may have been written about the strength of materials, engineers in this period tended to feel happier with tests
than theory when facing new or uncertain conditions.

Proof-loading was widely applied to cast iron beams, in many cases all beams being individually tested. Records of
important buildings indicate that the modulus of rupture under test often approached Tredgold's high figure of 106N/

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (6 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

mm2. However unwise this figure may have been if the beams passed with a central point load, with the usual
distributed loadings they must have had a factor of safety of 2 against the proof load.

Not only were full-size components such as beams and columns tested, but also small sections of different materials
to establish their properties. Further, the development of new forms depended almost entirely on tests. Effectively the tubes
for the Menai and Conway bridges were designed by experiment (Figure 4). Starting from the concept that wrought iron
was just a less brittle form of cast iron, initial calculations were based on Eaton Hodgkinson's formula for cast iron
beams. Tests then showed that unlike cast iron, wrought iron was apparently weaker in compression than in tension.
Further tests proved that this was not a property of the material but due to plate buckling, a phenomenon not found in cast
iron beams because of their heavy section. Other tests proved that for tubular beams, a rectangular shape was more
efficient structurally than a circular or elliptical one, provided that its top and sides were stiff enough.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (7 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The tubes were designed for continuity over the intermediate supports even for self-weight (Figure 5) but it is not clear
whether the continuity analysis in Edwin Clark's book of 1850 was used in the design or in retrospect. Here again,
modelling and testing probably paid a large part in the decision making. Irrespective of how the thinking may have
developed, it led to the seemingly perfect form of a continuous tube with cellular top and bottom flanges, web stiffeners on
its sides and trains running through the middle. At this stage, the form of web and flange stiffening seems to have been
arrived at empirically. The tubular form of compression member gradually evolved into the simple I beam of today. Figure
6 shows some steps in this transition. It would, perhaps, be unfair to speculate on the amount of iron which might have
been saved if the sides of the tubes had been open and triangulated. Such trusses could not then have been analysed, but
nor, when work started, could riveted wrought iron box or I beams.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (8 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

There is no space here to go into all the advances in understanding which accrued from the two year development
programme for this seemingly impossible structure nor to try to disentangle the disputed contributions of Stephenson,
Fairbairn and Eaton Hodgkinson. The more one looks at this stupendous achievement, the clearer it becomes that it was
the testing which came first and showed 'how' and the theory which followed up and explained 'why'. Engineers in
Britain throughout the 19th Century were frightened of mathematics.

It is notable that in this same book with the analysis of continuity, Edwin Clark still felt constrained to say of 'transverse strain':

"The complete theory of a beam, in the present state of mechanical science, is involved in difficulties. The comparative
amount of strain at the centre of the beam where the strain is greatest, or at any other section, is easily achieved but the
exact nature of the resistance of any given material almost defies mathematical investigation".

Because of the magnitude of the achievement, we may be overestimating the understanding of those responsible. Certainly
the dispute over the Torksey Bridge in 1850 showed that continuity was not widely understood.

7. TERMINOLOGY: STRAIN, STRESS, COHESION, ETC.


This may be the point where a short diversion on terminology is appropriate. In the first half of the 19th Century the
word 'stress' virtually did not exist in engineering. What is referred to as stress today was called strain or sometimes, if
tensile, cohesion, but 'strain' also seems to have been used to denote a force (e.g. a strain of 10 tons). There was
some uncertainty in the use of these terms.

The relationship which really meant something was the proportional one between member size and load. If, in
Tredgold's words, "the strain in lbs. a square inch which any material would bear was x then four square inches would bear
4x". That was alright for direct tension and compression but with bending, the explanations are less clear.

According to Timoshenko the concept of 'stress on an infinitesimal plane' was due to Augustin Cauchy and published in
1822. Cauchy also developed the valuable concept of principal stress but again, according to Timoshenko, it was St.
Venant who first defined stress in its final form in 1845. Both Todhunter and Pearson, Timoshenko and others give W.J.
M. Rankine the credit for being the first to provide rigorous definitions of stress, strain, working stress, proof strength, factor

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (9 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

of safety and other phrases which are now commonplace in engineering.

8. STRUCTURAL DESIGN BETWEEN 1850 AND 1900


While there is a danger of over-elevating the Menai Bridge designers today, there is an even greater risk of assuming that
their new-found understanding was immediately absorbed by all other engineers. It was not, but there was a very great
change in attitude mainly in the years between 1850 and 1870. This was the period when ordinary engineers learnt to
calculate the sufficiency of most simple structural forms, beams in particular, and to believe in their calculations - even
for major structures - without testing.

1850-1870 was also the period when it became possible to analyse the forces in trusses with certainty. Several
researchers contributed to the understanding of the forces in complex but determinate trusses. Practical textbooks
were published in different countries and translated into other languages, all telling roughly the same story. Rankine's
"Manual of Civil Engineering" (1859) was very widely read and frequently reprinted. W.C. Unwin's "Wrought Iron
Bridges and Roofs" of 1869 showed how graphical statics now dominated truss analysis (Figure 7). Unwin and others
also showed how to build up flanges and cover plates to match the bending moments (Figure 8). Another interesting
practical textbook is that written by Professor August Ritter of Aix-La-Chapelle Polytechnic and published in 1862. This
book gives complete analyses of several notable British structures of wrought iron and was considered worth translating
into English in 1878. Many of the methods of the 1850s and 1860s, although perfectly practicable, proved tedious until R.
H. Bow introduced his famous notation in 1873. This was exactly the sort of systematic and almost foolproof graphical
method to appeal to engineers. It has retained its popularity through many generations and has been superseded only
recently for speed by the computer.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (10 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In spite of growing confidence, load testing took some time to die. Large scale tests were still being used around 1850-
60 although possibly as much to satisfy clients as to reassure designers. In the late 1840s three of the crescent trusses of
47m span for the first Lime Street Station in Liverpool were erected as a unit in Turner's works in Dublin and tested first for
a uniform load of almost 2kN/m2 and then for eccentric loading. These trusses have a record span and the need for
assurance was understandable.

The proving of the 65m trusses for New Street Station in Birmingham (another record span completed in 1854) was even
more elaborate, as show in Figure 9. Apart from testing the performance of a complete section of the roof, each tie member
was proved to 139 N/mm2 before incorporation.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (11 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

After about 1860, confidence in wrought iron had grown enough for testing even of major building structures to be
played down, although bridge testing continued.

Provision was made for testing in the contract for St Pancras Station (completed 1868) but it was never used. The Albert
Hall roof (1867-71) was erected in Fairbairn's works in Manchester to make sure it fitted together but was not load-
tested. These are just examples. One could cite others to illustrate the change from intuition and physical verification to
the calculation of sizes with confidence.

One reason for this change was, of course, the displacement of cast by wrought iron. Wrought iron was now recognised as
a reliable material and, with rivets of definable strength it could be built up into structures virtually limitless in scale in spite
of restrictions on the sizes of plate and angle which could be rolled. Further, and most important of all, by 1850 or soon after,
it had become a calculable material, not just for ties and struts but also for beams.

While it was mainly the triumvirate of Stephenson, Fairbairn and Hodgkinson who established the riveted wrought iron
beam, it was the 'elasticians' of the mid-century like Rankine who translated this knowledge into practical advice and
showed engineers how to design with it.

With increased understanding of structural behaviour, there was a swing at this time from intuitive feelings that strength

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (12 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

and stiffness could be increased by redundancy to simplification of forms so that they would be more amenable to
precise calculation and thus to more economical sizing.

The reality of the known behaviour of wrought iron was limited to the range of stress within which the theorists were
thinking. With a working stress generally not exceeding 77 N/mm2 (the Board of Trade figure in Britain) there is no doubt
that wrought iron behaved elastically and that the theory of elasticity, which became the gospel for engineers in the
third-quarter of the 19th Century, was wholly relevant.

Hooke's law held. Young's modulus was a constant. There was no need to think about factors of safety. You had a
working stress to control your design, even though you might still have been calling it a strain, and you had every reason to
feel confident.

Stress, as we understand it, had not only been born but, by now, was the controlling factor in almost all structural design,
at least with iron, and iron was becoming increasingly dominant where a high level of performance was needed. Elastic
theory, graphical analysis and definite rivet strengths were all that the designer required for full confidence. Around
1850, Britain had such confidence and was still leading the field in iron construction, although much was being done in
parallel elsewhere, in particular in France, Germany and America. As the century progressed, the initiative moved from
Britain with engineers like Moisant (Chocolat Menier Factory) and Eiffel and his colleagues catching much of the limelight.

The commercial transition from wrought iron to steel roughly between 1880 and 1900, permitted higher working
stresses (generally 93 N/mm2 instead of 77N/mm2) and the use of larger rolled sections. Initially, it had virtually no effect
on design and detailing.

Cast iron columns continued to be used widely until about 1890-1900 but were then superseded first by wrought iron
but mainly by steel. Further theoretical work on buckling went in parallel with more advanced formulae for safe loads. It
seems that amongst practising engineers the question of buckling of struts and of thin plates remained the least well
understood aspect of structural design throughout the 19th Century.

It is not the intention of this lecture to chart the development of theoretical knowledge but rather to show how this related to
the ordinary engineer in the design office. To follow the understanding of bending, shear and instability in more detail,
the works referred to in the list of Additional Reading should be consulted.

9. POSTSCRIPT ON THE 20TH CENTURY


In the early part of the present century, the greatest advances both in theoretical understanding of structures and in
practice were associated with the airship and aircraft industries. For bridges, buildings and other 'heavy' structures the
changes were mostly associated directly or indirectly with welding.

The general introduction of welding in the 1930s (with Britain lagging behind other parts of Europe and America)
radically altered techniques of fabrication and introduced the possibility of joints as stiff as the members they connected.
This development in turn had its effect on design with more emphasis on 'portal framing' for buildings and stability
through stiff joints rather than diagonal bracing.

The big change in design thinking came with plasticity in the late 1930s although ultimate-load thinking with the concept of
the plastic hinge has taken some time to replace elastic theory. In fact, it has not wholly done so yet. Safe stresses are still
quite dominant after a reign of nearly 150 years, but their use is declining.

In the future, engineers are likely to be able to achieve far greater efficiency by considering 'whole structure'
behaviour including the effects of cladding and partitions especially for stiffness. This approach only becomes practicable
with computers but offers attractive possibilities for the years to come. The disadvantage could be a reduction in
adaptability. Also the understanding of designers needs to keep pace with the growing sophistication of the design aids at
their disposal.

10. CONCLUDING SUMMARY


● Up to the late 18th Century, structures were designed essentially on the basis of proportion.
● Intuition gave way to calculation for all materials and theory took over to an increasing extent in the 19th century.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (13 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● Much of the present practice in steel design derived originally from timber in the 19th century. At that time the
understanding of cast iron and wrought iron grew largely on the basis of component testing and proof loading. Rigorous
definitions of stress, strain, working stress, proof loading and factor of safety appeared in the mid 19th century and
gradually ordinary engineers learnt to calculate simple structural forms on the basis of assumed elastic behaviour and
believe in the calculations without testing.
● In the 20th century, the greatest advances in the theoretical understanding of structures were associated with the airship and
aircraft industries.
● The introduction of welding in he 1930s and the development of the theory of plasticity led to major changes in design
thinking.
● For the future, the wider use of computers offers the possibility of achieving greater efficiencies in structures by
considering 'whole structure' behaviour including the effects of cladding and partitions.

11. ADDITIONAL READING


I Those who wish to delve deeply into the way in which structural theory as we know it today first emerged in the late 18th
and early 19th Centuries, would do well to go straight to the classic authors: Coulomb, Bernouli, Euler, Navier and others.

For a more general view of structural theory and how it developed, the following books are recommended:

1. Timoshenko S P. "History of the Strength of Materials", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953.

2. Todhunter I & Pearson K. "A History of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Strength of Materials from Galileo to the
Present Time", Cambridge University Press; 3 volumes 1886-93.

3. Charlton T M. "A History of the Theory of Structures in the Nineteenth Century", Cambridge University Press 1982.

4. Mazzolani F. "Theory and Design of Steel Structures" Chapman & Hall, London.

5. Heyman J. "Coulomb's Memoir on Statics: an essay in the history of civil engineering", Cambridge University Press 1972.

II For a guide to practice with iron and later steel, there were many guides and text books published, especially after 1850.

Taken as a sequence, the following books give some idea of how this advice developed:

1. Tredgold T. "Elementary Principles of Carpentry", London: Taylor 1820.

The major British work on the structural use of timber, first published in 1820 and being reprinted as late as the 1940s.
There are some details on the use of iron with timber, particularly for the lengthening and strengthening of timber beams.

2. Tredgold T. "Practical essay on the strength of cast iron and other metals", London: Taylor 1822.

Also several later editions.

3. Barlow P. "A Treatise of the Strength of Timber, Cast Iron, Malleable Iron & Other Materials", London: J Weale, 1837.

The 1837 and later editions were extensively revised and added to to take account of developments in the science of
the strength of materials in the railway age.

4. Unwin W C. "Wrought Iron Bridges & Roofs", 1869.

Originally lectures to the Royal Engineer Establishment, Chatham.

5. Rankine W J M. "A Manual of Civil Engineering", London 1859, and later editions.

Rankine's manuals mark the turning point in Britain, of engineering as a science founded on theory as against an art founded
on practical experience and observation. They summarise and extend earlier theoretical texts, notably on theory of

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (14 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

structures and strength of materials, and remained standard works throughout the 19th Century.

6. Warren W H. "Engineering Construction in Iron, Steel & Timber", Longmans, London 1894.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0420.htm (15 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:55:25]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.4.3: Historical Development of


Iron and Steel in Buildings
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To review developments in steel building construction, demonstrating how improvements in material


and understanding have enabled greater achievements in terms of height, clear spans and building
efficiency.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1B.4.1: Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Structures

Lecture 1B.4.2: Historical Development of Steelwork Design

Lecture 1B.4.4: Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Bridges

SUMMARY

Iron was originally used for the principal components in building structures in order to achieve fire
resistant construction. Initial forms followed traditional patterns, but gradually the characteristics of
iron, and subsequently steel, were more fully utilised. Various building categories are considered -
mill buildings, long span roofs, and multi-storey buildings. Significant technical innovations and
design approaches are highlighted.

1. INTRODUCTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (1 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Although the history of iron and steel dates back several hundred years, their use in the main
components of building structures is relatively recent. The Industrial Revolution provided both the
means and the need. Coke smelting and steam power enabled greatly increased production of iron,
and the industrial mill buildings were foremost in the structural use of the material to replace timber.
Inevitably, the adoption of a new material is spasmodic, and at times may even become
unfashionable. Wrought iron, for instance, never totally replaced cast iron, any more than cast iron
replaced timber. Any historical review will, therefore, include discontinuities rather than be a smooth
sequential development. To simplify this review, the history is, therefore, subdivided by building type
- mills and industrial buildings, long span roofs such as conservatories, railway stations and
exhibition halls, and multi-storey frames. The development of new design forms to take advantage of
improvements in material characteristics is traced for each type.

2. EARLY STRUCTURAL USES OF IRON IN BUILDINGS


Steel and before that iron, have been used in building construction for a very long time. The first uses
were as secondary components - connectors, shoes and straps, mainly in combination with timber as
the principal structural material. As early as the 6th Century, iron tie bars were incorporated in the
main arcades of the Haghia Sophia in Istanbul. Domes often relied on tie bars to reinforce their base,
such as in Jacques Germain Soufflot's portico of the Pantheon in Paris (1770-72). However, the most
prominent early application of the material was in the decorative use of wrought iron, for instance, in
balustrades and gates. An outstanding example is to be found in the White Gates at Leeswood in
Clwyd, Wales (1726) (Slide 8). Thomas Rickman combined the structural utility of cast iron columns
with delicate ornament in the gallery fronts and ceilings to the nave and aisles of St George's Church,
Everton, UK (1812-14) (Slide 9). In France, the architect Henri Labrouste designed two notable
libraries. The Bibliotheque Sainte Geneviève (1843-50) (Slide 10) utilises cast iron for columns and
arches to support both roof and floor, whilst at the Bibliotheque Nationale (1858-68) (Slide 11), the
same decorative use is made of cast iron, but this time in combination with wrought iron.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (2 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 8

Slide 9

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (3 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 10

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (4 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 11

These and some other early examples of public buildings which used iron exposed the structure in the
interior but gave no sign of it from outside. J.B. Bunning's Coal Exchange in the City of London
(1849) incorporated an iron framed galleried atrium behind two palazzo office blocks, while the
Bibliotheque Sainte Geneviève had a scholarly Renaissance stone facade. Dean and Woodward used
iron and glass extensively for their Oxford Museum (1860) (Slide 12) creating a dramatic interior.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (5 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 12

3. INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS AND MILLS


The introduction of iron components as principal structural elements is a relatively recent
development, inspired by the desire for fire resistant construction. Earlier timber framed construction
was always vulnerable to fire, particularly in textile mills where cotton fibres were processed in an
oily, candle-lit atmosphere. By the end of the 18th Century iron was beginning to replace timber for
the main structure. Initially, this was for the columns only, the first examples being a cotton mill in
Derby, UK and a warehouse in Milford, UK (1792-93). The designer William Strutt used brick jack
arches in place of the traditional timber floor. The jack arches sprang from iron plated timber beams
with a plastered soffit to provide increased fire resistance. The beams were supported externally on
the masonry walls and internally on cast iron columns.

The next logical progression was to use iron instead of timber for the beams. The first example of
such a building frame was Charles Bage's Flax Mill at Shrewsbury, built in 1796 (Slide 13). The
external masonry is loadbearing, but internally slender cast iron columns support cast iron lattice
girders enclosed within brick arch floors. The building still stands today, having been used most
recently as a maltings. The beams were cast in two sections, bolted together, with a skewback base,
designed to carry brick arches. Their profile, which was concealed by the brickwork, rises at mid-

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (6 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

span.

Slide 13

The combination of an external loadbearing masonry envelope and an internal iron frame became a
common form in Britain, particularly for industrial buildings, such as the Albert Dock buildings in
Liverpool (Slide 14). These buildings were constructed in 1845 and have recently been refurbished to
provide office and residential accommodation. This period of structural design using iron was
characterised more by evolution of form than by revolutionary new systems. Beam cross-sections
saw the development of first the inverted T section (the bottom flange carrying the arch) and later the
I section. Column sections also altered. Cruciform sections were superseded by circular hollow
sections which could also accommodate steam heating or rainwater flow.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (7 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 14

In 1856, Gardener's store (Slide 15) - an elegant furniture warehouse - was erected in Jamaica Street,
Glasgow. This building used a cast iron frame system patented by a local ironfounder, Robert
McConnel, for the facade, but the flooring system was based on a timber structure. The framing
system allowed a rich expression of the fenestration, and was similar in principle to those first used in
St Louis, USA.

Slide 15

The first building with a true rigid iron frame, making no structural use of loadbearing masonry, was
Greene's Boat House completed in 1858 (Slide 16) at the naval dockyard, Sheerness, UK. This
building was a four storey, three bay frame 64m by 41m by 16m high. The primary beams are of
riveted wrought iron and span 9m. The secondary beams are cast iron and span 4m. Corner columns
are hollow cast iron and are used as down pipes, whilst others are of H-section. The frame not only
carried the full vertical loads but also provided the lateral stability.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (8 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 16

In France, the first fully framed building was the Menier Chocolate Factory (Slide 17) at Noisiel-sur-
Marne, completed in 1872. The most distinctive feature of this building, which is constructed over
the River Marne which powered its machinery, is the diagonal bracing which is so elegantly (Slide
18) expressed on the exterior. This bracing provides the necessary lateral rigidity to the slender
wrought iron skeleton, the decorative brick infill walls serving no structural purpose.

Slide 17

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (9 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 18

In Germany, an octagonal steel frame was used by Bruno Taut to support a gold coloured sphere in
his design for the pavilion at the Leipzig Fair (1913) and Peter Behrens designed a steel three pin
arch for the AEG turbine hall in Berlin (1909) (Slide 19).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (10 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 19

The introduction of bracing systems freed the structure from its dependence on masonry walls for
stability, and other materials began to be employed. Corrugated iron, the ancestor of today's profiled
steel sheet (Slide 20) was patented in 1829. Forming iron into thin sheets with undulations to give
stiffness was the idea of Henry Robinson Palmer who worked for the London Dock and Harbour
Company. The corrugated sheets were manufactured by Richard Walker and were used on warehouse
and storage buildings at the docks.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (11 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 20

The combination of steel frame and lightweight cladding has continued to be a popular solution for
industrial buildings. Many of the structural forms have been developed to create longer roof spans,
and here the historical development merges with that of other building types.

4. LONG SPAN ROOFS


The developments in iron bridge construction were paralleled by those in long span roof forms. In
1786, Victor Louis designed a tied arch roof using wrought iron to span 21m over the Theatre
Francais. He introduced many sophisticated features such as shaping fabricated elements to provide
greatest resistance to bending and buckling and achieving a form which was both elegant and daring:
qualities which characterised French iron structures for more than a Century afterwards.

Many of the early clear span iron structures borrowed ideas and principles from contemporary
masonry and timber construction, such as the stone arch on which many cast iron bridges were based.
Often timber structures destroyed by fire were replaced by iron structures of a similar form.
Examples include the cupola of the Granary in Paris (destroyed by fire in 1802 and replaced in 1811)
and the roof of Chartres Cathedral (1836) (Slide 21). Here cast iron was used by Emile Martin for the
curved frames of the arching roof, but the tie rods at the springing were wrought iron. The roof spans
14,2m with a clear height of more than 10m from vaulting to apex.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (12 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 21

In the first half of the nineteenth Century many innovative iron structures were built in France where
technical, educational and scientific understanding were most advanced. Wrought iron was used for
other long span roof structures in France, such as La Bourse (1823) (Slide 22). It is interesting to note
that in Britain cast iron remained the favoured material for buildings constructed during the same
period - for instance, the floors of Buckingham Palace and the floors and roof of the British Museum.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (13 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 22

In both Britain and France, iron and glass were married in the construction of numerous glasshouses
and conservatories, the slender glazing bars making iron an ideal material. Early examples include a
palm house at Bicton, Devon (1816) (Slide 23) which uses a wrought iron glazing bar system devised
by Loudon. This system established a pattern for glasshouse construction, and a later example is
Turner and Burton's Palm House at Kew (c. 1847) (Slide 24) which uses curved ironwork throughout.
Both of these examples have recently been restored. The latter is 110m long with a maximum clear
span of 15,2m and raised to 19m at its centre. The structure of the main ribs is of curved wrought iron
beams, as used in the construction of ships decks. The purlins, also of wrought iron, consist of a
tensioned rod running within a pipe between ribs. The decision to substitute wrought iron for cast
iron substantially reduced the weight of the structure and allowed greater light penetration into the
building - a very important consideration in glasshouse construction.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (14 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 23

Slide 24

Similar forms were used to build very long span roofs over railway termini. The roof at Euston
station (1835-39) consisting of two 13m spans supported on slender cast iron columns, is believed to
be the first example of all iron roof truss construction. The designer, Charles Fox, working under
Robert Stephenson, used rolled iron T sections for the rafters and the compression members and
rolled bar for the tension members. The connections were made by forging and drilling ends to the
bars for bolting, with wedges used for adjustment. However, an accident at this station in which a
derailed train demolished an internal column causing a partial roof collapse, led to the need for clear
spans. Notable examples include Turner's Liverpool Lime Street, spanning 47m (1849) and Barlow's

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (15 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

St.Pancras spanning 73m (1868) (Slide 25).

Slide 25

At Liverpool Lime Street the structure took the form of arched trusses, sliding joints at the supports
preventing lateral thrusts being transferred to the supports and thus avoiding arching action. The
construction of the roof was completed in 10 months. In contrast, St. Pancras uses a trussed arch with
the outward thrusts at the springing contained by ties located below platform level. It is interesting to
note that many of the designs for these long span roof structures were regarded as so innovative that
the railway companies demanded full scale tests to demonstrate their integrity.

In France, Camille Polonceau developed a simple trussed rafter system using iron, sometimes in
combination with timber. This system was widely used in a variety of building types, including the
roofs over the Paris-Versailles Railway (1837). These trusses had timber principals, cast iron struts
and wrought iron ties.

Paxton's Crystal Palace (1851) (Slide 26) was another remarkable structure built during this period.
His design for the exhibition hall was a rectangular building 564m long by 22m wide and rising to a
maximum height of 32m. It consisted of a framework of cast iron columns with cast and wrought iron
trusses, connected using wrought iron and wood keys. However, much of the credit for this structure
must go to the ironwork contractors Fox Henderson & Co. They were responsible for the structural
analysis, working drawings and construction, bringing their experience on bridges, dockyard roofs
and prefabricated buildings to enable completion of the building within a period of four months.
Other major buildings by them include the trainsheds at Paddington (1851-4) and Birmingham New
Street (1854).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (16 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 26

In France, one of the most spectacular exhibition halls, the Galerie des Machines (Slide 27) was built
for the 1889 Paris exhibition. It was the architect Dutert whose idea it was to enclose the 420m long,
110m wide hall with a single span. In conjunction with engineers Contamin, Pierron and Charton he
developed the three-pinned, trussed steel portal frame, rising at its apex to a height of 43m. Like the
Eiffel Tower (Slide 28), it was constructed from many small sections and plates riveted together in
truss-like form. The purlins, too, were of lattice construction. The scale of the detail was enormous.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (17 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 27

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (18 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 28

In America, too, the iron truss gradually gained favour, an early example being the Library of
Congress in the Capitol Building, Washington (1854). However, it was the emergence of the mass
production industries in the 1920s and their highly developed factory layouts which provided the
opportunities for new structural forms, pioneered by Albert Kahn. The need for production flexibility
dictated wide span industrial buildings. Deep lattice truss construction had been used for some time
in bridge design and Kahn adopted this for many of his buildings. Natural lighting was provided in
the production areas by adopting a monitor roof form. This improved lighting compared with north
light roof forms, but avoided excessive heat gain.

Examples of this form of construction include the press shop for Chrysler at Detroit (1936) and the
Assembly Building for the Glenn Martin Aircraft Company at Baltimore (1937). Trusses 9m deep
spanned over 90m to give a column-free floor area of 150m by 100m. The monitor roof light was
achieved by bridging alternately between the top and bottom chords of these trusses.

As spans became longer, so lateral stability of the trusses became more critical. This was countered
by using box or triangular cross-section trusses. The trend towards longer spans led to the
development of space frame construction which allowed advantage to be taken of the ability of such
structures to span in two directions. In fact, the development of this has its origins in the work of

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (19 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Alexander Graham Bell at the beginning of the 20th Century. However, the first system widely
available commercially, the MERO system, was not introduced until the 1940s. This structural form
has proved a popular method for roofing long spans very efficiently, and other commercial systems
have developed and continue to be used up to the present.

5. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING FRAMES


Just as iron was becoming more popular as a structural material for mill buildings and long span
roofs, so too was it being increasingly used for multi-storey building construction. It was in North
America and, in particular, Chicago that most development took place. Two important influences
were the need to build higher to overcome the chronic overcrowding of cities of the period, and the
terrible fire of 1871 which completely devastated the commercial quarter of Chicago. Another vital
element in the development of high-rise construction was the introduction of the passenger lift by
Elisha Otis in 1853.

Just as with industrial building development, changes in the form of construction took place in
several steps. By the 1860s cast iron columns and wrought iron girders were commonly used to
support brick arch floors, but with external loadbearing masonry still carrying a proportion of the
vertical loads and providing lateral stability. William le Baron Jenney's First Leiter building (Slide
29), completed in 1879 in Chicago, for instance, is basically a hybrid with timber secondary beams,
wrought iron primary beams, cast iron columns (internal) and masonry piers on the perimeter.

Slide 29

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (20 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Before their general use for commercial buildings, tall iron frame structures began to appear towards
the end of the 19th Century. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Eiffel Tower which remains as
one of the most potent symbols of iron construction. Built as a temporary monument to crown the
1889 Paris Exposition, at 300m it was the highest structure of its time (although other similar towers
had been proposed in cast iron as early as 1833). The design of the tower was, in fact, developed
initially by Koechlin and Nougier, two engineers working in Eiffel's office. An architect, Sauvestre,
also working for Eiffel, made important modifications including joining the first level and the four
main legs with monumental arches. Eiffel, however, assumed responsibility for its construction.

Other notable structures of this type include the Latting Observatory Tower (1853) and Statue of
Liberty (1886), both in New York.

It was not until about 1880 in the USA that the full potential of iron and steel frames was realised and
they became standard for high buildings. The advantages of a frame structure can be seen by
comparing the loadbearing masonry Monadnock Building, Chicago (1885) with the second
Monadnock Building completed in 1891 using a steel frame. The walls of the earlier building
measure 4,5m thick at their base. However, as late as 1890 loadbearing masonry was used for the
Pullitzer Building, New York with walls 2,7m thick.

5.1 Floor Construction

It was recognised that substituting iron or steel for timber was not the complete answer to providing
fire safety since unprotected iron beams would lose their strength at high temperatures and cast iron
columns could fail when suddenly cooled by water from fire hoses. Some form of additional fire
protection was, therefore, necessary. This requirement was clearly demonstrated by a plaster encased
building structure which survived the Chicago fire.

The jack arch floor construction methods used earlier for mill buildings were largely unsuitable for
resisting fire, partly because of their weight and partly because the lower flange of the iron beam
would be exposed in the event of a fire. Terracotta flooring, in which hollow blocks of terracotta
formed 'flat arches' to span between the lower flanges of the beams, overcame both of these
problems. An early example of this form of floor construction is the 7-storey Tribune Building in
New York (1869) which was also one of the first buildings to incorporate a passenger lift. Various
systems based on this principle were developed. The blocks were arranged to project below the lower
flange of the beam which was afforded fire protection either by projecting flanges of terracotta, or by
cover slips of terracotta supported on small nibs. Floor finishes were either terracotta floor tiles or
concrete, and their weight was about half that of the brick and concrete arch floors. This meant a
significant reduction in the self weight of the structure and hence the load to be carried by the walls,
columns and foundations, which was particularly important in Chicago with its poor subsoil
conditions.

Other floor systems were developed using expanded metal as permanent shuttering but these needed
separate ceilings. In 1846 the first iron beam was rolled in France, with the subsequent development
of floor systems such as Système Vaux and Système Thuasne. These consisted of wrought iron

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (21 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

beams at about 600-900mm centres connected by iron rods with a thick (70mm) plaster ceiling
encasing the lower part of the beam. In Britain 'filler joist' floors, comprising closely spaced joists
with concrete cast between, became common during the early part of the 20th Century. In many
respects these floors can be seen as the precursor to the composite and reinforced concrete floor slab
systems in current use.

5.2 Beams and Columns

The iron beams supporting the floors were initially formed as truss-like girders by riveting small cast
or wrought iron elements. These girders were relatively deep and the planning was generally arranged
so that they could be incorporated within partition walls. It was not until much later that rolling of
wide flanged beams became possible, allowing shallower construction depth and hence greater
planning freedom.

Cast iron columns remained popular for some time. It was not until the recognition of the need for
bending strength within columns to deal with eccentric loads, that wrought iron, and subsequently
steel, really took over. Like beams, the columns were initially formed by riveting a number of small
sections to form a cross-section with similar bending strengths about both axes.

5.3 Frame Construction

The first move towards a fully framed form of construction was the introduction of columns within
(or in front of) the external walls so that the masonry carried only its self weight and none of the floor
loads. Only when the frame carried not only the floor loads but also the external wall was the height
of construction no longer limited by the ability of the wall to carry its own weight. This arrangement
also solved the problem of the differential thermal expansion of masonry and iron.

Jenney's 10-storey Home Insurance Building, Chicago (1885) is considered to be the first fully
framed building to adopt this form of construction and as such was the first skeletal skyscraper. Cast
iron columns support wrought iron beams for the lower floors and Bessemer steel beams above the
sixth floor. The frame was fire protected throughout by masonry and fire clay tiles. The external
walls were carried on angles attached to the spandrel beams, although this detail was not revealed
until the demolition of the building in 1931.

Another early example was the 11-storey Tower Building in New York designed by Bradford Lee
Guilbert in 1887 for a very narrow site. Loadbearing masonry walls would have been so thick at their
base that no useable space would have been left.

5.4 Wind Braced Structures

Although these developments led to structural framing systems designed to carry the full vertical load
including the self weight of the external walls, the structure was still dependent on the walls for
lateral stability. The cross bracing used in the exterior of the chocolate factory at Noisiel-sur-Marne
was generally regarded as inappropriate for commercial buildings, and the stiffness of the

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (22 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

connections utilised in the Crystal Palace to provide stability was recognised as being inadequate for
the more onerous demands of high-rise buildings.

The first Monadnock Building, although of loadbearing masonry construction, used a combination of
portal frame bracing and masonry cross walls. Many other buildings used a mixture of methods.

Jenney's 16-storey Manhattan Building, Chicago (1890) was the first with a wind braced frame. This
frame consisted of a combination of portal bracing and diagonal wrought iron rods tightened with
turnbuckles. This building also provides an interesting commentary on the relative material costs at
the time. Steel was used only for the major beams because of its high cost, with wrought iron for
secondary beams and cast iron for columns.

Burnham and Root's 22-storey Masonic Temple (1892) was braced with diagonal wrought iron rods
placed in the transverse walls, whilst the Colony Building (1894) used portal frames to provide
stability.

The freedom from dependence on the external masonry to provide lateral stability created new
opportunities for the treatment of the facade and architects used a variety of approaches. Ground
floors were often given a light form to accommodate stores, whilst the office floors above had a
traditional, heavy form. The Guaranty Building (1895) and the Stock Exchange Building (1894) both
by Adler and Sullivan, and the Gage group of buildings (1896/8) by Holabird and Roche (Slide 30)
are typical of this approach. One of the most simple yet successful expressions of the structural frame
at the time is to be seen in the Carson Pirie Scott store by Sullivan (1904) (Slide 31). More
adventurous forms, however, were possible and the bay window, supported by frames cantilevered
from the spandrel girders, became a common feature, providing a means of getting light into the
upper floors. This feature is perhaps best seen in the Reliance Building of 1894 (Slide 32) which used
terracotta cladding over the frame to give a lightness to the form. Designed by Burnham and Root it
is a notable example of the slender, glazed skeletal building. The steel frame above the first floor was
erected in little more than two weeks and the external envelope was completed within six months.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (23 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 30

Slide 31

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (24 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 32

The greater strength of steel compared with iron enabled greater heights and longer spans to be
achieved but it was relatively expensive so that it only gradually replaced wrought and cast iron, as
seen in the Manhattan Building. The first all steel building was the 2nd Rand McNally Building,
Chicago, built in 1889-90 and demolished in 1911.

6. DEVELOPMENTS IN DESIGN FOR STEEL FRAMED


BUILDINGS
In Europe the developments at the turn of the Century were less concerned with tall multi-storey
buildings, but imaginative use was made of the potential for expressing the new structural material,
particularly in France. Chedanne's office block at 124 Rue Reaumur, Paris (1904) (Slide 33) is
perhaps the very first example of a true multi-storey facade in structural steelwork. In Belgium, too,
Horta made extensive use of iron and steel, for instance, in the light wells he introduced in the deep
sides of his buildings in Brussels, such as the Hotel Solay (1894). He also used it in both the
elevations and the interior of the Maison du Peuple. Others used it in a highly decorative way, for
instance the bridge, entrances, pavilions and canopies for the new railways in Paris and Vienna. A
notable example is the Karlsplatz Station (1898) by Otto Wagner (Slide 34). The same designer
combined glass and iron with considerable success in the Post Office Savings Bank, also in Vienna
(1906) (Slide 35).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (25 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 33

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (26 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 34

Slide 35

The first steel framed building of distinction in Britain was the Ritz Hotel, (Slide 36) London by

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (27 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Mewes and Davies and Sven Bylander. The main columns were of steel box section formed by
connecting two channels lip-to-lip with cover plates. Foundations took the form of steel grillages
encased in concrete, an unusual system outside the USA. The fire-proof floors were of a patented
form comprising twin concrete slabs forming a floor over and a flat soffit below the steel beams. The
large clear span over the restaurant necessitated the use of steel trusses. Fire protection to the steel
was provided throughout by encasing in concrete or other incombustible material. The attraction of
using steel was in speed of construction compared with traditional forms, even though building
regulations in force at the time required the external walls to be 775mm thick. Thus, like many of its
iron framed predecessors, the building displays nothing of its frame structure but instead has the
appearance of loadbearing masonry.

Slide 36

Subsequent relaxations in building regulations allowed thinner wall construction and designers began
to express the frame structure behind, such as at Kodak House (1911) (Slide 37) by Sir John Burnet
and Heal's (1916) by Smith and Brewer, with Sven Bylander as engineer.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (28 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 37

Building in the USA became even higher and architects used various design/stylistic approaches to
break down their austerity such as the romantic medievalism typified by the 52 storey Woolworth
Building (1913) (Slide 38) and both Gothic and Art Nouveau styles seen in the Chicago Tribunal
Tower (1922) (Slide 39).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (29 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 38

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (30 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 39

The following years saw the race to establish ever increasing height records with first the 320m high
Chrysler building (Slide 40) with its famous stainless steel clad finial and the 380m high Empire
State Building (1930) (Slide 41), which still holds the record for speed of construction, which at one
stage reached one floor per day. The 70 storey RGA Radio Tower (Slide 42) which formed part of the
Rockefeller Centre (1939) is notable since it represented the first development in which a skyscraper
was planned as an integral part of a group of buildings rather than as a single structure.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (31 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 40

Slide 41

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (32 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 42

Meanwhile, in Europe construction heights remained modest. In 1928 the Empire Theatre, Leicester
Square, London providing almost 4000 seats, was constructed. Steel framing was used to span up to
36m clear over the auditorium to support a balcony with tea rooms underneath. The floor of the
balcony was supported on an arrangement of raking steel beams. Other notable buildings constructed
during the 1930s include de la Warr's pavilion at Bexhill-On-Sea (Slide 43), the first all-welded steel
frame in Britain, and Simpson's Department Store in Piccadilly, London (Slide 44). It was the first
building to have a completely clear shop front achieved by using a Vierendeel girder across the front
elevation.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (33 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 43

Slide 44

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (34 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In France, Jean Prouvé pioneered many new applications and technical developments in the use of
steelwork. Trained as a blacksmith, and specialising in metal furniture at his factory in Nantes, he
collaborated with many leading architects on designs for cladding, many in cold formed steel. The
Maison du Peuple, Clichy, Paris (1939) is one of his most famous works, utilizing pressed steel
components throughout, not only for cladding, but also for windows, floors, partitions and staircases
(Slide 45).

Slide 45

Following a lull in steel construction due to material shortages incurred as a result of the Second
World War, architectural styles developed. Foremost amongst these was the influence of Mies van
der Rohe and his use of a facade composed of prefabricated units and suspended in front of the
structural frame. Early examples include the Illinois Institute of Technology (1950) (Slide 46), Lake
Shore Drive apartments (1951) (Slide 47) and the Lever Building, NewYork (1953) (Slide 48). This
new approach saved space and weight and speeded up construction, as well as allowing full visual
expression to be given to glass and metal. One of the best known examples is the bronze coloured
Seagram Building (1957) (Slide 49).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (35 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 46

Slide 47

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (36 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 48

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (37 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 49

The evolution of form and the endeavour for increased height has continued, and these developments
are chartered in Group 14.

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● The use of iron and steel in the main components of building structures is relatively recent.
The adoption of these new materials was spasmodic rather than a smooth sequential
development.
● A historical review of the introduction of these materials may best be illustrated by the
different building types - mills and industrial buildings, long span roofs and multi-storey
frames.
● The first uses of iron were as secondary components - connectors, shoes and straps. Iron tie
bars were incorporated in Renaissance domes. Cast iron and wrought iron were gradually
adopted in structures in the 18th Century.
● Principal structural elements of iron were first introduced to achieve fire resistant
construction, especially in mills.
● The developments in iron bridge construction in the 18th Century were reflected in long span
roof forms.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (38 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● Over the same period iron was increasingly used in multi-storey building construction. Tall
iron frame structures began to appear towards the end of the 19th Century.
● Some additional fire protection was necessary since unprotected iron beams would lose their
strength at high temperatures and cast iron columns could fail when suddenly cooled by water
from fire hoses.
● The introduction of the fully framed form of construction carrying the floor loads and the
external wall removed the limitation of height resulting from the requirement for the wall to
carry its own weight. Bracing freed the structure from dependence on external masonry to
provide lateral stability. Such structures built towards the end of the 19th Century and the
beginning of the 20th Century were progressively of increasing height.

8. ADDITIONAL READING
1. Collins, A. R. ed., (1986) Structural Engineering - Two Centuries of British Achievement,
Tarot Print, Christlehurst, Kent (1983).
2. Gloag, J. and Bridgewater, D., A History of Cast Iron in Architecture, London, 1948.
3. Lemoine, Bertrand, L'Architecture du Fer: XIXe Siecle, Paris, 1986.
4. Mainstone, R. J, Developments in Structural Form, Allen Lane 1977, London.
5. Sheppard, R., Cast Iron in Building, London 1945.
6. Jones, E, Industrial Architecture in Britain 1750-1939, London, 1985.
7. Biney, M., Great Railway Stations of Europe, Thames and Hudson, 1984.
8. Giedion, S., Space, Time and Architecture, Harvard, 1940 and 1966.
9. Russel, B., Building Systems, Industrialisation and Architecture, Wiley, 1981.
10. Guedes, P. (ed.) Macmillan Encyclopaedia of Technology.
11. Walker, D. (ed.) Great Engineers, Academy Editions, London 1987.
12. Hildelerand, G., Designing for Industry, MIT Press, 1974.
13. Ogg, A., Architecture in Steel: The Australian Context, Royal Australian Institute of
Architects, 1987.
14. Strike, J., Construction into Design, Butterworth, 1991.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0430.htm (39 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:41]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.4.4: Historical Development of


Iron and Steel in Bridges
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To review the development of steel bridge construction, demonstrating how improvements in


methods and understanding of structural behaviour have enabled greater efficiency and longer spans.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1B.4.1: Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Structures

Lecture 1B.4.2: Historical Development of Steelwork Design

Lecture 1B.4.3: Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Buildings

SUMMARY

The historical development of bridges throughout the world is used to illustrate developments in
structural engineering. Three categories of bridges are considered - arches, beam structures and
suspension bridges. The precedence of masonry and timber construction are considered briefly,
showing how these older forms have become adapted to take advantage of the characteristics of
firstly iron and then steel. Significant technical innovations concerning materials, analytical methods
and design concepts are highlighted. Some notable failures, and the lessons to be learned from them,
are discussed.

1. INTRODUCTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (1 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The historical development of bridges is the field which best illustrates the progress of structural
engineering from ancient times up to the present century. In particular the development in steel
bridges equates with the progress in structural analysis, theory of strength of materials and materials
testing, since all of them were increasingly stimulated by the need for bridging larger spans and
building more economically with the new construction method. Fortuitously, mechanics and
mathematics had reached the threshold of modern engineering science just when the technology of
constructional steelwork was being developed.

However, at the time when the new material, iron, and later steel, was ready for use in larger
structures there already existed a quite highly developed technology in bridge building, namely for
bridges in timber and bridges in stone. During the years 1750 - 1770 approximately, a new method of
coke smelting produced larger amounts of iron at a cost which provided the basis for application of
iron in engineering practice.

It is important to mention that the technologies of bridge building at that time were based on
individual intuition of outstanding "masters" and on the experience passed down through the
generations rather than on rules of mechanics and mathematics. The significance of preserving the
knowledge of bridge building and of extending it was closely connected with military purposes and
the interests of trade in ancient times. The Romans even established a separate caste - the
"pontifices" (bridge makers) - who later were raised into the rank of priests, headed by the "pontifex
maximum", which was also one of the titles of the Roman emperors. Similar reasons motivated the
French kings, e.g. Louis XIV, and later Napoleon, to support the new engineering schools (Ecole de
Ponts et Chaussés and Ecole Polytechnique).

Thus, the building of steel bridges was founded at the beginning on the then well-tried principles and
construction methods of timber and stone bridges. Stone bridges provided the arch type while
wooden bridges demonstrated mainly fine-structured trusses. According to the typical material
properties of cast iron -the first type of iron available - iron bridges were first built as arches. Later,
when steel was available, which is capable of acting in tension, various structural systems were
developed on the basis of the principles of wooden trusses. Due to the superior material properties of
steel and the advantages of the new construction method, a rapid development of bridge structures led
to a large variety of efficient, inventive systems for any kind of span.

In this Lecture, the history of steel bridges is subdivided according to three types of bridge:

● Arch bridges
● Beam structures, including trusses, plate/box-girder bridges, and all kinds of supported
bending structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and tied arches.
● Suspension bridges.

There is, of course, much overlap in chronological order concerning the three types of bridge through
the period of time considered. However, this classification seems to be most appropriate to an
engineer's understanding, being based on the main bearing behaviour of bridges rather than on
aspects of shape or statical system.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (2 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

2. ARCH BRIDGES
Arches transfer distributed vertical loads to the foundation mainly by compression. Due to the
specific material properties of masonry they are basically the appropriate form of structure for stone
bridges.

Such arch bridges are known to have existed in the Hellenistic period of Asia Minor. However, they
reached their "flowering period" in Roman times, when the typical arch-type aqueducts were
extensively used all over the Roman empire, e.g. the "Pont du Gard" near Nimes in Southern France,
built in 18 B.C. (Slide 50). Up to that time arch bridges were formed in the semi-circular shape only,
which did not allow spans greater than about 35 to 40 m.

Slide 50

In the Middle Ages the construction of flat arches was developed in order to build lighter bridges and
larger spans. Later on, particularly in the newly founded engineering academies of France, this
construction method was cultivated by using experience as well as mathematical aids. J.R. Perronet
was the master of masonry bridges of that type, e.g. the "Pont de la Concorde" in Paris of 1791 (Slide
51). The technical basis for the application of iron in bridge building was therefore in place.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (3 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 51

In 1779 Abraham Darby III, an English iron founder, succeeded in building the first iron bridge in
Coalbrookdale. Some earlier attempts in France and England had failed because the cast iron of the
time which had low tensile and flexural tensile strength, and was also brittle, had been used with
inappropriate structural systems. The Coalbrookdale Bridge was constructed as an arch bridge like
the examples in stone before, however, the arch was structured in 5 light ribs following the
constructional principles of wooden structures. The bridge has a span of about 30 m and is still in use.
Such cast iron bridges soon became common structures in Britain and were exported to other
countries (Slide 52).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (4 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 52

In the following years, iron casting was developed to supply different bridge building methods. Pre-
fabricated, block-shaped elements were used like large "bricks" in patented iron arch bridges. The
largest of these was the "Sunderland Bridge", built in England in 1796 with a span of 72 m.

Another method was developed by the German engineer Reichenbach, who used cast iron tubes for
the compression member of the arch. This economical system was widely used, an excellent example
being the "Pont du Caroussel" in Paris, which was built by Polonceau in 1839 with three spans of
48m each (Slide 53).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (5 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 53

The largest cast iron arch ever built was the "Southwark Bridge" by John Rennie over the Thames in
London (1819) with a span of 73 m (Slide 54).

Slide 54

A similar bridge, notable for its marvellous latticed design and the great name of Thomas Telford
connected with it, had been built some years previously (1812) in Scotland with a span of 50 m.
Other arch bridges of the same typical design were built later and can be found in many places, e.g.
over the River Rhine in Germany or over the River Loire in France.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (6 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Thomas Telford (1757 - 1834) - originally being a mason - became one of the most notable engineers
of his time. After educating himself in architecture he built 3 bridges over the River Severn, after
which he worked for the canal companies, building about 900 miles of road and two gigantic
aqueducts to carry the canals over valleys. Between 1819 and 1826 Telford built the two famous
chain suspension bridges over the Menai Straits and the River Conway. Telford was made the first
President of the Institution of Civil Engineers when it was founded in 1828.

The "Mississippi Bridge" in St. Louis was built in 1874 by J.B. Eads (Slide 55). He used tubular
members partly of iron and partly of steel to form the latticed arch of 159 m in span. It was the first
bridge he built and surprisingly became the largest arch span in the world.

Slide 55

Steel arch bridges cannot be discussed without appreciating the contribution of Gustave Eiffel, one of
the greatest engineers of his century. Eiffel (1832 -1923) founded and led the "Société Eiffel", an
engineering and steel fabricating company, well known throughout the world, with agencies in the
Middle East, Eastern Asia and South America. Its main field of production was various kinds of steel
bridges, of which the arch bridges were the most important. Eiffel also used trussed construction. He
was the first engineer to develop the preparation of steelwork design up to full detailing and drawing
of every element or single rivet. His first big success was the railway bridge over the Duoro in
Portugal (1878) with an arch span of 160 m. His most beautiful bridge was the "Viaduc de Garabit"
in the South of France, built in 1884 with a span of 165 m (Slide 56). The buildings which made him
most famous are the 300 m high "Eiffel Tower" (1889) and the "Statue of Liberty" (1886).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (7 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 56

With the development of steel the size of structures increased. The largest arch spans were built in the
years up to 1930:

● the "Bayonne Bridge" in New Jersey by O.H. Ammann in 1931 with a span of 504 m (Slide
57)

Slide 57

● the "Sydney Harbour Bridge" by R. Freeman in 1932 with a span of 503 m (Slide 58).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (8 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 58

Both bridges are two-hinged trussed arches with the deck suspended.

3. BEAM STRUCTURES INCLUDING TRUSSES AND PLATE/


BOX GIRDER BRIDGES
It was indicated at the beginning of the section "Arch Bridges" that iron in the first period of bridge
building could only be used in compression. It was not until more than fifty years later when larger
bridge structures were built that bending structures were adopted using the newly developed wrought
iron, and later steel, which were capable of acting in tension as well. At that time there already
existed a highly developed technology of building such bridges in timber, in particular trusses of
various shapes and systems. Since constructional steelwork at the start used a great deal of this
knowledge a short overview is given below of the development of wooden bridges.

Wooden bridge structures

In Roman times (during the reigns of Caesar and Trajan) individual wooden bridges of impressive
dimensions were built over the River Rhine and the Danube. Wooden bridges then became very
common in the Middle Ages, although few of them have survived. The first methodical studies of
statical systems were performed by the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (+ 1580), demonstrating
different types of trusses and strutted frames, which were then called "Palladian bridges".

The heyday of bridge building in timber took place in the second half of the 18th century, when
individual master builders like Grubenmann and Ritter in Switzerland, Gauthey in France and

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (9 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Wiebeking in Germany developed outstanding structures with spans up to 100 m. From that time on
the development of wooden bridges moved to the USA, where - due to the lack of trained carpenters -
simplified structures came into use. Standardized and prefabricated elements and simple connections
were made with unskilled labour, but nevertheless produced large bridge structures, especially for the
railways. The main types of bridges resulting were trestle bridges (Slide 59) and truss bridges.

Slide 59

The latter - among others - comprised patented systems like the widely used crosswise-pretensioned
truss girder by Town (Slide 60). Many of the structural ideas were transferred to trussed steel bridges
at the beginning. Due to the superior material behaviour of steel, wooden bridges were replaced step
by step up to the end of the 19th century.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (10 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 60

During the first half of the 19th century, steel bridges were frequently designed as trusses,
particularly in the USA. This was mainly due to their economical load-carrying behaviour. However,
in Europe this same development was interrupted by a short period, when tubular bridges were made
of large plated girders.

Development of plated girders - Robert Stephenson

When in 1844 the Chester & Holyhead Railway Company decided to build a railway line from
London to the Isle of Anglesey in Northern Wales, two big obstacles had to be bridged, namely the
Menai Street and the River Conway. Robert Stephenson (1803 -1859), the son of the great George
Stephenson, was in charge of the project. He, in contrast to his father who had been self-taught, was
well educated. He became leader of his father's locomotive factory at the age of twenty-seven and
was at that time well renowned as a railway and bridge engineer in Britain.

After several studies of bridging the Menai Strait with an arch bridge or using a chain suspension
bridge, which Thomas Telford had built about 20 years previously in the same place for the railway,
Stephenson decided to build a bridge in the shape of two rectangular tubes (each 4,4 m wide and 9 m
deep) through which the two railway tracks ran (Slide 61 and 62). He performed the design on the
basis of extensive experimentation on models in the scale 1 : 6 with circular, elliptic or rectangular
cross-section. The research was done in a team together with W. Fairbairn, responsible for the testing,
and E.Hodgkinson, performing the theoretical work. It showed that the closely stiffened plate-girders
made of wrought iron combined with the cellular upper and lower deck construction were strong
enough to carry the load over the spans of 142 m without additional support by stays from the top of
the piers. Such stays had originally been provided when erecting the towers, which then gave the
bridge its unique appearance.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (11 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 61

Slide 62

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (12 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The bridge, which consisted of 4 spans of 70 + 142 + 142 + 70 m, used 10.600 tons of iron and
incorporated 3,5 million rivets. It was fabricated near the site in equal pieces for each single span, and
each of them was floated to the site and lifted to its final position. Both fabrication and erection were
masterpieces. When the "Britannia Bridge" as it was known, was opened in 1850, Stephenson could
not have known how much he had contributed to the development of plate girder construction. It was
about 90 years before plate girder bridges of similar spans could be built again. The Britannia bridge
carried the railway traffic well for 120 years until 1970 when it was damaged by a fire.

A second bridge of this type, but with somewhat smaller spans, was built by Stephenson over the
River Conway at the same time.

Truss bridges (parallel girders)

As already mentioned the building of steel truss bridges was highly influenced by the examples of
wooden trusses, built using various systems in the USA. In the first period especially, when only flat
members were available, the latticed girders by Town were copied in steel, resulting in fine-mesh
lattice girders since flat sections can resist compression forces only with reduced buckling length.
Nevertheless, the lattice girders showed good statical behaviour and soon were built with
considerable spans.

The largest beam bridge of this type in Europe, the "Dirschau Bridge" over the River Weichsel
(Vistula) in Germany, was completed in 1857 (Slide 63). The single-track railway bridge was built by
the great bridge engineer Karl Lentze (1801 - 1883) with six spans of 131 m each, using closely
spaced lattice girders. His design was largely influenced by the Britannia bridge, showing a similar
tubular cross-section as well as similar tower-like pillars. This bridge moreover shows a "speciality"
of some Germany bridges, i.e. a castle-like entrance building, which was sometimes ironically
criticized in other countries. Nevertheless, considerable economies in the use of steel resulted, the
Dirschau bridge needing 8,3 tons of iron per metre compared with the 12,5 tons of the Britannia
bridge.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (13 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 63

The first iron truss bridge to be made of struts was the "Grandfey Viaduct" near Fribourg in
Switzerland, opened in 1862 (Slide 64). Although similar in type to the wooden trestle viaducts in the
USA (see Slide 59), it was the first true modern trussed girder with appropriate compressive
members. The bridge had seven spans of 49 m and was erected by launching the girder over the high
steel piers.

Slide 64

Further progress in building truss girders was encouraged by new methods of structural analysis. Karl
Culmann (1821 - 1881), then a young German engineer, was sent to the USA in 1849 by the Royal
Bavarian Government in order to report on the novel wooden and iron bridge types which he found
there. His studies led to the development of graphic methods of structural analysis, which he
published by 1860, when he was professor at the ETH Zurich. From that time a full theory existed for
the design of trusses.

A typical truss bridge of that time was the Danube Bridge near Stadlau in Vienna. It was built in 1870
as a continuous beam with five spans of 80 m each. The picture (Slide 65) shows the process of
launching.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (14 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 65

Building truss girders was developed to perfection by G. Eiffel - as already described in the section
"Arch bridges". Eiffel built a great number of truss bridges for the railway in France and Portugal; an
example (Slide 66) is taken from the Beira-Alta line (1879 - 1881) in Portugal. Eiffel's largest bridge
of this type was the bridge over the Tardes near Evaux, with a main span of 105 m (72 + 105 + 72 m),
built in the same period.

Slide 66

Truss bridges of the parallel-girder type were built in great variety, especially for the railways in
Europe, with a tendency towards simpler statical systems, e.g. the triangular truss. The Rhine Bridge

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (15 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

near Maxau in Germany, built in 1938, is a good example (Slide 67). It is a combined railway/road
bridge with spans of 175m and 117m.

Slide 67

Pauli girder, Saltash Bridge, Lohse girder

(fish-belly or parabolic girders)

The objective of obtaining an optimum distribution of the chord forces in trusses led to new shapes of
girders, the parabolic-truss girder with a curved upper chord and the fish-belly type girder with both
chords curved in opposite directions. The latter, called the "Pauli girder" in Germany, turned out to be
very economical with chord forces being approximately constant along the length of the bridge. This
system was developed by Friedrich August von Pauli (1802 - 1883), a railway engineer of the Royal
Bavarian Government and later Professor at the Technical University of Munich.

The first Pauli girder, built in 1857, was the railway bridge over the Isar near Groβ hesselohe
(Germany) with spans of 53 m (Slide 68). It was built under the direction of the young Heinrich
Gerber (1832 - 1912), who afterwards became one of the great bridge engineers in Germany. Gerber
contributed much to the design and analysis of the Pauli girder. However, his wide reputation resulted
from the development of the cantilever bridge.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (16 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 68

In order to summarize the great German bridge engineers of the 19th century also Johann Wilhelm
Schwedler (1832 - 1912) has also to be mentioned. He contributed much to the progress of German
constructional steelwork. One of his ideas was a specific parabolic truss girder, frequently used in
Germany and called the "Schwedler Girder", which was designed so that none of the diagonals would
be subjected to compression.

A gigantic bridge of the fish-belly type was the "Saltash Railway Bridge" near Plymouth, also known
as the "Royal Albert Bridge" (Slides 69 and 70). Completed in 1859 and having two spans of 139 m
each, the Saltash Bridge had a tubular upper chord with a high elliptic cross-section (5,2 m × 3,7 m),
made of riveted curved plates, and a lower chord consisting of chains. Constructional difficulties
prevented this type of bridge being built again. The builder was Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806 -
1859), a renowned railway engineer in Britain and one of the most ingenious engineers of his time,
whose father built the first tunnel below the River Thames in London. Brunel, after finishing his
studies in France, became assistant engineer on the project of the Thames Tunnel. Although he also
later built two chain suspension bridges, his greatest railway work was the Royal Albert Bridge.
Brunel also designed both the first and the largest steam ships for transatlantic voyages and was also
involved in the construction of many docks, piers and hospitals.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (17 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 69

Slide 70

Fish-belly type girders of Pauli's design had a lot of constructional advantages and were used in
German bridges again and again. For example the second "Dirschau Bridge" over the River Vistula
built by J.W. Schwedler in 1891 had six spans of 131 m. The amount of structural steel used for the
new bridge which carried two railway tracks, was the same as for the first bridge built in 1857 having
only a single track (Slide 71).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (18 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 71

A similar type of bridge was the double bow girder bridge, called "Lohse Girder" after its originator,
the German bridge engineer Hermann Lohse. The structural system, somewhere in between the fish-
belly type and the tied-arch type, consisted of two trussed chords connected with vertical members.
The most important examples are the five Elbe Bridges near Hamburg built in the period from 1872 -
1892; one railway bridge over the Southern Elbe and a road bridge and three railway bridges over the
Northern Elbe. All are of similar shape, having three or four spans of about 100 m each (Slides 72
and 73) and, again, the large entrance buildings typical for that time.

Slide 72

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (19 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 73

Parabolic truss systems were also widely used, particularly for railway bridges across the large rivers
in Germany. The "Lek Bridge" near Culenborg in the Netherlands had the longest span of such
girders for a long time. It was built in 1868, using steel for the first time in bridges, by the German
engineer and fabricator J. Caspar Harkort. The truss had a span of 155 m and a depth at midspan of
20,5 m (Slide 74).

Slide 74

Cantilever bridges, Gerber beams

Nearly all bridges of the first half of the 19th century were single span beams, which means that

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (20 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

multi-span bridges were divided into single spans on the piers. Of course, engineers of that time were
aware of the beneficial statical behaviour of the continuous beam. However, they knew also of the
disadvantages in relation to foundation settlements. It was the idea of the German H.Gerber to
introduce hinges into continuous beams at statically favourable locations, which eliminated the
drawbacks of settlements. This idea was patented in 1868 and such beams were called "Gerber
beams".

Heinrich Gerber (1832 - 1912) was one of the most important bridge engineers in Germany. After his
time in the Royal Bavarian Railway Authority he became the head of a significant German steelwork
company and contributed much to the development of steel bridges. He was the first to introduce
Wöhlers design principles for fatigue in railway bridge construction.

A special type of truss structure following Gerber's principle of hinged beams is the cantilever bridge.
By making the truss girder deeper at the piers, cantilevers may be built far into the middle of the span
without the need for any centring (falsework). This technique is of great importance when bridging
deep or rough water.

One of the greatest cantilever bridges is the "Firth of Forth Bridge" in Scotland. When built in 1883 -
1890 with main spans of 521 m, it gained the world record for the longest span bridge (Slide 75).
Some historical background of the specific design realised by the two engineers Sir John Fowler
(1817 - 1898) and his partner Benjamin Baker (1840 - 1907) is given below.

Slide 75

When construction of the bridge was about to start, the design was that made by Sir Thomas Bouch, a
renowned bridge engineer, who had just finished the railway bridge over the Firth of Tay with a total
length of 3200 m. This was a multiple-span truss bridge with main spans of 75 m, which collapsed in
a heavy storm on 27 December 1879 just when a train was crossing, causing the death of 72 people

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (21 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

(the German poet Theodore Fontane wrote a famous poem about this accident). As a result, Thomas
Bouch lost all credibility with the railway company, his successors, J Fowler and B Baker, having to
illustrate the statical principles of their design to the public (Slide 76).

Slide 76

The bridge, which today is considered to be a unique and gigantic construction, is a masterpiece of
engineering work. The depth of the truss above the piers is 106 m, the main tubular members are 3,7
m in diameter, and the whole bridge used 42.000 tons of steel and at times required up to 4.600
workers at the site to undertake the complex method of construction (Slide 77).

Slide 77

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (22 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

J Fowler was a notable civil engineer, mainly involved in railway construction. He was a pioneer of
the London Underground and later elected President of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Just how
much the builders of the Forth Bridge accomplished can be recognized by comparisons with the "St
Lawrence Bridge" near Quebec. This cantilever bridge, very similar in type, became the longest
hinged beam bridge when built in 1917, with a span of 549 m. However, although only 27 m longer
in span than the Forth Bridge, it took 12 years to build, two major failures having occurred during
construction, indicating that theoretical and practical limits had been reached.

The "Hooghly River Bridge" in Calcutta, built in 1940 with a span of 455 m, is the fourth largest
cantilever bridge (Slide 78). Although a late example of this successful type of bridge, the design
seems not to be so clear as that of its predecessors.

Slide 78

Truss Bridges in the USA

Based on a good tradition of wooden truss bridges, it was Squire Whipple who first developed the
method of analysing and designing trusses made of cast and wrought iron. He was called the "Father
of iron truss bridges" and built his first bridge in 1841, a bow-string type truss (parabolic girder),
which was patented and successfully built many times in the years following. In 1847 he published a
book on bridge building and developed the trapezoidal truss bridge, called the "Whipple-truss".
Whipple built two of these bridges with spans of about 45 m for railroad use in 1852-54. These
bridges have chords with forged wrought iron links, which were in later years modified step-by-step
by Linville into eye-bars made of steel and accordingly allowed increased spans. The longest bridge
of this type, with a main span of 155 m, was built for the railway in 1876 over the Ohio River near
Cincinnati. The longest simple span truss of this time was a bow-string truss with spans of 165 m also
over the Ohio River in Cincinnati, built by Bouscaren in 1888.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (23 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

There were also cantilever bridges built in the USA during the period 1877 - 1889, which have main
spans of 165m. They were erected by use of falsework, e.g. the "High Bridge" across the Kentucky
River and the "Hudson River Bridge" at Poughkeepsie.

Plate/Box Girder Bridges

After the exceptional example of the Britannia Bridge, plate girder bridges remained within spans of
about 30 m. Fresh impetus was given by the development of welding in constructional steelwork. The
use of welding began in about 1925 and considerably influenced the building of steel bridges,
particularly road bridges. After setbacks in the 1930's due to brittle fracture failures, a very rapid
increase in the size of spans took place. A typical example of large spans is the "Rhine Bridge" in
Bonn (1948) with spans of 99 + 196 + 99 m (Slide 79).

Slide 79

Tied Arches

A tied arch bridge acts like a beam structure, which is assisted in carrying load by an arch behaving
similarly to a curved upper chord of a truss, while the deck girder acts like the lower chord. Arch and
deck girder are simply connected by hangers and form a structure which has considerable
constructional advantages compared to true trusses when bridging wide single spans or carrying
heavy loads. Tied arch bridges have been incorporated in this section because their main statical
behaviour resembles beams rather than arches, e.g. transmitting vertical reactions to the abutment
when subjected to vertical loads.

Such bridges were frequently used in the past, especially for heavy railway bridges. The first long
span bridges were built in Hamburg over the Southern Elbe (1899) with four spans of 100 m. In 1906
- 1910 in Cologne the "Hohenzollern Bridge" was built with spans of 102 + 165 + 102 m (Slide 80).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (24 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

When the old Lohse girders in Hamburg had to be replaced (1915) tied arch bridges were also used
(Slide 81).

Slide 80

Slide 81

Cable Stayed Bridges

Similarly, to tied arch bridges, cable stayed bridges are classified under the topic of beam structures.
They actually behave like elastically supported continuous beams rather than like suspension bridges,

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (25 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

although are often considered as being related to them. The cable stays provide a more or less elastic
support at individual points along the deck girder. This arrangement allows bridges of considerable
span to be built with relatively slender girders. Only vertical reactions are transmitted to the
abutments as a result of vertical loading.

The cable stayed bridge was the most recently developed of all the types of bridges. It originated in
Germany (about 1950) and the first bridge completed in 1957 was the "Theodor Heuss Bridge" in
Düsseldorf (spans of 108 + 260 + 108 m). A great number of such bridges, mainly different in the
type of pylon and the cable design, were built along the River Rhine, e.g. the harp-shaped design in
Düsseldorf/Oberkassel (Slide 82) or the closely spaced, fan-shaped design in the North of Bonn
Bridge (Slide 83).

Slide 82

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (26 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 83

4. SUSPENSION BRIDGES
The predecessors of iron and steel suspension bridges were pedestrian bridges made of rope utilising
different materials during the early centuries in China, India and South America. Iron chain
suspension bridges are of Chinese origin, the oldest known bridges having been built about 500 years
ago. None of them were stiffened. They swayed violently under traffic and their thin decks were
directly secured onto the chains.

The first proposal for a chain suspension bridge with a horizontal traffic deck suspended from three
chains was published by Faustus Verantius (1551 - 1617), a Renaissance scholar, but it was not until
the late 18th Century that such bridges were built (Slide 84).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (27 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 84

The first of them was built by James Finley (1762 - 1828) in 1796 in the United States, followed by a
large number of the same type, Finley having been granted a patent. Finley's bridges were relatively
stable and could therefore be used by wheeled traffic.

Chain Suspension Bridges

The first chain bridges in Europe were erected in Great Britain.

In 1819 Samuel Brown (1776 - 1852) built the "Union Bridge" near Berwick with a span of 120 m
after having invented a new type of chain, the so-called "Eye-bars". (Following this invention the
fabrication of chains moved from the manufacturing of ordinary anchor cable type chains in
blacksmiths' shops to wrought iron fabricators).

Brown built further chain bridges, e.g. in 1820/21 the "Trinity Pier Bridge" in Newhaven near
Edinburgh (3 chainbridges in a row, each 64 m in span) and in 1822/23 the larger "Chain Pier" in
Brighton, which was designed as four chain bridges of 78 m span in line. This bridge suffered from
wind-induced vibrations and parts of it were destroyed twice in major storms.

It is interesting to know that, even in 1823, Marc Isambard Brunel (1769 - 1849), the builder of the
Thames tunnel in London and father of the great railway engineer I K Brunel, built two chain bridges
on the Isle of Réunion which were effectively stiffened against wind by additional counter-curved
chains located below the bridge deck.

A milestone in bridge building was the chain bridges built by Thomas Telford, who has already been
mentioned in the section on arch bridges.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (28 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The Chain Bridge over the Menai Straits in North Wales (Slide 85), being a road bridge with a free
span of 177 m, was the bridge with the longest span of the time. Built in 1819 to 1826 (Telford was
60 years old when it was finished), it was an outstanding structure which also influenced Navier
when working out his theory on suspension bridges. Telford used eye-bar chains with special
improved links. There were 16 chains for each of the two cables. Originally built without stiffening
elements it was reinforced during the first year of use after a heavy storm had caused large
deflections of about 1 m.

Slide 85

A similar bridge, but of smaller span, was built by Telford over the River Conway near Conway
Castle. It should be mentioned that in the case of both the Menai Straits and the River Conway,
famous railway bridges were built by Robert Stephenson, close to those of Telford, about 25 years
later.

The name of another great engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806 - 1859), is also connected with
suspension bridges. Brunel, well known for his Royal Albert Bridge, a tubular-type bridge at Saltash,
built the "Clifton Suspension Bridge" near Bristol (Slide 86). This chain bridge with a span of 214 m
was not finished before 1864. It used the same chains as the "Hungerford Bridge" (span 206 m) in
London, which had been built by Brunel in 1845.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (29 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 86

Another British engineer, W T Clark, built chain bridges during this period, e.g. the "Hammersmith
Bridge" in London (1827, span 122 m) and the bridge across the Danube in Budapest (1845, span 203
m).

The oldest suspension bridge in Germany was the chain bridge in Malapane (Schlesien), built in 1827
with a span of 31 m. It was followed in 1829 by the "Ludwigs Bridge" across the Regnitz in Bamberg
with a free span of 64 m. This carefully designed bridge is of some interest, since it made a deep
impression on the young Johann Roebling when he was studying in Berlin. In later years he became
the most important suspension bridge engineer.

Further old chain bridges, which are not referred to here in detail, were built in France, e.g. in Paris
across the Seine by De Verges (1829, span 68 m) and in Langon over the Garronne by P D Martin
(1831, span 80 m). Chain bridges were also built by the Czech B Schnirch in Prague (1842, span 133
m) and in Vienna (1859, span 83m).

Wire Cable Suspension Bridges

Whilst the building of chain bridges continued in Great Britain and Germany, in France, Switzerland
and America wire cables began to be used, based on the experience that wires have considerably
higher strength than iron chains. Following trial structures built by the French Séguin brothers, the
Swiss engineer G H Dufour (1787 - 1875) and Marc Séguin (1786 - 1875) built the first wire cable
suspension bridge in the world. This bridge, the "Pont St. Antoine" situated in Geneva, was, when
completed in 1823, also the first permanent suspension bridge on the European continent. Six cables
of 90 wires each supported the two 40 m spans.

The main problem in the manufacture of parallel wire cables is to guarantee that all wires carry the
same amount of tension. While Séguin, being more an entrepreneur than an engineer, tried to achieve

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (30 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

this by using cables of different curvatures, Dufour solved the problem by prestressing all wires so
that none remained slack. This meant prestressing the cables in a special device and lifting them
afterwards onto the saddles. The best solution, i.e. spinning the cables in situ wire by wire was first
suggested by the French engineer L J Vicat and developed as a mechanized spinning method by J
Roebling.

Although Séguin founded a bridge construction company and built more than 80 suspension bridges
of about 100 m in span, the most important example of this generation of wire cable bridges was
completed in 1834 by the French engineer J Chaley (1795 - 1861) in Gribourg, Switzerland. It
crosses the Saane Valley in a single span of 273 m. It was called "Grand Pont Suspendu" (Slide 87)
and was the longest bridge in the world until the "Ohio Bridge" in Wheeling was opened in 1849.
Chaley provided 4 cables, each with 1056 wires, and prestressed them like Dufour had done before
him. The cables were layed out on the bottom of the valley and lifted up to the top of the towers.

Slide 87

An interesting design was realized with a 'row' of suspension bridges crossing the Dordogne near
Cubzac (Slide 88). This consisted of 5 spans, each 109 m in span, having, in addition to the main
cables, separate stays which are secured on the top of a tower and land on the next tower at the height
of the traffic deck. This bridge was completed in 1839 and was built by de Verges and Emil Martin.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (31 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 88

After this period further development of large suspension bridges moved from Europe to the United
States, partly due to the expansion of the railway to the west of the country, and also thanks to the
emigration of European engineers to America and the transfer of technical knowledge. Two names
dominated the major progress of this time, namely Ellet and Roebling. Whilst Ellet is thought of as a
rather efficient engineer and clever entrepreneur, the Roeblings, both father and son, with their
excellent scientific knowledge and technical skills, gave a major impetus to the art of building
suspension bridges.

Charles Ellet (born 1810), being of poor origin, was an example of a self-made engineer. After
working as assistant engineer and saving money he decided to study in Europe at the Ecole
Polytechnique in Paris. He completed his studies successfully and after that travelled throughout
France, Great Britain and Germany visiting the newest bridges and engineering works. On returning
to the United States he became very active as an entrepreneur, working on projects for large
suspension bridges and proposing them efficiently. During this time he came in contact with J A
Roebling, who suggested cooperation, but was rejected, this being the beginning of their subsequent
rivalry for life.

After building a number of successful bridges, the biggest success of Ellet was the suspension bridge
over the Ohio near Wheeling. Finished in 1849 with a free span of 308m it was the longest bridge of
that time. The two cables consisted of 6 ropes each, each of them comprising 550 wires, grouped side
by side so that, if strengthening the bridge became necessary for railway operation, further ropes
could be added. Before it could be demolished (having insufficient clearance for steamboats), it was
destroyed in 1855 in a heavy storm. Six years later it was rebuilt by Roebling.

Railway Suspension Bridges

Before discussing the Roeblings in detail, some remarks should be made concerning the use of

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (32 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

suspension bridges for railways. The first attempt was made in 1830 by building a chain bridge over
the River Tees near Stockton for an extension of the Stockton-Darlington line. The free span was 86
m, the calculated live load 150 tons, but disappointingly under less than half of the load the
deflections were intolerably high. This behaviour accounted for the ill repute of such bridges for
bridging railways. However, the suspension bridge engineers in the United States, like Ellet and
Roebling, were optimistic or even convinced that suspension bridges for railways could be achieved.
Their first major test came with the crossing of the Niagara gorge (see below). Following this, the
Brooklyn Bridge was also designed to carry railways. Very few railway suspension bridges have been
built since then. An exception was the railway chain bridge built in Vienna by Schnirch across the
Danube canal with a span of 83 m (1859).

The Roeblings

The main development of suspension bridges up until the work of the Roeblings had been carried out
by British and French engineers. Johann August Roebling (1806 - 1869) was born in Thüringen,
Germany, studied at the then famous engineering school, the "Royal Polytechnic Institute" in Berlin,
and emigrated in 1831 to the United States. There he became one of the greatest bridge building
engineers of that continent as well as the leading fabricator of wire rope. Working first as a surveyor
for canal companies he invented machines for manufacturing ropes from wires and then developed an
efficient wire rope firm, which later, under the management of his sons, had 8000 employees.
Between 1844 and 1850 he built 5 Cabak crossings over Rivers, i.e. aqueducts, as well as one road
bridge which were all supported by wire cables. These aqueducts, carrying the high mass of water of
the canal in wooden troughs made him a notable engineer. Some of them are still in use even today
after having been converted into road bridges.

He developed a mechanized cable spinning method in which wires were carried by a wheel back and
forth over the towers and anchorages. Using this method the requirement that all wires should be
under the same amount of tension could be realized in a natural way giving every wire the same
curvature (sag). Modern methods of manufacturing suspension cables are, in principle, still the same.
Some of the operations executed manually in Roebling's time have since been mechanized.

The idea of a railway crossing the Niagara gorge (Slide 89) near the falls was a great challenge to
American and European bridge builders. While European engineers like Samuel Brown and Robert
Stephenson thought a free span of 250 m for the load of railway traffic to be too risky or even
impossible, the Americans Ellet, Roebling, Serrel and Keefer - all being competitors - applied for the
project. The first to be successful in winning the contract was Ellet in 1847, but he only built a
temporary pedestrian bridge and failed to realize a railway bridge. The next was Roebling in 1851
and he succeeded, building a double-deck bridge for railway and road traffic. The girder was a
wooden Howe truss and the four cables consisted of 3640 wires each. When the bridge was opened in
1855, being the first railway bridge of a span of 250m, it made Roebling a very respected engineer.
Serrel and Keefer also built suspension bridges across the Niagara, the first one a road bridge (1851
with 318m span, destroyed in 1861 in a storm), the second a footbridge very close to the falls (1868,
span 388 m) called the "Honeymoon Bridge", which was also destroyed in a storm in 1889.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (33 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 89

The main innovation of Roeblings work was his efficient conceptual design, which allowed for the
effect of storms through stiffening by diagonal stays as well as additional stays beneath the roadway.
Roebling was also the first to build suspension bridges with systematic rigidity of the deck girder. He
published his theories stressing the importance of considering wind effects in the design. It is perhaps
surprising that many engineers later forgot the importance of wind effects, culminating in the famous
accident at Tacoma Narrows of 1940 (see later).

In the period 1857 - 1866 Roebling built the "Allegheny suspension bridge" in Pittsburgh and then
the large "Ohio River Bridge" in Cincinnati with a span of 322 m, which made it the longest in the
world when completed in 1866. In this bridge, wrought iron beams and trusses were used for the deck
girders. During construction of both bridges Roebling's son, Washington A Roebling (1837-1926),
worked as assistant to his father. The Roeblings dream, or even obsession, was to build a bridge over
the East River, between Brooklyn and New York. Their idea was for a suspension bridge for railway
and road traffic with a span of 486 m. But J A Roebling was not able to realize the project himself
due to a mortal accident on site during surveying work, only 3 years after winning the contract. His
son took over his position, but during the work in the pneumatic caissons for the foundation of the
towers he suffered a serious collapse from caisson disease. From that time on he was an invalid,
bound to his bed and suffering from a nervous disorder. He ran the project from his sickroom, located
close to the site, watching the progress of the work through a field glass from his window.

His wife, Emily Warren Roebling dedicated her life to the bridge, became his assistant and kept
contact with the workers and fellow engineers. When the Brooklyn or East River Bridge (Slides 90
and 91) opened in 1883 it was a masterpiece of engineering work, the largest bridge in the world. The
towers, built of masonry, were 107 m in height; the anchor blocks 60.000 tons in weight each; the 4
cables 40cm in diameter, consisting of 5358 wires each; stiffened by a deep trussed deck girder and a
large number of diagonal stays.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (34 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 90

Slide 91

After more than 100 years since it was opened, the Brooklyn Bridge is still in use.

Increasing the Spans

After the Brooklyn bridge, which reached roughly 500m in span, the spans of suspension bridges still
continued to increase in size. Fifty years later the previous record span had doubled.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (35 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

In 1931 the "George Washington Bridge" (Slide 92) in New York was the first structure to span over
1000 m. Othmar H Amman, an emigrated Swiss engineer who became one of the great bridge
builders in the United States, used 4 cables of 91 cm diameter and over 20.000 wires each. The bridge
carried the greatest live load of any bridge, consisting of two traffic decks and 14 lanes and has a
span of 1067 m.

Slide 92

Certainly the most famous of all suspension bridges is the "Golden Gate Bridge" (Slide 93) across the
entrance to San Francisco. It was built by Joseph Strauss in 1937 with a span of 1281m. Besides the
marvellous shape of the bridge it is interesting to note that the colour of the bridge was carefully
selected, resulting in "International orange". Any attempt to change it has been fiercely opposed by
the people of San Francisco.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (36 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 93

The "Tacoma Narrows Bridge" (Slide 94) near Seattle, with a then average span of 853 m, sadly
became renowned when it collapsed in 1940 under wind. The failure was recorded on film.
Engineers, dedicated to the opportunities of statical calculations, made continual efforts in building
more economical and more slender structures, not being aware of the lectures Roebling had given
before on stiffening bridges against wind. The Tacoma bridge was caused to oscillate by wind,
although the statical theories - as then known - had been correctly applied. Design methods were
revised after this accident and, as a result, new directions developed in the design of suspension
bridges:

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (37 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Slide 94

● One direction was taken by O Amman in the United States when designing the "Verrazano
Narrows Bridge" (Slide 95), the largest span of that time at 1298 m, crossing the entrance to
New York Harbour. He chose a very stiff box girder to withstand torsional vibrations due to
the dynamic influences of wind.
● Another direction was taken in Europe, where profound knowledge of aerodynamic problems
led to the use of decks similar in shape to the wings of aeroplanes. The newest bridges in
Great Britain have been built in this way and one of them - the "Humber Bridge" - established
the world record for free spans of 1410 m (Slide 96).

Slide 95

Slide 96

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (38 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

5. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Early iron bridge construction assumed similar forms to those traditionally used for masonry
and timber bridge construction.
● Significant developments in iron and subsequently steel bridge construction have enabled
longer spans, improved efficiency and greater elegance.
● These developments are associated with an improved understanding of structural behaviour
and better material properties.
● Also critical in this development has been the engineers' ability to create new design concepts
and to perform sophisticated analyses.
● Developments in bridge construction have not been without failures.

6. ADDITIONAL READING
1. Robins, F. W., The Story of the Bridge, Birmingham, Cornish 1948
2. James, J. G., The Evolution of Iron Bridge Trusses to 1850, Transactions of New Common
Society, Vol 52 (1980-81), pp 67-101.
3. Walker, J. G., Great Engineers, Academy Editions, London 1987

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0440.htm (39 of 39) [17.07.2010 09:55:56]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.5.1: Introduction to the Design


of Simple Industrial Buildings
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To describe the reasons for the use of steel and to present common forms of structure for industrial buildings.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1A.1: European Construction Industry

Lecture 1B.2.1: Design Philosophies

Lecture 1B.3: Background to Loadings

Lecture 7.12: Trusses and Lattice Girders

Lecture 14.1.1: Single Storey Buildings: Introduction and Primary Structure

Lecture 14.1.2: Single Storey Buildings: Envelope and Secondary Structure

Lecture 14.2: Analysis of Portal Frames: Introduction and Elastic Analysis

Lecture 14.3: Analysis of Portal Frames: Plastic Analysis

SUMMARY

The reasons for the wide use of steel for industrial buildings are discussed. The advantages of steel include its high strength-
to-weight ratio, speed of erection and ease of extension. Steel is used not only for members but also for cladding.

Common types of structure are described. These types include portal frame, lattice girder and truss construction. It is shown
that overall stability is easily achieved. The wide variety of sections used in industrial buildings is presented. Possible
approaches to global analysis are identified.

1. TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDING

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (1 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

A wide variety of building types exists, ranging from major structures, such as power stations and process plants, to small
manufacturing units for high quality goods.

The most common type is the simple rectangular structure (Figure 1), typically single-storey, which provides a
weatherproof and environmentally comfortable space for carrying out manufacturing or for storage. First cost is always an
overriding consideration, but within a reasonable budget a building of good appearance with moderate maintenance
requirements can be achieved. While ease of extension and flexibility are desirable, first cost usually limits the provisions
which can be usefully included in the design for these potential requirements. Although savings in the cost of specific
future modifications can be achieved by suitable provisions, for example by avoiding the use of special gable frames
(Figure 2), changes in manufacturing processes or building use may vary the modifications required.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (2 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

When, for reasons of prestige, the budget is more liberal, a complex plan shape or unusual structural arrangement may
provide a building of architectural significance.

While many features are common to all industrial buildings, this lecture deals mainly with single-storey buildings of
straightforward construction and shape.

2. STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS


Compared to other materials, particularly reinforced or prestressed concrete, steel has major advantages. Its high strength-
to-weight ratio and its high tensile and compressive strength enable steel buildings to be of relatively light construction.
Steel is therefore the most suitable material for long-span roofs, where self-weight is of prime importance. Steel buildings
can also be modified for extension or change of use due to the ease with which steel sections can be connected to existing
work.

Not only is steel a versatile material for the structure of a building, but a wide variety of cladding has been devised utilising
the strength developed by folding thin sheets into profiled form (Figure 3). Insulated cladding systems with special coatings
are now widely used for roofing and sidewall cladding. They have good appearance and durability, and are capable of being
speedily fixed into position.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (3 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The structure of a steel building, especially of an industrial building, is quickly erected and clad, providing a weatherproof
envelope which enables the floor and installation of services and internal finishes to proceed at an early stage. Since the
construction schedule is always tied to the earliest handover date fixed by production planning, time saved in construction
is usually very valuable.

In a dry closed environment steel does not rust, and protection against corrosion is needed only for the erection period. For
other environments protection systems are available, which, depending on cost and suitable maintenance, prevent corrosion
adequately.

Single storey industrial buildings are usually exempt from structural fire protection requirements. Spread of fire beyond the
boundary of the building must not occur as a result of collapse of the structure. This requirement can be met by the
provision of fire walls and through the restraint which arises in practice between the bases and the columns which they
support.

3. CHOICE OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDING


A prospective owner may have a fully detailed design brief derived from the construction of industrial plants elsewhere.
More usually the owner is assisted in the choice of a suitable building by the completion of a detailed list of requirements
so that a design brief can be prepared. Initial options in respect of preferred location, site acquisition and environmental
needs must first be decided. Then main dimensions, process operation, plant layout, foundation needs, handling systems,
daylighting, environmental control, service routes, staffing level and access all require definition.

The preliminary selection must be made between a building specially designed for the owner, a new factory largely built of
standard structural components, or the adaptation of an existing building. The latter may be either an advance unit built as a
speculative development, or a unit which has been vacated.

The location of internal columns and the internal headroom are always important, and consideration of these requirements
alone may determine the choice. The advantage of freedom to plan the building to suit requirements closely and allow for
future development is very valuable. However, unless there are exceptional reasons such as permanence of specific use, it is
unwise to design an industrial building exclusively for a single process, since special features appropriate to the process
may make redevelopment difficult.

4. SHAPES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (4 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Because of its economy, the most widely used building shape is the pin-based single or multi-bay pitched roof portal frame,
typically of 20-30m span at 6m centres (Figure 4). Hot-rolled I, welded or cold-formed sections are usually used for the
members.

During recent years an increasing use of welded sections has occurred. This increase is the result of progress achieved in
making welding automatic and the ability to adapt the cross-section to the internal forces.

Since internal columns sterilise an appreciable space around them, their spacing may be increased by using spine I-beams
to support the portal rafters. For this type of roof the cladding is usually insulated metal decking, which may also be used
for the upper sidewalls. Daylight is provided by profiled translucent sheeting in the roof.

When hot-rolled sections are used, haunches (Figure 5) are usually provided at the eaves and the ridge. These haunches
deepen the overall section, thereby reducing bolt forces. By extending the haunched regions along the rafter the frame is
also strengthened and stiffened.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (5 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Lattice girders (Figure 6) are lighter than portal frame rafters for wider spans, but the additional workmanship increases
fabrication costs. Based on structural requirements alone, lattice systems are likely to be cost-effective for spans above
20m. Roof trusses may also be used for structures which support heavy cranes (Figure 7).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (6 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

A wide variety of structural sections may be used for lattice girders and roof trusses, including single angles, angles back-
to-back, tees, H-sections or hollow sections (Figure 8). For light loading, cold-formed sections may be used as booms, with
reinforcing bars as the web members (Figure 9).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (7 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (8 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The disadvantages of multi-bay pitched roofs are that internal gutters and rainwater disposal are required, which are a
possible source of leaks, and access to plant mounted externally on the roof is difficult.

The most versatile roof shape is the nominally flat roof, covered with an insulated membrane on metal decking (Figure 10).
This shape allows wide freedom in plan form, and eliminates the need for internal gutters, although some internal rainwater
disposal may be necessary if the extent of the roof is large. The mounting and weather protection of external plant on the
roof is simply achieved, and access can readily be provided.

Flat roofs can be supported by rolled or cold-formed purlins on main I-beams or lattice girders. For smaller structures the
deck may span directly from one frame to another, without the need for purlins.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (9 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

When services are extensive and there are many external plant units on the roof, castellated beams or double-layer grid
space frames (Figures 11 and 12) can be very suitable for flat roofs. The two-way grid distributes local loads better than any
other structural form. The support for the roof deck is provided directly by the top layer and support for the services by the
bottom layer of the grid. Castellated beams have a much higher moment of resistance than I-beams.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (10 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The provision of daylighting in flat roofs is expensive, since either dome or monitor lights must be used. Flat roofs are most
common for industries where daylighting requirements are minimal.

5. STABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS


It is essential to ascertain the loads applied to the structure and to determine the load paths from the cladding to the purlins
and side rails, through the main frames to the foundations. The loads may arise from dead load, wind load and snow load,
and sometimes from cranes or impact caused by fork-lift trucks.

The overall resistance of simple single-storey industrial buildings to horizontal loading is usually easy to achieve. One of
the attractions of portal frame buildings is that in-plane stability follows from the rigidity of the frame connections.
Stabilising bracing between the portals is therefore only required in line with corresponding rafter bracing in the roof plane.

For short buildings, bracing in one end bay may be sufficient. For longer buildings, bracing of two or more bays may be
necessary.

The rafter bracing itself provides restraint to the heads of the gable stanchions. The braced end bays provide anchor points
to which the longitudinal rafter stabilising ties, which are usually the purlins, are attached. During erection, bracing
facilitates plumbing and squaring of the building, as well as providing essential stability.

For frames with lattice girders (Figure 6), in-plane stability can be provided by connecting both top and bottom booms to
the column.

If the building has roof trusses (Figure 7), or if only the top booms of the lattice girders are connected to the column (Figure
13), the frame is effectively pinned at eaves level. To provide in-plane stability, either the column bases should be fixed or
longitudinal girders should be provided in the plane of the roof (Figure 14). These girders span between the gable ends,
which must be braced appropriately. If the building is long, or is divided by expansion joints, longitudinal bracing may not

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (11 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

be practicable and the columns must have fixed bases.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (12 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Buildings using lattice girders or truss roofs also need bracing to provide longitudinal stability.

Bracing members for industrial buildings commonly use circular hollow sections, rods or angles.

When cranage is provided the stability requirements need further examination, since longitudinal and transverse surge from
the crane increases the forces in the bracing systems.

6. GLOBAL ANALYSIS
The structure may be treated either as a 2-D or 3-D system.

Bracing systems are analysed as if pin-jointed. When cross-bracing is used, for example in vertical bracing, only the
members in tension are assumed to be effective (compression members are assumed ineffective because of buckling).

The choice of the method of global analysis, either plastic or elastic, of portal frames at the ultimate limit states depends on
the class of the cross-section.

An example of the plastic collapse mechanism of a frame with haunches is given in Figure 15. Buildings with cranes should
always be analyzed elastically. Elastic analysis should always be used to determine deflections under service loading.

7. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Steel construction is widely used for industrial buildings, including structural members (like frames, purlins, side
rails) and cladding systems.
● Overall stability is obtained from the rigidity of connections and the use of bracing systems.
● The buildings may be analyzed using 2-D or 3-D modelling and elastic or plastic analysis, depending on their cross-
sections.
● A wide variety of hot-rolled shapes are available for structural members. More flexibility can be obtained using
welded sections. Purlins and side rails may be formed from cold-rolled sections.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (13 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0510.htm (14 of 14) [17.07.2010 09:56:01]


[WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.5.2: Introduction to the Design


of Special Industrial Buildings
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To outline the principal features of the design of special industrial buildings.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1B.5.1: Introduction to the Design of Simple Industrial Buildings

SUMMARY

Special industrial buildings are of two kinds - those which are of unusual construction and those which are designed for
a special industry. Several features, such as handling methods, maintenance and fire protection, are briefly discussed.
Examples of special buildings, e.g. power stations, hangers, are presented.

1. TYPES OF SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS


Special industrial buildings are of two kinds - those which are of unusual construction and those which are designed for
a special industry. The main characteristic of such buildings is that they are invariably designed for a particular purpose
or process, and are consequently virtually impossible to adapt for another kind of use.

Among the former are industrial buildings which, for reasons of prestige rather than economy, utilise unusual structural
forms which provide architectural expression and thereby contribute to the visual quality of the building. Because buildings
of this kind are unique they cannot be considered generically. Some examples are briefly described later in this lecture.

Among buildings designed for specific industries are heavy engineering works, aircraft hangars, power stations, process
plants, steel rolling mills and breweries. Many of these buildings have similar features which are considered in principle below.

2. HANDLING METHODS
Overhead cranes with capacities of 10 tonnes and more are a characteristic of heavy engineering works and power
stations. They require the support of compound columns and runway beams to carry the vertical and surge loads (Figure
1). Light overhead cranes with capacities of 1 to 5 tonnes, are a characteristic of aircraft hangars and light industries. They
can be attached to the roof structure and be designed for multiple supports for wide coverage, or they can be arranged
to transfer laterally from bay to bay (Figure 2). Roof flexibility may become important for roof-mounted cranes used
for assembly.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (1 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (2 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

Some years ago, so-called NoRail cranes were developed.

The NoRail crane concept inverts the overhead crane principle. Short rails are mounted in the endtrucks of the crane.
These rails run along a series of stationary wheels. The rails are designed to be somewhat longer than the maximum

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (3 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

distance between three adjacent support points, so that the crane is always supported by at least two wheels on each
side (Figure 3). As a result of this design, the long conventional crane track becomes superfluous. The benefits of
this innovative design arise both in cost savings (up to 20%) on the steel structure of the building and in material
handling. Crane travel "tracks" that cross each other are feasible.

Conveyors can be either floor or roof mounted. Conveyors for assembly purposes may carry appreciable weights, and are
of necessity suspended from the roof (Figure 4). Power roller conveyors are also used for transport of bulky items and
are usually floor mounted.

As a result of advances in design, motorised floor transport vehicles including fork-lift and pallet trucks are now very
common. The main influence they have on design is on the floor quality and on headroom.

Automated pallet stacking by fork-lift trucks of specialised design may require very stringent control of fabrication
and erection of the stacking racks. The racks may be incorporated in the structure of the building (Figure 5).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (4 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

3. DAYLIGHTING
Few industries now have particular needs in respect of daylighting, since shift work is often provided for. Sidewall and
roof daylighting is usually described as a percentage of the plan area, 5% giving sufficient light for bulk storage, 20% for
a working process. Since artificial lighting is usually employed to establish a consistent high level of illumination,
daylighting may be provided for visual comfort or for architectural effect.

4. SERVICES
The amount of services can vary in different parts of a building, from an exacting standard of air conditioning appropriate to
a "clean room" to extensive process ductwork. The support and passage of services can be facilitated or hindered by the
roof construction (Figure 6). The heating of high single-storey structures is always a problem, particularly when fire
safety places stringent control on the temperature of the heat source. Inevitably provisions for cranage, lighting, heating
and services such as air and electric power, will conflict. They each influence the structural design. Sometimes, if services
are particularly extensive, it is advantageous to use a structural form which provides abundant support for services.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (5 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

5. SPECIAL ROOF LOADING


Whilst it is usual in advanced factory units to allow in the design of the roof a nominal overall loading for services and a
single point load on the main members, this provision may not be sufficient for special buildings. Roof loading may
be determined by provision for future developments of the process for which the building is designed, or for developments
in handling methods or access platforms designed for improved productivity. These provisions may cause major loads on
the roof. Whilst it is not possible to take into account every possible development which can influence the building
design without incurring large additional cost, it is much cheaper to incorporate surplus strength in a building at the
design stage than to add additional strength after completion, particularly if intensive use of the building would conflict
with the strengthening operation. The ability of the structure to laterally distribute local loads may influence the choice
of structure. Space frames, for example, have exceptional capabilities in this respect.

6. MAINTENANCE
Every material used in construction has a limited life, which can usually be extended by appropriate maintenance.
Maintenance is likely to be particularly important in special buildings. The design of the building should allow suitable
access for the maintenance required. Maintenance may conflict with the planned usage of the building, which can easily
occur if usage is intensive, as, for instance, if maintenance requires dismantling or opening up, or if radiography requires
areas cleared for safety.

Roof maintenance is particularly important. The possible results of overflow due to rainwater outlets being blocked, either
by process emissions or by snow or hail needs to be considered in assessing the merits of the roof design, the routes

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (6 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

for rainwater disposal and the maintenance necessary. The deterioration of the roof covering due to weather or to
aggressive effluent also needs consideration.

7. FIRE PROTECTION
Due to the characteristics of the process to be carried out in a special building, it may require exceptional measures in
respect of fire and explosion prevention, and in fire protection and damage limitation. Sprinkler installations of
exceptional capacity may be required, as well as carbon-dioxide injection.

Dust explosion is a risk in processes dependent on the transport of finely divided powders by conveyor or air duct.
Controlling the results of an explosion is often achieved by strategically placed blow-out panels. Gas explosions can be
far more destructive and difficult to control.

8. SOME EXAMPLES OF SPECIAL BUILDINGS

8.1 Coal-Fired Power Stations

A typical medium-sized power station (Figures 7 and 8) consists of a 38,6m span turbine hall, flanking a 13m span bunker
bay beside a 31,5m span boiler house and 12m wide air heater building. The height of the turbine hall is typically
30m, determined by the servicing requirements of the turbines and generators. The height of the bunker bay, which
stores several hours fuel, and that of the boiler house are similar, determined by the height of the boiler and the size of the
fuel mill below, and is typically 60m. The length of the building depends on the number of generators installed, each having
its own boiler.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (7 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

This type of power station is constructed almost entirely of structural steelwork and steel cladding. Steel construction is
chosen because the completion of the boiler house is always on the critical path of the execution schedule. The execution of
the boiler frame, designed to suit the boiler and from which the boiler is suspended, is central to the schedule. The
stanchions of the boiler frame, often six in number, are typically compound H-section, carrying up to 1000 tonnes each, and
the boiler is suspended from heavy plate girders spanning across the stanchions. The external steelwork to the boiler house
is relatively light, being mainly supported by the boiler frame which also braces the building.

In the bunker bay, which is also a steel structure, are large feed bunkers of 600 tonnes capacity constructed of steel
plate, supported at high level, to which fuel is supplied by conveyors. There is a fire and explosion hazard in the
feed conveyors and the ductwork connecting the bunker to the fuel mill and the latter to the boiler. Sprinkler and
carbon-dioxide fire protection is therefore required in this part of the plant, and fire protection is also applied to the steelwork.

In the turbine hall the generator sets are supported 10m above floor with condensers fitted below. Due to the weight of
the generator sets the supporting structure, which is usually of steel but may be of concrete, is of heavy construction. To
carry out maintenance of the generator sets a 100 tonne overhead crane travelling the length of the hall is provided,
requiring heavy compound sidewall stanchions to support the runway beams. The roof structure is of light lattice girders
except where additional strength is required to facilitate the installation of the crane.

Provision for extension of the turbine hall can be made, but extension of the boiler house depends on the choice of boiler,
so that the ease of joining to existing steelwork has to be relied upon.

Maintenance of the generating plant is an important consideration in the design of a power station. Maintenance of the

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (8 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

building is reasonably straightforward, since generation does not create aggressive conditions or waste. Corrosion is not
a major problem, so that it is adequate to shot-blast and coat the steelwork.

The construction of power stations of this type displays the versatility of steel, its use varying from heavy steelwork for
the support of plant to light roof steelwork and sheeting. Allied to this versatility is speed of execution on site, which off-
site fabrication allows. It is therefore understandable that steel is used almost exclusively in this field of application.

8.2 Aircraft Maintenance Hangar

A typical hangar bay for the maintenance of Boeing 747 aircraft (Figures 9 - 11) is 76m wide and 97,5m long, and the
hangar may consist of one, two or three bays. The maximum clear height is usually 23,5m to allow clearance over the 20m
high tail fin of the aircraft, but only 17m is required over the body and main wings. The roof may therefore have two levels,
the height in the tail area being 23,5m, the remaining area 17m. The two-level roof restricts the attitude of the aircraft to
nose-first, whereas a full-height hangar allows either nose-first or tail-first attitude. At the rear of the hangar is the 2-3
storey workshop and administration block, 10m deep and the same width as the hangar. The roof slope is usually small to
avoid excessive height, utilising either an insulated roof membrane on metal decking or insulated two-layer cladding. The
roof structure is usually comprised of lattice trusses, girder or portal frames, but double-layer grid space frames have also
been used.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (9 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

The main door is usually 21m high, and can be a sliding-folding or slab-sliding design. The full opening width required is
80m. If bunching space for the doors overlaps the door opening the bay width is increased correspondingly. Some hangar
doors are only 14m high with a 7m high tail gate, or they may have a vertically folding 21m high centre section.

Whilst some smaller hangars have been constructed in prestressed concrete, virtually all are now constructed in
structural steelwork with insulated steel cladding.

Hangars are specialised for maintenance of one type of aircraft or a mix of types. Access to an aircraft, because of its shape
and size, is a problem which is best solved by specially designed docking tailored to suit the particular aircraft.
This arrangement enables a large workforce to carry out maintenance. Typically the docking consists of main wing docks, a
tail dock and body dock. They are moved into place after the aircraft has been placed in a fixed position. Since aircraft
are jacked up 1,5m for landing gear overhaul, it is usually necessary for the docks to have vertical adjustment. The use of
wheel pits can make jacking unnecessary, but these add considerably to cost as well as adding to specialisation.

Unless they can be moved out of the hangar, docks occupy a large amount of floor space. They obstruct the placing
and maintenance of other types of aircraft when not in use. Consequently tail docks and body docks are sometimes
suspended from the hangar roof. Since tail docks weigh 12-50 tonnes and body docks 50-100 tonnes, provision for them
must be incorporated in the roof design.

Hangars are usually provided with light overhead cranes covering the full area. They are used to handle dismantled parts up
to 1 tonne weight. Isolated engine hoists up to 10 tonne capacity may also be provided. Alternatively the overhead cranes
may be of 10 tonne capacity. Conflict can arise between cranes and suspended docking. If a two-level roof is adopted,
separate cranage is required in the tail bay.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (10 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

Electric power, air and other services may be from roof-mounted motorised reels or in the floor. Heating is by embedded
floor coils or high-power blowers suspended from the floor. Blowers are large units appropriate to the height of the
hangar. Sprinklers may be installed, depending on the extent of the maintenance carried out and the safety procedures
adopted regarding on-board fuel.

Except for roof maintenance, the maintenance requirements for a hangar are usually slight, since aggressive emissions
are confined to drainage from the hangar floor where painting is carried out, or from cleaning or chemical process shops.
Due to the large roof area and its height, and to the characteristically exposed environment of an airport, storm damage
is always possible. Roof leaks can have very serious consequences, because of the high value of aircraft parts.

Developments in aircraft design and increased competition for contract maintenance make it necessary to allow
for modifications to a hangar. The introduction of the 747 type and other wide-body aircraft compelled the extension of
many of the hangers in use at that time. However, the intensive usage of a hangar and the strict fire and safety
regulations applied when aircraft are inside makes modification difficult to carry out. Flexibility therefore needs to be
allowed for at the design stage.

The superiority of structural steelwork for aircraft hangars is now well established. The speed of construction, suitability
for large-span roofs, versatility for the mounting of various services and docks, and the adaptability for future
development virtually exclude other structural materials.

8.3 Milk Powder Plant

A typical milk powder plant (Figures 12 - 14) consists of a spray-drier tower 18m by 17m by 32m high with an external
boiler house, a silo and packing plant annex 16m by 18m, and a storage warehouse for packaged powder 54m by 54m with
7m clear height for fork-lift transport and stacking.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (11 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

The tower and annex are framed in structural steelwork, with composite concrete floor and steel cladding. The
warehouse typically has multi-bay short-span portal frames carrying pressed steel purlins and asbestos cement or single-
skin metal cladding.

The spray drier is a 10m dia. stainless steel drum 14m high, supported at several floors. Milk and hot air are injected at the

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (12 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

top, and the dry milk powder collects in the hopper bottom. From there it is conveyed to the silos of the packing plant.
The floors are lightly loaded except for ancillary plant and the spray drier, which in operation weighs 60 tonnes.

There is an appreciable explosion risk from the finely divided milk powder. Strong explosion ducting with an exterior blow-
out panel, intended to control the direction and result of an explosion, is incorporated in the drier, and provision for this
facility is made in the tower steelwork.

The large amount of air injected in the process requires outlet cyclones to extract milk powder from the exhaust air. Even
with regular maintenance, cyclones are never 100% efficient, so that some powder, which can accumulate quickly,
escapes. Deposits of powder can cause problems with roof drainage, which therefore requires appropriate design. Milk
powder contains lactic acid which is moderately aggressive particularly to flat roof coatings such as asphalt and
felt. Consideration of the durability of the roof is therefore required.

Internally a biologically clean environment is required in order that the plant complies with process regulations.
Easily cleanable surfaces are required internally. This requirement is best met by high quality internal sheeting. Avoidance
of crevices which can cause lodgement of material affects the choice and detailing of any steelwork exposed internally.

Competition in milk powder production requires that first cost and running cost are carefully controlled. Since development
of driers occurs, a change of drier may be necessary involving major alterations to the tower. The use of structural
steelwork and cladding facilitates cost control in both construction and modification.

8.4 Industrial Complex

Some major industrial projects provide both the scale and the opportunity for adopting unusual structural forms which
have particular advantages. A good example of an unusual structure form is the Renault Parts Distribution Centre in
Swindon (Figures 15 - 17).

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (13 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

The requirement was for a single-storey building of 25.000sq.m containing a warehouse, training school, showroom and
office, with provision for 50% expansion. To suit the storage arrangements for the warehouse a 24m x 24m bay was
adopted, with 8m internal height, with 2,8% roof lighting and sidewall glazing in some areas. The main area is 4 bays wide

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (14 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


[WG1B]

and 9 bays long, with an additional 6 bays at one end.

The structure consists of skeleton portal frames on both rectangular and diagonal axes. The main verticals are 16m high
457mm dia. circular hollow sections with rod stiffeners. The roof members are simple trusses formed from shaped I-
beams cambered 1,4m stiffened on the underside with rod bracing and short tubular verticals. Continuity between the
main verticals and the trusses is established by rod bracing connecting the heads of the main verticals to the quarter-points
of the trusses. Whilst the internal verticals are balanced by trusses on each side, the perimeter verticals, which have
transverse and diagonal trusses on one side only, are balanced by ground anchors bracing short beam members connected to
the verticals at the same level as the trusses.

Macalloy bars are used for the rod stiffeners to the main verticals, and S355 steel is used for the main rod bracing. The rods
are connected to the main verticals by purpose-made cast-iron eyes pinned to lugs welded to the 457mm dia. hollow
sections, and to the trusses through sleeves set into the beam sections.

In each bay the trusses are cambered to a central 4m x 4m dome rooflight. The roofing consists of an insulated membrane
on metal decking, which is carried on purlins between the trusses. Valleys formed by the cambered trusses are drained
by downpipes incorporated in the main verticals. Both main vertical and bracing rods pass through the roof covering.

The overall appearance is unusual, resembling a large marquee due to the tent-like profiles of the cambered trusses and
the main verticals and bracing rods protruding through the roof.

9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
● Special structures are needed for some industries. They may also be provided for reasons of prestige.
● Cranes and conveyors carry appreciable weights and may be suspended from the roof.
● If services are extensive, it is advantageous to use a structural form which provides abundant support.
● Speed of construction, suitability for large spans, versatility for the mounting of services and adaptability all favour the use of
structural steelwork for industrial buildings.

Previous | Next | Contents

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0520.htm (15 of 15) [17.07.2010 09:56:07]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Previous | Next | Contents

ESDEP WG 1B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION:

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

Lecture 1B.6.1: Introduction to the Design


of Steel and Composite Bridges: Part 1
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To introduce steel and composite bridges. To discuss bridge components and structural systems. To describe the common
types of steel bridge - plate girder, box girder and truss girder bridges.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

Lecture 1B.6.2: Introduction to the Design of Steel and Composite Bridges: Part 2

Lectures 15B: Structural Systems: Bridges

SUMMARY

The fundamentals of bridges are described. The basic components of a bridge structure are given and the types of
bridge structural systems are discussed in the context of their uses. General aspects and deck systems of steel bridges
are described prior to discussion of plate girder, box girder and truss girder bridges.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (1 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

1. FUNDAMENTALS
Bridges have been built by man in order to overcome obstacles to travel caused by, for example, straits, rivers, valleys
or existing roads. The purpose of a bridge is to carry a service such as a roadway or a railway.

Bridges play an outstanding role in structural engineering, deserving the denomination of "ouvrages d'art" in latin languages.

The choice between a steel bridge and a concrete bridge (reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete) is a basic decision to
be taken at a preliminary design stage. Several factors influence this decision, for example:

● spans required
● execution processes
● local conditions
● foundation constraints.

The decision should be based on comparisons of:

● structural behaviour
● economic aspects
● aesthetics.

In comparing costs, both initial costs and costs associated with maintenance during the life of the structure should
be considered. The time required for execution, which in steel bridges is generally shorter than in prestressed concrete
bridges, may also influence the decision.

In the past, concrete bridges could not compete with steel bridges for medium and long spans due to the lower
efficiency (strength/dead load) of concrete solutions. With the development of prestressed concrete it is not a
straightforward decision to decide between a concrete and a steel solution for medium span (about 40 to 100m) bridges.
Even for long spans between 200 and 400m, where cable stayed solutions are generally proposed, the choice between
a concrete, steel or composite bridge superstructure is not an easy task.

The choice between a steel and a concrete solution is sometimes reconsidered following the contractors' bids to undertake
the bridge works.

Generally speaking, steel solutions may have the following advantages when compared to concrete solutions:
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (2 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

● reduced dead loads


● more economic foundations
● simpler erection procedures
● shorter execution time.

A disadvantage of steel when compared to concrete is the maintenance cost for the prevention of corrosion. However it is
now recognised that concrete bridges also have problems relating to maintenance, i.e. relating to the effects of the corrosion
of steel reinforcement on the durability of the structure.

Although maintenance costs and aesthetics play a significant role in the design decision, the initial cost of the structure
is generally the most decisive parameter for selecting a steel or a concrete bridge solution. Solutions of both types are
generally considered, at least at a preliminary design stage.

In Figure 1 the principal components of a bridge structure are shown.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (3 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The two basic parts are:

● the substructure
● the superstructure.

The former includes the piers, the abutments and the foundations.

The latter consists of the deck structure itself, which support the direct loads due to traffic and all the other permanent
and variable leads to which the structure is subjected.

The connection between the substructure and the superstructure is usually made through bearings. However, rigid
connections between the piers (and sometimes the abutments) may be adopted, particularly in frame bridges with tall
(flexible) piers.

2. THE SUBSTRUCTURE
Piers may be made of steel or concrete. Even in steel and composite bridges, reinforced concrete piers are very often
adopted. In some cases, e.g. very tall piers or those made by precast concrete segments, prestressed concrete may be
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (4 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

adopted. Piers are of two basic types:

● columns piers
● wall piers.

Concrete column piers may have a solid cross-section, or a box section may be the shape chosen for the cross-section
(Figure 2) for structural and aesthetic reasons.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (5 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Wall piers are generally less economical and less pleasing from an aesthetic point of view. They are very often adopted in
cases where particular conditions exist, e.g. piers in rivers with significant hydrodynamic actions or in bridges with tall
piers where box sections are adopted.

Piers may be of constant cross-section or variable cross-section. The former solution is usually adopted in short or
medium piers and the latter in tall piers where at least one of the cross-section dimensions varies along the length of the pier.

The abutments establish the connection between the bridge superstructure and the embankments. They are designed to
support the loads due to the superstructure which are transmitted through the bearings and to the pressures of the soil
contained by the abutment.

The abutments must include expansion joints, to accommodate the displacements of the deck, i.e. the longitudinal
shortening and expansion movements of the deck due to temperature.

Two basic types of abutments may be considered:

● wall (counterfort) abutments


● open abutments.

Counterfort wall abutments (Figure 3 and 4) are adopted only when the topographic conditions and the shapes of the
earthfill are such that an open abutment (Figure 5) cannot be used. They are generally adopted when the required height of
the front wall is above 5,0 to 8,0m (Figure 4). If the depth is below this order of magnitude, counterfort walls may not
be necessary and a simple wall cantilevering from the foundation may be adopted.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (6 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (7 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (8 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (9 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The connection between the abutments and the earthfill may include a transition slab (Figure 4) which ensures a
smooth surface of the pavement even after settlement of the adjacent earthfill.

3. INTRODUCTION TO THE SUPERSTRUCTURE


It is common in bridge terminology to distinguish between:

● the longitudinal structural system


● the transverse structural system.

It should be understood that bridge structures are basically three-dimensional systems which are only split into these two
basic systems for the sake of understanding their behaviour and simplifying structural analysis.

The longitudinal structural system of a bridge may be one of the following types which are illustrated in Figure 6:

● beam bridges
● frame bridges
● arch bridges
● cable stayed bridges
● suspension bridges.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (10 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (11 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The types of girder incorporated in all these types of bridges may either be continuous i.e. rolled sections, plate girders or
box girders, or discontinuous i.e. trusses.

Beam bridges are the most common and the simplest type of bridge (Figure 6a), whether they use statically determinate
beams (simply supported or Gerber beams) or continuous beams. Simply supported beams are usually adopted only for
very small spans (up to 25m). Continuous beams are one of the most common types of bridge. Spans may vary from small (10
- 20m) to medium (20 - 50m) or large spans (> 100m). In medium and large spans continuous beams with variable
depth section are very often adopted for reasons of structural behaviour, economy and aesthetics (Figure 1).

Frame bridges are one of the possible alternatives to continuous beams (Figure 6b). Avoiding bearings and providing a
good structural system to support horizontal longitudinal actions, e.g. earthquakes, frames have been adopted in modern
bridge technology in prestressed concrete bridges or in steel and composite bridges. Frames may be adopted with vertical
piers (the most common type) or with inclined struts (Figure 6b).

Arches have played an important role in the history of bridges. Several outstanding examples have been built ranging
from masonry arches built by the Romans to modern prestressed concrete or steel arches with spans reaching the order of 300m.

The arch may work from below the deck, from above the deck or be intermediate to the deck level (Figure 6c). The
most convenient solution is basically dependent on the topography of the bridge site. In rocky gorges and good
geotechnical conditions for the springings, an arch bridge of the type represented in Figure 6(c) is usually an
appropriate solution both from the structural and aesthetic point of view.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (12 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Arches work basically as a structure under compressive stress. The shape is chosen in order to minimise bending
moments under permanent loads. The resultant force of the normal stresses at each cross-section, must remain within
the central core of the cross-section in order to avoid tensile stresses in the arch. Arches are ideal structures to build in
materials which are strong in compression but weak in tension, e.g. concrete.

The ideal "inverted arch" in its simplest form is a cable. Cables are adopted as principal structural elements in
suspension bridges where the main cable supports permanent and imposed loads on the deck (Figure 6(e)).

Good support conditions are required to resist the anchorage forces of the cable. In the last few years, a simpler form of
cable bridges has been used - the cable stayed bridge.

Cable stayed bridges (Figure 6(d)) have been used for a range of spans, generally between 100m and 500m, where
the suspension bridge is not an economical solution. The range of spans for cable stayed bridges is quite different from
the usual range of spans for suspension bridges - from 500m to 1500m. Cable stayed bridges may be used with a deck made
in concrete or in steel. Generally, cable stayed bridges are designed with very slender decks which are
"continuously" supported by the stays which are made of a number of strands of high strength steel.

Three main types of transverse structural system may be considered:

● slab
● beam-slab (slab with cross-girders)
● box girders for longitudinal structural system which contribute to the transverse structural system.

Slab cross-sections are only adopted for small spans, generally below 25m, or where multiple girders are used for
the longitudinal structural system, at spacings of 3 - 4,5m. Beam-slab cross-sections (Figure 1) are generally adopted
for medium spans below 80m where only two longitudinal girders are provided. For large spans (> 100m), and also for
some medium spans (40 - 80m), box girder sections are very convenient solutions leading to good structural behaviour
and aesthetically pleasing bridge structures. Box girders are used in prestressed concrete or in steel or composite bridges.

4. STEEL BRIDGES

4.1 General Aspects

During the industrial revolution of 19th century steel products became more competitive and structural steel began to
be adopted for bridge construction. From then on, large truss bridges and suspension bridges where developed.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (13 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Unfortunately this development was accompanied by several accidents, e.g. the railway bridge over the Tay [1] in 1879 and
the Quebec bridge in 1907. The former was rebuilt (1890) with spans of 521m; the Quebec bridge was only rebuilt in 1917.

Truss girders or arches built by truss systems have been widely adopted. An example of an arch-truss bridge designed by
G Eiffel (the designer of the famous Paris tower) is presented in Figure 7. This bridge, built in 1868 in Oporto over the
Douro River, Portugal, has a central span of 160m.

It is interesting to note that one of the commonest types of modern steel bridge - the box girder bridge was first introduced
in bridge engineering in 1846 by Stephenson with the "Britannia Bridge" (a cast iron 142m span box girder bridge), yet
was only fully developed after the Second World War. The knowledge of aeronautical engineering of thin-walled
structures was used. Between 1969 and 1971 several accidents occurred to box girder bridges, e.g. Vienna bridge over
the Danube (1969), Milford Haven bridge in the United Kingdom (1970), Melbourne bridge in Australia (1970) and
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (14 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Coblenz bridge in Germany (1971). As a result a large research effort was made over the last two decades to investigate
the basic structural element of these bridges - the stiffened plate. The behaviour of stiffened plates is now sufficiently
known for safe large box girder bridges to be designed in steel. Special consideration during erection and execution phases
is given to all aspects of structural stability.

Three basic types of structural elements are adopted for steel bridge superstructures:

● Beam and Plate Girders


● Truss Girders
● Box Girders.

Plate girder bridges with only two girders, even for very wide decks (Figure 8), are very often preferred for the sake
of simplicity [2]. However, in bridge construction, a classical solution consists in adopting several I beams (hot rolled
sections for small spans - up to 25m) with 3,0 to 4,5m spacing. Diaphragms may be provided between the beams
(transverse beams) to contribute to transverse load distribution and also to lateral bracing. The top flanges of the beams
have continuous lateral support against buckling provided by the deck.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (15 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

4.2 Deck Systems

There are two basic solutions for the deck [3] - a reinforced concrete or partially prestressed concrete slab and an
orthotropic steel plate (Figure 9). In the former the slab may act independently of the girders (a very uneconomic solution
for medium and large spans) or it may work together with the girders (composite bridge deck). The composite action
requires the shear flow between the slab and the girders to be taken by shear connectors.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (16 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (17 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

Concrete decks are usually more economic than orthotropic steel plates. The latter are only adopted when deck weight is
an important component of loading, i.e. for long span and moveable bridges.

The orthotropic plate deck, acting as the top flange of the main girders, gives a very efficient section in bending. The deck
is basically a steel plate overlain with a wearing surface which may be concrete or mastic asphalt. The steel plate
is longitudinally stiffened by ribs which may be of open or closed section. Transversally, the ribs are connected through
the transverse beams (Figure 9) yielding a complex grillage system where the main girders, the steel plate, the ribs and the
floor beams act together.

Top flanges of box girders, e.g. in Niteroi bridge (Figure 10) with a 300m span [4] (the largest in the world for a box
girder bridge) or in the deck of cable stayed bridges (Figure 11) [5] or suspension bridges like the Humber bridge (Figure
12) with a lightweight wearing surface give a deck of very low dead load which makes this type of solution very suitable
for long spans [4,8]. The biggest disadvantage of orthotropic steel plate decks is their initial cost and the maintenance
required when compared to a simple concrete slab. However, for box girders the maintenance cost may be lower than for
an open orthotropic deck.

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (18 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (19 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (20 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (21 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]


ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

5. PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES


Plate girder bridges can provide a very competitive solution for short and medium span bridges. They are almost
always designed to act compositely with the concrete slab.
http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg01b/l0610.htm (22 of 40) [17.07.2010 09:56:16]
ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG1B]

The plate girders are fabricated with two flanges welded to a thin web which usually has transverse stiffening and may
have longitudina