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Southpointe November 2010

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Table of Contents

I. CFD ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

1. Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses ................................................................................................ 3

1.1. Types of FLOTRAN Analyses ......................................................................................................... 3

1.1.1. Laminar Flow Analysis ........................................................................................................ 4

1.1.2. Turbulent Flow Analysis ...................................................................................................... 4

1.1.3. Thermal Analysis ................................................................................................................ 4

1.1.4. Compressible Flow Analysis ................................................................................................ 4

1.1.5. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis .................................................................................... 4

1.1.6. Multiple Species Transport Analysis .................................................................................... 4

1.1.7. Free Surface Analysis .......................................................................................................... 4

1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax ....................................................................................... 4

2. The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis ....................................................................................................... 7

2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements .................................................................................... 7

2.1.1. Other Element Features ...................................................................................................... 7

2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements ............................................... 8

2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use ................................................................................. 8

2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................................................... 10

2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain .................................................................................... 10

2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime .......................................................................................... 10

2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh ..................................................................................... 11

2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions ......................................................................................... 11

2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters ............................................................................... 11

2.3.6. Solving the Problem ......................................................................................................... 11

2.3.7. Examining the Results ...................................................................................................... 12

2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create ........................................................................................... 12

2.4.1. The Results File ................................................................................................................. 12

2.4.2. The Print File (Jobname.PFL) ......................................................................................... 13

2.4.3. The Nodal Residuals File ................................................................................................... 13

2.4.4. The Restart File ................................................................................................................. 13

2.4.5. The Domain File ............................................................................................................... 14

2.4.6. Restarting a FLOTRAN Analysis ......................................................................................... 14

2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools ................................................................................................ 15

2.5.1. Relaxation Factors ............................................................................................................ 15

2.5.2. Inertial Relaxation ............................................................................................................ 15

2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation .............................................................................................. 15

2.5.4. Artificial Viscosity ............................................................................................................. 16

2.5.5. DOF Capping ................................................................................................................... 16

2.5.6. The Quadrature Order ...................................................................................................... 16

2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis .......................................................................... 17

2.6.1. Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use .................................................................... 17

2.6.2. Convergence Monitors ..................................................................................................... 17

2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis ........................................................................................... 19

2.6.4. Pressure Results ............................................................................................................... 20

2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis .................................................................................................. 20

2.8. Verifying Results ....................................................................................................................... 20

3. FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow ................................................................. 23

3.1. Activating the Turbulence Model ............................................................................................... 24

3.1.1. The Role of the Reynolds Number ..................................................................................... 24

3.1.2. Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent .................................................................. 25

3.1.3. Turbulence Ratio and Inlet Parameters .............................................................................. 25

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3.1.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default) .......................................................................... 26

3.1.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) ................................................................ 28

3.1.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) ........................................................ 28

3.1.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE) ........................................................................... 29

3.1.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) ............................................................................. 29

3.1.4.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL) .................................................................................. 30

3.1.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model ..................................................................................... 31

3.1.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST) .......................................................................... 31

3.2. Meshing Requirements ............................................................................................................. 32

3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................................ 33

3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems ................................................................................................ 36

3.5. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................. 38

4. FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses ............................................................................................................ 39

4.1. Meshing Requirements ............................................................................................................. 39

4.2. Property Specifications and Control .......................................................................................... 39

4.3. Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions .................................................................................. 40

4.3.1. Applying Loads ................................................................................................................ 40

4.3.1.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ............................................................................ 41

4.3.1.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI .................................................................................. 41

4.3.1.3. Solutions ................................................................................................................. 42

4.4. Solution Strategies .................................................................................................................... 42

4.4.1. Constant Fluid Properties ................................................................................................. 43

4.4.2. Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties .................................................... 43

4.4.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties ........................................................ 43

4.4.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer ................................................................................................... 44

4.5. Heat Balance ............................................................................................................................. 46

4.6. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method ............................................ 47

4.6.1. Procedure ........................................................................................................................ 47

4.6.2. Heat Balances .................................................................................................................. 47

4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis ................................................ 47

4.7.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................... 48

4.7.2. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................... 49

4.7.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method) ......................................... 55

4.8. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method) ........................................... 56

4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples ...................................................................... 57

5. FLOTRAN Transient Analyses .......................................................................................................... 59

5.1. Time Integration Method .......................................................................................................... 59

5.2. Time Step Specification and Convergence ................................................................................. 60

5.3. Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis ......................................................... 61

5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions ................................................................................... 62

6. Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses ...................................................................................................... 65

6.1. VFRC Loads ............................................................................................................................... 66

6.1.1. Initial VFRC Loads ............................................................................................................. 66

6.1.2. Boundary VFRC Loads ...................................................................................................... 67

6.2. Input Settings ........................................................................................................................... 67

6.2.1. Ambient Conditions ......................................................................................................... 67

6.2.2. VFRC Tolerances ............................................................................................................... 68

6.2.3. VOF Time Steps ................................................................................................................ 69

6.3. Postprocessing ......................................................................................................................... 69

6.4. VOF Analysis of a Dam ............................................................................................................... 70

6.4.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 70

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6.5. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction ................................................................... 71

6.5.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 71

6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 71

6.6. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet ....................................................................................... 74

6.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 74

6.6.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 75

6.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 76

6.6.4. Where to Find Other Examples .......................................................................................... 78

7. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains ........................................ 79

7.1. Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................................ 81

7.2. Mesh Updating ......................................................................................................................... 83

7.3. Remeshing ............................................................................................................................... 84

7.4. Postprocessing ......................................................................................................................... 86

7.5. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror .............................................................................. 87

7.5.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 87

7.5.2. Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................................... 87

7.5.3. Forces and Moments ........................................................................................................ 88

7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 90

7.6. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall ........................................................................ 94

7.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 94

7.6.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 95

7.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 95

7.7. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder ............................................................................................. 97

7.7.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 97

7.7.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 98

7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 98

8. FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses ................................................................................................. 103

8.1. Property Calculations .............................................................................................................. 103

8.2. Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. 104

8.3. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh ............................................................................................ 105

8.4. Solution Strategies .................................................................................................................. 105

8.4.1. Inertial Relaxation .......................................................................................................... 106

8.5. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis ................................................................................ 106

8.5.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................. 106

8.5.1.1. Fluid Properties ..................................................................................................... 106

8.5.1.2. Approach and Assumptions ................................................................................... 106

8.6. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................. 107

8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method) ....................................... 113

9. Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN ..................................................................................... 117

9.1. Fluid Property Types ................................................................................................................ 117

9.1.1. Property Types for Specific Heat ...................................................................................... 118

9.1.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity ...................................................... 119

9.1.3. Property Types for Viscosity ............................................................................................ 119

9.1.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient ................................................................ 119

9.1.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle ................................................................... 119

9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types ................................................................. 119

9.1.6.1. Using a Fluid Property Table ................................................................................... 120

9.1.6.2. Specifying Property Types ...................................................................................... 120

9.1.7. Density .......................................................................................................................... 122

9.1.8. Viscosity ......................................................................................................................... 123

9.1.9. Specific Heat .................................................................................................................. 124

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9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient ........................................................................................... 125

9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle .............................................................................................. 126

9.2. Initializing and Varying Properties ........................................................................................... 126

9.2.1. Activating Variable Properties ......................................................................................... 126

9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database .................................................................................... 127

9.4. Using Reference Properties ..................................................................................................... 129

9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities ................................................................. 130

9.5.1. Activating the Power Law Model ..................................................................................... 130

9.5.2. Activating the Carreau Model ......................................................................................... 131

9.5.3. Activating the Bingham Model ....................................................................................... 131

9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines ................................................................................... 132

10. FLOTRAN Special Features .......................................................................................................... 133

10.1. Coordinate Systems .............................................................................................................. 133

10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference ................................................................................................ 135

10.3. Swirl ..................................................................................................................................... 136

10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source ............................................................................................... 136

11. FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation ......................................................................... 139

11.1. Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm ............................................................................................... 140

11.2. Semi-Direct Solvers ............................................................................................................... 140

11.2.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver ...................................... 141

11.2.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) Solver ..................................................................... 143

11.3. Sparse Direct Method ............................................................................................................ 143

12. Coupling Algorithms ................................................................................................................... 145

12.1. Algorithm Settings ................................................................................................................ 145

12.1.1. Advection Scheme ....................................................................................................... 145

12.1.2. Solver ........................................................................................................................... 146

12.1.3. Relaxation Factors ........................................................................................................ 146

12.2. Performance ......................................................................................................................... 146

13. Multiple Species Transport ......................................................................................................... 149

13.1. Mixture Types ....................................................................................................................... 149

13.1.1. Dilute Mixture Analysis ................................................................................................. 149

13.1.2. Composite Mixture Analysis .......................................................................................... 150

13.1.3. Composite Gas Analysis ................................................................................................ 150

13.2. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis .......................................................................................... 151

13.2.1. Establish the Species .................................................................................................... 151

13.2.2. Choose an Algebraic Species ........................................................................................ 151

13.2.3. Adjust Output Format ................................................................................................... 151

13.2.4. Set Properties ............................................................................................................... 152

13.2.5. Specify Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................ 153

13.2.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters ........................................................................ 153

13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species .............................................................. 154

13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases .................................................................................... 156

14. Advection Discretization Options ............................................................................................... 161

14.1. Using SUPG and COLG ........................................................................................................... 161

14.2. Strategies for Difficult Solutions ............................................................................................. 162

II. Acoustics ............................................................................................................................................. 163

1. Acoustics ....................................................................................................................................... 165

1.1. Solving Acoustics Problems .................................................................................................... 165

1.2. Building the Model ................................................................................................................. 166

1.2.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines ........................................................................... 166

1.2.1.1. FLUID29, FLUID30, FLUID220, and FLUID221 ............................................................ 166

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1.3. Meshing the Model ................................................................................................................. 168

1.3.1. Step 1: Mesh the Interior Fluid Domain ............................................................................ 169

1.3.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements ............................................................... 169

1.3.3. Step 3: Specify the Fluid-Structure Interface .................................................................... 170

1.4. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution ............................................................................ 171

1.4.1. Step 1: Enter the SOLUTION Processor ............................................................................. 171

1.4.2. Step 2: Define the Analysis Type ...................................................................................... 171

1.4.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options ....................................................................................... 171

1.4.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model ................................................................................... 172

1.4.4.1. Applying Loads Using the GUI ................................................................................ 173

1.4.4.2. Applying Loads Using Commands .......................................................................... 173

1.4.4.3. Load Types ............................................................................................................ 174

1.4.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options ................................................................................... 175

1.4.5.1. Dynamics Options ................................................................................................. 175

1.4.5.2. General Options .................................................................................................... 175

1.4.5.3. Output Controls ..................................................................................................... 175

1.4.6. Step 6: Back Up Your Database ........................................................................................ 176

1.4.7. Step 7: Apply Additional Load Steps (Optional) ................................................................ 176

1.4.8. Step 8: Finish the Solution ............................................................................................... 176

1.5. Reviewing Results ................................................................................................................... 176

1.6. Fluid-Structure Interaction ...................................................................................................... 177

1.7. Sample Applications ............................................................................................................... 177

1.7.1. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) ..................... 177

1.7.2. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) ................................................. 179

1.7.3. Example 2: Radiation From Two Waveguides ................................................................... 181

III. Thin Film ............................................................................................................................................. 183

1. Thin Film Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 185

1.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films ............................................................................................ 185

1.2. Squeeze Film Analysis ............................................................................................................. 185

1.2.1. Static Analysis Overview ................................................................................................. 187

1.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview ........................................................................... 187

1.2.3. Transient Response Analysis Overview ............................................................................ 188

1.2.4. Flow Regime Considerations ........................................................................................... 188

1.2.5. Modeling and Meshing Considerations ........................................................................... 189

1.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options ......................................................................................... 189

1.2.7. Loads and Solution ......................................................................................................... 190

1.2.8. Review Results ............................................................................................................... 190

1.2.9. Sample Harmonic Analysis .............................................................................................. 191

1.2.10. Simplified Transient Analysis ......................................................................................... 194

1.2.11. Complex Transient Analysis ........................................................................................... 196

1.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis ................................................................ 201

1.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview ................................................................................ 201

1.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique ....... 202

1.3.2.1. Modeling and Meshing .......................................................................................... 203

1.3.2.2. Perform Modal Analysis ......................................................................................... 203

1.3.2.3. Extracting Eigenvectors ......................................................................................... 203

1.3.2.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis and Extracting Damping Parameters ..... 203

1.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method .................................................... 204

1.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases ..................................................................... 208

1.4. Slide Film Damping ................................................................................................................. 209

1.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example .......................................................................................... 211

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List of Figures

2.1. Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature ............................................................................ 18

3.1. Internal Flow ......................................................................................................................................... 23

3.2. External Flow ........................................................................................................................................ 23

3.3. Structured Mesh ................................................................................................................................... 32

3.4. Unstructured Mesh ............................................................................................................................... 32

4.1. Diagram of the Square Cavity ................................................................................................................ 48

4.2. Plot of the Temperature Solution ........................................................................................................... 52

4.3. Plot of Streamline Contours ................................................................................................................... 53

4.4. Plot of Velocity Vectors .......................................................................................................................... 54

4.5. Plot of Flow Trace .................................................................................................................................. 55

6.1. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms .................................................................................. 76

6.2. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms .................................................................................. 76

7.1.Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds ............................................................................................................ 79

7.2. Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds ......................................................................................................... 80

7.3. Torsional Mirror at t = 7.5 Seconds ......................................................................................................... 80

7.4. Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls .................................................................................................. 81

7.5. Torsional Mirror Problem Description .................................................................................................... 87

7.6. Torsional Mirror Problem - Boundary Conditions .................................................................................... 88

7.7. Square Vessel with a Moving Wall .......................................................................................................... 94

7.8. Left Wall Displacement and Velocity ...................................................................................................... 95

7.9. Moving Cylinder ................................................................................................................................... 97

7.10. Elements at 0 Seconds ........................................................................................................................ 98

7.11. Elements at 22 Seconds ....................................................................................................................... 98

7.12. Elements at 44 Seconds ....................................................................................................................... 98

8.1. Three Types of Meshing ....................................................................................................................... 105

10.1. Direction of Positive Swirl Velocity VZ for Axisymmetric Models .......................................................... 134

10.2. Rotating Flow Problem ...................................................................................................................... 135

10.3. Problem Schematic with Rotating Coordinate .................................................................................... 136

11.1. Typical Debug Files ........................................................................................................................... 141

13.1. Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis ............................................................................ 154

1.1. Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid Within a Structure) .................................................................. 167

1.2. Example of Absorption Element Application ........................................................................................ 168

1.3. Submerged Cylindrical Shell ................................................................................................................ 168

1.4. Mesh the Fluid Domain ....................................................................................................................... 169

1.5. Add the Absorption Element on the Boundary ..................................................................................... 170

1.6. Specify Fluid-Structure Interface .......................................................................................................... 171

1.1. Moving Plate above a Fixed Wall .......................................................................................................... 186

1.2. Perforated Plate Structure ................................................................................................................... 186

1.3. Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency ................................................................. 187

1.4. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency .................................................................. 187

1.5. Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element ........................ 189

1.6. Pressure Distribution (Real Component) .............................................................................................. 192

1.7. Pressure Distribution (Imaginary Component) ..................................................................................... 192

1.8. Applied Voltage .................................................................................................................................. 197

1.9. Displacement Time History .................................................................................................................. 197

1.10. Pressure Time History ........................................................................................................................ 198

1.11. Modal Projection Technique for Damping Characterization ................................................................ 202

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1.12. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate ................................................... 202

1.13. Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion ............................................................ 204

1.14. Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse ..................................................................................... 208

1.15. Slide Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies .............................................................................. 210

1.16. Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139 ................................................................................................. 211

1.17. Comb Drive Resonator ...................................................................................................................... 212

1.18. Displacement of Central Mass ............................................................................................................ 212

1.19. Real and Imaginary Current ............................................................................................................... 213

List of Tables

2.1. 2-D Solid Elements .................................................................................................................................. 7

3.1. Boundary Conditions at Intersections .................................................................................................... 35

4.1. Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads ............................................................................. 40

4.2. Load Commands for a FLOTRAN Thermal Analysis .................................................................................. 41

5.1. Specifying Values for Time Steps ............................................................................................................ 60

5.2. Saving Analysis Results for Processing ................................................................................................... 61

7.1. Interface Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. 82

7.2. Element Qualities .................................................................................................................................. 84

7.3. Remeshing Limitations ......................................................................................................................... 86

7.4. Quality Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 97

9.1. Units for Thermal Quantities ................................................................................................................ 118

9.2. Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating ........................................................... 118

9.3. Units for the AIR Property Type ............................................................................................................ 119

9.4. Property types for Value ................................................................................................................... 120

9.5. Property Database Format .................................................................................................................. 128

10.1. Coordinate System Specification ....................................................................................................... 134

12.1. Advection Scheme Defaults ............................................................................................................... 146

12.2. SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results ....................................................................................... 146

1.1. Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis ............................................................................................. 172

1.2. Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis ............................................................................. 173

1.3. Load Step Options for a Harmonic Acoustic Analysis ............................................................................ 175

1.1.Thin Film Fluid Elements ...................................................................................................................... 185

1.2. Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements ........................................................................................... 190

1.3. Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes .............................................................................. 191

1.4. Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies ................................................................. 205

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CFD

Chapter 1: Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses

The ANSYS FLOTRAN derived product and the FLOTRAN CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) option to the

other ANSYS products offer you comprehensive tools for analyzing 2-D and 3-D fluid flow fields. Using either

product and the FLOTRAN CFD elements FLUID141 and FLUID142, you can achieve solutions for the following:

Lift and drag on an airfoil

The flow in supersonic nozzles

Complex, 3-D flow patterns in a pipe bend

In addition, you can use the features of ANSYS and ANSYS FLOTRAN to perform tasks including:

Calculating the gas pressure and temperature distributions in an engine exhaust manifold

Studying the thermal stratification and breakup in piping systems

Using flow mixing studies to evaluate potential for thermal shock

Doing natural convection analyses to evaluate the thermal performance of chips in electronic enclosures

Conducting heat exchanger studies involving different fluids separated by solid regions

1.1.Types of FLOTRAN Analyses

1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax

You can perform these types of FLOTRAN analyses:

Laminar or turbulent

Thermal or adiabatic

Free surface

Compressible or incompressible

Newtonian or Non-Newtonian

Multiple species transport

These types of analyses are not mutually exclusive. For example, a laminar analysis can be thermal or adia-

batic. A turbulent analysis can be compressible or incompressible.

To solve any analysis involving the flow of fluid, use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 1: Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses

In these analyses, the velocity field is very ordered and smooth, as it is in highly viscous, slow-moving flows.

The flow of some oils also can be laminar.

Turbulent flow analyses deal with problems where velocities are high enough and the viscosity is low enough

to cause turbulent fluctuations. The two-equation turbulence model in ANSYS enables you to account for

the effect of the turbulent velocity fluctuations on the mean flow.

Laminar and turbulent flows are considered to be incompressible if density is constant or if the fluid expends

little energy in compressing the flow. The temperature equation for incompressible flow neglects kinetic

energy changes and viscous dissipation.

Often, the solution for the temperature distribution throughout the flow field is of interest. If fluid properties

do not vary with temperature, you can converge the flow field without solving the temperature equation.

In a conjugate heat transfer problem, the temperature equation is solved in a domain with both fluid and

non-fluid (that is, solid material) regions. In a natural convection problem, the flow results mainly or solely

from density gradients brought about by temperature variations. Most natural convection problems, unlike

forced convection problems, have no externally applied flow sources.

For high velocity gas flows, changes in density due to strong pressure gradients significantly influence the

nature of the flow field. ANSYS uses a different solution algorithm for compressible flow.

A linear relationship between the stress and rate-of-strain cannot describe many fluid flows adequately. For

such non-Newtonian flows, the ANSYS program provides three viscosity models and a user-programmable

subroutine.

This type of analysis is useful in studying the dispersion of dilute contaminants or pollutants in the bulk

fluid flow. In addition, you can use multiple species transport analysis for heat exchanger studies where two

or more fluids (separated by walls) may be involved.

Free surface analyses deal with problems involving a unconstrained gas-liquid surface. You can use this type

of analysis to solve two dimensional planar and axisymmetric problems such as flow over a dam and tank

sloshing.

Throughout this document, you will see references to ANSYS commands and their equivalent GUI paths.

Such references use only the command name, because you do not always need to specify all of a command's

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1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax

arguments, and specific combinations of command arguments perform different functions. For complete

syntax descriptions of ANSYS commands, consult the Command Reference.

The GUI paths shown are as complete as possible. In many cases, choosing the GUI path as shown will perform

the function you want. In other cases, choosing the GUI path given in this document takes you to a menu

or dialog box; from there, you must choose additional options that are appropriate for the specific task being

performed.

For the thermal related analyses described in this guide, specify the material you will be simulating using

an intuitive material model interface. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories,

which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. See Material Model In-

terface in the Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

Before running a FLOTRAN analysis, you need to understand the behavior of the FLOTRAN elements, the

steps to running a FLOTRAN analysis, the tools available, and how to evaluate an analysis.

2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements

2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements

2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis

2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create

2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools

2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis

2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis

2.8. Verifying Results

The ANSYS FLOTRAN elements, FLUID141 and FLUID142, solve for 2-D and 3-D flow, pressure, and temper-

ature distributions in a single phase viscous fluid. For these elements, the ANSYS program calculates velocity

components, pressure, and temperature from the conservation of three properties: mass, momentum, and

energy.

Element Di- Shape or Characteristic DOFs

mens.

FLUID141 2-D Quadrilateral, four nodes or triangle, Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature,

three nodes turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent

energy dissipation, multiple species

mass fractions for up to six fluids

FLUID142 3-D Hexahedral, eight nodes or tetrahed- Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature,

ral, four nodes or wedge, six nodes turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent

or pyramid, five nodes; tetrahedral energy dissipation, multiple species

and hexahedral elements can be mass fractions for up to six fluids

combined by pyramids

Other features of the FLOTRAN elements include:

Derived results, such as Mach number, pressure coefficient, total pressure, shear stress, y plus at walls,

and stream function for fluid analyses and heat flux and heat transfer (film) coefficient for thermal

analyses.

Fluid boundary conditions, including velocities, pressures, and the turbulence quantities kinetic energy

and kinetic energy dissipation rate. You may supply specific values of the turbulence quantities at the

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

inlet, but the FLOTRAN default boundary conditions suffice if the entrance is not close to the regions

of primary interest.

Thermal boundary conditions, including temperature, heat flux, volumetric heat sources, and heat

transfer (film) coefficient.

You can solve problems in Cartesian, cylindrical, polar, and axisymmetric coordinate systems. If a problem

is axisymmetric, activating a swirl option allows you to calculate a velocity component normal to the

axisymmetric plane.

The FLOTRAN elements have some limitations:

Certain features of the ANSYS program do not work with the FLOTRAN elements.

You cannot use certain commands or menu paths with the FLOTRAN elements.

If you use the ANSYS GUI, only the features and options called for in the FLOTRAN SetUp portion of the

menus and dialog boxes will appear.

When you are using the FLOTRAN elements, you should avoid using certain ANSYS features and commands,

or if you do choose to use them, be aware that they have slightly different uses with the FLOTRAN elements.

This does not mean that every command not listed here will work with FLOTRAN elements. ANSYS informs you

if you try to issue a command that is invalid.

When using the FLOTRAN elements, keep the following points in mind:

FLOTRAN elements cannot be combined with other elements except when using the ANSYS Multi-field

solver.

The nodal coordinate system must be identical to the global coordinate system.

The /CLEAR command does not destroy an existing FLOTRAN results file (Jobname.RFL), thus preventing

you from inadvertently destroying a results file that took much time and effort to create. Existing Job-

name.RFL file names will become Jobname.RFO file names if the number of nodes in the model has

changed since the Jobname.RFL file creation. You should remove unwanted results files at the system

level.

In FLOTRAN, the CP command enforces periodic boundary conditions by coupling all degrees of freedom

between two nodes. You should not use the CP command to couple more than two nodes or to couple

a subset of the degrees of freedom. You should only use this command to couple all degrees of freedom

of one node on a periodic boundary face to one other node on another periodic boundary face.

You cannot couple nodes on the same element, and you may have difficulty coupling nodes on adjacent

elements.

The ADAPT macro does not work with FLOTRAN.

You cannot use the ANTYPE command to invoke a transient analysis with the FLOTRAN element. (See

FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59).)

FLOTRAN analyses do not support automatic time stepping. For more information, see FLOTRAN Transient

Analyses (p. 59).

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2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use

If you specify nodal heat generation loads via commands BFCUM, BFDELE, or BFUNIF, ANSYS uses load

values specified with the BFE command instead.

The commands CE, CECMOD, CEDELE, and CEINTF do not work with FLOTRAN.

The CNVTOL command does not set convergence tolerances with FLOTRAN as it does for other analyses.

For information about FLOTRAN convergence, see Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use (p. 17).

The symmetry and antisymmetry conditions that the DSYM command specifies are not appropriate for

FLOTRAN. FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow (p. 23) explains how to specify flow

symmetry boundary conditions for FLOTRAN.

FLOTRAN does not support angular acceleration vectors for rotating coordinate systems.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the command FLDATA4,TIME (rather than the DELTIM command) specifies a

time step for a load step.

For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DESOL command or the PRESOL command to modify HEAT, FLOW,

or FLUX nodal results.

FLOTRAN does not permit extrapolation of integration point results to nodes (via the ERESX command).

FLOTRAN does not allow you to generate elements through reflections. Although not recommended,

FLOTRAN will execute properly if you generate reflected elements using a different element type and

you subsequently switch to the FLOTRAN element type.

In FLOTRAN analyses, you cannot ramp loads via the KBC command. The FLOTRAN command

FLDATA4,TIME,BC, however, is analogous to the ANSYS command KBC, except that the default for

FLOTRAN is a step change.

Load case operations, such as those performed by the LCCALC, LCDEF, LCFACT, and LCFILE commands,

are not allowed in a FLOTRAN analysis.

Do not use the LSWRITE or LSSOLVE command in a FLOTRAN analysis. Use the SOLVE command to

start a FLOTRAN solution.

The convergence tool invoked with the NCNV command does not apply to the FLOTRAN segregated

solver.

Do not use the NEQIT command, which defines the number of equilibrium iterations for a nonlinear

solution, in a FLOTRAN analysis.

FLOTRAN requires the nodal and global Cartesian coordinate systems to be the same. Therefore, you

cannot use the rotational fields on the N, NMODIF, and NROTAT commands.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER, FLDATA4,TIME, and FLDATA4A,STEP control

items written to the results files (Jobname.RFL and Jobname.PFL

FLOTRAN does not permit user programmable elements, such as those specified via the NSVR command.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER and FLDATA4,TIME control items written to the

database.

The PRNLD command does not apply to FLOTRAN, because it does not store boundary conditions as

printable element nodal loads.

Node reaction solutions, such as those produced by the PRRSOL command, are not available for FLOTRAN.

The partial and predefined solution option (called by the PSOLVE command) does not apply to the

FLOTRAN segregated solver.

The TIME command, which associates boundary conditions with a particular time value, does not apply

to FLOTRAN.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA1,SOLU command instead of the TIMINT command to specify tran-

sient load steps.

FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA4,TIME command instead of the TRNOPT command to specify

transient analysis options.

The RESCONTROL command does not apply to FLOTRAN. Some of the functionality of RESCONTROL

is provided with the FLDATA32,REST command.

For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DK command to define DOF constraints at keypoints.

A typical FLOTRAN analysis consists of several main steps:

2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain

2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime

2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh

2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions

2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters

2.3.6. Solving the Problem

2.3.7. Examining the Results

You need to determine the proper domain for each problem you analyze. Locate the boundaries of the

problem where conditions are known. If you do not know precise conditions and must make assumptions

about them, do not locate boundaries too close to the regions of greatest interest or near regions that have

steep gradients in the solution variables.

Sometimes, you may not realize that steep gradients occur too near the outlet or in some other region until

you see the analysis results. Should this happen, you can re-analyze the problem with a different problem

domain.

For specific recommendations on determining problem domain, see the sections discussing the various flow

phenomena.

You need to estimate the character of the flow. The character is a function of the fluid properties, geometry,

and the approximate magnitude of the velocity field.

Fluid flow problems that FLOTRAN solves will include gases and liquids, the properties of which can vary

significantly with temperature. The flow of gases is restricted to ideal gases. You must determine whether

the effect of temperature on fluid density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity is important. In many cases,

you can get adequate results with constant properties.

To assess whether you need the FLOTRAN turbulence model, use an estimate of the Reynolds number, which

measures the relative strengths of the inertial and viscous forces. (See FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incom-

pressible Flow (p. 23) for more information.)

To determine whether you need to use the compressible option, estimate the Mach number. (See FLOTRAN

Compressible Analyses (p. 103)) The Mach number at any point in the flow field is the ratio of the fluid speed

and the speed of sound. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.3, consider using the compressible solution

algorithm. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.7, you can expect significant differences between in-

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2.3.6. Solving the Problem

compressible and compressible results. You may want to compare results from each algorithm for a repres-

entative problem.

You will need to make assumptions about where the gradients are expected to be the highest, and you

must adjust the mesh accordingly. For example, if you are using the turbulence model, then the region near

the walls must have a much denser mesh than would be needed for a laminar problem. If it is too coarse,

the original mesh may not capture significant effects brought about through steep gradients in the solution.

Conversely, elements may have very large aspect ratios with the long sides along directions with very low

gradients.

For the most accurate results, use mapped meshing. It more effectively maintains a consistent mesh pattern

along the boundary. You can do this by issuing the command MSHKEY,1 (Main Menu> Preprocessor>

Meshing> Mesh> entity> Mapped).

In some cases, you may wish to use hexahedral elements to capture detail in high-gradient regions and

tetrahedral elements in less critical regions. As described in Creating Transitional Pyramid Elements in the

Modeling and Meshing Guide you can instruct ANSYS to automatically create pyramid elements at the interface.

For flow analysis, especially turbulent, you should not use pyramid elements in the region near the walls

because it may lead to inaccuracies in the solution.

Wedge elements can be useful when a complex area can be easily meshed with triangles that are then ex-

truded. For a quick solution, you can use wedge elements in the region near the walls. However, for accurate

results, you should use hexahedral elements in those regions.

Wedge elements are considered to be degenerate hexahedral elements. When using the ANSYS MeshTool

(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool) to sweep triangles into wedges, you must select Hex

elements.

You can apply boundary conditions before or after you mesh the domain. Consider every model boundary.

If a condition is not specified for a dependent variable, a zero gradient of that value normal to the surface

is assumed.

You can change boundary conditions between restarts. If you need to change a boundary condition or acci-

dentally omit it, you do not need to restart your analysis unless the change causes instabilities in the analysis

solution.

In order to use options such as the turbulence model or solution of the temperature equation, you must

activate them. Specific items to be set, such as fluid properties, are a function of the type of flow problem

at hand. Other sections in this document recommend parameter settings for various types of flow.

You can monitor solution convergence and stability of the analysis by observing the rate of change of the

solution and the behavior of relevant dependent variables. These variables include velocity, pressure, tem-

perature, and (if necessary) turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy (degree of freedom ENKE), kinetic

energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and effective viscosity (EVIS).

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

You can postprocess output quantities and examine the results in the output files. Use your engineering

judgment when examining the results to evaluate the plausibility and consistency of the overall analysis

approach, how specific properties are used, and the conditions imposed.

Note

Results tracking via the NLHIST command is not available with FLOTRAN analyses.

You perform most fluid flow analyses in ANSYS by stopping the analysis job and then restarting it multiple

times. Often, analysts change parameters such as relaxation factors or turn options (such as solution of the

temperature equation) on or off between restarts. Each time you continue a job, the ANSYS program appends

data to all of the files that its FLOTRAN element creates.

The following list explains all files that a FLOTRAN element creates. A discussion of the residual file appears

at the end of this section.

The print file, Jobname.PFL, contains input convergence monitors, and inlet/outlet summaries.

The wall file, Jobname.RSW, contains wall shear stress and Y-plus information.

The residual file, Jobname.RDF, contains the nodal residuals.

The debug file, Jobname.DBG, contains information about algebraic solver performance.

The results backup file, Jobname.RFO, contains a copy of the results file data.

The restart file, Jobname.CFD, contains FLOTRAN data structures.

The domain file, (jobname.pv_0000n) for use by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessing visualization tool.

The results of a FLOTRAN analysis are not stored in the ANSYS database automatically. At the end of every

solution, the ANSYS program adds a set of results to the results file, Jobname.RFL. You have some control

over the content of the results file and how often ANSYS updates it. The defaults given in the description

of the FLDATA5,OUTP command in the Command Reference reflect FLOTRAN's determination of what the

results file should store based on the options you choose.

The ANSYS program is flexible about how many sets of results you can store for a steady-state FLOTRAN

analysis. Keeping sets of results from earlier executions has advantages: you can compare changes that oc-

curred between sets of results, and you can continue an analysis from its earlier stages using different options

or relaxation parameters.

The ANSYS program stores a set of results when you begin an analysis (before the first iteration), then stores

results again when one of the termination criteria is reached. Between those events, you can append the

results to the Jobname.RFL file. Storing intermediate sets of results enables you to continue the analysis

from an earlier stage with different options and features activated, for example to enhance stability.

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2.4.4.The Restart File

We recommend that you use ANSYS' overwrite frequency option because it allows you to periodically store

and update a temporary set of results. Using this option ensures that a useful set of results will exist should

you need to restart an analysis after a power failure or other system interruption. The next regularly scheduled

output of results overwrites the temporary results set. You can accomplish the same thing by instructing

ANSYS to append data to the results file more often; however, this method inflates the size of the results

file.

Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,APPE,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The Jobname.PFL file contains a complete record of all FLOTRAN input parameters, including properties

and solution options. This information is recorded each time a SOLVE is issued so as to provide a complete

account of the analysis history. In addition, all convergence monitors are recorded for all active values. A

results summary, showing maximum and minimum values of each property and degree of freedom, is

provided at a user-determined frequency. Average values are also recorded. The mass flow boundaries are

identified and a mass balance is calculated. Finally, all heat transfer information is summarized for all heat

transfer and heat sources.

The nodal residuals file, Jobname.RDF, shows you how well the current solution is converged. At every

stage in the solution procedure, the flow, property, and temperature fields are used to calculate coefficient

matrices and forcing functions for each DOF. If a solution is converged completely, these matrices and forcing

functions will produce the same velocity field used to generate them and the residuals of the matrix equation

will be very small. You must request at least one global iteration to obtain a nodal residual file.

If a solution oscillates, however, the magnitude of the residuals shows where the maximum errors are. (The

main diagonal entries of the matrix normalize the residuals.) This normalization enables you to compare

directly the value of the DOF and the value of its residual.

To calculate residuals for every active degree of freedom and output them to the residuals file, do either of

the following:

Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,RESI,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN SetUp> Additional Out> Residual File

To read the residuals file, either issue the FLREAD command (Main Menu> General Postproc> FLOTRAN

2.1A). The residuals are postprocessed with the label associated with the DOF (for instance, TEMP or PRES

for the temperature or pressure residuals).

By default, FLOTRAN calculates data structures at the beginning of a restart of an analysis. These calculations

may take considerable time for large models. To avoid recalculation, you can opt to have FLOTRAN store

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

the data structures in the Jobname.CFD file. FLOTRAN creates this file from information in the ANSYS

database (but the file is not required for restarts).

To write to or read from the Jobname.CFD file, use either of the following methods before the restart:

Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File

You can toggle the RFIL state on (TRUE) or off (FALSE). If is on, ANSYS reads the restart file when FLOTRAN

begins to execute. If no restart file exists, one will be created.

If you are restarting an analysis with updated boundary conditions, you must overwrite an existing .CFD

file in order to use the new conditions. To overwrite the file, use either of the following methods:

Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,WFIL,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File

This will cause FLOTRAN to create a new restart file during the next load step, and automatically sets the

RFIL state to False. After the restart that has created the new file completes, issue the

FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,TRUE command so that subsequent restarts use the new Jobname.CFD restart file.

Domain files are used by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessor visualization tool. In addition to nodal results these

files contain information to define the finite element model, including node locations, element topology,

element connectivity, and family information concerning predefined ANSYS components. They also contain

load step, substep, cumulative iteration, and time point values.

You can restart the FLOTRAN analysis from any set of results in the Jobname.RFL file or from a different

.RFL file. You can base the restart on the set number (Label = NSET), the global iteration number (Label

= ITER), the load step/subset numbers (Label = LSTP), or the transient analysis time (Label = TIME). You

determine the restart criteria by doing either of the following:

Issue the command FLDATA32,REST,Label,Value. Specify one of the labels listed above in place of

Label. The Value argument causes values associated with the other criteria to be zeroed. Once invoked,

the behavior is turned off in the database by setting all the criteria to zero. If you are restarting from a

different results file, you also need to specify the filename, extension, and directory of that file.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> Restart/Iteration

(or Restart/Load step, Restart/Set, etc.)

If you specify invalid criteria, ANSYS notifies you and (if the program is operating in batch mode) terminates

the analysis.

When you restart an analysis, ANSYS copies the original results file to the file Jobname.RSO and places the

restart point, all previous results sets, and all subsequent results sets in the new Jobname.RFL file. If the

Value input on the FLDATA32,REST command is negative, creation of the Jobname.RSO file is blocked.

FLOTRAN uses the absolute value of the number specified for Value.

If a results file name is entered in the Fname field of the FLDATA32,REST command, FLOTRAN interpolates

those results onto the current mesh in the database, regardless of whether or not the mesh has changed.

This causes the convergence monitors to start again from zero. This restart is different than a restart without

a file name specification. However, the results quickly converge to the original solution.

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2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation

2.5.1. Relaxation Factors

The ANSYS program offers several tools to help with convergence and solution stability. The Theory Reference

for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications explains how they are implemented.

The relaxation factor is the fraction of the change between the old solution and the newly calculated solution

that is added to the old solution, giving the results for the new global iteration. The relaxation factors for

every component must be between 0.0 (resulting in no update to the degree of freedom or property) and

1.0 inclusive. You set relaxation factors via either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Note

See the description of the FLDATA25,RELX command in the Command Reference for lists of degree

of freedom and property component names.

Inertial relaxation of the equation set for a DOF provides diagonal dominance to make a solution stable.

Hypothetically, when a solution is converged in the absence of round off-error, the inertial relaxation applied

does not affect the value of the answer. However, in real situations, some round off-error always occurs, so

the inertial relaxation may affect your solution.

You can apply inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB), the

pressure equation (PRES), and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

The inertial relaxation factor is in the denominator of the term added, so smaller values have a greater effect.

Typical useful values range between 1.0 (mild) and 1.0 x 10-7 (severe).

Modified inertial relaxation adds a local positive value to the diagonal term to guarantee a positive diagonal.

You can apply modified inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB),

and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence.

The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0.

You should consider inertial relaxation and modified inertial relaxation to be mutually exclusive.

Artificial viscosity smooths the velocity solution in regions of steep gradients. It has proven useful in aiding

convergence of compressible problems and in smoothing velocity solutions in incompressible problems

with distributed resistances. For incompressible analyses, you should keep the artificial viscosity within an

order of magnitude of the effective viscosity.

Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,VISC,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

DOF capping allows you to prevent variables from going out of boundaries you specify. You can limit the

velocities, pressure, and temperature degrees of freedom (VY, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP). To do this, use either of

these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping

Velocity capping eliminates the effects of velocity spikes on properties, which may occur in the early stages

of convergence. Capping is especially suited to compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause kin-

etic energy terms great enough to produce negative static temperatures. When a degree of freedom is

capped, ANSYS prints a message along with the convergence monitor printout.

The pressure value calculated by the solution of the pressure equation is capped, not the relaxed value.

Therefore, if you introduce pressure capping upon restarting an analysis, pressure values may still be outside

the caps.

You should cap the total temperature when performing compressible thermal analyses. It will help ensure

negative properties do not enter the calculations.

Caution

You have control over the quadrature order. In axisymmetric problems, the quadrature order automatically

is set to 2 upon solution. This is because quadrature orders of 2 produce more accurate results for problems

with irregularly shaped elements. The quadrature order is also automatically set to 2 upon solution for 3-D

problems using cylindrical coordinates.

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2.6.2. Convergence Monitors

If you notice anomalous results near a region of skewed hexahedral elements, reset the quadrature order

to 2. There might be a problem with the results when the included angles of the hexahedra exceed 120

degrees.

You can change the quadrature order for momentum diffusion or source, pressure diffusion or source,

thermal diffusion or source, turbulent diffusion or source, using either of the following:

Command(s):

FLDATA30,QUAD,Label,Value

(Label is the element integral to change quadrature for, and Value is the number of integration points).

GUI:

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders

For more information on quadrature order, refer to the description of the FLDATA30,QUAD command in

the Command Reference.

This section describes what happens in a FLOTRAN analysis and how to evaluate how the analysis is proceed-

ing.

A FLOTRAN analysis is nonlinear and uses a sequential solution, so the first thing you must do is decide how

many global iterations should be executed. A global iteration is the solution, in sequence, of all relevant

governing equations followed by any fluid property updates that are needed.

In a transient simulation, a time step loop exists around the global iteration loop.

During a global iteration, the ANSYS Multiphysics program or ANSYS FLOTRAN obtains approximate solutions

to the momentum equation and uses them as forcing functions to solve a pressure equation based on

conservation of mass. ANSYS uses the resulting pressures to update the velocities so that the velocity field

conserves mass. If you request it, the ANSYS program solves the temperature equation and updates temper-

ature dependent properties.

Finally, if you have activated the turbulence model, the equations are solved and the program uses the

turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to calculate the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity.

Effective viscosity and thermal conductivity replace, respectively, the laminar viscosity and thermal conduct-

ivity to model the effect of turbulence on the mean flow.

To specify how many global iterations a FLOTRAN analysis should execute, use either of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

As a FLOTRAN simulation proceeds, ANSYS calculates convergence monitors for each degree of freedom every

global iteration. Convergence monitors are computed for velocities (VY, VY, VZ), pressure (PRES), temperature

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

(TEMP), turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE), kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and any active species

transport equations (SP01-SP06).

The convergence monitors are a normalized measure of the solution's rate of change from iteration to iter-

ation. Denoting by the general field variable, , any DOF, the convergence monitor is defined as follows:

N

ki ki 1

ConvMon = i=1

N

ki

i=1

The convergence monitor represents the sum of changes of the variable calculated from the results between

the current kth iteration and the previous (k-1)th iteration, divided by the sum of the current values. The

summation is performed over all n nodes, using the absolute values of the differences.

Available in both batch and interactive sessions, the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the

computed convergence monitors while the solution is in process. Be default, GST is ON for interactive sessions

and OFF for batch runs. To turn GST on or off, use either of the following:

Command(s): /GST

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track

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2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis

In Figure 2.1 (p. 18) (b), a plot of a transient FLOTRAN solution, each "spike" on the plot indicates the beginning

of a new time step.

After perhaps some initial fluctuations, convergence monitors will decrease as the analysis approaches

convergence. How small the numbers become depends on several factors, such as:

Adequacy of the finite element mesh in regions with steep gradients

The severity of the turbulence levels, indicated by the flow Reynolds number

Development of the flow near outlet boundaries

The GST feature is available for FLOTRAN analyses and also for structural, thermal, and electromagnetic

analyses containing nonlinearities. For information about using GST to track convergence in non-FLOTRAN

analyses, see the Thermal Analysis Guide, the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide, and the

Structural Analysis Guide.

GST can display up to ten curves at the same time. (Your model can include more than ten DOFs, but

only the first ten will be displayed.)

When the GST begins its plotting, ANSYS displays a dialog box with a STOP button. You can stop the

solution at any time by clicking on this button. To restart it, issue SOLVE or choose Main Menu>

Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

The time label which is positioned above the graph reveals the time at the last iteration.

You can choose a target value for terminating a FLOTRAN analysis, based on the convergence monitors for

each degree of freedom falling below a certain value. To specify these values, use the following:

Command(s): FLDATA3,TERM,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

See the Command Reference for the default values. Termination checks do not include inactive degrees of

freedom or degrees of freedom set to a negative value.

The analysis must satisfy convergence criteria for all active degrees of freedom, or complete the specified

number of global iterations requested. FLOTRAN terminates on the first condition satisfied. For information on

terminating transient analyses, see FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59).

To stop a FLOTRAN batch or background job in progress, place a file named Jobname.ABT in the subdir-

ectory from which the ANSYS job has been executed. The first line of this file should contain the word "ter-

minate," and should be left-justified. On Windows systems, you should also add a blank line at the end of

the Jobname.ABT file. FLOTRAN looks for the Jobname.ABT file during every global iteration. If it finds

the file and reads the word "terminate," it will finish that global iteration and terminate normally, writing

the results to the Jobname.RFL file and extending the Jobname.PFL file.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

For locked tetrahedral elements (those at a corner where two walls meet) there is a slight pressure anomaly.

ANSYS takes those elements out of the solution domain because all the nodes have boundary conditions.

The solution is correct in the domain. Use hexahedral elements to avoid this pressure anomaly.

The two basic questions an analyst must answer are:

2. Has it been done correctly?

These questions are interrelated, since convergence may not be achieved it you have not set up and executed

the analysis correctly.

If you have set the input parameters and boundary conditions correctly, the analysis is complete when the

convergence monitors for all variables stop decreasing and the average, maximum, and minimum values of

the solution variables no longer increase or decrease. There is no guarantee, however, that you will achieve

a single exact answer because nature does not guarantee that a single exact answer exists. Oscillatory

problems (for example, vortex shedding behind a cylinder) may not yield stationary results from a steady-

state or a transient solution algorithm. You may wish to continue executing the analysis to verify whether

a solution has a stable or a fluctuating nature.

The ANSYS program stores the average, minimum, and maximum values of the solution variables in the file

Jobname.PFL. This file also records the FLOTRAN input plus the convergence monitors which have been

calculated. The results summary includes all the DOF, as well as laminar and effective properties. You determine

how often ANSYS issues the results summary by using one of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived

The Value argument is the number of global iterations that pass before ANSYS issues the next results

summary.

You may also want to map your results onto a path through your model. See Mapping Results onto a Path

in the Basic Analysis Guide for more information on reviewing results along a path.

You, the analyst, are responsible for verifying results. If your FLOTRAN analysis produces unexpected results,

take the actions listed below. You can accomplish many of these actions at the beginning of the analysis.

ANSYS creates a Jobname.PFL file and checks inputs even if the number of iterations executed is zero.

1. Check the mass balance printed as part of the results summary. Internal checks will determine if any

mass flow can potentially cross a model boundary. Boundary conditions admitting mass flow are:

Specified velocity boundaries

Specified pressure boundaries

Unspecified boundaries (These can result if you inadvertently omit a boundary condition.)

The ANSYS program tabulates the number of inlets/outlets, which should correspond to expectations.

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2.8. Verifying Results

2. Check boundary conditions within ANSYS to ensure that they are accurate.

3. Check that you specified the properties correctly and that they can vary with temperature and pressure

if necessary. The results summary in the Jobname.PFL file is a convenient place to check this.

4. Check that the length units used to build the model are consistent with those used in specifying

properties.

5. In some cases, you need to verify that equations associated with the options chosen are solved correctly

(for instance, the pressure equation in compressible flow).

6. If the unexpected result of your analysis is divergence, the finite element mesh may not have sufficient

resolution, or significant gradients may exist near outlets. To resolve this, you may need to use conver-

gence aids such as relaxation. Later sections in this document discuss various relaxation techniques.

7. If you get a diverged solution for a particular variable, you can re-initialize that variable to a single

value and continue. To do so, use one of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA29,MODV

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

A laminar or turbulent flow analysis calculates the flow and pressure distribution in a 2-D or 3-D geometry.

Flow problems require you to specify density and viscosity. Problems may be internal or external in nature.

For internal flows, wall or symmetry planes bound the flow (for example, flow in a pipe), except for the inlet

and outlet boundaries. (Figure 3.1 (p. 23) shows an example). The boundaries of external problems generally

are either far-field velocity or pressure boundary conditions. The flow surrounding an airfoil is an external

flow (See Figure 3.2 (p. 23)).

Wall

Wall

The distinction between incompressible and compressible flow lies in both the equation of state and the

solution algorithm.

In an incompressible flow, density variations can drive the flow only through gravitational acceleration.

Temperature changes cause variations of density.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

In a compressible flow, the density changes caused by pressure variations significantly affect the mo-

mentum and temperature equations.

In any event, the incompressible algorithm can measure flow of an ideal gas, complete with small density

changes due to pressure. See FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses (p. 103) for more information.

The following FLOTRAN laminar and turbulent incompressible flow topics are available:

3.1. Activating the Turbulence Model

3.2. Meshing Requirements

3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions

3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems

3.5. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis

The distinction between laminar and turbulent flow lies in the ratio of the inertial transport to the viscous

transport. As this ratio increases, instabilities develop and velocity fluctuations begin to occur. A turbulent

model accounts for the effect of these fluctuations on the mean flow by using an increased viscosity, the

effective viscosity, in the governing equations. The effective viscosity is the sum of the laminar viscosity

(which is a property of the fluid) and turbulent viscosity (which is calculated from a turbulence model).

e = + t

Generally, the more turbulent the flow field, the higher the effective viscosity.

The dimensionless Reynolds number measures the ratio of inertial and viscous forces to help determine

whether or not the turbulence model should be activated. The Reynolds number is defined in terms of the

properties of the fluid, a characteristic velocity, and a characteristic dimension:

VLc

RE =

The density (mass/length3) and absolute viscosity (mass/length-time) are properties of the fluid. For in-

ternal flow problems, the characteristic dimension is the hydraulic diameter, defined as:

Lc =Dh =

Wetted Perimeter

For example, the hydraulic diameter of a pipe is simply the diameter. As a general guideline for internal flow

problems such as flow in pipes, the turbulence model should usually be activated if the Reynolds number

is in excess of about 2300.

For an external flow problem, such as the flow over an airfoil, the characteristic length is a parameter such

as the length of the airfoil (wing cross section for a 2-D analysis).

For flow over a flat plate, the dimension is the length along the plate from the leading edge, with the

transition to turbulence occurring at a Reynolds number of approximately 500,000.

For more information, see Turbulence in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applic-

ations.

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

Determining if an analysis is laminar or turbulent is your responsibility. What happens if turbulence is not

activated when it should be, or vice versa? What are the indications and the consequences?

If turbulence is needed but not activated, the analysis probably will diverge. If this occurs, the momentum

and pressure convergence parameters will approach 1.0 and the values of velocities and pressure will become

very large. You should start over with the turbulence model activated.

In some cases, convergence occurs even without the turbulence model. This can happen if no geometrical

features such as bends disturb the flow. Physically, some flows retain laminar characteristics unless they are

slightly disturbed in some fashion.

Conversely, although the turbulence models are not low Reynolds number models and do not "automatically"

resort to laminar behavior at low Reynolds numbers, in such cases the turbulence models predict low values

of effective viscosity. If the final average effective viscosity is less than five times greater than the laminar

value, you should rerun the case without the turbulence model and evaluate the differences.

You can postprocess the effective viscosity with the label EVIS. It is also tabulated in the results summary

output provided in the Jobname.PFL file. Therefore, you can observe the average behavior of effective

viscosity as the solution proceeds. You also can postprocess it to see its variation throughout the flow field.

Be aware that when an analysis begins, the effective viscosity initializes as a multiple of the laminar value.

This initialization occurs whether a turbulence model is or is not active. The default value of this multiple

(also called the turbulence ratio) is 1000; a reasonable value for most turbulent analyses. The algorithm cal-

culates lower or higher values as conditions dictate. However, the accuracy of the initial estimate affects

how long the program takes to compute the final value.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

The two-equation turbulence models require boundary conditions for the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE)

and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet. If known values are available at the inlet,

you can specify ENKE and ENDS, Otherwise, you must specify an inlet intensity (ININ), which is the ratio of

the fluctuating velocity to the inlet velocity, and an inlet scale factor (INSF), which is the ratio of a length

scale inlet region to the hydraulic diameter of the inlet. ININ and INSF default to 0.01.

To set the inlet intensity and inlet scale factor, you use either of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

FLOTRAN offers several turbulence models:

3.1.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default)

3.1.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq)

3.1.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG)

3.1.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE)

3.1.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR)

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

3.1.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model

3.1.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST)

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Normally, the Standard k- Model is the first model to apply. It usually provides a realistic picture of the flow.

It is fine for the analysis of turbulent flow in pipes and channels. However, it over predicts the amount of

turbulence in a number of situations. For example, the flow in a converging nozzle undergoes significant

normal strain and the Standard k- Model over predicts the amount of turbulence. The resulting kinetic energy

is over predicted, and the resulting effective viscosity prevents simulation of shock waves in some cases.

In general, the RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models produce significantly more realistic and reliable

results in regions of large strain. This is particularly important for cases where the flow is strongly accelerated

or decelerated (e.g. a converging nozzle) or where there is significant separation or recirculation (e.g. a duct

that goes through a 180 degree change of direction). Other situations where the Standard k- Model encoun-

ters difficulties include flows with stagnation points.

The RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models control the excess turbulence by applying adjustments to

C and the source term of the dissipation equation. The adjustments are made in accordance with the local

rate of strain.

The k- turbulence model has the advantage near the walls to accurately predict the turbulence length

scale in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The k- model is much more sensitive to the free-

stream turbulence levels than the k- model. The Shear Stress Transport model (SST) combines the k-

model near the wall and the k- model away from the wall to overcome the deficiencies of both models.

See the Command Reference and Turbulence in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

Applications for more information on the models.

The Standard k- Model, the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, and the k- Model are the simplest models.

The other models are all extensions of the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. The Standard k- Model

is the default model.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,1

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD are Standard k- Model constants that are defined as follows:

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

k 2

t = C

C1 - Value is the k- turbulence model C1 constant. It is the multiplier of the shear rate generation term

of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation.

C2 - Value is the k- turbulence model C2 constant. It is the multiplier of the dissipation source term in the

turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation.

SCTK - Value is the Schmidt number for the turbulent kinetic energy. The diffusion term in the turbulent

kinetic energy equation is divided by this factor.

SCTD - Value is the Schmidt number for the kinetic energy dissipation rate. The diffusion term in the dis-

sipation rate equation is divided by this factor.

To set the Standard k- Model constants C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD, you use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

The following five wall parameters control turbulence wall modeling. The wall parameters apply for all tur-

bulence models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model.

KAPP - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is the slope of the plot of normalized shear velocity (u+)

versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See Near-Wall Treatment in the Theory Reference

for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for details.

EWLL - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is related to the y intercept value for a plot of normalized

shear velocity (u+) versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See Near-Wall Treatment in

the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more details.

WALL - Value is the choice of wall conductivity model. The default model is the Van Driest model (Value

= VAND), used most often for high Prandtl number fluids. The second choice is the Spalding model (Value

= SPAL), applicable to low Prandtl number fluids. The third choice is the Equilibrium model (Value = EQLB).

The equilibrium model is also automatically invoked for the wall viscosity by this command.

VAND - Value is the constant A in the Van Driest wall conductivity model, as described in Equation 761

and Near-Wall Treatment in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

TRAN - Value is the magnitude of y+ marking the outer boundary of the laminar sublayer. Used only for

the Equilibrium Wall model.

To set the wall parameters KAPP, EWILL, WALL, VAND and TRAN, you use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

The following three buoyancy terms control buoyancy modeling. The buoyancy terms apply for all turbulence

models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model.

BUC3 - Value is the k- buoyancy model constant. A value of zero means that there is no contribution to

the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. The default value of one is appropriate for stable

thermally stratified flows. A value of zero is appropriate for unstable thermally stratified flows.

BUC4 - Value is the k- multiplier applied to the buoyancy term of the turbulent kinetic energy equation.

A value of 1.0 is appropriate for the calculation of stable thermally stratified flows. The default value is zero.

1

=

T

To set the buoyancy terms BUC3, BUC4, and BETA, you use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms

See Standard k-epsilon Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications

and the Command Reference for more information.

The Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) is the simplest and fastest turbulence model. It applies to

problems with fairly simple geometry and flow characteristics. The model does not give accurate results if

there is significant separation or recirculation.

To select the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, you use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,2

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

The Zero Equation Turbulence Model contains an automatic calculation of the length scale or you can specify

the length scale. Generally, the turbulence ratio can be set to 2.0 when you are using the Zero Equation

Turbulence Model.

See Zero Equation Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

The Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) is effective where the geometry has a strong curvature

(e.g., a duct that goes through a 180 degree change in direction. If you have tried the SZL Model and the

results are unsatisfactory, it is generally recommended that you try the RNG Model.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,3

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the RNG Model, you use either the FLDATA24A,RNGT command or the foregoing

GUI.

The RNG Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The C, C1,

C2, SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following

two constants are added:

ETAI -Value is the asymptotic value of the strain rate parameter eta.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

See RNG Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

The k- Model due to Shih (NKE) features a variable C term which helps to reduce the excess normal strain

terms in the Standard k- Model. The NKE model also employs a different dissipation source term than the

Standard k- Model.

The NKE and GIR models are recommended for rotating flows.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,4

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the NKE Model, you use either the FLDATA24B,NKET command or the foregoing

GUI.

The NKE Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Four constants are assigned values. The C2, SCTK,

and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following constant

is added:

C1MX - Value is the maximum allowed value of the C1 constant in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation

rate equation.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

See NKE Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

The Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) is suggested for cases with secondary vortices in the flow. The GIR

and NKE models are recommended for rotating flows.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,5

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the GIR Model, you use either the FLDATA24C,GIRT command or the foregoing GUI.

The GIR Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The SCTK,

and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following five

constants are added:

0

G0 - Value is the C1 constant.

C11

G1 - Value is the constant.

G2 - Value is the C2 constant.

G3 - Value is the C3 constant.

G4 - Value is the C4 constant.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

See GIR Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

The SZL Model is simpler than the NKE and GIR models. It produces the lowest level of turbulence. The SZL

model is numerically efficient, but in some cases the resulting low effective viscosity has an adverse effect

on stability. Generally, if the SZL model does not give satisfactory results, it is recommended that you try

the RNG model.

If conditions of large strain exist in the flow field, you may want to try the SZL Model after trying the RNG,

NKE or GIR models. If the SZL Model gives significantly different results, it is recommended that you refine

the mesh in the regions where the turbulence field is strongly altered.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,6

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the SZL Model, you use either the FLDATA24D,SZLT command or the foregoing

GUI.

The SZL Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Five constants are assigned values. The SCTK, and

SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following three

constants are added:

SZL1 - Value is the numerator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl1 constant.

SZL2 - Value is the denominator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl2 constant.

SZL3 - Value is the strain rate multiplier. It is the Aszl3 constant.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

See SZL Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

The k- model is one of the simplest turbulence models. It provides better modeling of the turbulent

boundary layer than the standard k- model, but is more sensitive to the free-stream turbulence levels.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,7

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the k- Model, use either the FLDATA24E,SKWT command or the foregoing GUI.

The k- Model solves for the equation rather than the equation in the standard k- Model. Four constants

are assigned values. The SCTK constant is an assigned value that is separate from the Standard k- Model.

The following three constants are added:

SCTW - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate.

BETA - Value is the BETA factor.

GAMA - Value is the GAMMA factor.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

See Standard k-omega Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications

and the Command Reference for more information.

The SST Model combines advantages of both the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. It automatically

switches to the k- Model in the near region and the Standard k- Model away from the walls.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,8

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

To set the constants for the SST Model, use the FLDATA24F,SST1, FLDATA24G,SST1 and FLDATA24H,SST2

commands, or the foregoing GUI. Similar to the k- Model, the SST Model solves for the equation rather

than the equation in the Standard k- Model. Nine constants are assigned values. The SCTK1 and the SCTK2

constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following seven constants

are added.

SCTW1 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime.

SCTW2 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime.

BETA1 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime.

BETA2 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime.

GAMA1 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime.

GAMA2 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

See SST Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and

the Command Reference for more information.

The meshing requirements for turbulence are more restrictive than those for laminar flow. The most important

areas obviously are those with the higher gradients, in particular the regions near walls.

Structured meshes, as contrasted with free meshes, can provide more consistent representation at the walls.

Figure 3.3 (p. 32) and Figure 3.4 (p. 32) compare the structured and unstructured meshes for a region near

the wall.

You can evaluate the adequacy of the mesh near the walls. Applying the turbulence model near walls involves

the "Log Law of the Wall," the relationship between a nondimensionalized distance from the wall Y+, and

the log of a nondimensionalized velocity in a region near the wall. This law calculates a near wall viscosity

that is consistent with experimentally determined velocity profiles near the wall. Values of Y+ are relevant

only for wall nodes and are available for postprocessing (YPLU).

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3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions

Optimum values of Y+ are between approximately 30 and 1000. If the pressure is decreasing in the direction

of flow, values up to 5000 are acceptable. FLOTRAN handles the case where Y+ is less than 30 for the near

wall node by assuming that the near wall node is in the laminar sublayer or the overlap region. In the former

case, the near wall viscosity is simply the laminar value.

If Y+ is very small, perhaps below 1, more elements than necessary are being used to resolve the flow distri-

bution field. If Y+ is greater than 5000, decrease the mesh spacing near the wall.

Caution

Use enough elements to resolve the flow field in the regions of interest. You should use at least

four elements to span the cross sections of long thin channels. Use more than four elements

where thin channels connect to larger regions.

Each boundary of the problem domain requires treatment. You specify some combination of DOF (VX, VY,

VZ and PRES) at the boundary types listed below. (If suitable values are available, you can specify turbulent

kinetic energy (ENKE) and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet.) The derivative of all

dependent variables normal to the surface is zero if you apply no conditions at the boundary surface.

Command(s): D

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type

You can set boundary conditions on the solid model using any of the following:

Command(s): DA and DL

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type>

On Areas

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Areas

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On

Lines

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Lines

This enables you to redo the analysis with a different mesh, without reapplying boundary conditions on a

nodal basis. These commands or GUI paths allow you to specify the condition on the endpoints of a line or

the edge of an area.

Take care to ensure that the proper conditions are applied at intersecting boundaries. You have control over

whether or not boundary conditions are applied at the ends of lines or at the edges of areas. A nonzero

velocity component at the end of a line or at the edge of an area will not replace an existing zero velocity

condition at the associated nodes. Where a wall intersects an inlet, the wall condition will automatically

prevail.

If you apply new (and different) boundary conditions to a solid model of a finite element mesh, you should

delete existing nodal boundary conditions before transferring the new loads.

Specified Flow: You specify all velocity components at the boundary. Use this method to specify a flow at

an inlet. Knowledge of the mass flow at the inlet requires you to know the density.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

Specified Pressure: Typically, you apply a relative pressure (usually zero) as an outlet boundary condition.

In the absence of gravity and a rotating reference frame, the absolute pressure is the sum of the FLOTRAN

(relative) pressure and the reference pressure. See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechan-

ical Applications for a more complete discussion of pressure. A problem may also be pressure driven, in

which case one of the pressure boundaries is an inlet.

Note

If significant gradients are calculated near a boundary, a mass imbalance can occur. This is due

to the implied condition of fully developed flow for a constant pressure boundary. If the flow has

not fully developed, FLOTRAN is forced to adjust it across the last row of elements to satisfy the

boundary condition. Occasionally, this adjustment may cause a mass imbalance.

To prevent this from occurring, you can add a development length to the exit. This addition does not actually

need to match the physical flow geometry. You can subtract the pressure drop in this "chimney" to obtain

the desired pressure drop. The pressure drop in the "chimney" will vary over its full cross section. You will

have to choose a representative value of the pressure drop to match the desired outlet conditions. You will

not know this pressure drop, of course, until after you examine the results from the chimney. You can opt

to apply an exit pressure profile, based on these results, to the original geometry.

You can calculate the required length of the chimney (L) using the characteristic diameter (D) from the de-

velopment length formula:

Turbulent flow: L/D ~ 4.4 Re1/6

Typically, a chimney 20 to 25 diameters long will be sufficient. Although the mesh in this region may be

coarse, you should avoid drastic changes in element size by using a size ratio in the chimney. The important

feature is the chimney length, not the number of nodes in it.

Symmetry Boundary: The velocity component normal to the boundary is specified as zero. Leave all other

degrees of freedom unspecified.

Generalized Symmetry Boundary Conditions: You can also apply generalized symmetry boundary conditions.

Velocity components are set tangential to the symmetry surface if the ALE formulation is not activated. They

are set equal to the mesh velocity if the ALE formulation is activated. To apply generalized symmetry

boundary conditions, use one of the following commands or the GUI equivalent:

D,NODE,ENDS,-1

DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

With one exception, if any velocity component is specified at the same boundary, the generalized symmetry

boundary conditions are overwritten. In a 2-D swirl problem, specification of a velocity component VZ does

not overwrite generalized symmetry conditions.

Stationary Wall: This is also referred to as a no-slip condition. All the velocity components are set to zero.

Moving Wall: Specify the velocity component tangent to the wall and set all other velocity components to

zero. As a flag to indicate this is a moving wall, set the turbulent kinetic energy to -1 on a moving wall. This

specification is as a flag only; it does not affect the performance of the wall turbulence model. If you are

using the GUI, indicate a moving wall when specifying the velocities.

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3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions

Unspecified Boundary: In this case, neither the relative pressure nor the velocities are known. The most

common application for this is at downstream boundaries in compressible supersonic flow.

Periodic Boundary: Conditions are unknown but identical at two boundaries. You select the nodes at one

boundary and then issue the macro PERI,DX, DY, DZ, where DX, DY, and DZ are the offsets of the second

boundary from the first. The offsets are input in the established FLOTRAN coordinate system. The meshes at

the two boundaries must be identical.

Intersections: At the intersection of surfaces where two different boundary conditions are applied, either

the boundary conditions are merged or one takes precedence over the other. The following table provides

guidance on what boundary conditions are applied at the intersection.

Intersecting Boundary Intersecting Boundary Action

1 2

Inflow: Wall: Overwrite inflow with wall

VX, VY, VZ values specifiedVX, VY, VZ = 0

VX, VY, VZ values specifiedVX or VY or VZ = 0

VX, VY, VZ values specifiedP = 0

VX or VY or VZ = 0 P=0

VX or VY or VZ = 0 X, VY, VZ = 0

VX, VY, VZ = 0 P=0

P=0 flow conditions

Note

Inflow, symmetry , and wall boundary conditions all overwrite generalized symmetry conditions.

Inlet Values: If you activate the turbulence model, boundary conditions are required. The ANSYS program

supplies default values based on the inlet velocity and a scale factor. Given an inlet velocity magnitude V,

the inlet kinetic energy is specified as:

3

kinlet = [(ININ)V]2

2

The default value of the factor ININ is 0.01, corresponding to a level of turbulence of 1 percent at the inlet.

The inlet value of the kinetic energy dissipation rate is calculated from:

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

3

C k2

inlet =

(INSF)L

The INSF value is a user-controlled scale factor. To specify the factors ININ and INSF, use either of the following

methods:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

You can set specific values of the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE) or the dissipation rate (ENDS) using either

the FLDATA24 command or the menu paths in Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent (p. 25).

Occasionally, you may wish to activate the turbulence model for the case, but deactivate it for certain regions.

To deactivate the turbulence model in regions, set the kinetic energy (ENKE) to zero and the dissipation rate

(ENDS) to 1.0. It is never valid to set the dissipation rate to zero, and FLOTRAN prohibits it. ENDS will be set

to 1.0, if ENKE is set to zero.

Wall Roughness:

The FLOTRAN default condition is smooth walls. To specify wall roughness values, you must use the equilib-

rium wall turbulence model. You activate it using the FLDATA24,TURB,WALL,EQLB command.

To apply a uniform wall roughness in length units to all walls, you can use the FLDATA24,TURB,KS,Value

command. In addition to being the actual roughness, the KS parameter determines the regime of roughness

(smooth, transitional, or fully rough). The default value of 0.0 implies a smooth wall.

You can also apply an empirical dimensionless factor (CKS) between 0.5 and 1.0 that specifies the degree

of nonuniformity of the surface. The default value of 0.5 means that the roughness signified by KS is uniformly

distributed. Higher values increase the roughness losses without changing the flow regime implied by the

value of KS. You can use the FLDATA24,TURB,CKS,Value command to specify this factor.

The following two methods are available if you have surfaces that require different roughness values.

The first method utilizes real constants for all the wall elements. You apply suitable KS and CKS values to

the near wall elements as real constants. A different real constant set will exist for each set of wall roughnesses.

Note that roughness constants applied to elements that are not near wall will be ignored. Also, any KS and

CKS values specified by the FLDATA24,TURB command will be ignored.

The second method is for cases where most of the surfaces have the same roughness condition and only a

few are different. First, set the values appropriate for most of the surfaces with the FLDATA24,TURB command.

Then use real constants to apply roughnesses to the walls that have different conditions. The real constants

will overwrite the FLDATA24,TURB values. Note that if the same value of CKS is applied to all the surfaces

(as is typical), it can be controlled with the FLDATA24,TURB command and the real constant can be omitted.

The most common problems are divergence or oscillation of the pressure and/or velocity field.

The following strategies have proven helpful in getting difficult turbulent problems to converge.

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3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

2. Use a mapped mesh if a free mesh has given poor results. Resolve the boundary layer so that the value

of Y+ is less than 5000.

Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTPUT,YPLU,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived

3. Set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor to 1.0. Values as low as 1.0-2 may help. (For incompressible

flow problems, you may not need to vary this factor.)

Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,TURB,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

4. Use pressure and momentum relaxation factors less than 0.5. If values as low as 0.2 do not help, going

lower probably will not help either.

To set the pressure and momentum relaxation factors, use the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

5. Begin the problem with a higher turbulence ratio (meaning a higher initial effective viscosity). Do not

set values for this parameter, which takes effect only at problem startup, above 1.0 x 107. The ratio set

controls the initial effective viscosity no matter when you activate the turbulence model.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

6. After initializing with the correct properties, solve the problem with a higher viscosity and the turbulence

model turned off. When the flow field is partially converged, the turbulence model is activated. You

may need to reduce the relaxation factor of the effective viscosity to 0.1 or 0.0 for some global iterations

to allow partial convergence of the turbulence equations. Refer to the foregoing strategies for command

information.

7. Difficulties can involve large changes in properties due to large fluctuations in pressure or temperature.

Preventing property variations early in the analysis (until the large fluctuations calm down) can stabilize

the analysis significantly.

You also can invoke velocity capping to prevent large values of velocities or pressures. This is particularly

useful in compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause negative static temperatures.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping

If you use the FLDATA31 command, Label represents a capping parameter such as VELO (velocity),

or TEMP (temperature). Value is either the capping flag (T or F) or the capping parameter value.

Pressure capping applies to relative values of pressure. Temperature capping applies to absolute values

of temperature.

8. Problems involving pyramid, wedge or in particular tetrahedral element shapes may require tighter

convergence of the pressure equation. Values as low as 1.E-18 may be required

(FLDATA21,CONV,PRES,1.E-18). You should reduce the convergence criterion until, from one global

iteration to the next, the number of iterations required to solve the equation varies by less than 10

percent (as per the Jobname.DBG file).

9. The solution of the pressure equation may affect the mass balance. The mass balance may be incorrect

(as per the Jobname.PFL file) if large aspect ratio elements are near significant flow area changes.

Mass imbalances may also occur if inlet or outlet regions are too coarsely meshed or if the flow tends

to exit at an angle at outlets.

10. If FLOTRAN displays a message stating that the coefficient matrix has a negative diagonal and the

solution is probably divergent, try turning on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation

or turbulence equation. Set the Value between 0.1 and 1.0. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use

the smallest Value possible.

Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

11. If you notice anomalous results for 3-D problems, you should increasing the quadrature order to 2.

12. Specifying the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach for momentum may help conver-

gence. Specifying the SUPG approach for temperature may also yield more accurate energy solutions

and hence more accurate energy balances. For more information on the SUPG approach, see Advection

Discretization Options (p. 161).

Before you begin the laminar/turbulent example, note the following:

The example problem is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate every

technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks a

FLOTRAN analysis typically requires.

You can use many techniques in a FLOTRAN analysis that are not shown in this problem. For example,

you can integrate pressure and shear stress on an airfoil to determine the lift and drag forces (see the

description of the INTSRF command in Integrating Surface Results in the Basic Analysis Guide).

The values you enter in this example are specific values for this example only. The characteristics of the

individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify for a particular FLOTRAN

analysis.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

In a thermal analysis, you solve the temperature equation to determine temperature. Even if the temperature

itself is not important, the variation of fluid properties with temperature may be important enough to warrant

a thermal analysis.

In addition to calculating a temperature field, a thermal analysis provides heat fluxes at problem boundaries

and heat transfer coefficients based on an assumed bulk or ambient temperature.

You activate solution of the temperature equation via one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

FLOTRAN automatically includes viscous heating for compressible flows. For information on activating viscous

heating for incompressible flows, see Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties (p. 43) and the

description of the FLDATA1 command in the Command Reference.

4.1. Meshing Requirements

4.2. Property Specifications and Control

4.3.Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions

4.4. Solution Strategies

4.5. Heat Balance

4.6. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method

4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis

4.8. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method)

4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples

The ANSYS program has no formal criteria for evaluating the finite element mesh. However, thermal gradients

are often extremely high near thermal boundaries, especially heat flux boundaries. Therefore, the mesh

should usually be denser near thermal boundaries.

In addition to density and viscosity, thermal flow problems require the specification of thermal conductivity

and specific heat. You must determine whether or not fluid properties should vary with temperature.

Command(s): MP

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Isotropic

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Specific Heat

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

The ANSYS program supports six types of thermal boundary conditions:

1. Constant temperatures

2. Constant heat fluxes

3. Applied heat transfer (film) coefficients with associated ambient temperatures

4. Ambient radiation with associated surface emissivities and ambient temperatures

5. Surface-to-surface radiation with associated emissivities and enclosure number.

6. Adiabatic boundaries (the default condition)

In addition, constant volumetric heat sources may be located in both fluid and non-fluid regions.

You can apply your boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Applying Loads Using TABLE

Type Array Parameters in the Basic Analysis Guide). You can also apply your boundary conditions using

function boundary conditions (see "Using the Function Tool" in the Basic Analysis Guide).

You can define a TABLE type array parameter to apply your boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis.

Attempting to use tabular boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis will create erroneous results.

The table below lists the loads you can apply in a thermal FLOTRAN analysis.

Table 4.1 Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads

Load Type Category Cmd GUI Path

Fam-

ily

Temperature Constraints D Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

(TEMP) Temperature

Convection (CONV), Surface SF Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

Heat Flux (HFLU), Loads Thermal> Convection

Radiation (RAD), Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

Surface-to-surface Thermal> Heat Flux

radiation (RDSF) Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

Thermal> Ambient Rad

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

Thermal> Surface Rad

Heat Generation Body BF Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

Rates (HGEN) Loads Fluid/CFD> Heat Generat

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4.3.1. Applying Loads

The table below lists all the commands in detail you can use to apply loads in a FLOTRAN thermal analysis.

Load Type Solid Entity Ap- Delete List Operate Apply

Model or ply Settings

FE

Temperature Finite Ele- Nodes D DDELE DLIST - -

ment

Convection, Solid Mod- Lines SFL SFLDELE - - -

Heat Flux, Ambi- el

ent Radiation, or Solid Mod- Areas SFA SFADELE SFALIST SFTRAN SFGRAD

Surface-to- sur- el

face Radiation

Finite Ele- Nodes SF SFDELE SFLIST - -

ment

Finite Ele- Ele- SFE SFEDELE SFELIST SFS- -

ment ments CALE

Heat Generation Finite Ele- Ele- SFE SFEDELE SFELIST SFS- -

Rates ment ments CALE

Solid Mod- Lines BFL BFLDELE BFLLIST BFTRAN -

el

Solid Mod- Areas BFA BFADELE BFALIST BFTRAN -

el

Solid Mod- Volumes BFV BFVDELE BFVLIST BFTRAN -

el

Finite Ele- Nodes BF BFDELE BFLIST - -

ment

Finite Ele- Ele- BFE BFEDELE BFELIST BFS- -

ment ments CALE

Note

You must use tabular boundary conditions if you are applying tapered heat flux or convection

loads.

You access all operations except List through a series of cascading menus. From the Solution Menu, you

choose the operation (Apply, Delete, etc.), then the load type (temperature, heat flux, etc.), and then the

object (node, line, or area) to which you are applying the load.

For example, to apply a temperature load to lines, follow this GUI path:

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

4.3.1.3. Solutions

The following list describes what is known and what is calculated as a function of the type of boundary

specified.

For temperature boundary conditions, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are calculated.

For heat flux boundary conditions, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are calculated.

For ambient radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For surface-to-surface radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For heat transfer boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For adiabatic boundary conditions, temperature is calculated.

When you apply a heat transfer (film) coefficient, you also specify an associated ambient temperature. The

ANSYS program uses this along with the surface temperature to calculate the heat flux at that boundary.

You specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at external model boundaries. You cannot specify them

at general internal surfaces. You can specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at internal boundary

faces (such as fluid/solid interface surfaces), but FLOTRAN will issue a warning because they are probably

incorrect. In a standard FLOTRAN analysis the heat transfer at a fluid/solid boundary is a desired result, not

a boundary condition. If you wish to apply a heat flux or a heat transfer coefficient, you should apply it at

the external solid material boundary, or at the edge of the fluid region without modeling the solid material

in the analysis. If you specify a film coefficient or a heat flux at an internal fluid/solid interface, FLOTRAN

interprets it to be a line/area heat source or sink. You can prescribe temperatures anywhere.

In cases where you must calculate the heat transfer coefficient at a surface, ANSYS uses the surface temper-

ature along with the bulk temperature you specify using either of the following methods:

Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,BULK,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

If the analysis is compressible, boundary condition temperatures are in terms of total temperature, and the

temperature equation is formulated and solved in terms of total temperature.

The FLOTRAN ambient radiation load simulates radiation heat transfer to space at a constant temperature.

You specify the constant temperature with the SF command. You specify the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

with the STEF command (defaults to 0.119E-10 Btu/hr/in2/ R4). The form factor is 1.0 by assumption.

Since radiation can pass through a fluid region and impact on a solid, you can apply the ambient radiation

load on a fluid/solid interface, as well as on external model boundaries. In this case, you should apply the

surface load to either the fluid or solid element faces, or the solid model entity defining the interface. If you

apply the load to more than one face, FLOTRAN applies the boundary conditions on only one face and issues

a message that it skipped duplicate boundary conditions.

The most efficient way to solve thermal-flow problems depends on the degree to which the fluid properties

depend on the temperature.

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4.4.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties

In this case, the flow solution does not depend at all on the temperature field and can be converged without

activating the temperature equation solution.

Once the flow solution is complete, the temperature equation become linear. You can then solve it in one

global iteration after you set the relaxation factor for temperature to 1 using either method shown below:

Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation

See FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139) for more information.

The flow equations need not be solved during the solution of the temperature equation. Executing two

global iterations should result in a very small change, if any, in the answer during the second calculation.

This will be reflected in a large decrease in the convergence monitors for temperature in the second iteration.

The flow pattern will be a mild function of the temperature field. You can choose to solve the temperature

equation every global iteration or converge the flow field calculations before activating solution of the

temperature equation. In the latter case, you will still need to solve the flow and temperature equations

together to refine the flow field with the property variations. If difficulties with the temperature equation

are encountered early in the solution, it is then best to start over and partially converge the flow solution

before allowing the properties to vary with temperature.

For incompressible flows, viscous heating is generally not important for cases with low Prandtl numbers or

low to moderate velocities. However, you should turn on viscous heating whenever the Prandtl number is

greater than 2 or the velocities are high (e.g., greater than 100 m/s in air). FLOTRAN automatically includes

viscous heating for compressible flows. To include viscous heating for incompressible flows, use one of the

following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,IVSH,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

For information on the energy units required for thermal quantities when an incompressible analysis includes

viscous heating, refer to Fluid Property Types (p. 117).

In this case, the driving force for the flow is the density change brought about by temperature variations.

You must turn on both options.

Command(s): ACEL

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

Activate the variable density option using one of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties

Buoyancy property types, which use a constant pressure to evaluate the density from the ideal gas law are

provided for AIR. (See Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN (p. 117).) Pressure fluctuations are thus prevented

from causing instabilities in density calculations. Natural convection cases converge slowly, and may be

more stable if the TDMA algorithm is used for pressure and temperature. The number of sweeps used may

be set to Number of Nodes/10, but should be at least 100.

When the thermal properties of the non-fluid material are several orders of magnitude different from those

of the fluid, this is called an ill-conditioned conjugate heat transfer problem. In this situation, the TDMA

method probably will not yield useful results, no matter how many sweeps you specify. You access the TDMA

method using either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,1

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

The Conjugate Residual method offers more functionality and requires little more memory than the Tri-Di-

agonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) method. To access it, use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,2

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

You can control several parameters, such as convergence criteria and the number of search vectors used,

to enhance performance. (See the discussion of FLDATA18 in the Command Reference for more information

about these parameters.) However, the conjugate residual method, although fairly fast, is not suited for dif-

ficult problems.

A more robust choice for solving ill-conditioned heat transfer problems is the Preconditioned Conjugate

Residual method, which requires much more memory than either the TDMA or Conjugate Residual methods.

The PCR method allows you to control the number of search vectors used, up to a maximum of 30. To use

it, use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

Note

For nodes connected only to solid nodes, the value stored in the Jobname.RFL file under the

density (DENS) label is the product of the density and specific heat.

You can evaluate performance of the Conjugate Residual and Preconditioned Conjugate Residual methods

by looking at the Jobname.DBG file (described in FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139)).

The most robust, but most memory-intensive, method for solving conjugate heat transfer problems is the

Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual method. You can access it via either of the following:

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4.4.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer

Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,4

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

The Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solution method is the default choice for tem-

perature.

Although the same user controls exist for the PGMR method as for the PCCR solver, the default values are

different. For PGMR, the least restrictive convergence criterion allowed is 1.E-10. If you try to use a less re-

strictive convergence criterion, FLOTRAN will change it to 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20

may be necessary for some problems. In addition, you should use at least 12 search vectors, and FLOTRAN

ensures this. For the PGMR solver, 12 search vectors is the default and the allowable range is 12 to 20.

FLOTRAN non-fluid elements support both temperature dependence and orthotropic variation. That is, KXX,

KYY, and KZZ can assume different values and temperature variations. FLOTRAN considers conductivity as

an element quantity, evaluated at the quadrature points in the element. However, in fluid elements, FLOTRAN

considers thermal conductivity to be a nodal quantity.

To specify the variable and orthotropic conductivities, you use the following commands or GUI paths:

Command(s): MP or MPDATA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Orthotropic

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

Note

Thermal analysis problems having variable thermal conductivity are nonlinear and require multiple

iterations to solve. Variable solid thermal conductivities are not relaxed.

For a conjugate heat transfer problem, it is wise to obtain an initial temperature solution before solving the

coupled energy/momentum equations. To achieve the temperature solution, use the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,F

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,T

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,1

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> TEMP Solver CFD

In the above steps, an initial temperature solution is obtained from a solution of the heat conduction

equation.

FLOTRAN can calculate film coefficients at walls in conjugate heat transfer problems. Two algorithms are

available for this purpose: the conductivity matrix algorithm and the temperature field algorithm. The con-

ductivity matrix algorithm uses the thermal conductivity matrix to calculate heat fluxes and film coefficients.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

It is the default. Generally, it produces satisfactory results for well shaped elements. However, if the elements

are not well shaped, it can produce non-smooth results. You should then switch to the temperature field

algorithm. It calculates film coefficients directly from thermal gradients. To set the algorithm, use the following:

Command(s): FLDATA37,ALGR,HFLM,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr

Using information in the Jobname.PFL file, you can calculate a heat balance for your problem. For any

flow problem with the thermal option activated, the energy flow into and out of the problem domain at

the inlets/outlets is calculated and tabulated. Also calculated for the flow boundaries is the heat conduction

across the boundary faces. The difference between the energy flow into the system and out of the system

at the flow boundaries should equal the total energy added through sources and sinks.

The accuracy of the energy balance depends on the approach used to discretize the advection term in the

energy equation. In general, the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach provides a more ac-

curate energy balance than the Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU) approach. If you desire an exact energy

balance, use the Collocated Galerkin (COLG) approach. For steady-state incompressible flows, it provides an

exact energy balance, even with a coarse mesh. However, SUPG or COLG may suffer from oscillatory thermal

solution near walls with a coarse mesh. Use the FLDATA40,WADV command to minimize such spatial oscil-

lation.

Energy flowing into or out of the system at mass flow boundaries is equal to the product of the mass flow,

the specific heat, and the temperature. A temperature offset specified by the TOFFST command does not

enter this calculation. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the system.

Energy sources include volumetric heat sources in either fluids or solids. Specified wall temperatures and

specified film coefficient boundaries are either sources or sinks, depending on the temperature gradient.

Heat fluxes are sources or sinks depending on the sign.

Heat transfer to/from wall faces refers to boundaries of fluid regions which are not inlets or outlets.

Heat transfer at wall faces refers to fluid boundaries, regardless of whether or not the boundary is a no-fluid

element or simply a no-slip condition. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the fluid.

Volumetric heat generation can be applied to solid regions or fluid regions. Be careful, when calculating the

energy balance to avoid accounting for heat generation in solids twice.

For example, suppose a conjugate heat transfer problem featured a volumetric heat source in a solid region

which is cooled by a fluid flow. The difference between the energy flow in and out should equal heat

transfer to wall faces. This number should also match the volumetric heat generation in the solid.

For all cases, the difference between the energy flowing into the system at flow boundaries and flowing out

at the boundaries should equal heat transfer to wall faces plus fluid volumetric heat sources plus the heat

conduction effects normal to the flow direction at the flow boundaries.

Essentially, FLOTRAN performs a heat balance on the fluid region only. Heat fluxes and film coefficients are

solution outputs for the external fluid boundaries only. Heat fluxes applied on external boundaries are not

part of the solution output.

The effects of viscous dissipation on a heat balance are not explicitly tabulated. The associated heat gener-

ation is manifested in terms of an increased temperature, which in turn affects the energy departure at the

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4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis

outlet and the heat transfer at wall faces if applicable. With adiabatic walls, for example, the temperature

of the fluid will increase from viscous dissipation, even though no heat sources will be apparent.

Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in FLOTRAN can be used for solving generalized radiation problems

involving two or more radiating surfaces in single or multiple open or closed enclosures. The method is

supported for both 3-D and 2-D FLOTRAN elements FLUID141 and FLUID142. The thermal solution option

has to be on for radiation analysis. You can switch radiation analysis off using the FLDATA1, SOLU, RDSF

command. The command defaults to on.

Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in 2-D is supported for planar and axisymmetric geometry about YR

and XR coordinate systems. Radiation analysis is not supported for 3-D/2-D compressible flow thermal ana-

lysis and for R- and R--Z coordinate system in 2-D and 3-D analysis respectively.

FLOTRAN

FLUID141

FLUID142

4.6.1. Procedure

The Radiosity Solution method consists of four steps:

2. Define Solution options.

3. Define View Factor options.

4. Calculate and query view factors.

See Using the Radiosity Solver Method in the Thermal Analysis Guide for a detailed explanation of these

steps.

Jobname.PFL file provides information of the net positive and negative radiation heat transfer from both

solid and fluid surfaces.

See Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method) (p. 56)

This chapter describes a laminar, thermal, steady-state fluid flow problem and two ways to solve it: by

choosing items on the ANSYS GUI menus or by issuing a series of ANSYS commands.

Before you begin reading about the example, note the following:

The example problem described is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate

every technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks

a FLOTRAN analysis typically requires.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

The values you enter in this example via commands or dialog boxes are specific values for this example

only. The characteristics of the individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify

for a particular FLOTRAN analysis.

This example evaluates buoyancy-driven flow in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical sides. It

is a laminar steady-state analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D element. The physics modeled in this problem

govern a number of practical problems, including solar energy collection, the ventilation of rooms, and so

on.

Insulated

g = 9.81 m/s2

T = 320K T = 280K

Insulated

L = .03m

Density variations resulting from the temperature difference across the cavity drive the laminar flow. The

Rayleigh number for this flow is 1.01E+05, and is defined as follows:

Ra = g TL3 2Cp/k

g = gravitational acceleration

= 1/T

T = THOT - TCOLD

L = cavity length

= density

Cp = specific heat

k = thermal conductivity

= viscosity

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Step 4: Define Lines, Mesh, and Plot Elements

Fluid: Air in SI units

Loads: no slip walls (Vx = Vy = 0); left wall of cavity maintained at THOT = 320K; right wall of cavity

maintained at TCOLD = 280K

To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis using the menus, perform the steps discussed in the next

few sections.

When you have entered the ANSYS program, do these tasks:

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

2. Enter the text "Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity."

3. Click on OK.

4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5. Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On."

6. Click on OK. You have just instructed the ANSYS program to do a FLOTRAN analysis.

Next, you need to specify which elements your analysis will use. The example uses only one element, FLUID141.

To define it:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types

dialog box appears.

2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3. In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) FLOTRAN CFD and "2D FLOTRAN 141."

4. Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

5. Click on Close.

Next, create the areas you need. Our example requires an area representing the square cavity. To create it,

perform these tasks:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimen-

sions. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears.

2. Enter the X coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03.

3. Enter the Y coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03.

4. Click on OK. The square area you have just created will appear in the Graphics Window.

This step meshes the square cavity area so that you can apply temperature loads to it. Follow these steps:

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Under the Size Controls section

of the MeshTool, click Lines,Set. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears.

2. Click Pick All. The Element Size on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

3. Set the number of element divisions to 25.

4. Click on OK.

5. In the MeshTool, select Areas from the Mesh drop down menu. Then click Quad and Free. Then click

MESH. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears.

6. Click on Pick All to generate the mesh.

7. Click on Close on the MeshTool.

8. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

In this step and Step 6, you apply boundary conditions to your model, starting with the exterior nodes. Do

the following:

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2. Select Nodes and Exterior.

3. Click on OK.

4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity>

On Nodes. The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.

5. On the picking menu, click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.

6. Set the VX velocity component and VY velocity component fields to 0.

7. Click on OK.

Now you need to apply temperature loads on the left and right edges of the model. To do so:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temper-

ature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears.

2. Click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads by drawing

a box around them.

3. Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the left edge of the meshed

area.

4. Click on OK.

5. In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 320 as the temperature value.

6. Click on OK.

7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temper-

ature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears.

8. On the menu, click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads

by drawing a box around them.

9. Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the right edge of the

meshed area.

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Step 10: Solve the Problem

11. In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 280 as the temperature value.

12. Click on OK.

13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. This step is important; it ensures that ANSYS

includes all nodes and elements in the analysis.

14. Click on the SAVE_DB button on the Toolbar.

In this step and the next few steps, you set up conditions for the FLOTRAN analysis. You first specify what

type of FLOTRAN analysis you are doing and what values will control FLOTRAN execution.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN

Solution Options dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Adiabatic or thermal?" field to Thermal.

3. Click on OK.

4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State

Control Settings dialog box appears.

5. Set the Global Iterations (EXEC) field to 200.

6. Set the .RFL File Overwrite Freq field to 50.

7. Set the Output summary frequency (SUMF) field to 50.

8. Click on OK.

To set the fluid properties for the example analysis, do the following:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid

Properties dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Density," "Viscosity," "Conductivity," and "Specific heat" fields to AIR-SI.

3. Set the "Allow density variations?" field to Yes.

4. Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears.

5. Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, then click on OK.

To set the flow environment parameters, follow these steps:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity.

The Gravity Specification dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Accel in Y direction" field to 9.81.

3. Click on OK.

Set controls for the FLOTRAN solver before you initiate the solution process. Follow these steps:

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver

CFD. The PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears.

2. Choose TDMA.

3. Click on OK. The TDMA Pressure dialog box appears.

4. Make sure that the value of the "No. of TDMA sweeps for pressure" field is 100. If so, click on OK.

5. Click on the SAVE_DB button in the Toolbar.

6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

7. Wait for the solution to finish, then review the information in the ANSYS Output Window. Click Close

in the Solution is done window.

Perform these steps:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Read Results> Last Set.

2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The

Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.

3. In the "Item to be Contoured" list, click on (highlight) DOF Solution.

4. In the scrollable list, scroll down and choose TEMP.

5. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The

Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.

2. Click on (highlight) "Other quantities."

3. In the scrollable list, select "Strm func2D STRM" (stream function).

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Step 13: Plot Velocity Vectors

4. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

For better viewing of the analysis results for the example, switch to vector plotting as described below:

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Device Options. The Device Options dialog box appears.

2. Set Vector mode (wireframe) to "On."

3. Click on OK.

4. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Result> Vector Plot> Predefined. The

Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog box appears.

5. Verify that the items "DOF solution" and "Velocity" are highlighted. If so, click on OK. The display in

the Graphics Window now looks similar to the one below.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

In the example analysis, the dimensions of the problem are small (.03 x .03). Therefore, before plotting

particle trace points, you should change the working plane to give a better view from which to choose those

points.

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> WP Settings. The WP Settings dialog box appears.

2. Set Snap Increment to 0.0005.

3. Set Spacing to 0.0001.

4. Set Tolerance to 0.00005.

5. Click on OK.

6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements.

7. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Defi Trace Pt.

8. Using your mouse, pick five or six points anywhere within the upper half of the problem domain.

9. Click on OK in the picking menu.

10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace.

The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears.

11. In the scrollable list, click on (highlight) "Temperature TEMP".

12. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows a plot that resembles the plot shown below. Your plot may

look different, depending on the location of the points you picked. If a warning message appears telling

you that the maximum number of loops has been exceeded, review it and click Close. For the purposes of

this problem, the particle trace is stuck in a loop by definition, so you can ignore this message.

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4.7.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method)

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace.

The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears.

2. In the scrollable list, choose "VSUM."

3. Click on OK. The plot shown in the Graphics Window is now contoured by velocity magnitude. How

your plot looks will depend on the location of the points you picked. If you receive another warning

message about the maximum number of loops being exceeded, click Close.

4. If you wish, you can use animation to enhance your analysis of particle flow. Choose menu path Util-

ity Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Particle Flow. When the Animate Flow Trace dialog box appears,

enter the desired animation data and click OK. (To animate particle flow, you must have at least one

trace point defined. To complete the sample analysis, simply take the defaults and click on OK.)

5. When you are done viewing the animation, click Stop and then Close in the Animation Controller. If

additional warning messages appear, close them.

6. To exit ANSYS, click Quit on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and then click on OK.

See Section 5.10, Doing the Sample Analysis (Command Method), for an example problem.

To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis, you issue these ANSYS commands:

/TITLE,Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity

/PREP7

ET,1,FLUID141 ! Set 2-D fluid element type

RECTNG,,0.03,,0.03 ! Create square area

LPLOT

LESIZE,ALL, , ,25,1,0 ! Define line divisions and mesh area

AMESH,1

EPLOT

NSEL,S,EXT ! Apply velocity b.c. on exterior nodes

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

D,ALL,,,,,,VX,VY

NSEL,S,NODE,,1 ! Apply thermal b.c. on left edge

NSEL,A,NODE,,52

NSEL,A,NODE,,77,100

D,ALL,TEMP,320

NSEL,S,NODE,,2 ! Apply thermal b.c. on right edge

NSEL,A,NODE,,27,51

D,ALL,TEMP,280

NSEL,ALL

ESEL,ALL

FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,1 ! Set solution option to thermal

FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,200 ! Set FLOTRAN execution controls

FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,50

FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,50

!*

FLDATA13,VARY,DENS,1 ! Set fluid properties

FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,AIR-SI

FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,AIR-SI

FLDATA7,PROT,COND,AIR-SI

FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,-1

FLDATA7,PROT,SPHT,AIR-SI

!*

ACEL,0,9.81,0 ! Set flow environment gravity

FLDATA18,METH,PRES,1 ! Set FLOTRAN solver controls

FLDATA19,TDMA,PRES,100

FINISH

/SOLU

SOLVE ! Solve model

FINISH

/POST1

SET,LAST

PLNSOL,TEMP ! Plot temperature solution

PLNSOL,STRM ! Plot streamline contours

/DEVICE,VECTOR,1

!*

PLVECT,V, , , ,VECT,ELEM ! Plot velocity vectors

wpstyle,0.0005,0.0001,-1,1,0.00005,0,2,,5

EPLOT

TRPOIN,P ! The P argument enables graphical picking

! of trace points via the GUI

PLTRAC,FLUID,TEMP ! Plot particle traces contoured by

PLTRAC,FLUID,V,SUM ! temperature and velocity magnitude

FINISH

The following is an example of a laminar, thermal, steady-state FLOTRAN analysis with surface-to-surface

radiation using the radiosity solution method (command method). In this example a buoyancy-driven flow

in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical walls is considered. All walls of the cavity are radiating

surfaces with an emissivity of 0.9. The final temperature distribution in the cavity effected by the presence

of the radiating walls in the fluid domain.

/prep7

et, 1, 141 ! 2-D Fluid element

rectng, , .027744, , .027744 ! Create square cavity

esize, , 20 ! Set number of elements

amesh, all ! Mesh area

nsel, s, ext ! Select external nodes

d, all,,,,,,vx,vy ! Set all external wall velocities to zero

allsel

lsel, s, loc, x, 0.0

nsll, s, 1

d, all, temp, 500 ! Set wall temperature at x = 0.0 to 500 K

lsel, s, loc, x, .027744

nsll, s, 1

d, all, temp, 200 ! Set wall temperature at x = 0.027744 to 200 K

nsel, all

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4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples

esel, all

fldata1, solu, temp, 1 ! Set solution option to thermal

fldata2, iter, exec, 200 ! Set FLOTRAN execution control

fldata2, iter, over, 50

fldata5, outp, sumf, 50

!

fldata13, vary, dens, 1 ! Set fluid properties

fldata7, prot, dens, air-si

fldata7, prot, visc, air-si

fldata7, prot, cond, air-si

fldata8, nomi, cond, -1

fldata7, prot, spht, air-si

!

acel, 0, 9.81, 0 ! Set flow environment gravity

fldata18, meth, pres, 1

fldata19, tdma, pres, 100

fldata18, meth, temp, 6

stef,5.67e-8 ! Set Stefan-Boltzmann constant

toff,0 ! Set temperature offset to zero

radopt,.5,0.0001 ! Set radiosity solver options

finish

/solu

allsel

nsel,s,ext ! Select all external nodes

sf, all, rdsf, 0.9, -1 ! Apply radiation on external faces facing inwards

allsel

solve ! Solve

finish

/post1

set last

plnsol, temp ! Plot temperature solution

plnsol, strm ! Plot streamline contours

The Verification Manual contains several examples of FLOTRAN analyses. The Verification Manual examples

include:

VM121 - Laminar Flow Through a Pipe with Uniform Heat Flux

VM178 - Plane Poiseuille Flow

VM209 - Multiple Species Flow Entering A Circular Pipe

VM219 - Non-Newtonian Pressure Driven Sector Flow

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses

You activate the transient algorithm by setting the solution option, using one of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

You must make decisions regarding the time step, the method of converging the analysis during a time

step, the length of execution of the job and the frequency of output.

What you specify via one of the following methods determines the transient execution and output:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The final section of this chapter explains how to apply transient boundary conditions for FLOTRAN.

5.1.Time Integration Method

5.2.Time Step Specification and Convergence

5.3.Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis

5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions

There are two methods available for the time integration: Backward (the default) and Newmark. The Newmark

method is more accurate than the Backward method. To specify the Newmark method, use one of the fol-

lowing:

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,METH,NEWM

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth

When using the Newmark method, you can introduce numerical damping to stabilize the solution.

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,DELT,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth

The Newmark parameter must be 0.5. It defaults to 0.5. The recommended range is 0.5 to 0.6. Higher

values are more stable because there is more damping. Lower values result in more accurate results with

0.5 corresponding to second order accuracy. For more information on the Newmark method, see Transient

Analysis in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses

There are two mass types that you can set for the transient analysis: lumped (the default) and consistent.

The consistent type is more dissipative than the lumped type. To specify the consistent type, use one of the

following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Because the algorithm is implicit in nature, no stability restrictions exist on the time step size. You specify

a time step or elect to have FLOTRAN calculate a time step. To do so, use either of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,STEP,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The graphical user interface will require you to set the time step if you choose the User Defined option.

The table below shows the values you can specify. A brief description of the FLOTRAN calculation follows

the table.

Value to Specify Meaning

Any value > 0 User Specified Time Step

-1 Advection Limit

-2 Pressure Wave Limit

-3 Smaller of Pressure wave and Advection

-4 Conduction Limit

The advection limit prevents a particle of fluid from passing completely through a finite element during a

time step.

The pressure wave limit means the time step is chosen small enough to prevent a pressure wave from

passing all the way through a finite element during a single time step. This option is active only if you choose

the compressible solution algorithm.

The choice of -3 (again valid only for compressible analyses) means that the more restrictive (that is, smaller)

time step criterion will be imposed.

The conduction limit is calculated to prevent the conductive diffusion of a parcel of energy completely

through an element during a time step. The limit applies only to problems that include conduction, and is

valid for problems with both fluid and non-fluid elements.

FLOTRAN must execute global iterations to converge within a time step. The time step terminates when

either of the following happens:

The maximum number of global iterations allowed per time step executes.

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5.3.Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis

You set the maximum number of global iterations per time step using one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,GLOB,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The convergence criteria are values below which the convergence monitors for each active degree of freedom

must drop to cause the time step to terminate. You specify these values using the following commands or

menu paths:

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

As soon as all the convergence criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on the

number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met.

If the problem is adiabatic, only the pressure equation monitor is checked. Both the pressure and temperature

equation monitors must be reduced below the convergence criteria values if the temperature equation also

is solved.

As soon as the convergence monitor criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on

the number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met.

You can either specify an end time for a transient FLOTRAN analysis or have it end after a specified number

of time steps. To specify an end time, use either method shown below.

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

To specify a number of time steps, either use one of the menu paths listed above or issue the following

command:

Command(s):

FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,Value

The event that occurs first (end time or reaching the time step threshold) terminates the analysis.

You determine how often ANSYS saves the analysis results for processing and how often it writes information

to the Jobname.PFL file. You do this by choosing from the following commands or menu paths:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The table below shows you how the values you specify affect analysis output:

Name, Label, Value Meaning of Value

STEP,APPE,n Output results to Jobname.RFL every n time steps

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses

TIME,APPE,x Output results to Jobname.RFL every x seconds

STEP,SUMF,n Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every n time steps

TIME,SUMF,x Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every x seconds

STEP,OVER,n Overwrite the temporary results set every n time steps

TIME,OVER,x Overwrite the temporary results set every x seconds

If you wish to control the output based on time, you must first defeat the default controls which set APPE

and SUMF to ten steps.

When any boundary conditions are changed, FLOTRAN assumes either a step change (default) or a ramp

change. The ramp is chosen by setting the BC label in the TIME item to 1 via one in the following:

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,BC,1

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control

The ramp will occur for the next execution over the period of time for execution specified by the user. This

is the difference between the current time (i.e., the beginning in the execution) and the end time as specified

by the following:

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control

The ramp is between the "old" boundary conditions and the "new" boundary conditions. A boundary condition

is considered old as soon as FLOTRAN has gone through the calculational loop. This means that to use a

ramped condition at the beginning of an analysis, a zero iteration execution (which may be accomplished

with the FLOCHECK command) should be done with the initial condition (applied as a boundary condition)

and then the boundary condition value(s) are changed to those at the end in the ramp.

Note that the ramp is calculated with the value of TEND as specified above, NOT the actual ending time in

the case. For this reason, it is recommended that the user terminate the case with the TIME controls rather

than the STEP controls. Ensure that the case will not terminate prematurely due to an insufficient number

of time steps. If the case terminates before the time specified by TEND, upon restart the boundary conditions

will be immediately changed from where they were when the run terminated to what the current boundary

condition setting is. If you use the STEP controls in the GUI to set the number of time steps, you need to

set TEND in that same dialog box. Otherwise, TEND defaults to 1.0 x 106 and the ramp is almost nonexistent.

Transient boundary conditions on velocity DOF (VX, VY, and VZ) must not be ramped from zero to a nonzero

value. A very small velocity must be used instead of zero so that FLOTRAN recognizes the face as an inlet

or outlet rather than a wall.

At any time, you can change the applied boundary conditions to the "old" state with one of the following:

Command(s): FLOCHECK,2

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Flocheck

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5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions

Caution

FLOTRAN has no record of boundary conditions at earlier times. That is, if you want to restart

from an earlier point in time and simulate a ramped boundary condition it is necessary to apply

the boundary condition appropriate for the beginning of the ramp, make it an old condition via

the FLOCHECK command, and then apply the condition at the end of the ramp.

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

In a Volume of Fluid (VOF) analysis, FLOTRAN uses an advection algorithm for the volume fraction (VFRC)

to track the evolution of the free surface. The VFRC value for each element varies from zero to one, where

zero denotes an empty or void element and one denotes a full or fluid element. The values between zero

and one indicate that the corresponding elements are the partially full or surface elements (henceforth called

partial elements), and the free surface can thus be determined by the distribution of the VFRC field.

For the dynamic behavior at the interface between a gas and liquid, FLOTRAN uses a continuum surface

force (CSF) method to model the surface tension. Surface tension is an inherent characteristic of material

interfaces. It is a localized surface force acting on the interface. FLOTRAN reformulates this surface force into

an equivalent volumetric force in the momentum equation. This force consists of two components: a normal

component to the interface due to local curvature and a tangential component to the interface due to local

variations of the surface tension coefficient.

Currently, VOF capability is available only for quadrilateral elements for two dimensional planar or axisym-

metric analyses. For a VOF analysis, boundary conditions are required for boundary nodes that belong to at

least one non-empty (partial or full) element.

To activate a VOF analysis in FLOTRAN and model the surface tension effect, use the following commands

or GUI menu paths:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

In FLOTRAN, the VOF algorithm first computes the motion of the polygon of fluid in a Lagrangian sense and

then utilizes the computational geometry of the intersection of two polygons to determine the VFRC fluxes.

This method is referred to as the Computational Lagrangian-Eulerian Advection Remap (CLEAR) method.

See CLEAR-VOF Advection in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for

information on the theoretical background. This CLEAR-VOF method tracks the free surface explicitly in time,

and it is therefore necessary to activate the transient solution option for a VOF analysis. Refer to FLOTRAN

Transient Analyses (p. 59) for information on the selection of the transient parameters, such as the time step,

converging method, execution length and the output frequency. For accuracy, you should use the Streamline

Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach described in Advection Discretization Options (p. 161). If you encounter

a convergence difficulty, the time increment may be reduced, and the modified inertial relaxation (MIR)

scheme may also be activated for robustness.

Caution

You should avoid using quadrilateral elements with only one node on the inflow or outflow

boundary.

6.1. VFRC Loads

6.2. Input Settings

6.3. Postprocessing

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

6.5. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction

6.6. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet

When performing a VOF analysis, you need to apply both initial and boundary VFRC loads. In most cases,

default values are appropriate.

You impose initial conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. For the

initial VFRC field, you can define each element as initially full, partially full or empty. Take care when initially

setting partial elements. Each partial element must be adjacent to at least one full element and one empty

element. During the analysis, if a partial element does not have any full elements as neighbors, it will be

reset to empty. You should also include at least one layer of empty elements above the free surface to allow

the surface to evolve in time.

To set the initial volume fraction field, use one of the following:

Command(s): ICE,ELEM,VFRC,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init

Loads> On Elements

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init Loads> On Elements

By default, the volume fraction is zero. Therefore, if there is fluid initially inside the problem domain, you

must set the VFRC field accordingly.

To set the initial volume fraction for a given geometry, use one of the following:

Command(s): ICVFRC,GEOM,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Volume Fract> Init Loads> By

Geom

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Frac> Init Loads> By Geom

ICVFRC automatically calculates the volume fraction value for all selected elements that are either inside

the given geometry or intersect with it. The volume fraction is:

A fraction equal to the element area within the geometry for elements intersected by the boundary of

the geometry

Currently, there are two valid geometries: circle (CIRC) and ellipse (ELPT). For a circle or ellipse, VAL1 and

VAL2 are the x and y coordinates of the center, respectively. For a circle, VAL3 is the radius and VAL4 is not

used. For an ellipse, VAL3 and VAL4 are the x and y semiaxes, respectively.

Command(s): /PICE,VFRC,,KEY

GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols

The /PBF and /PSF commands override the /PICE command.

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6.2.1. Ambient Conditions

You impose boundary conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. Although

boundary conditions outside the fluid region have no physical meaning initially, these conditions will become

active if the fluid touches these boundaries. Accordingly, you should apply all appropriate boundary conditions

on all boundaries potentially touched by the fluid. FLOTRAN treats unspecified boundaries with natural

conditions.

Boundary conditions for VFRC loads consist of the boundary VFRC value and the wetting status. FLOTRAN

only allows zero (empty) and one (full) values for the boundary VFRC values. By default, boundary VFRC

values are set to one (full). FLOTRAN uses the boundary VFRC values to determine the normal surface direction

in the VOF reconstruction stage, when the boundary is adjacent to the surface elements. The wetting status

specifies whether the fluid can be advected into the problem domain. A zero value indicates a non-wetting

boundary, whereas a unity value indicates a wetting boundary. By default, wetting status is set to zero (non-

wetting boundary). On a wetting boundary, fluid advection into the problem domain takes place. The cor-

responding boundary VFRC value must be set to unity to be meaningful. On a non-wetting boundary, ad-

vection of the fluid or void elements into the problem domain does not take place. The boundary VFRC

value only acts passively to help determine the normal surface direction.

AL,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound

Loads> On Lines

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads>

On Elements

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Lines

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Elements

For the SFL command, VALI specifies the boundary VFRC value and (defaults to 1) VAL2I specifies the

wetting status (defaults to non-wetting). If Lab = VFRC, a VAL2I setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary.

For the SFE command, VAL1 specifies the boundary VFRC value (defaults to 1) when KVAL = 0 or 1, and

VAL1 specifies the boundary wetting status (defaults to non-wetting) when KVAL = 2. If Lab = VFRC and

KVAL = 2, a VAL1 setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary. At a wetted boundary, the fluid upstream keeps

the associated elements full.

When performing a VOF analysis, you may set the environmental conditions regarding the ambient conditions,

the VFRC tolerances, and the time stepping strategy.

When studying surface tension effects, you need set the proper values for the surface tension coefficient

and the wall static contact angle. Refer to Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN (p. 117) for information on

these property types.

Set the ambient nodal values outside the fluid region for the following variables:

VX - U velocity

VY - V velocity

VZ - W velocity

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

TEMP - Temperature

ENKE - Turbulent Kinetic Energy

ENDS - Turbulent Dissipation Rate

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n

When a boundary node with Dirichlet Condition lies outside the fluid region, the assigned ambient values

on this node are ignored. The prescribed Dirichlet Condition will become active once its associate element

becomes partially full or full. Except for pressure, the ambient values are only set for postprocessing purposes.

Pressure acts as an actual boundary condition.

Unlike other FLOTRAN analyses, the pressure field for a VOF analysis will include both the dynamic pressure

and the static pressure and the static pressure will be in balance with the gravitational acceleration terms.

For example, in a VOF analysis, the pressure contours for a parallel uniform flow with gravity will consist of

parallel lines with a gradient balancing gravity, whereas they remain constant for other FLOTRAN analyses.

In a VOF analysis, an outlet can have specified pressures or it can have natural conditions. When outlet

pressures are specified, the values will differ from those in other FLOTRAN analyses by the offsets of the

static pressure (or elevation head). For natural boundary conditions the outlet pressures will adjust automat-

ically. In that case, if a steady state solution exists, the outlet pressures will converge to the correct values.

Ideally, a VFRC value of one signifies a full or fluid element and a value of zero signifies an empty or void

element. In reality, however, exact values of one and zero are difficult to maintain in the VOF advection al-

gorithm due to various types of error accumulations. Hence, FLOTRAN introduces small cutoff values to de-

termine the full and empty elements. An element is considered full if its VFRC value is greater than or equal

to 1 - VOFU, where VOFU is the upper tolerance for the VOF advection algorithm. An element is considered

empty if its VFRC value is less than or equal to VOFL, where VOFL is the lower tolerance for the VOF advection

algorithm. By default, VOFL and VOFU are both set to 10-5.

In the FLOTRAN solution routines, a nearly empty element adjacent to a nearly full element may introduce

an abrupt change in the locally rescaled meshes. This can make the stiffness matrix more ill-conditioned

and can adversely affect the quality of the desired solution. To avoid this, FLOTRAN introduces another tol-

erance to not assemble the finite element equations for those elements with VFRC values less than or equal

to LAML for laminar flows and TRBL for turbulent flows, where LAML and TRBL are the lower tolerances for

laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. Similarly, elements with VFRC values greater than or equal to 1 -

LAMU for laminar flows and 1 - TRBU for turbulent flows are considered full when assembling the finite

element equations. You can set any of these tolerance values. By default, LAML and LAMU are set to 10-2

and TRBL and TRBU are set to 10-1.

Command(s): FLDATA35,VFTOL,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance

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6.3. Postprocessing

Because the CLEAR-VOF is explicit in time, it must use a time step for the VOF advection algorithm that

corresponds to a CFL number less than one. On the other hand, selecting the time step based on the VOF

constraint may be too restrictive sometimes because the FLOTRAN transient solution algorithm is implicit

in time, and there is no stability restriction on the time step size. Accordingly, FLOTRAN allows multiple VOF

advection steps per solution step. The VOF advection time step is set equal to the solution time step divided

by a factor that you specify. If the VOF advection time step is still too large, FLOTRAN will automatically reduce

the VOF time step by half. This automatic reduction in the VOF time step continues until the local imbalance

of the VFRC field during the VOF advection computations is less than the VOFL tolerance. A good input

parameter guess makes the calculation more efficient by removing some checks on the time step.

To set the number of VOF advection time steps per solution time step, use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,NTVF,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping

For a VOF analysis, the density is constant. Therefore, mass conservation is equivalent to the conservation

of the total fluid volume (or area in two dimensions). Ideally, the difference between the volume coming

into the problem domain and going out of the domain should be equal to the increase or decrease of the

total volume inside the domain. In an actual finite element analysis, however, continuity satisfaction is ex-

pressed in a Galerkin weak form. Therefore, in general, each element has a small mass imbalance. The local

mass imbalance is usually of the order of the discretization error, and this error is a major source of the

global VFRC imbalance introduced in a VOF analysis. Even though this imbalance may be very small compared

to the total volume, it can accumulate exponentially as the number of time steps increases. Hence, FLOTRAN

performs a global adjustment of the VFRC field at each VOF time step. It proportionally increases or decreases

the VFRC values of the partial elements to guarantee the global VFRC balance. It prints the final VFRC imbal-

ance in the Jobname.PFL file.

6.3. Postprocessing

The volume fraction is stored as a non-summable miscellaneous record in the element data section of the

results file. If you want to view the volume fraction, issue the command:

Command(s):

PLESOL,NMISC,1

Since the volume fraction is essentially an element based quantity, it is discontinuous across elements. If

you wish to see a smooth and continuous volume fraction, you should first store the results in an element

table, using one of the following:

Command(s): ETABLE,VFRC,NMISC,1

GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table

You can then plot the results with an averaging operation, using one of the following:

Command(s): PLETAB,VFRC,1

GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Elem Table

However, instead of using the foregoing commands, you can use one of the following:

Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT

GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

The PLVFRC macro issues the ETABLE and PLETAB commands. When CONT = 0, PLVFRC uses contour

levels of 0.5 and 1.0 to indicate the free surface and fluid regions. When CONT = 1, it uses the current contour

settings.

You can also animate your results. To obtain an animation over a time sequence by interpolation between

time steps, use the PLVFRC command macro along with one of the following:

GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time

To produce an animation based on the time steps without interpolation, use the PLVFRC command macro

along with one of the following:

AUTOCNTRKY

GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Results

Note that if CONT = 0, the animation is based on two contour levels of 0.5 and 1.0. If CONT = 1, the animation

is based on AUTOCNTRKY setting.

6.4.1. The Problem Described

In this example, two vertical walls confine a rectangular column of stationary water. When the right wall is

removed, the water flows out onto a rigid horizontal plane. The ICE command sets the initial volume fraction

field.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST

/title, broken dam problem by the VOF solution.

/com

/com ------------------------------------------------------------------

/com ** Reference: "Part IV: An Experimental Study of the Collapse of

/com ** Liquid Columns on a Rigid Horizontal Plane"

/com ** By Martin and Moyce, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.

/com ** (London,A244, pp. 312-324, 1952.

/com ** "Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of

/com ** Free Boundaries" By C.W. Hirt and B.D. Nichols,

/com ** J. Comput. Physics, Vol. 39, pp. 201-225, 1981.

/com **

/prep7

!!!!! Define some dimensions and gravity

LX = 5.0 ! X length

LY = 2.5 ! Y length

DELX = 0.2 ! X spacing

DELY = 0.05 ! Y spacing

grav = 9.81 ! Gravity

et,1,141

!!!! meshing

rect,0,LX,0,LY

lsel,s,,,2,4,2

lesize,all,DELY

lsel,s,,,1,3,2

lesize,all,DELX

amesh,all

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6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

nsel,a,loc,x,0.0

d,all,vx,0.0

d,all,vy,0.0

nsel,r,loc,y,0.0,2.0

esln,s,1

ice,all,vfrc,1.0

ic,all,vx,0

ic,all,vy,0

save

fini

/solu

!!!! FLOTRAN input

acel,0.0,grav,0

FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0e3

FLDA,NOMI,VISC,1.0d-3

FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,T

FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,T

FLDA,SOLU,turb,F

flda,solu,vof,t

flda,time,glob,5

flda,time,numb,70

flda,time,step,0.01

flda,time,appe,0.1

flda,advm,mome,supg

flda,relx,vx,0.5

flda,relx,vy,0.5

flda,relx,pres,1.0

solve

fini

exit,nosa

6.5.1. The Problem Described

In this example, water flows in an open channel with a semicircular obstruction on the bottom. The compu-

tation uses the standard k- turbulence model since the turbulence model is not very important for the

prediction of the free-surface shape. The solution domain extends five cylinder diameters upstream and five

diameters downstream of the obstruction. The fluid starts to fill the domain at the beginning of the simulation.

The SFE and SFL commands set a wetting boundary on the left inlet.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST

/title, initial development of flow over a bump.

/com

/com ------------------------------------------------------------------

/com ** Initial development of flow over a semicircular bump

/com ** Reference: "Critical Free-Surface Flow Over a Semi-Circular

/com ** Obstruction" By L.K. Forbes, J. Eng. Math.,

/com ** vol. 22, pp. 3-13, 1998.

/com ** "Computation of free-surface flows using the

/com ** finite-volume method and moving grids",

/com ** By S. Muzaferija and M. Peric, Numerical Heat

/com ** Transfer, Part B, 32:369-384, 1997.

/com ------------------------------------------------------------------

!

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

!

! Property and parameter input

rho = 1.0e0 ! Density

grav = 9.81 ! Gravity

mu = 1.0e-6 ! Viscosity

!

R = 0.03 ! Bump radius

L = 2*R

H = 0.075 ! Inlet height

H0 = R ! Height above the Inlet

outlen = 5.0*R ! Outlet length

inlen = 5.0*R ! Inlet length

ny1 = 8 ! Number of elements in line 1

ny2 = 2 ! Number of elements in line 2

ny3 = 4 ! Number of elements in line 3

ry2 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 2

ry3 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 3

nx1 = 15 ! Number of elements in line 13

nx2 = 15 ! Number of elements in line 21

nx3 = 20 ! Number of elements in line 17

rx1 = 0.5 ! Ratio of element size in line 13

rx2 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 25

rx3 = 1.5 ! Ratio of element size in line 17

nr1 = 10 ! Number of elements in radial direction near bump

!!

/prep7

et,1,141

k,1,-inlen,0.0 ! KP 1 - 4 are at the inlet

k,2,-inlen,L

k,3,-inlen,H

k,4,-inlen,H+H0

!

l,1,2 ! Lines 1-3 are the inlet line

l,2,3

l,3,4

!

k,5,-L,0.0 ! KP 5 - 8 are before the bump

k,6,-L,L

k,7,-L,H

k,8,-L,H+H0

!

l,5,6 ! Lines 4-6 before the bump

l,6,7

l,7,8

!

k,9,L,0.0 ! KP 9 - 12 are after the bump

k,10,L,L

k,11,L,H

k,12,L,H+H0

!

l,9,10 ! Lines 7-9 after the bump

l,10,11

l,11,12

!

k,13,outlen,0.0 ! KP 13 - 16 are at the outlet

k,14,outlen,L

k,15,outlen,H

k,16,outlen,H+H0

!

l,13,14 ! Lines 10-12 at the outlet

l,14,15

l,15,16

!

l,1,5 ! Lines 13-16 are horizontal lines near inlet

l,2,6

l,3,7

l,4,8

!

l,9,13 ! Lines 17-20 are horizontal lines near outlet

l,10,14

l,11,15

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6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

l,12,16

!

l,6,10 ! Lines 21-23 are horizontal lines near the bump

l,7,11

l,8,12

!

k,17,R,0.0 ! KP 17 to 23 are for the semicircular bump

k,18,0.0,0.0

circle,18,R,,17,180,4

lcomb,25,26,0

!

l,19,9 ! Lines 26, 28-30 in radial direction near bump

l,20,10

l,22,6

l,23,5

!

!

lsel,s,,,1,4,3

lesize,all,,,ny1

!

lsel,s,,,2,11,3

lesize,all,,,ny2,ry2

!

lsel,s,,,3,12,3

lesize,all,,,ny3,ry3

!

lsel,s,,,13,16

lesize,all,,,nx1,rx1

!

lsel,s,,,21,23

lesize,all,,,nx2,1.0/rx2

lsel,s,,,25

lesize,all,,,nx2,rx2

!

lsel,s,,,17,20

lesize,all,,,nx3,rx3

!

lsel,s,,,27

lesize,all,,,ny1

!

lsel,s,,,26

lsel,a,,,28,30

lesize,all,,,nr1

!

! define the y-direction mesh

lsel,s,,,24

lsel,a,,,7

lsel,a,,,10

lesize,all,,,nx2,1.5

!

alls

! Create areas....

a,1,5,6,2 ! Inlet

a,2,6,7,3

a,3,7,8,4

a,9,13,14,10 ! Outlet

a,10,14,15,11

a,11,15,16,12

a,6,10,11,7 ! Bump

a,7,11,12,8

a,19,9,10,20

a,20,10,6,22

a,5,23,22,6

alls

amesh,all

!

! Inlet boundary condition

lsel,s,,,1,2

nsll,,1

d,all,vx,0.32

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

d,all,vy,0.0

!

nsel,s,loc,x,-inlen

nsel,r,loc,y,0.0

d,all,vx,0.001

!

! boundary volume fraction (SFL and SFE commands)

sfl,1,vfrc,1,,1

sfl,2,vfrc,1,,1

!!

!!!! The walls

lsel,s,,,13

lsel,a,,,17

lsel,a,,,24,25

lsel,a,,,27

lsel,a,,,26

lsel,a,,,30

nsll,,1

d,all,vx,0

d,all,vy,0

alls

/solu

!!!! FLOTRAN Input

acel,0.0,grav,0.0

FLDA,SOLU,VOF,ON

FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,ON

FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,ON

FLDA,SOLU,TURB,ON

FLDA,TIME,GLOB,3

FLDA,TIME,NUMB,50

FLDA,TIME,STEP,1e-2

FLDA,TIME,APPE,0.1

FLDA,TIME,PRES,1.0E-6

FLDA,ADVM,MOME,SUPG

flda,relx,vx,0.5

flda,relx,vy,0.5

flda,relx,pres,1.0

flda,prot,dens,constant ! Constant density

flda,prot,visc,constant ! Constant viscosity

flda,nomi,dens,rho ! Density set earlier

flda,nomi,visc,mu ! Viscosity set earlier

solve

fini

exit,nosa

6.6.1. The Problem Described

This example examines the interesting phenomenon of a liquid droplet oscillating in an dynamically inactive

gas. For small amplitudes, the angular frequency, , is given by the following formula from A. Prosperetti,

("Free Oscillations of Drops and Bubbles: The Initial-Value Problem," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 100, p.

333, 1980):

2 = [8 - (5 / Re) 2 ]

R F3

where is the density, is the surface tension coefficient, and RF is the radius of the drop at its equilibrium

state. Here, Re is the Reynolds number given by:

R F

Re =

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6.6.2. Results

When the oscillation is fully damped by the viscosity, the droplet takes a spherical shape and the droplet

pressure is given by:

2

Ptheory =

RF

The droplet analyzed here is initially elliptical with major and minor semiaxes of 24.69 mm and 18 mm, re-

spectively. This corresponds to a final radius of RF of 20 mm. The time increment, t, is set to 2 x 10-4 ms.

= 109 mg/(m)3

= 106 mg/(m)(ms)

= 0.073 mg/(ms)2

6.6.2. Results

Figure 6.1 (p. 76) and Figure 6.2 (p. 76) show the instantaneous pressure distributions at 0.001 ms and 0.012

ms, respectively. Rather than a pressure jump across the interface, the pressure is observed to vary smoothly

in a thin transition region near the interface. Initially, the maximum pressure occurs at the top and bottom

portion of the droplet due to a high local curvature. The resulting pressure gradient forces the fluid inward

and redirects it to the sides. As the droplet moves, the pressure starts to rise at the sides due to the increasing

local curvature. This slows down the movement of the droplet and eventually forces the fluid back inward

from the sides. The pressure distribution controls the droplet oscillation by balancing the kinetic energy and

the potential energy due to the surface tension. The simulation produces a free surface profile every 5 time

steps. The frequency is 42.6 kHz (two cycles occur in 0.047 ms). This agrees quite well with the 43.0 kHz

predicted by the Prosperetti formula. The oscillation amplitude decreases with time and damps out at 0.2

ms due to viscosity. Averaging the pressure values on interior nodes attached to only full elements gives

the numerical droplet pressure. The difference between the numerical and the analytical pressure is approx-

imately 1%. There are some noises in the velocity field near the interface due to the so-called parasitic currents

inherent in the CSF formulation.

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/title, oscillating axisymmetric drop problem by the VOF/CSF solution.

/nopr

LX = 30 ! x length in micrometer (um)

LY = 30 ! y length in micrometer (um)

RadF = 20 ! radius of the final sphere in micrometer (um)

aRad = 18 ! x radius in micrometer (um)

bRad = RadF**3/aRad**2 ! y radius in micrometer (um)

DELX = 0.1*RadF ! x spacing in micrometer (um)

DELY = 0.1*RadF ! y spacing in micrometer (um)

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6.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

APPT = DELT*5 ! append time in millisecond (ms)

NDT = 1000 ! total number of time steps

Sigm = 0.073 ! SFTS coefficient in unit of (mg)/(ms)^2

rho = 1.0e-9 ! density in unit of (mg)/(um)^3

mu = 1.0e-6 ! viscosity in unit of (mg)/(um)(ms)

pexact=2*Sigm/RadF ! theoretical pressure in equilibrium

/prep7

et,1,141,,,1 ! RY geometry

rect,0,LX,-LY,LY

lsel,s,,,2,4,2

lesize,all,DELY

lsel,s,,,1,3,2

lesize,all,DELX

amesh,all

d,all,vx,0.0

alls

icvf,elpt,0.0,0.0,aRad,bRad ! initial VFRC

ic,all,vx,0 ! initial velocity

ic,all,vy,0

save

fini

/solu

flda,solu,tran,t

flda,solu,vof,t

flda,solu,sfts,t

flda,nomi,sfts,sigm

flda,nomi,dens,rho

flda,nomi,visc,mu

flda,time,glob,10

flda,time,numb,NDT

flda,time,step,DELT

flda,advm,mome,supg

flda,mir,mome,1.0

flda,relx,pres,1.0

flda,time,appe,APPT

solve

fini

/post1

set,last

PLVFRC,0

ANDATA,0.1, ,2,1,51,1,0.0,1

set,last

*GET,VFAdvU,FLDA,VFTO,VOFU

VFAdvU=1.0-VFAdvU

alls

*get,elmmax,elem,0,count ! Get the number of elements

*get,elmi,elem,0,num,min ! Get the lowest elem number in the set

*get,vfval,elem,elmi,nmis,1 ! Get the VFRC for the element

*IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then

esel,u,,,elmi ! Remove elmi from the active set

*ENDIF

*get,elmn,elem,elmi,nxth ! Get the next higher elem number in the set

*get,vfval,elem,elmn,nmis,1 ! Get the VFRC for the element

*IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then

esel,u,,,elmn ! Remove elmn from the active set

*ELSE

elmi=elmn

*ENDIF

*enddo

nsel,u,ext ! unselect ext. nodes of prev. selected nodes

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

pavg=0.0

prms=0.0

*get,nodmax,node,0,count ! Get the number of selected nodes

*do,ilop,1,nodmax !

Loop over the number of nodes

*get,nodi,node,0,num,min ! Get the lowest node number in the set

*get,pval,node,nodi,pres ! Get the y

pavg=pavg+pval ! pressure sum

prms=prms+(pval-pexact)**2 ! pressure rms

nsel,u,,,nodi ! Remove node from the active set

*enddo

pavg=pavg/nodmax

prms=sqrt(prms/nodmax)/pexact

/go

*vwrite

(9x,'DelX/Rad ', 3x, 'PRES / Pexact ',3x,'Prms ')

*vwrite,DELX/RadF,pavg/pexact,prms

(3(4x,1pe12.5))

fini

exit,nosa

For more examples on the VOF analysis of free surface problems with surface tension, refer to G. Wang,

(Finite Element Simulations of Gas-Liquid Flows with Surface Tension, International Mechanical Engineering

Congress & Exposition, November 5-10, 2000, Orlando, Florida).

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78 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for

Moving Domains

Fluid flow problems often involve moving interfaces. The interfaces can be moving internal walls (for example,

a solid moving through a fluid), external walls, or free surfaces. In such problems, the fluid domain changes

with time and the finite element mesh must move to satisfy the boundary conditions at the moving interfaces.

You can use the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation to solve problems of this type.

Figure 7.1 (p. 79) illustrates a typical fluid flow problem requiring the ALE formulation. It involves a micro-

electromechanical system (MEMS) device with a viscous fluid between two rigid plates. Initially, the plates

are parallel and the fluid is at rest.

The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The ALE formulation allows

the fluid domain to change with time and the finite element mesh to move to satisfy the boundary conditions

at the moving plate. Figure 7.2 (p. 80) and Figure 7.3 (p. 80) show the finite element mesh at later times.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

To perform a transient analysis employing the ALE formulation, you must activate the ALE formulation and

the transient solution algorithm. To activate the ALE formulation, you use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,ALE,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

For more information on transient analyses and the transient algorithm, see FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59).

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80 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

7.1. Boundary Conditions

axis).

FLUID142, KEYOPT(3) = 0 (Cartesian coordinates). You cannot use a cylindrical coordinate system (KEYOPT(3)

= 3) with ALE.

You will need to activate KEYOPT(4) to specify boundary motions (displacement DOFs). To define the element

type, use one of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete

Real constants 18 (BDTOL) and 19 (MMFAC) are also used in an ALE analysis.

Currently, free surfaces are not a part of the ALE formulation. However, you can use the Volume of Fluid

(VOF) method in conjunction with the ALE formulation to simulate flows involving free surfaces and moving

walls. (Refer to Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses (p. 65).)

7.1. Boundary Conditions

7.2. Mesh Updating

7.3. Remeshing

7.4. Postprocessing

7.5. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror

7.6. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall

7.7. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder

Generally, either slip or stick boundary conditions apply for moving internal or external walls (See Figure

7.4 (p. 81).)

Fluid conditions for displace-

ments and velocities

Moving solid n

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

Table 7.1: Interface Boundary Conditions (p. 82) shows the required displacement and velocity specifications

for slip and stick boundary conditions.

Boundary Con- Slip[1] Stick[1]

dition

Displacement Specify normal com- Specify all displacement components for

ponent of displace- fluid nodes.

ment for fluid

nodes. That is, specify the following:

2-D 3-D

That is, specify the

following: Dn = d n Dn = d n

Dn = d n

D = d D = d 1

1

or Dx; Dy

D = d 2

2

or Dx; Dy; Dz

Velocity Inviscid Flow Viscous Flow

ponent of velocity nodes.

for fluid nodes.

That is, specify the following:

That is, specify the 2-D 3-D

following:

Vn = n Vn = n

Vn = n

V = V = 1

1

or Vx; Vy

V = 2

2

or Vx; Vy; Vz

1. The time derivative of the normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity, dDn/dt = Vn.

Slip or stick boundary conditions can apply for displacement. For velocity, slip boundary conditions apply

for inviscid flow and stick boundary conditions apply for viscous flow. In all cases, the time derivative of the

normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity. In FLOTRAN, only stick boundary conditions are

currently valid.

To set displacement or velocity boundary conditions at nodes, you can use either of the following:

Command(s): D

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or

Velocity)> On Nodes

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7.2. Mesh Updating

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On

Nodes

To set boundary conditions on the solid model, you can use any of the following:

Command(s): DL and DA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or

Velocity)> On Lines

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On

Lines

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velo-

city)> On Areas

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On

Areas

If a node is part of a distributed resistance or a fan model or part of a solid region composed of FLUID141

or FLUID142 elements, homogenous displacement boundary conditions are automatically applied (that is,

D,ALL,UX,0.0 and D,ALL,UY,0.0 for 2-D and D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY,0.0, and D,ALL,UZ,0.0 for 3-D).

You can specify partial displacement boundary conditions to make external nodes move along a global axis.

For example, D,ALL,UX,0.0 will make a set of nodes slide along the y-axis in a 2-D model. Currently, normal

and tangential components of displacement can not be specified for an external boundary.

You can also specify generalized symmetry boundary conditions. If the ALE formulation is activated, velocity

components are then set equal to the mesh velocity. To do so, use one of the following commands or the

GUI equivalent:

D,NODE,ENDS,-1

DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

The ALE formulation uses the displacement boundary conditions applied by the D, DL, and DA commands

to update the finite element mesh. It determines the displacement at the beginning of each time step relative

to the previous time step. For each time step, an elasticity based morphing algorithm updates the mesh.

The algorithm ensures that boundary layers are retained (that is, nodes in a fine mesh area move less than

nodes in a coarse mesh area).

A transient analysis cannot proceed if morphing fails. If morphing is independent of the fluid flow solution,

you can step through the morphing algorithm before doing a fluid flow analysis to determine whether

morphing will fail. To do so, issue the following command sequence:

/solu

.

.

.

fldata,solu,turb,f

fldata,solu,temp,f

fldata,solu,spec,f

fldata,solu,ale,t

fldata,solu,flow,f

solve

You cannot check for morphing failure in advance if the time step size depends on the fluid flow variables

or the problem involves a free surface.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

Pure hexahedrals, pure tetrahedrals, pure pyramids, pure wedges, or any combination for FLUID142

Sometimes mesh morphing produces poor quality elements (for example, when a fluid domain is extremely

squeezed by a moving wall). The birth and death feature can then be useful. To implement this feature, you

assign a birth/death tolerance to the candidate elements using the real constant BDTOL. A node is automat-

ically deactivated if the distance from it to the center of any element face on the wall becomes less than

the assigned BDTOL. A element is deactivated if all of its nodes are deactivated. Conversely, a node is react-

ivated if the distance from it to the center of the closest element face on the wall becomes greater than or

equal to the assigned BDTOL. A element is reactivated if all of its nodes are reactivated.

Setting the MMFAC (mesh morphing multiplier) real constant on the FLUID141 or FLUID142 elements can

affect mesh morphing. If the real constant set number defaults to zero in a third-party mesher, the default

value for the multiplier is set to 0.0. In this case, you will need to either set the real constant set number or

the MMFAC real constant explicitly if you are not satisfied with the 0.0 default value.

7.3. Remeshing

Large fluid domain changes can produce poor quality elements and mesh morphing failure. To avoid element

failure, you must remesh.

Command(s): FLDATA39,REMESH

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Remesh Ctrl

FLDATA39,REMESH will automatically remesh the fluid elements and linearly interpolate the nodal solution

from the old mesh to the new mesh. Use it to specify one of the following three ways of remeshing:

Remesh all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst defined element falls below any specified

quality requirement listed in Table 7.2: Element Qualities (p. 84).

Whole domain remeshing is suitable when the moving boundary affects all of the fluid elements (all

the fluid elements may become distorted during solution).

Remesh defined fluid elements that have a quality below any specified quality requirement.

Partial domain remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed and the location

of the distorted elements is not known before solution or it changes during solution.

Remesh all grouped fluid elements with a specified component name if the quality of the worst selected

element falls below any specified quality requirement.

Selected component remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed, but the

location of the distorted elements is known before solution and it does not change during solution.

There are three maximum allowable element qualities that you need to specify for remeshing: aspect ratio,

change of element size, and change of element aspect ratio.

Element Quality Triangles Tetrahedrons

Generalized Aspect Ratio (AR) AR = ((lavg)2 / A) / 2.3 AR = ((lavg)3 / V) / 8.48

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7.3. Remeshing

Change of Element Size (VOCH) VOCH = exp | log (A(t) / A(0)) | VOCH = exp | log (V(t) / V(0)) |

Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH) ARCH = exp | log (AR(t) / AR(0)) |

where:

A = element area

V = element volume

A(t) and V(t) = element area and volume at time t

A(0) and V(0) = element area and volume at time 0

Elements Excluded

You can exclude all elements connected to boundary nodes from remeshing. For a fluid-structure inter-

action analysis, you can exclude the elements connected to fluid-solid interfaces.

Element Size

The element remeshing size defaults to 0. The element size at the nearest boundary is then used for

remeshing.

Area Expansion or Contraction

You can size internal elements so that they are approximately the size of the boundary elements times

an expansion or contraction factor.

Checkpoints

You can specify element quality checkpoints in three ways: every time step, every Nth time step, or at

a single time point. The fluid elements will automatically remesh if any quality requirement is not met

at a checkpoint.

After each remesh, new databases and results files are written with the extensions .rfl0n and .dbn, where

n is the remesh file number (Jobname.rfl01, Jobname.rfl02, ... and Jobname.db01, Job-

name.db02,...). Use the ANMRES command to create an animation across the results files.

Note

The original database file is Jobname.db0. The Jobname.db01, Jobname.db02, ... files have

elements that are detached from the solid model.

You can use the FLOTRAN remeshing capability in a pure fluid flow analysis or a fluid-solid interaction ana-

lysis. For information on fluid-solid interaction analyses, see "Load Transfer Coupled Physics Analysis" and

"The ANSYS Multi-field (TM) Solver - MFS Single-Code Coupling" in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

Limitation Description

Elements Remeshing supports models meshed with triangular or tetrahedral

elements. It only works for element groups with one element type and

one real constant.

Area/Volume Remeshing will not work for extreme area or volume changes.

Changes

Domains 2-D problems can have multiple domains; 3-D problems require a single

domain. Do not allow two separate domains without distance (e.g.,

when solving a FSI problem with a beam or shell element, at least one

side elements connected to the beam or shell elements must be ex-

cluded from remeshing).

Loads Remeshing can treat nodal loads on the boundary, but it cannot treat

body loads applied to interior nodes. Fluid-solid interaction is the only

valid element based load.

Boundary Nodes Nodes on the boundary cannot be remeshed. Therefore, remeshing

will not work if morphing failed on surface nodes.

7.4. Postprocessing

For postprocessing, you can use the following contour and vector command sequence for the reference

domain or the current deformed domain:

set,load step,substep ! sets the set number for processing

/dscal,,1.0 ! sets the scaling for display

plns,pres,,0 ! display pressure contours on deformed domain

plve,v,,,,,,,1 ! display velocity vectors on the deformed domain

set,load step,substep ! sets the set number for processing

/dscal,,1.0 ! sets the scaling for display

pldi,2 ! display the deformed mesh overlayed with undeformed

! edges

To produce an animated sequence of the results, issue the ANTIME macro with the above commands.

Note

The displacements of non-structural elements are mesh (or grid) displacements to avoid mesh

distortion but have no physical meaning except at the interface between the fluid and the

structure.

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7.5.2. Boundary Conditions

7.5.1. The Problem Described

This is an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) analysis of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device.

The device consists of a viscous fluid between two rigid plates. Initially, the plates are parallel and the fluid

is at rest. The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The top plate os-

cillates with a very small angular amplitude.

You must determine the torque on the moving plate in order to develop a reduced order model for this

device.

Oscillating plate

= (t) Initial position of

oscillating plate

(Xo, Yo)

(at t = 0)

Ho = Yo = H H

Y

X

Fixed plate

LX

This section derives formulas for the displacement and velocity boundary conditions.

x(t) = xo + Rcos

y(t) = yo + Rsin

where:

UY(t) = y(t) y(o) = y yo

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

UX = R(cos 1)

UY = Rsin

Note

= R sin

UX = UX

= R cos

VY = UY

Note

proaches 0 faster than VY.

The command listing in Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) (p. 90) uses the above expressions

for UX, UY, VX, and VY in the boundary condition tables.

This section derives formulas for the forces and moments acting on the torsional mirror.

V = V(x,t) Dy = Dy (x,t)

p = po h = h(x,t) ho p = po

Y

X

Fixed plate

U=V=0

L Dx = Dy = 0

Assuming the flow is 2-D and neglecting inertia terms, the Navier-Stokes equation reduces to the Reynolds

equation for incompressible flow:

3 p

x h x = 6 x ( hU) + 12 V

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7.5.3. Forces and Moments

where: h = h (x,t) is the gap height and U and V are the velocity components of the moving plate.

U 0

V R

R x

Substituting these values in the Reynolds equation and assuming that U variations with x are small gives:

3 p

h x = 12 V = 12 x

x

Integrating gives:

x2 C1

p = 6

h3 dx +

h3 dx + C 2

where C1 and C2 are constants to be determined.

Substituting ho for h for small angular displacements and completing the integration gives:

6 x 3 C x

p = + 13 + C 2

h 3 3

o ho

3

2 L C L

po = + 1 2 + C2

h 3o 2 h 3o

3 C

2 L 1 L

po = - 2 - 3 2 + C2

3

ho ho

C2 = po

C1 = 2 (L/2)2

2

2 3 2 L

p = po + x - x

h 3o h 3o 2

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

2 L

2

(p - po ) = x x 2 -

h 3o 2

Thus, the force and moment on the torsional mirror are given by:

L/2

Fp =

(p - p o ) dx = 0

- L/2

L/2

1 L5

Mp =

( p - po ) xdx = -

60 h3o

- L/2

1 p

U ( x,y,t ) = y ( y - h)

2 x

U h p L

2

= = 2

3x -

y y = h 2 x h o2 2

L/2

U

Fs =

y y = h

dx = 0

- L/2

L/2

U

Ms =

y y = h

xdx = 0

- L/2

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment. Please refer to Figure 7.5 (p. 87).

/BATCH,LIST

/tit,Torque Mirror Problem

/nopr

LX = 1.0 ! Plate Length in X direction

NDX = 40 ! Number of X divisions

H = 0.01 ! Gap in Y-direction

NDY = 10 ! Number of Y divisions

POUT = 0.0 ! Outlet relative pressure

RHO = 1.0000 ! Fluid density

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7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

nts = 40 ! number of time steps

time = 10. ! total simulation time

delta = time/nts ! time step size

appf = delta ! append results every time step

*AFUN,RAD ! angles are in radians

AMAX = (2*H/LX)/8 ! adjust angular amplitude << 1

OMEGA = 2*3.14159/time ! complete 1 cycle in given time

X0 = LX/2 ! pivot point x-coord

Y0 = H ! pivot point y-coord

H0 = H

! use function builder/tables (refer to "Using the Function Tool" in the Basic Analysis Guide)

*DIM,UXTAB,TABLE,6,4,1

UXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0

UXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 ! Radius = XR - X0

UXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)

UXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1 ! Radius*cos(Angle)

UXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-3 , 2 ,-1 ! Radius*cos(Angle)-Radius

*DIM,UYTAB,TABLE,6,3,1

UYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0

UYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 ! Radius = XR - X0

UYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)

UYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,99 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1 ! Radius*sin(Angle)

*DIM,VXTAB,TABLE,6,5,1

VXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0

VXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0,-1.0 , 27 , 1 , 17 ! -Radius = -(XR-X0)

VXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)

VXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19 ! Angle speed=

! amax*omega*cos(omega*t)

VXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1 ! -Radius*sin(angle)

VXTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !-Radius*sin(angle)*angle speed

*DIM,VYTAB,TABLE,6,5,1

VYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0

VYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 !Radius = XR - X0

VYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 !Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)

VYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19 !Angle speed=

!amax*omega*cos(omega*t)

VYTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1 !Radius*cos(angle)

VYTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !Radius*cos(angle)*angle speed

/PREP7 $smrt,off

et,1,141 ! 2-D XY system

keyopt,1,4,1 ! allow disp. DOFs

esha,2 ! Quad elements

rect,,LX,,H

lesize,1,,,NDX,

lesize,3,,,NDX,

lesize,2,,,NDY,-10

lesize,4,,,NDY,-10

alls

amesh,all

nsll,s,1

d,all,VX,%VXTAB%

d,all,VY,%VYTAB%

d,all,enke,-1

d,all,ux,%UXTAB%

d,all,uy,%UYTAB%

lsel,a,,,4

nsll,s,1

d,all,pres,POUT

nsll,s,1

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

d,all,vx,

d,all,vy,

d,all,ux,0.0

d,all,uy,0.0

alls

fini

/SOLU

FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO ! Nominal density

FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU ! Nominal viscosity

FLDA,OUTP,TAUW,T ! Output wall shear stress

flda,quad,momd,2 ! increased quadrature for deformed

flda,quad,moma,2 ! elements

flda,quad,moms,2

flda,quad,prsd,2

flda,quad,pres,2

flda,solu,tran,t

flda,time,step,delta

flda,time,numb,nts

flda,time,tend,time

flda,time,glob,25

flda,time,appe,appf

flda,solu,ale,t ! Turn ALE on

save

SOLVE

fini

/post1

!moving wall

*dim,RES1,,NDX+1,15

*do,j,1,nts,1 ! loop over the time steps

rsys,0

csys,0

set,1,j ! get the results of step j

*get,curtime,active,0,set,time ! get the time of this substep

theta = amax*sin(omega*curtime) ! get the plate angle

thetad = amax*omega*cos(omega*curtime) ! get plate angular speed

nsel,s,loc,y,H ! select moving wall nodes

*do,i,1,NDX+1 ! loop over these nodes

*get,XMAX,node,,mxloc,x

n = node(XMAX,H,0)

RES1(i,1) = n ! Node number

RES1(i,2) = NX(n) ! X-coordinate

RES1(i,3) = NY(n) ! Y-coordinate

RES1(i,4) = UX(n) ! UX

Rn = NX(n)-X0

RES1(i,10) = Rn*(cos(theta)-1.0) ! UX exact

RES1(i,5) = UY(n) ! UY

RES1(i,11) = Rn*sin(theta) ! UY exact

RES1(i,6) = VX(n) ! VX

RES1(i,12) = -Rn*sin(theta)*thetad ! VX exact

RES1(i,7) = VY(n) ! VY

RES1(i,13) = Rn*cos(theta)*thetad ! VY exact

RES1(i,8) = PRES(n) ! Pressure

c1 = 2.0*MU*thetad/H0**3

c2 = NX(n) - X0

RES1(i,14) = c1*(c2**3 - c2*(LX/2)**2) ! Exact Pressure

*get,RES1(i,9),node,n,TAUW ! Shear stress

c0 = NX(n) - X0

c1 = H0 + theta*c0

c2 = 3*c0**2 - (LX/2)**2

RES1(i,15) = ABS(c1*mu*thetad*c2/H0**3) ! Exact shear stress

nsel,u,,,n

*enddo

/com Compare disps/velocities/pressures/shears on moving wall(X,H,0)

/com

*status,curtime

*status,theta

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UX (Exact)')

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7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,4),RES1(1,10)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UY (Exact)')

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,5),RES1(1,11)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VX (Exact)')

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,6),RES1(1,12)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VY (Exact)')

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,7),RES1(1,13)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'PRE (FLOTRAN)',5x,'PRE (Exact)')

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,8),RES1(1,14)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

*vwrite

(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'TAU (FLOTRAN)',5x,'TAU (Exact)')

*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,9),RES1(1,15)

(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))

/com

nsel,s,loc,y,H ! select nodes on moving plate

local,11,0,X0,Y0,0 ! setup local coord system for moment calcs

rsys,11

/com compute pressure force/moments on the wall

intsrf,pres

*get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx

*get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy

*get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz

*get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx

*get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my

*get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz

*status,forcex

*status,forcey ! should be zero

*status,forcez

*status,momx

*status,momy

*status,momz ! Flotran

Moment = -0.0166*mu*thetad*LX**5/H0**3 ! Exact

*status,moment

/com compute shear force/moments on the wall should be zero

intsrf,tauw

*get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx

*get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy

*get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz

*get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx

*get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my

*get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz

*status,forcex ! should be zero

*status,forcey

*status,forcez

*status,momx

*status,momy

*status,momz ! should be zero

*enddo

fini

/exit,nosa

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

7.6.1. The Problem Described

This problem involves a moving wall and a free surface. A square vessel is half filled with liquid and at t =

0 the left wall begins to move to the right. The wall stops moving after a short time and the fluid comes to

rest gradually. The total analysis time is 2 seconds. The left wall comes to rest at 0.125 * (time) = 0.125*(2

seconds) = 0.25 seconds. The left wall displacement and velocity are input as tabular boundary conditions

(see Figure 7.8 (p. 95)). The simulation uses the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in conjunction with the ALE

formulation.

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LX

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Left

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Left

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Wall Free Surface

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Moving Free Surface

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Stationary xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Stationary

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Wall

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Wall xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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H xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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Liquid

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= 1.0

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Liquid

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= 1.0

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LX xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

LXF

t=0 t = 0.125 * Time

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Free Surface

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Solution

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t = Time

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94 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

7.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

UX

LX-LXF

t

VX

~ 10 -6

(LX-LXF)

0.125 * Time

t

7.6.2. Results

The initial fluid volume is 1/2 H times LX. Since H and LX are both equal to 1, the initial fluid volume is

0.500000000. The calculated final fluid volume is 0.499999673.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST

/title,ALE-VOF combination - container with moving wall & free surface

/nopr

LX = 1.0 ! Initial width in X direction

NDX = 10 ! Number of X divisions

H = 1.0 ! Height of container

NDY = 10 ! Number of Y divisions

RHO = 1.0000 ! Fluid density

MU = 1.00 ! Fluid viscosity

LXF = 0.750 ! Final X-Length

time = 2. ! Total simulation time

nts = 200 ! Total number of time steps

delta = time/nts ! Time step size

appf = delta ! Results append frequency

VEL = (LX-LXF)/(0.125*time) ! left wall moves for 12.5% of

! simulation time with velocity VEL

timutab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,time

timutab(1,1)=0,(LX-LXF),(LX-LXF)

*dim,timvtab,table,4,,,time ! left wall fluid velocity history

timvtab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,0.125*time+0.000001,time

timvtab(1,1)=VEL,VEL,1.e-12,1.e-12

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

/PREP7 $smrt,off

et,1,141 ! 2-D XY system

keyopt,1,4,1 ! enable disp DOFs

esha,2 ! Quad elements

rect,,LX,,H

lesize,1,,,NDX,-10

lesize,3,,,NDX,-10

lesize,2,,,NDY,

lesize,4,,,NDY,

alls

amesh,all

nsll,s,1

d,all,VX,%timvtab%

d,all,VY,

d,all,enke,-1

d,all,ux,%timutab%

d,all,uy,0.0

nsll,s,1

d,all,vx

d,all,vy

nsll,s,1

d,all,vx

d,all,vy

nsll,s,1

d,all,vx,

d,all,vy,

d,all,ux,0.0

d,all,uy,0.0

alls

esln,s,1

ice,all,vfrc,1.0 ! apply vof initial conditions

allsel

fini

/SOLU

FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO ! Nominal density

FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU ! Nominal viscosity

acel,,9.8 ! Apply gravity loading

flda,step,sumf,1

flda,solu,tran,t

flda,time,step,delta

flda,time,numb,nts

flda,time,tend,time

flda,time,glob,25

flda,time,appe,appf

flda,solu,ale,t ! Ale on

flda,solu,vof,t ! Vof on

save

SOLVE

fini

/post1

set,last

fvol = 0. ! initialize volume to zero

*do,i,1,NDX*NDY ! loop over elements

n1 = nelem(i,1) ! 4 nodes of this element

n2 = nelem(i,2)

n3 = nelem(i,3)

n4 = nelem(i,4)

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96 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

7.7.1.The Problem Described

y1 = ny(n1)+uy(n1)

x2 = nx(n2)+ux(n2)

y2 = ny(n2)+uy(n2)

x3 = nx(n3)+ux(n3)

y3 = ny(n3)+uy(n3)

x4 = nx(n4)+ux(n4)

y4 = ny(n4)+uy(n4)

evol1 = x1*y2+y1*x3+y3*x2 ! compute volume of triangle 123

evol1 = evol1-y2*x3-y1*x2-x1*y3

evol1 = abs(0.5*evol1) ! first triangle volume

evol2 = x1*y4+y1*x3+y3*x4 ! compute volume of triangle 143

evol2 = evol2-y4*x3-y1*x4-x1*y3

evol2 = abs(0.5*evol2) ! second triangle volume

*get,frac,elem,i,nmisc,1 ! get VOF of this quad

fvol = fvol + (evol1+evol2)*frac!increment the total fluid volume

*enddo

*status,fvol ! print the final fluid volume

target = 0.5*H*LX

*status,target ! print the expected fluid volume

/com

fini

/exit,nosa

7.7.1. The Problem Described

This problem involves a cylinder passing through a channel with a constant velocity VX = 1.0. FLUID141 tri-

angle elements model the fluid. The simulation uses the ALE formulation and remeshing.

FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value specifies the quality requirements shown in the following table.

Element Quality FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value Command

Aspect Ratio (AR) FLDATA39,REMESH,ARMA,5.0

Change of Element Size (VOCH) FLDATA39,REMESH,VOCH,3.0

Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH) FLDATA39,REMESH,ARCH,3.0

FLDATA39,REMESH,ELEM,ALL sets the remeshing to all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst

defined element falls below any quality requirement. The total analysis time is 44 seconds.

UX = 0

UY = 0 UX = 0

VX = 0 UY = 0

VY = 0 UX = 0, UY = 0, VY = 0 P=0

VX = 1.0 5

UX = t

5

y = 1.0 5

= 1.0

x UX = 0, UY = 0, VY = 0

12.5 47.5

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

7.7.2. Results

The ten results files are file.rfl01 through file.rfl10. They were created when one of the remeshing criteria

were met. The following figures display the remeshed elements at 0, 22, and 44 seconds.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced

with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/batch,list

/verify,dv-1101c

/title, dv-1101c, Flotran Remeshing: Cylinder pass through a channel

/COM,****************************************************

/COM,* Cylinder pass through a channel (pure fluid flow)

/COM,* Verify partial domain re-meshing

/COM,****************************************************

r1 = 2.5

l1 = 5.0

l2= 20.0

l3=60.0

h = 10.0

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7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

rx0= l1+(l2-l1)/2.0

ry0 = h/2.0

nl1 = 5

nl3 = 10

nr=8

nc=8

/PREP7

*DEL,_FNCNAME

*DEL,_FNCMTID

*DEL,_FNC_C1

*SET,_FNCNAME,'DIS'

*DIM,_FNC_C1,,1

*SET,_FNC_C1(1),1.0

! /INPUT,force.func

*DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,3,1

!

! Begin of equation: a*{TIME}

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1), 0.0, -999

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1), 0.0

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1), %_FNC_C1(1)%

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1), 0.0

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1), 0.0

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1), 0.0

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1), 1.0, -1, 0, 1, 17, 3, 1

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1), 0.0, 99, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0

*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1), 0

! End of equation: a*{TIME}

!-->

RECTNG,0,l1,0,h,

RECTNG,l1,l2,0,h,

RECTNG,l2,l3,0,h,

aglue,all

CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,45,r1,135

CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,135,r1,225

CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,225,r1,315

CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,315,r1,405

asel,s,,,2

asel,a,,,3

asel,a,,,6

asel,a,,,7

allsel,below,area

aglue,all

allsel

FLST,3,4,5,ORDE,3

FITEM,3,2

FITEM,3,8

FITEM,3,-10

ASBA, 4,P51X

aplot

et,1,141

KEYOPT,1,4,1

type,1

mat,1

asel,s,,,1

esize,.5

mshape,1,2d

mshkey,0

amesh,all

et,2,141

KEYOPT,2,4,1

type,2

mat,1

asel,s,,,3

esize,.5

mshape,1,2d

mshkey,0

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

amesh,all

et,3,141

KEYOPT,3,4,1

type,3

mat,1

asel,s,,,5

esize,2.0

mshape,1,2d

mshkey,0

amesh,all

nsel,s,loc,x,0

D,ALL,VX,0.0,

D,ALL,VY, 0.0

D,ALL,UX,0.0,

D,ALL,UY, 0.0

nsel,s,loc,x,l3

D,ALL,pres,0.0

D,ALL,UX,0.0,

D,ALL,UY, 0.0

nsel,s,loc,y,0

D,ALL,vy,0.0

D,ALL,UX,0.0,

D,ALL,UY, 0.0

nsel,s,loc,y,h

D,ALL,vy,0.0

D,ALL,UX,0.0,

D,ALL,UY,0.0,

lsel,s,,,5

lsel,a,,,23

lsel,a,,,25

lsel,a,,,27

nsll,s,1

d,all,UX,%DIS%

d,all,UY,0.0

d,all,VX,1.0

d,all,VY,0.0

allsel

cdwrite,db,fluid,cdb,

fini

! Flotran Setup

/solu

FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMD,2,

FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMS,2,

FLDATA30,QUAD,PRSD,2,

FLDATA30,QUAD,PRES,2,

FLDATA30,QUAD,THRD,0,

FLDATA30,QUAD,THRS,0,

FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBD,0,

FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBS,2,

/solu

FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,100000,

FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,44.0,

FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,1

FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,1

!FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,1

FLDATA2,TIME,GLOB,5

FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CONSTANT

FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.0

FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CONSTANT

FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.0

!FLDA,BULK,BETA,1.0e5

FLDA,TIME,STEP, 2.0

!

!!! Newmark method

!

FLDATA,OUTP,TAUW,T

FLDATA,TIME,METH,NEWM

FLDATA,TIME,DELT,0.5

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7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

!

!! Set ANSYS-STRUCTURE commands

SAVE

/COM

/COM Re-meshing Commands

/COM

FLDATA,REMESH,ELEM,ALL ! all defined element re-meshing

FLDATA,REMESH,ARMA,10.0 ! maximum aspect ratio

FLDATA,REMESH,VOCH,5.0 ! maximum volume change

FLDATA,REMESH,ARCH,5.0 ! maximum aspect ratio change

SOLVE

SAVE

finish

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

As is true with turbulence, activating the compressible algorithm is at your discretion. You should activate

turbulence for virtually all compressible analyses, (although in principle the Reynolds number can be in the

laminar range for high Mach numbers). Differences in results (pressure, density, velocity distributions) between

the incompressible and compressible algorithms can exist at Mach numbers as low as 0.3, and are quite

pronounced when the Mach number is as high as 0.7.

The speed of sound is a function of the equation of state of the fluid and its absolute temperature. For a

constant density fluid, the speed of sound is infinite. For an ideal gas, regardless of whether the incompressible

or compressible solution algorithm is used, the relationship is:

C= RT

is the ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv)

T is the absolute temperature

For 2-D compressible analyses, meshes using quadrilateral elements are highly recommended. Hexagonal

elements are recommended for 3-D cases. For more information, see Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh (p. 105).

8.1. Property Calculations

8.2. Boundary Conditions

8.3. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh

8.4. Solution Strategies

8.5. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis

8.6. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method)

8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)

The compressible algorithm takes into account the kinetic energy changes of the fluid as it accelerates. The

formulation is in terms of the total temperature.

In an adiabatic analysis, the total temperature remains constant throughout the problem domain. You specify

the temperature using either of the following methods:

Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,TTOT,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

The conservation of energy is then a balance between thermal storage (static temperature) and kinetic energy.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

The total (stagnation) temperature is the temperature of the fluid after it has been brought isentropically

to a zero velocity. Typically, you choose the conditions at the inlet. Knowledge of the static temperature

and the velocity magnitude |V| at the inlet enables you to calculate the total temperature via the following

equation,

V2

To = Tstatic +

2Cp

This relationship is sometimes useful when cast in terms of the Mach number (M):

1 2

To = T (1 + M )

2

You must specify the specific heat and the ratio of specific heats . (To enter this ratio, use one of the follow-

ing:)

Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

The ANSYS program uses the resulting static temperature and the absolute pressure to calculate the density

from the equation of state.

Note

Unlike incompressible analyses, where freezing the density calculation for the early global iterations

can be an advantage, compressible analyses automatically involve the variable density option.

Another difference between these types of analysis is that for compressible analyses, initial

properties are calculated from the calculated static temperature, not from the nominal temperature.

Typically, you will know the Mach number or the velocity or the mass flow along with the static temperature

for the inlet. Knowing the velocity or Mach number enables you, using the above equations, to calculate of

the appropriate total temperature. If you know only the mass flow rate, you can approximate the pressure

at the inlet by the reference pressure and use it with the equation of state to approximate the inlet density

and thus the velocity.

For subsonic problems, the boundary condition strategy is similar to that used for incompressible flow

problems, that is, velocity or pressure at the inlet and pressure at the outlet. For supersonic problems,

however, the nature of the equations changes and the effects of downstream boundary conditions cannot

propagate upstream. It is common in such cases to apply both pressure and velocity to upstream locations.

Leave the downstream boundary unspecified.

Free stream conditions are often applied as far field boundary conditions for external flow problems. Often

specification of pressure at these boundaries helps. However, as the solution develops, phenomena such as

shock waves propagate to these boundaries. In this case, you should remove the boundary conditions.

Failure to do so could adversely affect the resultant mass balance. Also, if the boundary is too close to the

region of interest (e.g. the airfoil the flow is moving past), the velocity solution near the boundary will tend

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8.4. Solution Strategies

to be greater than the free stream velocity. In such cases, a better choice for the velocity boundary conditions

is the symmetry condition (only specify the velocity normal to the boundary as zero).

If the problem is thermal, ANSYS takes all of the applied boundary conditions to be total temperature, not

static temperature. Conversely, if a problem is adiabatic, thermal boundary conditions are ignored.

If you use a thermal incompressible solution as a starting point for a thermal compressible problem, you

must change the boundary conditions so that they are specified in terms of total temperature.

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, for 2-D compressible flow problems, quadrilateral mesh is the

best to use. Consider Figure 8.1 (p. 105):

(a) Quadrilateral mesh, (b) Triangular mesh with a random pattern, (c) Triangular mesh with

a symmetrical pattern

In 2-D compressible analyses, mesh (a), the quadrilateral mesh, produces the most accurate results. Mesh

(b) yields 2-D, not 1-D results, and mesh (c) yields 1-D results.

Similarly, in a 3-D compressible analysis, a hexagonal mesh (the equivalent of quadrilateral mesh in 2-D)

produces the best results. A tetrahedral mesh with a random pattern (the 3-D equivalent of mesh (b)) yields

only 3-D results, not 1-D. And a tetrahedral symmetric mesh, the 3-D equivalent of mesh (c), gives you 1-D

results.

You must solve compressible analyses as pseudo-transient or transient problems. This is due to the non-el-

liptic nature of supersonic problems. The pseudo-transient approach is quite adequate when the time-history

of the developing transient is not of interest. In that approach, you apply inertial relaxation to the pressure

equation (see Inertial Relaxation (p. 106)).

For an ideal gas, the density is always calculated from an equation of state involving the absolute pressure

and the absolute temperature. Because of this, you must prevent negative values of absolute pressure and

absolute static temperature from being encountered during the iterative process, as these would lead to a

negative density. One way to do this is to use a converged incompressible solution as a starting point. An-

other way is to use capping to specify a minimum FLOTRAN (relative) pressure. For example, to keep the

absolute pressure at a minimum of 1 psi, you would cap the relative pressure at -13.7 psi for a reference

pressure of 14.7 psi. Capping is not a stability control and by itself it will not control the solution progression.

It only helps prevent negative properties.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

Artificial viscosity helps to prevent negative temperatures. You set it at the beginning of the analysis, and

must reduce it slowly for subsequent continuations of the analysis. You will probably encounter divergence

if you increase the viscosity between runs. The magnitude of the artificial viscosity required can vary greatly.

The smaller the starting value, the fewer the global iterations required. But if it is not large enough, you may

encounter negative static temperatures. You can use the laminar and effective viscosities to gauge a good

starting value. It is typically a couple orders of magnitude higher than the effective viscosity, which in turn

is initialized as a multiple of the laminar value. Generally, a value 3 or 4 orders of magnitude higher than

the laminar viscosity is a good approximate starting point.

In a compressible problem, the final answer would be a function of the artificial viscosity if it were not re-

moved. Therefore, after stability has been achieved, gradually remove the artificial viscosity during repeated

analysis continuations.

Inertial relaxation helps to stabilize a solution by increasing the magnitude of the main diagonal of the

matrix equation along with a corresponding increase in the forcing function. Values used are generally

between 1.0 x 10-3 (less relaxation) and 1.0 x 10-6 (more relaxation) for pressure. The smaller values provide

more diagonal dominance and thus equation stability. The cost of this is slower convergence since it de-

emphasizes the influence of the cross-coupling terms present in the equations.

Unlike artificial viscosity, the inertial relaxation does not affect the answer if the problem is converged and

thus does not have to be removed. It is best to reduce the magnitude to the range of 1 x 10-4 later in the

analysis. You can measure the effectiveness of the relaxation by observing the performance of the parameter

RTR in the Jobname.DBG file.

All the techniques discussed so far involve the steady state algorithm. It is common for supersonic problems,

even if they are posed as steady state to be solved with the transient algorithm. An initial velocity field can

be imposed as a first guess. The inertial relaxation acts similarly to the transient algorithm and its use is

considered redundant in transient analyses. Do note that problems involving moving shocks may lead to

inaccurate solutions when using the transient algorithm. With the current set of governing partial differential

equations and the discretization techniques used, the transient algorithm has demonstrated solutions that

are qualitatively correct but may yield quantitatively inaccurate results.

8.5.1. The Example Described

This example evaluates compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle. The nozzle is axisymmetric with

inlet, throat, and outlet radii of 2.432 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.80 cm, respectively. The nozzle inlet pressure is given

as 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2.

The analysis uses density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat properties for air in units of cm-

g-sec.

The compressible flow analysis is a turbulent analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D Fluid-Thermal element.

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Step 3: Create Keypoints

The analysis assumes atmospheric pressure conditions at the outlet. It assumes a stagnation temperature

of 550 K.

Inlet and outlet pressure boundary conditions are set to 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2 and 0, respectively. The VY

velocity component is set to 0 along the axis of symmetry and the VX and VY velocity components are set

to 0 along the outer surface.

The analysis starts with 20 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 10. It then continues for 20 iterations at arti-

ficial viscosity values of 1, .1, .01, .001, .0001, and .00001 to give a total of 140 iterations. The analysis then

continues for another 160 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 0. After 300 iterations of slowly reducing the

viscosity to 0, the analysis continues for 100 iterations with increased momentum and pressure inertial relax-

ation factors. Finally, the analysis converges to a final solution with the momentum and pressure inertial

relaxation factors increased to higher values for 400 iterations.

You perform the following steps to analyze the converging diverging nozzle using the GUI Method.

1. Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

2. Enter the text "Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle."

3. Click on OK.

4. Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5. Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On."

6. Click on OK.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box

appears.

2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3. In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) "FLOTRAN CFD" and "2D FLOTRAN 141."

4. Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

5. Click on Close.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. The Create Key-

points in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears.

2. In the "Keypoint number (NPT)" field enter 1 and in the "Location in active CS (X and Y)" fields enter

0 and 2.432, respectively. Click on Apply.

3. Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers and (X, Y) locations: 2 (0, 0),

3 (1, 2.432), 4 (1, 0), 5 (2, 2.232), 6 (2, 0), 7 (5, 0), 8 (5, 0.7), 9 (6, 0), 10 (6, 0.5), 11 (14, 0), 12 (14, 0.8).

After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

4. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

1. Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.

2. Click the button for "Line Numbers (LINE)" to "On" and click OK.

3. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines

in Active Coord picking menu appears.

4. Pick the keypoint numbers 2 and 4 and click on Apply.

5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the following sets of keypoint numbers: 3 and 4; 1 and 3; 1 and 2; and 5 and

8. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

6. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line

Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears.

7. Pick line number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

8. Pick keypoint number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

9. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

10. Pick keypoint number 5 and click on OK.

11. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines

in Active Coord picking menu appears.

12. Pick the keypoint numbers 10 and 12 and click on OK.

13. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line

Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears.

14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

15. Pick keypoint number 8 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

16. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

17. Pick keypoint number 10 and click on OK.

18. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines

in Active Coord picking menu appears.

19. Pick the keypoint numbers 4 and 6 and click on Apply.

20. Enter the following sets of keypoint number by repeating steps 18 and 19: 6 and 7; 7 and 9; and 9

and 11. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Arbitrary> Through KPs. The Create

Area thru KPs picking menu appears.

2. Pick the keypoint numbers (2, 4, 3, 1) and click on Apply.

3. Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers: (4, 6, 5, 3), (6, 7, 8, 5), (7, 9,

10, 8), and (9, 11, 12, 10). After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on

OK.

4. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

1. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.

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Step 7: Mesh the Model

2. Type in the parameter values shown below. (Press ENTER after entering each value.)

ntran = 24

rtran = 10

na = 10

nb = 10

nc = 25

nd = 10

ne = 100

re = -1.5

3. Click on Close to close the dialog box.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines. The Element Size

on Picked Lines picking menu appears.

2. Pick line number 4 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

3. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

rtran. Click on Apply.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for line number 2.

5. Pick line number 13 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

6. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

1/rtran. Click on Apply.

7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for line numbers 14, 15, and 16.

8. Pick line number 1 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

9. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter na, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

1. Click on Apply.

10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for line number 3.

11. Pick line number 6 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

12. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nb, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

1. Click on Apply.

13. Repeat steps 11 and 12 for line number 9.

14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

15. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nc, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

1. Click on Apply.

16. Repeat steps 14 and 15 for line number 10.

17. Pick line number 8 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

18. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nd, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

1. Click Apply.

19. Repeat steps 17 and 18 for line number 11.

20. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

21. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ne, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter

re. Click on Apply.

22. Repeat steps 20 and 21 for line number 12 but this time click OK.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. A picking

menu appears.

24. Click on Pick All. The meshed model appears.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers

dialog box appears.

2. Select Nodes as the "Item to be compressed" and click on Apply.

3. Select Elements as the "Item to be compressed" and click on OK.

1. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on OK. A Select Lines picking menu appears.

3. Choose Utility Menu> Plot>Lines.

4. Pick lines 1, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and click on OK.

5. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

6. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.

7. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes.

The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.

8. Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.

9. In the "Velocity component (VY)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

11. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines

picking menu appears.

12. Pick line number 4 and click on OK.

13. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

14. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.

15. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On

Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.

16. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears.

17. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 6.13769e+6, and click on OK.

18. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities.

19. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines

picking menu appears.

20. Pick line numbers 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 and click on OK.

21. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities.

22. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.

23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes.

The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.

24. Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.

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Step 12: Set Solution Options and CFD Solver Controls

25. In the "Velocity component (VX)" field and in the "Velocity component (VY)" enter 0, and click on OK.

26. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

27. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," click on the Sele All button, and then click on OK. The Select Lines

picking menu appears.

28. Pick line number 16 and click on OK.

29. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

30. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.

31. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On

Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.

32. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears.

33. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

1. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

2. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid Properties dialog

box appears.

3. Set the "Density (DENS)," "Viscosity (VISC)," "Conductivity (COND)," and "Specific heat (SPHT)" fields to

AIR-CM.

4. Set the "Allow density variations?" field to yes.

5. Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears.

6. Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, and click on OK.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions. The

Reference Conditions dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Reference pressure (REFE)" field to 1.01325e+6 and the "Nominal temperature (NOMI)" and

"Stagnation (total) temperature (TTOT)" fields to 550, and then click on OK.

1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN Solution

Options dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Laminar or turbulent (TURB)" field to Turbulent and the "Incompress or compress (COMP)"

field to Compressible. Click OK.

3. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver CFD. The

PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears.

4. Choose Precond conj res.

5. Click on OK. The Semi Direct Solver Options for Pressure dialog box appears.

6. In the "Convergence criterion" field, enter 1.e-12, and click on OK.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

1. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation. The Property

Relaxation dialog box appears.

2. Set the "Density relaxation" field to 1.0 and click on OK.

3. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization. The Modified

Inertial Relaxation (MIR) dialog box appears.

4. Set the MIR values for the momentum and turbulence equations to 0.2

5. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability

Parameters dialog box appears.

6. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1.0, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-4, and the "Artificial viscosity"

field to 10, and then click on OK.

7. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings

dialog box appears.

8. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 20 and click on OK.

9. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

10. After 20 iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution>

FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears.

11. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 1 and click on OK.

12. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

13. Repeat the previous 3 substeps and continue to reduce the "Artificial viscosity" to .1, .01, .001, .0001,

and .00001.

14. After 140 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>

Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box

appears.

15. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 0 and click on OK.

16. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings

dialog box appears.

17. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 160 and click on OK.

18. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

19. After 300 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>

Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box

appears.

20. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 10, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-2, and then click on OK.

21. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings

dialog box appears.

22. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 100 and click on OK.

23. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

24. After 400 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>

Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box

appears.

25. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1e+15, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e+15, and then click on OK.

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8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)

26. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings

dialog box appears.

27. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 400 and click on OK.

28. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. When the Solution is done message appears, close

it.

29. Click QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click OK.

You issue the following ANSYS commands to perform a compressible flow analysis of the converging diverging

nozzle. Text preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/title, Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle

/prep7

!

! Assign Element Type

!

et,1,141

!

! Create the Model Geometry

!

/pnum,line,1

k,1,0,2.432

k,2,0,0

k,3,1,2.432

k,4,1,0

k,5,2,2.232

k,6,2,0

k,7,5,0

k,8,5,.7

k,9,6,0

k,10,6,.5

k,11,14,0

k,12,14,.8

l,2,4

l,3,4

l,1,3

l,1,2

l,5,8

l2tan,3,5

l,10,12

l2tan,5,7

l,4,6

l,6,7

l,7,9

l,9,11

a,2,4,3,1

a,4,6,5,3

a,6,7,8,5

a,7,9,10,8

a,9,11,12,10

!

! !Mesh the Model and Compress Numbers

!

ntran=24

rtran=10

na=10

nb=10

nc=25

nd=10

ne=100

re=-1.5

lesize,4,,,ntran,rtran

lesize,2,,,ntran,rtran

lesize,13,,,ntran,1/rtran

lesize,14,,,ntran,1/rtran

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

lesize,15,,,ntran,1/rtran

lesize,16,,,ntran,1/rtran

lesize,1,,,na

lesize,3,,,na

lesize,6,,,nb

lesize,9,,,nb

lesize,5,,,nc

lesize,10,,,nc

lesize,8,,,nd

lesize,11,,,nd

lesize,7,,,ne,re

lesize,12,,,ne,re

amesh,all

numcmp,node

numcmp,elem

!

! Apply Boundary Conditions

!

lsel,s,,,1

lsel,a,,,9,12,1

nsll,,1

d,all,vy,0

lsel,all

lsel,s,,,4

nsll,,1

d,all,pres,6.13769e+6

lsel,all

lsel,s,,,3

lsel,a,,,5,8,1

nsll,,1

d,all,vx,0

d,all,vy,0

lsel,all

lsel,s,,,16

nsll,,1

d,all,pres,0

!

! Set Fluid Properties

!

alls

/solu

flda,prot,dens,air-cm

flda,prot,visc,air-cm

flda,prot,cond,air-cm

flda,prot,spht,air-cm

flda,vary,dens,t

!

! Set Flow Environment Parameters

!

flda,pres,refe,1.01325e+6

flda,temp,ttot,550

flda,temp,nomi,550

!

! Set Solution Options and CFD Solver Controls

!

flda,solu,turb,t

flda,solu,comp,t

flda,meth,pres,3

flda,conv,pres,1e-12

!

! Solve

!

flda,relx,dens,1

flda,mir,mome,0.2

flda,mir,turb,0.2

flda,stab,mome,1

flda,stab,pres,1e-4

flda,stab,visc,10

flda,iter,exec,20

solve

flda,stab,visc,1

solve

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8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)

flda,stab,visc,.1

solve

flda,stab,visc,.01

solve

flda,stab,visc,.001

solve

flda,stab,visc,.0001

solve

flda,stab,visc,.00001

solve

flda,stab,visc,0

flda,iter,exec,160

solve

flda,stab,mome,10

flda,stab,pres,1e-2

flda,iter,exec,100

solve

flda,stab,mome,1e+15

flda,stab,pres,1e+15

flda,iter,exec,400

solve

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

Every flow analysis requires the fluid properties density and viscosity. Thermal analyses, in addition, require

the fluid's thermal conductivity as well as specific heat. Volume of Fluid (VOF) analyses, in addition, might

require the fluid properties surface tension coefficient and wall static contact angle. You specify fluid prop-

erties using one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

The command shown above simply sets the fluid property type. After choosing the property type, you may

have to set values.

To specify non-fluid properties (density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity), use one of the following:

Command(s): MP

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Density

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Specific Heat

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Conductivity> Isotropic

Main Menu> Solution> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial

Non-fluid thermal conductivities can vary with temperature. Orthotropic variation of non-fluid thermal con-

ductivity also is supported. For further information, see the descriptions of the MP and MPDATA commands,

and related commands.

ANSYS provides no default values for density or viscosity properties. This prevents default properties from

putting the analysis into an unexpected flow regime.

A value of -1 will appear in the user interface for properties that must be set. If you submit an analysis

without setting these properties, an error message results and you will be reminded that you must specify

properties.

9.1. Fluid Property Types

9.2. Initializing and Varying Properties

9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database

9.4. Using Reference Properties

9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities

9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines

A "fluid property type" defines how the particular fluid property will vary with temperature (and pressure,

in the case of density for a gas). You choose the fluid property type separately for density, viscosity, thermal

conductivity, specific heat, surface tension coefficient, and wall static contact angle.

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

You must use a consistent set of units for all the data that you enter. All thermal quantities must have the

same energy unit as shown in the following table:

Thermal Quantity Units

Thermal Conductivity energy/length-temperature-time

Specific Heat energy/mass-temperature

Heat Flux energy/length2-time

Volumetric Heat Source energy/length3-time

Heat Transfer Coefficient energy/length2-temperature-time

Except for incompressible flow analyses including viscous heating, you can use any energy unit as long as

you use the same unit for all thermal quantities. The metric and English property types defined below use

joules and BTUs, respectively, as the energy unit for thermal conductivity and specific heat. For an incom-

pressible analysis including viscous heating, you must use the energy unit for the system as shown in the

following table:

Table 9.2 Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating

System Energy Unit[1]

SI (meter-kg-sec) Joule

CGS (cm-g-sec) Erg

mm-g-sec Centi-erg

U. S. Customary (ft-slug- lbf-ft

sec)

PSI lbf-in

9.1.1. Property Types for Specific Heat

9.1.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity

9.1.3. Property Types for Viscosity

9.1.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient

9.1.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle

9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types

9.1.7. Density

9.1.8. Viscosity

9.1.9. Specific Heat

9.1.10.Thermal Conductivity

9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient

9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle

For specific heat, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, user-defined

through a file (floprp.ans), user-programmable subroutine (USER), and the variations of AIR shown below

in Table 9.3: Units for the AIR Property Type (p. 119).

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9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types

For density and thermal conductivity, the property types you can choose are CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, GAS,

LIQUID, user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and the variations of AIR shown below. (To learn how

to add more, see Modifying the Fluid Property Database (p. 127).) A user-programmable subroutine (USER)

also is available. For density only, you have one other property type option: CGAS.

PROT Units Pressure Units Density Units Viscosity Units

3

AIR meter-kg-sec Pascals kg/m kg/m-sec

3

AIR-SI meter-kg-sec Pascals kg/m kg/m-sec

2 3

AIR-CM cm-g-sec dynes/cm g/cm g/cm-sec (poise)

3

AIR-MM mm-g-sec Pascals g/mm g/mm-sec

2 3

AIR-FT ft-slug-sec lbf/ft slugs/ft slug/ft-sec

2 2 4

AIR-IN in-(lbf-s /in)-sec psi lbf-sec /in lbf-s/in2

ANSYS automatically supplies for you, in the property database, the relevant input for the AIR property types.

For viscosity, you can choose the property types CMIX, TABLE, CONSTANT, LIQUID, GAS, Power Law (POWL),

Bingham (BING), Carreau (CARR), user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and a user-programmable

subroutine (USER or USRV). The AIR and GAS property types assume that the fluid is an ideal gas with constant

specific heat. The viscosity and thermal conductivity variations with temperature are assumed to follow

Sutherland's laws for gases, the form of which is shown below. A LIQUID assumes up to a second order

polynomial for the variation of density with temperature, a constant value for specific heat, and Sutherland's

laws for a liquid for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

Viscosity as a function of the velocity gradient is represented by the non-Newtonian viscosity types: Power

Law, Bingham, and Carreau. Refer to Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities (p. 130) for more in-

formation.

For surface tension coefficient, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, LIQUID,

and user-programmable subroutine (USER).

For wall static contact angle, CONSTANT is the only valid property type.

You must use a consistent set of units (the gravitational constant gc must be unity.) Of course, the proper

length unit must be assumed when building the finite element model. Additional choices are available for

air as per the table shown below. Units for density are simply mass/volume; the table omits them.

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

For Label, you specify one of the following: DENS (density), VISC (viscosity), COND (thermal conductivity),

SPHT (specific heat), or SFTS (surface tension coefficient).

For Value, you specify any of the property types listed in Table 9.4: Property types for Value (p. 120), or you

can specify a table of fluid properties. To specify a table, enclose the table name in percent signs (%) (for

example, FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,%Table%).

If working interactively, you define a new table prior to using the table to apply loads. You can define a

table interactively via the Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit menu path, or in

batch mode via the *DIM command. If working interactively, you will be asked to define the table through

a series of dialog boxes. If working in batch mode, you need to define the table before issuing any of the

loading commands.

For more information on defining tables, see the discussion of table array parameters in the ANSYS Parametric

Design Language Guide.

When you define the table, you can define the following primary variables:

Temperature (TEMP)

Pressure (PRESSURE)

Time (TIME)

X-coordinate (X)

Y-coordinate (Y)

Z-coordinate (Z)

Velocity (VELOCITY)

Reference X-coordinate (Xr) (ALE formulation only)

Reference Y-coordinate (Yr) (ALE formulation only)

Reference Z-coordinate (Zr) (ALE formulation only)

The valid labels used by the *DIM command are shown in parentheses.

If you need to specify a variable other than one of the primary variables listed, you can do so by defining

an independent variable. To specify an independent variable, define an additional table for the independent

variable. That table must have the same name as the independent variable and can be a function of either

a primary variable or another independent variable.

The following table describes the property types that you can specify.

Property Type Argument

Constant properties CONSTANT

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9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types

Gas properties GAS

Liquid properties LIQUID

Table of property values and corresponding temperature values (which you TABLE

enter using the MPDATAand MPTEMP commands)

Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec AIR or AIR-SI

Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec, with pressure set to the reference AIR_B or AIR-

pressure for the evaluation of density SI_B

Air properties in units of cm-g-sec AIR-CM

Air properties in units of cm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure AIR-CM_B

for the evaluation of density

Air properties in units of mm-g-sec AIR-MM

Air properties in units of mm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure AIR-MM_B

for the evaluation of density

Air properties in units of fl-slug-sec AIR-FT

Air properties in unites of fl-slug-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressureAIR-FT_B

for the evaluation of density

Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure) AIR-IN

Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure), AIR-IN_B

with pressure set to the reference pressure for the evaluation of density

Power Law non-Newtonian viscosity type POWL

Carreau non-Newtonian viscosity type CARR

Bingham non-Newtonian viscosity type BING

Property is mass fraction average of the species component CMIX

User-programmable via subroutines:UserVisLaw for viscosityUserSpht for spe- USER

cific heatUserDens for densityUserCond for conductivityUserSfts for surface

tension

A variation of ideal gas law based on species mass fractions. Available for CGAS

density only.

Once you choose property types, you do not need to specify any coefficients for the properties. If the char-

acters _B are added to these property types (as in the AIR types listed above), the pressure in the ideal gas

law calculation is at a constant density corresponding to atmospheric pressure. The length and time units

of conductivity and specific heat must be consistent with the rest of the properties. The energy units in

these quantities are unrestricted.

If using property types CONSTANT, GAS, or LIQUID, you must specify property coefficients. To do so, either

issue the commands shown below or choose one of the following menu paths:

bel,Value FLDATA11,COF3,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

If you use the commands, you enter the property in the Label field of each command and enter the value

itself in each command's Value field.

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

The format of the equations for GAS and LIQUID input is oriented towards calculating constants based on

chosen data points. All cases take COF1 to be the absolute temperature at which the chosen property has

the value set by NOMI. (Using Reference Properties (p. 129) discusses the use of relative temperatures and an

offset temperature to calculate absolute temperatures.) This is not used in the COF1 specification; COF1

should always be an absolute temperature.

Once values are inserted into the relationships below for NOMI and COF1, the values of COF2 and COF3, if

necessary, follow from knowledge of one or two additional data points, respectively. When calculating COF2

and COF3 for GAS and LIQUID property types, you must use absolute temperatures and pressures in these

relationships. If COF1 is set to zero, the property will become constant at the value set by NOMI. For GAS

and LIQUID property types, the specific heat is constant and therefore the parameters COF1, COF2 and COF3

are not needed. For viscosity types Power Law, Bingham, and Carreau, NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 have

different interpretations. This is discussed in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

Applications and in Viscosity (p. 123).

9.1.7. Density

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI

command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the density to 1.205 via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.205

If the property type is GAS, the ideal gas law is used for the density. You specify density for this choice as:

If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for density.

N

Density = Yi i

i=1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,

and i is the density of the ith species.

P

Density =

N

RT ( Yi /Mi )

i

In the CGAS equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith

species, Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species, R is the universal gas constant, and P is the absolute

pressure.

If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the

MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

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9.1.8. Viscosity

If the choice is USER, the density is computed in the user-programmable subroutine UserDens. The four

coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.1.8. Viscosity

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI

command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the viscosity to 1.205 via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.205

If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for viscosity. You can enter the parameters NOMI,

COF1, and COF2.

Viscosity ("Property"):

As an example of using this relationship, suppose that there are two data points available for the calculation

of viscosity as a function of temperature:

Consider the first data point as the nominal value. This means that NOMI = 4.18 x 10-5 and COF1 = 760. Using

these in the Sutherland relationship yields:

Use the remaining data point to calculate COF2 by setting "Property" to 5.76 x 10-5 and T = 1010. Thus, the

constants are calculated from the data points.

If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for the viscosity.

Viscosity ("Property"):

If the choice is POWL, then the non-Newtonian Power Law model is used for the viscosity:

NOMI*COF2*D(COF3-1) ,D>COF1

Viscosity =

(COF3-1)

NOMI*COF2*COF1 ,D COF1

If the choice is BING, then the non-Newtonian Bingham model is used for the viscosity:

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

COF1 COF1

NOMI+ D ,D

COF2 NOMI

Viscosity =

COF2 COF1

,D<

COV2 -NOMI

If the choice is CARR, the non-Newtonian Carreau model is used for the viscosity:

COF3-1

2 2

Viscosity =COF1+(NOMI- COF1)*(1+(COF2*D) )

N

Viscosity = Yi i

i=1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,

and i is the viscosity of the ith species.

If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the

MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

If the choice is USRV or USER, then the viscosity is computed in the user programmable subroutine UserVisLaw.

The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI

command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the specific heat to 1.205 via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,SPHT,1.205

If the choice is USER, specify specific heat via user-programmable subroutine UserSpht. For specific heat,

NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in the user-programmable subroutine UserSpht.

N

Specific Heat = Y i Cpi

i =1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,

Cp

and i is the specific heat of the ith species.

If the property type is TABLE, the specific heat is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via

the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

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9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI

command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the thermal conductivity to 1.205 via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,1.205

If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for conductivity. You can enter the parameters NOMI,

COF1, and COF2.

If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for conductivity.

N

Conductivity = Y i K i

i =1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,

and Ki is the conductivity of the ith species.

If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the

MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

If the choice is USER, then the thermal conductivity is computed in the user programmable subroutine

UserCond. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI

command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the surface tension coefficient to 73.0 via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,SFTS,73.0

If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for surface

tension coefficient.

If the choice is USER, the surface tension coefficient is computed in the user-programmable subroutine

UserSfts. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

To set the constant value use the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, set

the wall static contact angle to 120.0 degrees via:

Command(s):

FLDATA8,NOMI,WSCA,120.0

The wall static contact angle defaults to 90 degrees. Angles less than 90 degrees describe an adhesive wall

condition and angles between 90 and 180 degrees describe a nonadhesive wall condition. In reality, the

angle is not only a material property of the fluid, but also depends on the local fluid and wall conditions.

FLOTRAN treats it as a single input constant for simplicity.

When an analysis begins, ANSYS calculates properties based on the specified property type and the appro-

priate constants. To set the initial temperature, choose one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

You can choose to treat this temperature as an absolute or a relative temperature. If it is a relative temper-

ature, the difference between the relative and the absolute temperature is the offset from absolute zero set

by one of the following:

Command(s): TOFFST,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Either way, FLOTRAN initializes the absolute nominal temperature as the sum of the values set by the

FLDATA,TEMP,NOMI and TOFFST commands or their equivalent menu paths.

Unless otherwise specified through boundary or initial condition commands, the initial relative pressure is

zero. In the absence of gravity and rotation the absolute pressure is the sum of the reference and relative

pressures. Therefore, the initial absolute pressure is the reference pressure.

For specific heat, density, surface tension coefficient, and thermal conductivity, the ANSYS program uses

initial values of absolute nominal temperature and absolute pressure to calculate the initial properties.

However, for non-Newtonian viscosity, you specify initial properties using either the command

FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value (Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties). If you

specify a value less than or equal to zero, the NOMI coefficient described in the previous section is used to

initialize the viscosity.

Once the analysis begins, the properties will vary only between global iterations as the temperature and

pressure change if the property variations are activated. This is accomplished with the

FLDATA13,VARY,Label,Value command with the labels SPHT, DENS, VISC, SFTS, and COND. Allowable

Values are TRUE and FALSE (T or F). The VARY setting has no effect if the property type are set to CONSTANT

or COF1 is zero for a GAS or LIQUID.

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9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database

Choices other than CGAS, CMIX, TABLE, USER, GAS, LIQUID, CONSTANT or AIR for density, thermal conduct-

ivity, viscosity, and specific heat imply that all the properties will be obtained from the information in the

floprp.ans file (a text file), where the data for AIR resides. This file is provided with ANSYS, and you

should make a local copy if you plan additions to it. You can make the copy at the system level with a text

editor. The procedure for making additions requires you to:

2. Specify functional form and constants.

n Number of coefficients

Ci Equation coefficients

You can access the following forms through the property database by specifying the appropriate ID. The

variable "y" refers to the value of the property of interest, T is the absolute temperature, and P is the absolute

pressure.

Polynomial ID: 01

C C C

y = C1 + 2 + 3 +

+ n

T T2 Tn1

C C C

In( y ) = C1 + 2 + 3 +

+ n

T T2 Tn 1

y = C1TC2

P

y=

C1T

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

3

C1T 2

y=

T + C2

C + C2PC3

y= 1

C4 + C5PC6

y = C1C3D(C4 1) , D > C2

y = C1C3C2(C4 1) , D C2

D= I2

where , I2 is the second invariant of the strain rate tensor.

C C2

y = C1 + 2 , D

D C3 C1

C2

y = C3 , D<

C3 C1

C 4 1

2 2

y = C2 + (C1 C2 ) * (1+ (C3D) )

User-programmable subroutine: 19

Because you can use the subroutine to describe property variations, you can use the four coefficients in any

way within the subroutine.

The format of the property database file floprp.ans is provided in the table below:

Line Description

1 Fluid Name [A8] and optional comments

2 nLines [I6]

nLines Proplab, tProp, nProp

(PropCF(i)=1,nProp)

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9.4. Using Reference Properties

Line Description

[A4, 1x, 2I6, 5E12.5/6E 12.5]

Fluid Name=Fluid property type

DENS - Density

VISC - Viscosity

COND - Conductivity

GAMM - Gamma

tProp - Equation identifier for property

nProp - Number of coefficients for property

PropCF - Coefficients for property calculation

The following properties are part of the flow environment:

The ratio of specific heats, Cp/Cv, known as gamma, is a reference property that applies only to com-

pressible problems. Currently it is a constant. Specify this property using one of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,VALUE

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

File:

Edit the file floprp.ans and set the value of GAMM.

The pressures FLOTRAN calculates are relative pressures. A reference pressure is added to the relative

pressure to calculate the absolute pressure. Rotational and gravitational terms also are added as needed.

For more information, see FLOTRAN Special Features (p. 133).

Command(s): FLDATA15,PRES,REFE,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

You can use a relative temperature (for example, degrees Fahrenheit rather than degrees Rankine). In

this case, an offset temperature is set so that property calculations include absolute temperatures. This

is necessary, for instance, for calculating densities from the ideal gas law. ANSYS automatically adds the

offset temperature to all of the boundary condition temperatures applied.

Command(s): TOFFST,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

The nominal temperature is that at which the properties initialize. It may be a relative temperature if

you use the TOFFST command or an equivalent menu path. If the viscosity is not stored in the results

file (the default condition) and is now allowed to vary, ANSYS recalculates it when the analysis continues

at the nominal temperature.

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

You can specify gravitational accelerations using one of the following:

Command(s): ACEL,ACELX,ACELY,ACELZ

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

The sign convention of the gravitational acceleration denotes as positive the direction of the reaction force.

The ANSYS program enables you to specify viscosity for non-Newtonian fluid flows. (You can use this capab-

ility only with FLUID141 and FLUID142 elements.) You can choose among four types of models:

The Power Law model, useful for modeling polymers, blood, rubber solutions, etc.

The Carreau model, which removes some of the deficiencies associated with the Power Law model. Use

this model when fluid has intermediate values of shear rate but remains bounded for zero/infinite shear

rates.

The Bingham model, useful for modeling slurries and pastes.

A user-programmable subroutine UserVisLaw, which gives you greater flexibility in choosing viscosity

models.

Typically, you select one of these models after you have built and meshed the model for your problem and

after you have applied the boundary conditions.

To activate the Power Law viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,POWL

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Choosing any of the above automatically issues other commands which set output and storage controls

and the property variation flag. For details, see the descriptions of the FLDATA commands in the Command

Reference.

To specify the four coefficients associated with the Power Law model, choose either of the menu paths

shown above (and specify the appropriate coefficients), or issue the following commands:

Command(s):

FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the cutoff shear rate)

FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the consistency coefficient)

FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)

The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients.

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9.5.3. Activating the Bingham Model

Once you have specified the coefficients, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main

Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

To activate the Carreau viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CARR

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Choosing one of the above automatically issues commands which set output and storage controls and the

property variation flag. For more information about the FLDATA commands, see the Command Reference.

You need to specify the four coefficients associated with the Carreau model, using either of the menu paths

shown above or the following commands:

Command(s):

FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the infinite shear viscosity)

FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the time constant)

FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)

The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients. Once

you have specified them, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main Menu> Solution>

Run FLOTRAN.

To activate the Bingham viscosity model, issue the command or choose one of the menu paths shown below:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,BING

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Choosing one of the items shown above automatically issues commands that set output and storage controls

and the property variation flag.

To set the coefficients associated with the Bingham model, either use one of the menu paths shown above

or issue the following commands:

FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic/yield stress)

FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the Newtonian viscosity)

The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients.

You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence. Typically, you can set this to be the

Newtonian viscosity (that is, COF2) via one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,VISC,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

User-programmable subroutines are available for specific heat, density, viscosity, surface tension coefficient,

and thermal conductivity of fluid regions. Since the procedures are quite similar, only one property will be

described in depth here.

If you wish to use the user-programmable viscosity subroutine, UserVisLaw, you will need to customize it

for the particular model you are analyzing. You compile the subroutine, link it with the ANSYS libraries, and

make an executable copy available. Then, you can resume the model to be analyzed and activate the viscosity

model you have defined. To do so, use one of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

At this point, you may want to specify that properties are updated every iteration and that you want viscosity

output to go to the results file. To do so, issue the following commands or use the following menu paths:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Next, you need to specify the four coefficients associated with the user-defined viscosity model. To do so,

use either of the menu paths shown above or issue the following commands:

Command(s):

FLDATA6,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 2)

FLDATA9,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 3)

FLDATA10,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 4)

These coefficients are available within the UserVisLaw subroutine. By default, this subroutine produces a

Power Law viscosity model using the coefficients you define. To see a copy of the subroutine, see the Guide

to ANSYS User Programmable Features.

You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence, via one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Once you have specified the coefficients, and, optionally, an initial viscosity, you can solve your model by

issuing the SOLVE command or choosing Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

The following FLOTRAN special features are available:

10.1. Coordinate Systems

10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference

10.3. Swirl

10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source

You set the coordinate system via one of the following:

Command(s): KEYOPT

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys

The table below shows you how to select various coordinate systems and describes the velocities represented

by DOFs VX, VY, and VZ in these systems. The default value of the KEYOPT is zero, which selects Cartesian

coordinates.

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

+VZ

Y

Y

Z

X

Z

+VZ

(VZ positive "into the page") (VZ positive "out of page")

Coordinate System KEYOPT(3) VX VY VZ

Cartesian 0 X Y Z

2-D - Axisymmetric about Y axis 1 radial axial swirl

2-D - Axisymmetric about X axis 2 axial radial swirl

2-D - Polar Coordinates 3 radial theta N/A

3-D - Cylindrical Coordinates 3 radial theta axial

For axisymmetric problems, the sign convention for the swirl (VZ) component conforms to positive rotation

about the axis of symmetry, as defined by the right hand rule. Thus, for a model that is axisymmetric about

the Y axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing "into the page." Similarly, for a

model that is axisymmetric about the X axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing

"out of the page." This should be accounted for when you apply boundary conditions in rotating coordinates.

Note

Based on the definition of directions for the cylindrical coordinate system, gravity is only appro-

priate for the Z direction when KEYOPT(3) is set to 3.

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10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference

You can choose to solve your problem in a rotating reference frame. In this case, the velocities are calculated

and specified with respect to a coordinate system which is rotating at constant angular velocity. Such an

approach is useful for pump blade passage analysis. Figure 10.2 (p. 135) shows a schematic of a rotating

problem which requires moving coordinate systems. Figure 10.3 (p. 136) shows the problem schematic in the

rotating coordinate system.

The pressures specified by boundary conditions are in terms of the static pressure observable by the stationary

analyst, not in terms of the rotating coordinate system. The transformations necessary to solve the equations

in the rotating coordinate frame are done internally.

Command(s): CGOMGA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

For all but 3-D Cartesian coordinate systems, you must specify the axis of rotation as being about the Z axis.

For 2-D axisymmetric systems, the ANSYS program automatically interprets the specified Z-axis rotation as

actually acting about the correct axis of symmetry (that is, about either the X or Y axis). For 3-D Cartesian

geometries, the rotational axis need not be in the same direction as one of the principal axes of the global

coordinate system, and may be offset from the origin of the global coordinate system.

To specify offsets for the axis of rotation, use one of the following:

Command(s): CGLOC

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

angular speed

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

System rotates at

v=0

v = R

10.3. Swirl

Swirl applies only to axisymmetric problems and refers to motion perpendicular to the X-Y plane. To activate

swirl, choose one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SWIRL,TRUE

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Either a moving wall (for instance, a rotating shaft) or a component of swirl at an inlet can cause the motion

in the swirl direction (with velocity component VZ).

In a swirl problem, there are no changes in the "theta" direction since it is axisymmetric.

The swirl component is calculated through solution of the momentum equation in the swirl direction. With

no pressure gradient in the swirl direction, nothing contributes to the swirl velocity directly from the velocity

update step in the segregated solution algorithm. It is thus sometimes useful to accelerate the convergence

of swirl problems by solving the momentum in the swirl direction equation with a relaxation factor of 1.0

for a few global iterations.

Distributed resistances are macroscopic representations of geometric features not directly concerned with

the region of interest and considered too detailed for exact representation. A typical example is pipe flow

which encounters a screen.

You apply distributed resistance on an element basis through the use of real constants. See the Element

Reference for the formulation and the list and meaning of the real constants.

Since the distributed resistance parameters will describe the known behavior of the flow in the region, the

use of the turbulence model is redundant. You should deactivate it in the distributed resistance region by

setting ENKE to 0.0 and ENDS to 1.0.

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10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source

Command(s): D

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes

The distributed resistances referred to above are used to describe losses to the system. You can model mo-

mentum sources in similar fashion. Such sources can be used to represent fans or pumps in a system. Typ-

ical characterization of these components is a "Head-Capacity Curve," representing the pressure rise as a

function of flow for a constant speed pump. The fan or pump model is not intended to describe the details

of the flow in the pump region, but rather to approximate its effects on the rest of the system. You can use

any coordinate system or FLOTRAN element shape, but Cartesian coordinate systems with hex shaped elements

in three dimensions and quadrilateral elements in two dimensions tend to give more stable results.

The fan model input takes the form of element real constants, and is described in detail in the Element Ref-

erence.

The ANSYS program supports two types of fan model. A "Type Four" fan model acts only along a specific

coordinate direction, while a "Type Five" model enables the user to align the fan or pump in an arbitrary

direction. Coefficients are assigned for each coordinate direction.

The equation for the fan model is in terms of a pressure gradient applied in the direction of flow. You

therefore must know over what length the fan model is to be applied in order to achieve the correct total

pressure rise. The relationship defining the momentum source for an arbitrary direction "s" is as follows:

dP

= C1 + C2 V + C3 V 2

ds

In the above equation, V is the velocity through the fan. If the given data is in terms of volumetric flow, you

must know the area of the actual pump. The actual velocity at the outlet of the pump as well as the volu-

metric flow rate should be preserved. Consistent units must be used, that is, the gravitational conversion

constant must be 1.0. If, for example, the pressure drop is in psi, the velocity units are in/sec.

Generally, you determine the fan or pump coefficients by taking three pairs of pressure-velocity points on

the "fan curve" and solving for the coefficients. If the flow is to be in the negative direction, the signs of all

the coefficients change.

The type 5 model is used for pumps not aligned with one of the coordinate directions. Given V as the velocity

in the S arbitrary direction and the pump constants C1, C2, and C3; the directional coefficients can be calcu-

lated.

If x is the angle between the arbitrary direction S and the x coordinate direction, the directional constants

are:

C1x = C1 cos x

C2 x = C2

C3

C3 x =

cos x

Similarly, if y and z are defined as the angles between the fan direction and the y and z coordinate direction

respectively:

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

C1y = C1 cos y

C2 y = C2

C3

C3 y =

cos y

C1z = C1 cos z

C2z = C2

C3

C3z =

cos z

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation

In the sequential solution algorithm, you have three options for solving equations sets for degrees of freedom:

This solver, the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA), performs a user-specified number of iterations

through the problem domain.

2. "Exact" solvers

The "exact" methods are semi-direct conjugate direction methods that iterate to a specified convergence

criterion.

The Conjugate Residual (CR), Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR), Preconditioned Generalized

Minimum Residual (PGMR), and Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) methods for non-symmetric

matrix equations.

The preconditioned conjugate gradient method for the incompressible pressure equation.

3. Sparse Direct solver

This solver uses Gaussian elimination to factorize the matrix and then uses backward/forward substitution

to solve for the unknowns.

You choose the method for each DOF via one of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD

Valid choices are: 1 (TDMA), 2 (conjugate residual), 3 (preconditioned conjugate residual or gradient), 4

(preconditioned generalized minimum residual), 5 (sparse direct), or 6 (preconditioned BiCGStab). A choice

of 0 indicates that the equation set is not to be solved. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method

automatically applies to the incompressible pressure equation for choices 2 or 3.

The default solver (TDMA) for the velocities and the turbulence equations is adequate for virtually every

problem encountered. The number of sweeps (iterations) for the velocity is 1. Do not change this value. Ex-

perience has shown that the default number of 10 sweeps for the turbulence equations is most efficient

although you can increase this number to see if better convergence is attained for a particular application.

In general, the solution of the pressure equation must be accurate and conjugate direction methods are

used. However, the TDMA method can be successful for natural convection flows. The sections for the various

types of analyses discuss where to use solvers other than the default choices.

11.1.Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm

11.2. Semi-Direct Solvers

11.3. Sparse Direct Method

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation

You set the number of sweeps for the TDMA solver using one of the following:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

In the GUI, you do not have access to this command unless the TDMA method has been requested for that

DOF. It is not available in the GUI at all for velocities.

You can gauge the performance of the semi-direct solvers by the behavior during the solution process of

the inner product of the residuals, referred to as RTR (or ZTR for the incompressible pressure equation.) RTR

should be reduced during the global iteration to a fraction, typically 1.0 x 10-7 of its initial value.

The fraction is the convergence criterion for the semi-direct methods, set with one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA21,CONV,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

To set the maximum number of iterations allowed during a global iteration, choose one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA22,MAXI,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Data concerning how the semi-direct solvers are performing appears in the text file Jobname.DBG for every

DOF for which they are used, generally PRES, TEMP, or both.

The semi-direct algorithms may conclude in three different ways: convergence is achieved, the maximum

number of iterations has been reached without convergence, or the solution has stalled.

If the maximum number has been reached without convergence, more iterations may be required (for example,

in a large or ill-conditioned problem). If so, increase the maximum number of iterations. The maximum

number also may be reached if the convergence criterion has been set to a very small value (for example,

less than 1.0 x 10-15), in which case the convergence criterion should be eased. It may also, however, mean

that the solution is diverging. If so, large values of RTR or ZTR (perhaps above 1.0 x 1020) will appear in the

debug file; but increasing the number of iterations will not help.

Stall occurs when the new iteration makes no progress towards the solution but the convergence criterion

has not been achieved. If the rate of change is small enough the solution process stops.

Note

You specify the rate of change which leads to termination of the solver by using one of the fol-

lowing:

Command(s): FLDATA23,DELT,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

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11.2.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

The label refers to the DOF being solved. Stall can occur in the solution of the compressible pressure equation

or in the solution of the temperature equation of some conjugate heat transfer problems. The value of RTR

does not decrease significantly and at the last iteration the value of DelMax is less than the value you specified.

This means that the solution is essentially not changing, and further computational effort is wasted.

You can resolve a stall situation by increasing the number of search directions or using inertial relaxation.

To increase search directions, either use one of the menu paths described above (with the FLDATA23,DELT

command), or issue the following command:

Command(s):

FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value

The default value is 2, appropriate for well conditioned problems. The number of search directions required

may vary widely among problems. Values of 20 may be required, but be aware that each search direction

specified requires N compute storage locations in memory. (N is the number of finite element nodes in the

problem). The computer storage required for large values of SRCH could exceed the computational resources

available, in which case inertial relaxation should be used.

The PGMR method uses fill-in when constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. The PGMR method

is a version of the generalized minimum residual method that uses an LU preconditioning to transform the

system of equations into a set easier to solve. As with the PCCR method, the coefficient matrix is decomposed

into an approximate LU product. In the PCCR method, the sparsity pattern of the original matrix is preserved

in the L and U matrices.

Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solver, you need

to specify the amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors.

The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition

matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row

of the original matrix.

There are two PGMR algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The choice is automatically made by the program.

The difference lies in the "fill-in". It is only required and only available for the PRES and TEMP degrees of

freedom.

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation

Command(s): FLDATA20A,PGMR,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

The allowable range for fill-in is 1 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable

DOF.

For some problems, it is unnecessary to obtain an exact solution to the energy equation every global iteration.

To save some time, you can then employ the foregoing command with a Label of MODP. You use it to

specify a number of global iterations performed using the TDMA method between global iterations performed

using the PGMR method for the temperature DOF.

The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result

in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, inertial relaxation should be used.

To specify the number of search vectors, use either of these methods:

Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

For the PGMR solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 12 to 20. The default value is 12.

The output associated with the solver is recorded in the Jobname.OUT file for non-FLOTRAN analyses. The

FLOTRAN iterative solver output is recorded in the jobname.dbg file.

The fact that the PGMR solver is being used is indicated in the Jobname.DBG file. The file shows if conver-

gence is reached, the maximum number of iterations is reached without convergence, or the solution is

stalled.

The PGMR method output is in the same form as that provided in the jobname.out file for non-FLOTRAN

analyses. The NORM referred to in the Jobname.OUT file is the square root of the convergence criterion

specified in the FLOTRAN input. For example, a EQSLV command solver tolerance value of 1.E-5 corresponds

to the FLOTRAN default convergence criterion value of 1.E-10.

The problem is improperly formulated.

The specified convergence criterion is too tight.

An insufficient number of iterations is specified.

If the PGMR method stalls, it may be because the problem is ill-conditioned or improperly formulated. If the

problem is ill-conditioned, you can control several parameters to enhance performance. You can increase

the amount of fill-in or the number of search vectors. You can also use inertial relaxation. If the problem is

improperly formulated, there may be an input error or the boundary conditions may be applied incorrectly.

You need to check the input parameters and boundary conditions to ensure that they are accurate.

FLOTRAN does not allow a convergence criterion less restrictive than the default value. You can enter a

higher value, but FLOTRAN issues a warning message and changes it to the default value.

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11.3. Sparse Direct Method

If the maximum number of iterations has been reached without convergence, it may mean more iterations

are required. This could be the case if you see that the Norm has been lowered, but it is not quite to the

target. If so, you can try increasing the maximum number of iterations.

If the PGMR method converges and the results are questionable, reduce the convergence criterion below

the default value of 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20 may be necessary for some problems.

The PBCGM method is a version of the generalized bi-conjugate gradient method that uses two sets of

vectors constructed from both the coefficient matrix and its real transpose matrix by making them orthogonal

to each other. At each iteration, a new vector is first generated orthogonal to some user-specified number

of previous vectors (search directions) from the basis of the real transpose matrix. A minimization procedure

is then used to stabilize the numerical procedure. Similar to PGMR, the PBCGM method uses fill-in when

constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. This preconditioning procedure transforms the system of

equations into a set easier to solve by decomposing the coefficient into an approximate LU product.

Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) solver, you need to specify the

amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors.

The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition

matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row

of the original matrix.

There are two PBCGM algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The difference lies in the fill-in value. When it is

specified to be zero, the algorithm is parallelized except the LU preconditioning part. For other fill-in values,

the algorithm is not parallelized at all.

To specify the amount of fill-in, use the following command or menu path:

Command(s): FLDATA20B,PBCGM,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

The allowable range for fill-in is 0 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable

DOF.

The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result

in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, use inertial relaxation. In practice,

you should usually use a value of 1 or 2 in order to save the memory storage. To specify the number of

search vectors, use the following command or menu path:

Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver

For the PBCGM solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 1 to 8. The default value is 2.

The Sparse Direct method is memory intensive and you should only use it if all other methods have failed.

This method produces intermediate files during matrix factorization and it is difficult to predict the memory

required. Ensure enough hard disk space exists for intermediate files.

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation

If you choose the Sparse Direct method for the VX, VY, or VZ DOFs, FLOTRAN will reset the method to Pre-

conditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR). The Sparse Direct method is not suitable for the velocity degrees

of freedom.

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Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms

FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139) describes the linear solvers available to solve each indi-

vidual equation. To obtain a final solution, you must usually account for the coupling between the individual

equations. In FLOTRAN, this nonlinear coupling is handled in a segregated or decoupled manner. The

coupling algorithms belong to a general class referred to as the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked

Equations (SIMPLE). For more information on this general class of algorithms, see S.V. Patankar, D.B. Spalding,

("A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in 3-D parabolic flows," International

Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol 15, pp. 1787-1806, 1972).

To handle the coupling between the pressure and momentum equations, there are two segregated solution

algorithms: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN. For many years, SIMPLEF was the sole pressure-velocity coupling algorithm.

It was developed by R.J. Schnipke and J.G. Rice ("Application of a new finite element method to convection

heat transfer," Fourth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems, Swansea, U.K.,

July 1985). The SIMPLEF algorithm has been improved by utilizing some ideas from the SIMPLEC algorithm

developed by J.P. Van Doormaal and G.D. Raithby ("Enhancements of the SIMPLE method for predicting in-

compressible fluid flows," Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 7, pp. 147-163, 1984). To improve the rate of conver-

gence, the SIMPLEN algorithm has been added to FLOTRAN. It was developed by G. Wang ("A fast and robust

variant of the SIMPLE algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid

and Solid Mechanics, Vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001).

SIMPLEF is the default algorithm. To activate the SIMPLEN algorithm, use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA37

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control

12.1. Algorithm Settings

12.2. Performance

In general, FLOTRAN automatically set defaults suited for the two segregated algorithms. However, for some

problems, you may need to reset the advection scheme, solver choice, or relaxation factors.

You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU),

Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or Collocated Galerkin (COLG). Refer to Advection Discretization

Options (p. 161) for information on how to select a proper advection scheme.

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Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms

Transport Equation SIMPLEF Algorithm SIMPLEN Algorithm

Momentum SUPG SUPG

Turbulence SUPG MSU

Pressure MSU MSU

Energy SUPG SUPG

Species SUPG SUPG

12.1.2. Solver

For the SIMPLEF algorithm, the TDMA solver is the default for the momentum and turbulence equations.

None of the other solvers will improve the overall rate of convergence. Even when exact solutions are obtained

on those individual equations, the overall rate of convergence will not improve. This is due to weak coupling

between the pressure and momentum equations.

For the SIMPLEN algorithm, the overall rate of convergence can be improved considerably when more exact

solutions are obtained for each individual equation. Therefore, when SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN auto-

matically resets the solver option to the preconditioned BiCGStab method (PBCGM) for the momentum,

turbulence and energy equations. Furthermore, it will reset the fill-in parameter for PBCGM to zero for

computational efficiency.

Due to the nonlinear coupling between equations, in order to stabilize the overall solution procedure, relax-

ation is usually necessary to moderate changes from one global iteration to the next. Experience indicates

that relaxation factors greater than 0.5 for the velocity and pressure degrees of freedom will generally cause

instability and divergence for the SIMPLEF algorithm. On the other hand, the SIMPLEN algorithm provides

more consistent coupling between the pressure and velocity degrees of freedom. For incompressible flow

problems, SIMPLEN removes the need for relaxation for the pressure equation and allows a relaxation factor

close to 1.0 for the momentum equations. For compressible flow problems, relaxation is usually needed for

the pressure equation in order to obtain a convergent solution. The default for SIMPLEF is 0.5 for the pressure

and velocity degrees of freedom. When SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN automatically resets the relaxation

factor to 1.0 for the incompressible pressure equation, 0.5 for the compressible pressure equation, and 0.8

for the momentum equations.

12.2. Performance

Table 12.2: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results (p. 146) presents results for laminar flow in a 2-D square

cavity. The Reynolds number is 100 based on the length of the cavity side and the velocity at the top. The

uniform grid consists of 322 = 1024 elements.

SIMPLEF SIMPLEN

RELX 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.95 0.98 0.99

Iter. No. 325 153 81 66 114 176

CPU (sec) 12.9 7.2 4.0 3.3 5.7 8.9

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12.2. Performance

For the SIMPLEN algorithm , the total number of global iterations and the computational time decrease as

the relaxation factor (RELX) increases from 0.8 to 0.95. As RELX increases above 0.95, the iteration number

and computational time increase. The optimal RELX value is 0.95. At this value, the SIMPLEN convergence

rate is about 4 times faster than SIMPLEF. The SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/4 of the SIMPLEF

computational time.

Results for a finer mesh of 1282 = 16,384 elements show an even better SIMPLEN performance. At an optimal

RELX value of 0.99, the SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/40 of the SIMPLEF computational time.

SIMPLEN significantly improves the rate of convergence if pressure-velocity coupling dominates the conver-

gence. If other factors affect the overall rate of convergence, SIMPLEN will not increase the rate of convergence

as significantly. However, for those problems, SIMPLEN will generally be more robust than SIMPLEF, and it

will usually give a better convergence behavior. For more comparisons, see Wang G., "A fast and robust

variant of the SIMPLE algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid

and Solid Mechanics, vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001.

Below is the command input listing used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point

(!) is a comment.

/title, Lid driven cavity flow analysis using SIMPLEF/SIMPLEN algorithms

NDL = 32 ! Number of line divisions

MU = 0.010 ! Fluid viscosity

RHO = 1.0

L = 1.0

sL = 1.0e-8

Vel = 1.000

niter = 10000

/PREP7

et,1,141 ! 2-D XY system

esha,2 ! Quad elements

rect,,L,,L

lesi,all,,,NDL

amesh,1

alls

! Apply Boundary Conditions

nsel,s,ext ! Wall boundary conditions

d,all,vx

d,all,vy

nsel,r,loc,y,L-sL,L+sL !top

d,all,vx,vel

d,all,vy

d,all,enke,-1

alls

d,1,PRES

fini

save

flda,iter,exec,niter ! No. of global iterations

flda,nomi,visc,MU

flda,nomi,dens,RHO

flda,term,pres,1.e-6

solve

fini

/delete,,rfl

flda,algr,segr,simplen

solve

fini

/delete,,rfl

/SOLU

flda,relx,vx,0.9

flda,relx,vy,0.9

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Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms

solve

fini

/delete,,rfl

/SOLU

flda,relx,vx,0.95

flda,relx,vy,0.95

solve

fini

/delete,,rfl

/SOLU

flda,relx,vx,0.98

flda,relx,vy,0.98

solve

fini

/delete,,rfl

/SOLU

flda,relx,vx,0.99

flda,relx,vy,0.99

solve

fini

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

The multiple species transport capability enables you to track several different fluids at once, subject to the

limitation that a single momentum equation is solved for the flow field. Transport equations are solved for

each species. The properties used in the momentum equation can be those of a "main" fluid, a "bulk" fluid

(dilute mixture analysis), or a combination of component fluids. Momentum effects such as advection and

diffusion cause the fluid transport.

Solid model boundary /initial conditions are not supported for species mass fractions.

Also, you must postprocess multiple species results by issuing commands instead of via the GUI.

13.1. Mixture Types

13.2. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis

13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species

13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases

In terms of property variations, the strategies for solving multiple species problems parallel those for thermal

problems. The key issue is determining how large a mass fraction of the overall flow field the species to be

traced represents. You can choose among three mixture types for analysis: dilute mixture, composite mixture,

and composite gas. For each mixture type, the properties may be a function of temperature.

In a dilute mixture analysis, small mass fractions of species fluids are tracked in a flow field, and the species

properties do not significantly influence the flow field. The fluid properties are set and the bulk fluid analysis

proceeds as in any other FLOTRAN analysis. You solve the transport equations for species using the bulk

density and the velocities from the bulk fluid analysis.

If the analysis problem is isothermal or the properties are assumed not to vary with temperature, you can

converge the flow field completely before the species transport option is activated. The number of species

to be solved is a feature of the element and is controlled via a key option on the element. The appropriate

KEYOPT setting must be defined during the PREP7 phase of the analysis. Once the element type and number

of species has been set, the multiple species input commands (e.g., MSSPEC) can be issued from either

PREP7 or SOLUTION phases. However, the multiple species menus are accessible only from PREP7.

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SPEC,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

A composite mixture analysis calculates the properties used in the solution from a linear combination of the

species, weighted by mass fraction as a function of space. The solution of the momentum equation depends

on the species distribution, so the momentum and transport equations are strongly coupled.

You initialize the species mass fractions using either the MSNOMF command (which has no GUI menu

equivalent) or (typically for a transient analysis) one of the following:

Command(s): IC,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define

The mass fractions specified must add up to 1.0. To activate the composite mixture option for an individual

property, use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,CMIX

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

In a composite gas analysis, at each node the fluid density is calculated as a function of the mass fractions

and molecular weights of the gases:

P

=

N Yi

RT

i =1 Mi

R is the Universal Gas constant. You can set it using one of the following:

Command(s): MSDATA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species. You set this weight using one of the following:

Command(s): MSSPEC

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

N is the total number of species defined.

P is pressure degree of freedom (PRES).

T is the absolute temperature (TEMP).

To invoke the composite gas option for the bulk fluid, use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CGAS

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

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13.2.3. Adjust Output Format

The procedure for a multiple species analysis has six steps:

2. Designate an algebraic species.

3. Adjust output format if desired.

4. Set properties.

5. Specify boundary conditions and nominal mass fractions.

6. Set relaxation and solution parameters for the solution of the transport equations (if necessary).

To set the number of species, use one of these methods:

Command(s): KEYOPT,1,1,n (n = number of species (at least 2, but no more than 6))

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

To name each species, use the menu paths shown above or the following command:

Command(s):

MSSPEC

FLOTRAN uses these names for assigning boundary conditions and in postprocessing listings and plots. The

default names for species are SP01, SP02, and so on.

The transport equations solve for the mass fractions of each species. You must choose one as the algebraic

species, using the value set by the ALGEB argument or one of the following:

Command(s): MSDATA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

The transport equation for the algebraic species is not solved, but its concentration as a function of space

is calculated by ensuring that the mass fractions of all the species add up to 1.0 everywhere.

Note

The MSDATA command also sets the universal gas constant. Every issuance of the command sets

both numbers.

You can set the format of the convergence monitors on the file Jobname.PFL to list columns of values for

all the degrees of freedom for a single iteration. (This also affects the ANSYS output file.) To adjust output,

use one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA6

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

For a dilute mixture analysis, set the bulk property type as appropriate (CONSTANT, Liquid, etc.).

If the bulk properties are to be a linear combination of the species properties, set the bulk property type to

CMIX. For example, you would use the following command:

Command(s):

FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Type

In the preceding command, Label can be DENS, VISC, COND, or SPHT, and Type is CMIX. If Label = DENSE,

Type may be CGAS. Using CGAS requires you to enter a molecular weight for the gas via the MSSPEC

command or its equivalent GUI path.

You handle individual species property variations the same way, and with the same options as, the bulk

fluid. The CONSTANT, LIQUID, and GAS fluid types are available. Specify them, along with coefficients, using

one of the following:

Command(s): MSPROP

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

For all analyses, you must enter the mass diffusion coefficient data for each species. For a dilute mixture,

the density is the only other relevant property because the bulk or main fluid properties govern the solution

of the momentum equation. For the CMIX and CGAS options, you need to specify density and viscosity using

MSPROP or an equivalent menu path. Also specify conductivity if the energy equation is to be solved.

(Dmi Y i)

The value Dmi is the diffusion coefficient, and Yi is the mass fraction being solved.

Sometimes, the available data is expressed as a Schmidt number. The following equality enables expression

of the diffusion portion of transport in terms of laminar viscosity , the density , and the Schmidt number:

Dmi Y i = Y i

SCi

Note

The input must be in terms of the mass diffusion coefficient, not the Schmidt number. The Schmidt

number relating the diffusion coefficient to the density and viscosity differs from the turbulent

Schmidt number discussed below.

In addition, the flow field may be turbulent. Another representation of the diffusion term, this time including

the effect of the turbulent viscosity , is:

+ t Y i

SCi SCTi

The quantity SCTi is the turbulent Schmidt number, which you specify via one of the following:

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13.2.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters

Command(s): MSSPEC

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

The normal default value of 1.0 is sufficient unless you want to regulate explicitly the effect of turbulence

on the transport.

The default boundary condition is zero gradient of the mass fraction at the boundaries. You can specify the

mass fraction at a boundary, such as the inlet, by entering the species name in the LAB field of one of the

following:

Command(s): D

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On

Nodes

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On Nodes

Initialize the mass fractions for every species, including the algebraic species. The fractions must sum to 1.0.

Relaxation factors for the property calculations and the mass fraction update default to 0.5. To change the

factors, use one of the following:

Command(s): MSRELAX

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

You can set modified inertial relaxation factors for multiple species. To do so, use one of the following:

Command(s): MSMIR,SPNUM,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence.

The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0.

You can change parameters for the algebraic solvers for the transport equation and choose a solver by using

one of the following commands or menu paths:

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Activating mass fraction capping is recommended to prevent intermediate calculations from producing un-

realistic results. Use either of the following for each species:

Command(s): MSCAP

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Finally, you activate the multiple species option using one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,Spec,T

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

Although FLOTRAN permits only one fluid region to correspond to material number 1 (using the command

MAT,1 or an equivalent GUI path), you can simulate multiple fluids within this restriction. To do so, you set

all fluid property types to CMIX, then set the appropriate species mass fraction to 1.0 in a particular region.

These settings enable all properties in that region to correspond to that of species with mass fraction 1.0.

For such multiple fluid simulations, the mass fractions must remain constant throughout the analysis; that

is, the analysis should not turn on the species solution.

A typical heat exchanger analysis consists of two fluids flowing in opposite directions, separated by a wall

as shown in Figure 13.1 (p. 154):

LX

LY3 specified (Mass fraction: species 1 = 0.0, and

on outlet species 2 = 1.0) temperature

specified on

Solid region (MAT,2) inlet

LY2

Pressure Fluid region 1 (MAT,1) Pressure

LY1 and (Mass fraction: species 1 = 1.0, specified

temperature Y species 2 = 0.0) on outlet

specified on

inlet X

YOFFSET

Symmetry surface

T

Vy = 0, =0

y

The sample command stream that follows shows you how to set up the model shown in Figure 13.1 (p. 154),

apply boundary conditions, set up appropriate properties, etc. It is important to note that, although two

species are defined, the species transport has not been activated. In addition, all fluid properties must be

declared variable so that the initial value (the same in regions 1 and 2) is reset based on the mass fraction.

/BATCH,LIST

/tit,heat exchanger problem

!two different fluids separated by a solid wall

!cartesian geometry, pressure-driven flow

!solve by 2 species

LX = 10 ! Length in X direction

NDX = 10 ! Number of X divisions

LY1 = 2 ! fluid 1 width

LY2 = 0.1 ! solid width

LY3 = 1.0 ! fluid 2 width

NDY1 = 10

NDY2 = 3

NDY3 = 10

YOFFSET = 0 !offset from X-axis

/prep7 $smrt,off

et,1,141 ! 2-D XY system

!species

keyopt,1,1,2 ! 2 species

!axisymm

!keyopt,1,3,2 !use for axisymm RY system only

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13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species

rect,,LX,YOFFSET,YOFFSET+LY1 !fluid 1 area

rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2 !solid area

rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2+LY3` !fluid 2 area

nummrg,all

numcmp,all

lsel,s,,,3,9,3

lsel,a,,,1

lesi,all,,,NDX,

lsel,s,,,2,4,2

lesi,all,,,NDY1,-5.0

lsel,s,,,5,7,2

lesi,all,,,NDY2,-5.0

lsel,s,,,8,10,2

lesi,all,,,NDY3,-5.0

allsel

mat,1 !for fluids material must be 1

amesh,1 !mesh fluid 1 region

amesh,3 !mesh fluid 2 region

mat,2 !for solid set material to 2

amesh,2 !mesh solid region

!inner region 1

!bc inlet

lsel,s,,,4

nsll,s,1

d,all,pres,10 !inlet pressure & temp specified for fluid 1

d,all,temp,100

!bc outlet

lsel,s,,,2

nsll,s,1

d,all,pres,0. !outlet pressure specified for fluid 1

!symm

lsel,s,,,1

nsll,s,1

d,all,vy,0 !symmetry surface for fluid 1 only

!region 2

!bc inlet

lsel,s,,,8

nsll,s,1

d,all,pres,10. !inlet pressure & temp specified for fluid 2

d,all,temp,400

!bc outlet

lsel,s,,,10

nsll,s,1

d,all,pres,0. !outlet pressure specified for fluid 2

!top wall

lsel,s,,,9

nsll,s,1

d,all,vx,0 !wall boundary conditions

d,all,vy,0

allsel

!solid properties

mp,dens,2,5. !specify solid region 3 properties

mp,kxx,2,100

mp,c,2,13

/SOLU

!ic for species

nsel,s,loc,x,,lx !select nodes for fluid 1

nsel,s,loc,y,o,ly1

ic,all,sp01,1.0 !set mass fraction for fluid 1

ic,all,sp02,0.0

nsel,s,loc,x,,lx

nsel,s,loc,y,ly1+ly2,ly1+ly2+ly3 !select nodes for fluid 2

ic,all,sp01,0.0 !set mass fraction for fluid 2

ic,all,sp02,1.0

allsel

FLDA,ITER,EXEC,200

FLDA,PROT,DENS,CMIX ! Fluid density

FLDA,PROT,VISC,CMIX ! Fluid viscosity

FLDA,PROT,COND,CMIX ! Fluid conductivity

FLDA,PROT,SPHT,CMIX ! Fluid specific heat

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

flda,vary,visc,t

flda,vary,cond,t

flda,vary,spht,t

FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0 ! initial density for all fluid region

FLDA,NOMI,VISC,2.0 ! initial viscosity for all fluid region

FLDA,NOMI,COND,3.0 ! initial conductivity for all fluid region

FLDA,NOMI,SPHT,4.0 ! initial specific heat for all fluid region

msprop,1,spht,constant,1 !sp heat for fluid 1

msprop,2,spht,constant,2 !sp heat for fluid 2

msprop,1,dens,constant,1 !density for fluid 1

msprop,2,dens,constant,2 !density for fluid 2

msprop,1,visc,constant,1.0 !viscosity for fluid 1

msprop,2,visc,constant,2.0 !viscosity for fluid 2

msprop,1,cond,constant,.1 !conductivity for fluid 1

msprop,2,cond,constant,.2 !conductivity for fluid 2

FLDA,CONV,PRES,1.0E-10 ! PCCR convergence criterion

FLDA,TERM,PRES,1.E-09

FLDA,OUTP,SP01,T

FLDA,OUTP,SP02,T

save

SOLVE !solve for flow only

FLDA,SOLU,ENRG,T

FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,F

FLDA,METH,ENRG,3

FLDA,ITER,EXEC,50

FLDA,RELX,TEMP,1.

SOLVE !solve for temperature only

fini

/exit,nosa

The following example analysis mixes three gases: oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2). The mass

fractions of the gases are set at each inlet along with the velocity. For the three inlets:

VX = 0 VX = 0.1 VX = 0

VY = -0.1 VY = 0 VY = 0.1

The command stream for the example (shown below) shows all the relevant properties and the solution

strategy.

/batch,list

/filename,spec

/com ** Analysis Types Laminar and Turbulent, Incompressible

/com 2-D - quadrilateral and triangular elements

/com ** Features Thermal, Multiple Species Transport

/com ** Options Dilute mixtures, composite property types (CGAS, CMIX)

/com ** Variable laminar properties

/com ** Turbulence

/com ** Construction of geometry

/prep7

!!!!!!! Define some dimensions - SI units are used

lenin=.3

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13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases

half=lenin/2.

width=.1

hfwid=width/2.

outlen=1.2

!!!!!!! Define inlet and outlet rectangles

rect,-lenin,0,-hfwid,hfwid

rect,.2,.3,.25,.25+lenin

rect,.2,.3,-.25,-.25-lenin

rect,.4,.4+outlen,-.15,.15

!!!!!!! Lines that border the mixing area

l2tan,-3,-8

l2tan,-6,-15

l2tan,-13,-10

l2tan,-12,-1

!!!!!!! Parameters defined for meshing

nlcurv=16

rlcurv=1

nscurv=9

rscurv=1

nispan=8

rispan=-1.5

nospan=13

rospan=-2

nilen=10

rilen=-2

nolen=24

rolen=4

!!!!!!!

!flst,2,2,4,orde,2

!fitem,2,17

!fitem,2,20

lsel,s,,,17,20,3

lesize,all,,,nlcurv,rlcurv

lsel,s,,,18,19

!fitem,2,18

!fitem,2,-19

lesize,19,,,nscurv,rscurv

!flst,2,3,4,orde,3

!fitem,2,2

!fitem,2,5

!fitem,2,11

lsel,s,,,2,5,3

lsel,a,,,11

lesize,all,,,nispan,1

!flst,2,3,4,orde,3

!fitem,2,4

!fitem,2,7

!fitem,2,9

lsel,s,,,4,7,3

lsel,a,,,9

lesize,all,,,nispan,rispan

!flst,2,6,4,orde,6

!fitem,2,1

!fitem,2,3

!fitem,2,6

!fitem,2,8

!fitem,2,10

!fitem,2,12

lsel,s,,,1,3,2

lsel,a,,,6,12,2

lesize,all,,,nilen,rilen

lsel,s,,,13,16

lesize,13,,,nolen,rolen

lesize,15,,,nolen,1./rolen

lesize,16,,,nospan,rospan

lesize,14,,,nospan,rospan

alls

!!!!!!! Define the mixing area...

!flst,2,8,3

!fitem,2,2

!fitem,2,12

!fitem,2,11

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!fitem,2,13

!fitem,2,16

!fitem,2,6

!fitem,2,5

!fitem,2,3

a,2,12,11,13,16,6,5,3

alls

/com ** CONSTRUCTION OF THE MESH

!!!!!!! Put triangles in the mixing area (5)

asel,s,,,5

et,1,141

mshape,1,2d

amesh,5

!!!!!!! Put a mapped mesh in the rectangles (quads)

asel,s,,,1,4

mshape,0,2d

mshkey,1

amesh,all

/com ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

!!!!!!! Wall boundary conditions

lsel,s,,,1,3,2

lsel,a,,,6,12,2

lsel,a,,,13,17,2

lsel,a,,,18,20

nsll,,1

d,all,vx,0

d,all,vy,0

!!!!!!! Define velocities, temperature at top, bottom, left

vtop=.1

vbot=.1

vlef=.1

lsel,s,,,7

nsll

d,all,vx,0

d,all,vy,-vtop

nsll,,1

d,all,temp,300

lsel,s,,,4

nsll

d,all,vx,vlef

d,all,vy,0

nsll,,1

d,all,temp,400

lsel,s,,,9

nsll

d,all,vx,0

d,all,vy,vbot

nsll,,1

d,all,temp,300

lsel,s,,,14

nsll,,1

d,all,pres,0

flda,conv,iter,5

save

finish

alls

/solu

/com ** FLOTRAN INPUT

flda,iter,exec,40

flda,temp,nomi,300 ! Initial temperature field is 300K

flda,prot,dens,air-si ! Initial solution will be for AIR

flda,vary,dens,true

flda,prot,visc,air-si

flda,vary,visc,true

flda,prot,cond,air-si

flda,vary,cond,true

flda,prot,spht,air-si

save

solve ! Solve 40 iterations with air at 300K

finish ! Prepare for species transport ...

/prep7

flda,prot,dens,cmix ! Composite mixture for density

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13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases

keyopt,1,1,3 ! Specify that there are 3 species

msdata,2 ! Specify species 2 (N2) as the algebraic species

!

!!!!!!! Species Property Input

msspec,1,o2,31.999

msprop,1,DENS,GAS,1.2998,300,1.01325E+5

msvary,1,dens,t

msnomf,1,.3

msprop,1,VISC,CONSTANT,1.2067E-5

msprop,1,mdif,CONSTANT,2.149E-5

msprop,1,cond,CONSTANT,.02674

mscap,1,1

!

msspec,2,n2,28.018

msprop,2,DENS,GAS,1.1381,300,1.01325E+5

msvary,2,dens,t

msnomf,2,.3

msprop,2,VISC,CONSTANT,1.786E-5

msprop,2,mdif,CONSTANT,1.601E-5

msprop,2,cond,CONSTANT,.02598

mscap,2,1

!

msspec,3,h2,2.016

msprop,3,DENS,GAS,0.0819,300,1.01325E+5

msvary,3,dens,t

msnomf,3,.4

msprop,3,VISC,CONSTANT,8.94E-6

msprop,3,mdif,CONSTANT,4.964E-5

msprop,3,cond,CONSTANT,.1815

mscap,3,1

!

msrelx,1,1.0

msrelx,3,1.0

msmeth,1,3

mssolu,1,,,2,1.e-8

msmeth,3,3

mssolu,3,,,2,1.e-8

alls

!!!!!!! Species boundary conditions

lsel,s,,,7

nsll,,1

d,all,o2,1.0

d,all,n2,0.0

d,all,h2,0.0

lsel,s,,,4

nsll,,1

d,all,o2,0.0

d,all,n2,1.0

d,all,h2,0.0

lsel,s,,,9

nsll,,1

d,all,o2,0.0

d,all,n2,0.0

d,all,h2,1.0

alls

!!!!!!! End of species boundary conditions

flda,iter,exec,20 ! Ask for 20 global iterations

flda,conv,outp,land ! Adjust convergence monitor output style

save

finish

/solu

solve ! 20 iterations with species activated

!

!Prepare for energy solution

flda,solu,temp,t ! Achieve a constant flow temperature solution

flda,solu,flow,f ! Freeze the flow field

flda,meth,temp,3 ! Activate PCCR solver

flda,conv,temp,1.e-10 ! Convergence criterion for PCCR

flda,iter,exec,5 ! Need only a few iterations for solution...

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

save

solve

!! Prepare for coupled solution

flda,solu,flow,t

solve

flda,iter,exec,50 ! Run 50 more iterations to refine solution

save

solve

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Chapter 14: Advection Discretization Options

When momentum, energy, species transport, turbulence or the compressible pressure equations are solved,

the advection term plays a significant role in the solution. When the advection term dominates over other

terms in the governing equations, it can lead to numerical instabilities. Accordingly, you must be careful

with the discretization of this particular term.

You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: monotone streamline upwind (MSU),

streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or collocated Galerkin (COLG). For the momentum, energy, tur-

bulence or compressible pressure equations, you specify the approach using one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA33,ADVM,Label,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

For the species transport equation, you specify the approach using one of the following:

Command(s): MSADV,SPNUM,MTHA

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

MSU tends to be first order accurate while SUPG and COLG are second order accurate. MSU produces diag-

onally dominant matrices and is generally quite robust. SUPG and COLG provide less diagonal dominance,

but are generally more accurate. COLG provides an exact energy balance for incompressible flows, even

with a coarse mesh. Special techniques may be required to achieve convergence using SUPG or COLG.

For more information on the approaches, consult the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechan-

ical Applications.

14.1. Using SUPG and COLG

14.2. Strategies for Difficult Solutions

For simple geometries and simple flows, the SUPG or COLG approach provides a convergent solution in a

straight forward fashion.

For laminar flow past obstacles, which generally produce regions of recirculation in the wake, you may need

to turn on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation using one of the following:

Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

For turbulent problems, FLOTRAN will sometimes display a message stating that the coefficient matrix has

a negative diagonal and the solution is probably divergent. You should then try turning on modified inertial

relaxation in the momentum equation or turbulence equation.

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Chapter 14: Advection Discretization Options

Command(s):

FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value or FLDATA34,MIR,TURB,Value

The modified inertial relaxation Value should be between 0.1 and 1.0. A larger Value leads to more relax-

ation. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use the smallest Value possible.

For complex geometries with turbulence and complex flow fields, you can employ the following techniques

to achieve a convergent solution with SUPG or COLG.

Set the turbulence ratio to a high value of 1 x 106 and the effective viscosity relaxation factor to a low

value of 0.1 using the following commands. These conditions provide the necessary diagonal dominance

until the solution enters the radius of convergence.

Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,1.0E6

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Model

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Param

Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,EVIS,0.1

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Achieve a convergent solution using MSU on all variables. Then, using the following command, perform

a restart employing SUPG or COLG on the momentum variables only. After achieving a convergent

solution, you can perform a restart again employing SUPG or COLG on the turbulence, pressure, tem-

perature and species variables.

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

Although the foregoing techniques might work on a coarse mesh, both may fail on a fine mesh. In this

case, you may have to resort to a transient algorithm which has the necessary diagonal dominance due

to the inertia term.

Although SUPG and COLG are more accurate than MSU, they may lead to spurious oscillations in the solution.

This may lead to nonphysical solutions or convergence difficulties. You may encounter negative temperatures

in the energy equation solution. In this case, you should refine the mesh in that region. You may also en-

counter negative turbulence values. Internally, FLOTRAN tries to reset these values to some realistic numbers,

but this may lead to a situation where the solution stalls. In this situation, you should try using MSU on

turbulence variables while retaining SUPG or COLG on momentum variables. The solution to the species

transport equation must be bounded between 0 and 1.0, and oscillations in the SUPG or COLG solution may

make this difficult to achieve even though capping has been turned on. If convergence is not achieved, you

should then refine the mesh.

A poor mesh, recirculating regions, or a strong swirl might cause the SUPG technique to have strong oscil-

lations in an axisymmetric analysis. Temperatures (or species concentrations) could be higher or lower than

any applied boundary conditions. The mesh should be refined or another advection discretization method

should be used.

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Acoustics

Chapter 1: Acoustics

Acoustics is the study of the generation, propagation, absorption, and reflection of sound pressure waves

in a fluid medium. Applications for acoustics include the following:

Design of concert halls, where an even distribution of sound pressure is desired

Noise minimization in machine shops

Noise cancellation in automobiles

Underwater acoustics

Design of speakers, speaker housings, acoustic filters, mufflers, and many other similar devices.

Geophysical exploration

An acoustic analysis, available in the ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Mechanical programs only, usually in-

volves modeling the fluid medium and the surrounding structure. Typical quantities of interest are the

pressure distribution in the fluid at different frequencies, pressure gradient, particle velocity, the sound

pressure level, as well as, scattering, diffraction, transmission, radiation, attenuation, and dispersion of

acoustic waves. A coupled acoustic analysis takes the fluid-structure interaction into account. An uncoupled

acoustic analysis models only the fluid and ignores any fluid-structure interaction.

The ANSYS program assumes that the fluid is compressible, but allows only relatively small pressure changes

with respect to the mean pressure. Also, the fluid is assumed to be non-flowing and inviscid (that is, viscosity

causes no dissipative effects). Uniform mean density and mean pressure are assumed, with the pressure

solution being the deviation from the mean pressure, not the absolute pressure.

1.1. Solving Acoustics Problems

1.2. Building the Model

1.3. Meshing the Model

1.4. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution

1.5. Reviewing Results

1.6. Fluid-Structure Interaction

1.7. Sample Applications

You can solve many acoustics problems by performing a harmonic response analysis. The analysis calculates

the pressure distribution in the fluid due to a harmonic (sinusoidally varying) load at the fluid-structure in-

terface. By specifying a frequency range for the load, you can observe the pressure distribution at various

frequencies. You can also perform modal and transient acoustic analyses. (See the Structural Analysis Guide

for more information on these types of analyses.)

The procedure for a harmonic acoustic analysis consists of three main steps:

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

Apply boundary conditions and loads and obtain the solution.

Review the results.

In this step, you specify the jobname and analysis title and then use the PREP7 preprocessor to define the

element types, element real constants, material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks, common

to most analyses, are described in the Basic Analysis Guide.

For a harmonic acoustic analysis, consider the following points:

Element Types - Four ANSYS element types are specifically designed for acoustic analyses: FLUID29, FLUID30,

FLUID220, and FLUID221. FLUID29 is used to model the fluid portion of 2-D model. FLUID30, FLUID220, and

FLUID221 are used to model the fluid portion of 3-D model. FLUID30 is 3-D 8-Node element. FLUID220 is

the higher order 20 node hexahedral element, and FLUID221 is the higher order 10 node tetrahedral element.

FLUID129 and FLUID130, companion elements to FLUID29 and FLUID30, are used to model an infinite envelope

around the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements. Use these element types to model the fluid portion, and then

use a corresponding structural element (PLANE182, SOLID185, etc.) for the solid. Only FLUID29 and FLUID30

elements can be in contact with structural elements (either on the inside or outside of the structure); FLUID129

and FLUID130 can contact only the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements, and not the structural elements directly.

For acoustic elements that are in contact with the solid, be sure to use KEYOPT(2) = 0, the default setting

that allows for fluid-structure interaction. This results in unsymmetric element matrices with UX, UY, UZ, and

PRES as the degrees of freedom. For all other acoustic elements, set KEYOPT(2) = 1, which results in symmetric

element matrices with the PRES degree of freedom. (See Figure 1.1 (p. 167).) Symmetric matrices require much

less storage and computer time, so use them wherever possible. For more information on fluid-structure

interaction, see Acoustics Fluid-Structure Coupling in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and

Mechanical Applications.

In FLUID220 and FLUID221, KEYOPT(4) is used to specify the existence of perfectly matched layers (PML) to

absorb the outgoing sound waves. Refer to Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) in the Mechanical APDL High-

Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information about using PML.

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1.2.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines

Structural elements

Acoustic elements

(FLUID29, FLUID30),

KEYOPT(2) = 0

Acoustic elements

(FLUID29, FLUID30),

KEYOPT(2) = 1

These infinite acoustic elements absorb the pressure waves, simulating the outgoing effects of a domain

that extends to infinity beyond the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements. FLUID129 and FLUID130 provide a

second-order absorbing boundary condition so that an outgoing pressure wave reaching the boundary of

the model is absorbed with minimal reflections back into the fluid domain.

FLUID129 is used to model the boundary of 2-D fluid regions and as such is a line element. FLUID130 is used

to model the boundary of 3-D fluid regions and as such is a plane surface element.

Material Properties - The acoustic elements require density (DENS) and speed of sound (SONC) as material

properties (FLUID129 and FLUID130 require only SONC). If sound absorption at the fluid-structure interface

exists, use the label MU to specify boundary admittance (absorption coefficient). Values of are usually

determined from experimental measurements. For the structural elements, specify the Young's modulus

(EX), density (DENS), and Poisson's ratio (PRXY or NUXY).

Real Constants - When using FLUID129 and FLUID130, the boundary of the underlying finite element mesh

must be circular (2-D and axisymmetric) or spherical (3-D), and the radius of the circular or spherical

boundary of the finite domain must be specified as real constant RAD. (See Figure 1.2 (p. 168).) The center

of the circle or sphere is also specified using real constants:

R,3,RAD,X0,Y0!REAL set 3 for FLUID129

R,3,RAD,X0,Y0,Z0!REAL set 3 for FLUID130

If the coordinates (X0, Y0) for the 2-D and axisymmetric cases or (X0, Y0, Z0) for the 3-D case of the center

of the circle or sphere are not specified via real constants, ANSYS assumes the center to be the origin of the

global coordinate system.

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

r

y

SOLID42

(vibrating beam)

FLUID29

(surrounding air)

FLUID129

(absorption surface to

simulate infinite extent of air)

REAL set for FLUID129; R,3,RAD,0,0

ts

( (

( (

(((

(

(

y

rs

water

x

cylindrical shell

vacuum

A typical meshing procedure using the 2-D infinite acoustic elements follows. The procedure is the same

with 3-D elements. If you have a structural component as well, the structural elements must lie next to the

FLUID29 elements, and cannot lie next to the infinite fluid elements (FLUID129).

This process automatically adds the FLUID129 elements on the boundary of the finite domain. Here an an-

nular structural ring is meshed with PLANE182 structural elements. The layer of fluid elements in touch with

PLANE182 elements is modeled using FLUID29 with UX and UY DOFs and with the fluid-structure interface

turned on. The outer layers of fluid are modeled using FLUID29 without the UX and UY DOFs. The radius

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1.3.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements

for placing FLUID129 is 0.31242 (see Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements (p. 169)) with X0 = Y0 = 0.

You define the FLUID129 elements using:

Command(s): ESURF

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

Mesh the interior fluid domain that is bounded by a circular or spherical boundary (PLANE182) with FLUID29

elements.

FLUID29

PLANE42

(structural

component)

circular boundary

Follow these steps:

Command(s): NSEL

GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities

2. Specify FLUID129 as the infinite fluid element type associated with the FLUID29 element.

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete

The infinite elements perform well for low as well as high frequency excitations. Numerical experiments

have determined that the placement of the absorbing elements at a distance of approximately 0.2

beyond the region occupied by the structure or source of vibration can produce accurate solutions.

Here = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves. c is the speed of sound (SONC) in the

fluid and f is the dominant frequency of the pressure wave. For example, in the case of a submerged

circular or spherical shell of diameter D, the radius of the enclosing boundary, RAD, should be at least

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

(D/2) + 0.2 . Also, for acoustic analysis in general, the mesh must be fine enough to resolve the

smallest dominant frequency.

3. Generate the absorption elements (FLUID129) on the boundary.

Command(s): ESURF

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

circular boundary

CSYS,2

NSEL,s,loc,x,rb

ESURF

rb

y

Specify the fluid-structure interface:

Command(s): NSEL

GUI: Utility Menu> Select Entities

2. Select the fluid elements attached to this set of nodes.

Command(s): ESEL

GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities

3. Specify the selected nodes as fluid-structure interface nodes.

Command(s): SF

GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid-Struct Intr> On Nodes

Note

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1.4.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options

SOLID42

(type-1)

FLUID29 rst ts

(type-2) x

Fluid-structure interface

NSEL,s,x,loc,x,(rst ts)

ESLN,s,0

ESEL,r,type,,2

SF,all,FSI

In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and initiate the

finite element solution. The next few sections explain how to do these tasks.

Enter the SOLUTION processor by choosing GUI path Main Menu> Solution or by executing the /SOLU

command.

Using either the GUI or a set of commands, define the analysis type and analysis options.

Command(s): ANTYPE,HARMIC

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis

You must choose New Analysis because restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis. If you need

to apply additional harmonic loads, do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure

described in the Basic Analysis Guide).

To specify the solution method, use one of the following:

Command(s): HROPT

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options

Although full, reduced, or mode superposition methods are options, choose the full method because it alone

can handle unsymmetric matrices.

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

Command(s): HROUT

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options

This option determines how ANSYS lists the harmonic degree-of-freedom solution in the printed output

(Jobname.OUT).

Command(s): EQSLV

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options

You can choose the sparse direct solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the Incomplete

Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. The JCG solver is recommended for most models.

A harmonic analysis, by definition, assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with

time. To completely specify a harmonic load in an acoustic analysis, two pieces of information are usually

required: the amplitude and the forcing frequency. The amplitude is the maximum value of the load, which

you specify using the commands shown in Table 1.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis (p. 173).

The forcing frequency is the frequency of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). You specify it later as a load

step option with the HARFRQ command (Main Menu> Solution> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps). Step

5: Specify Load Step Options (p. 175) describes this task.

Table 1.1: Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis (p. 172) shows all possible loads for a harmonic acoustic

analysis and the commands to define, list, and delete them. Notice that except for inertia loads, you can

define loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes

and elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads, see "Loading" and

"Solution" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

Load Type Category Cmd Family GUI Path

Displacement Constraints D Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define

(UX,UY,UZ), Loads> Apply> Structural> Displace-

ment or Potential

Pressure (PRES) Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>

Apply> Structural> Displacement

Force (FX,FX,FZ), Forces F Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define

Loads> Apply> Force/Moment

Moment (MX,MY,MZ), Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>

Apply> Force/Moment

Flow loading

Pressure (PRES) Surface SF Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define

Loads Loads> Apply> load type

Impedance boundary Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>

flag (IMPD) Apply> load type

Fluid-structure interac-

tion flag (FSI)

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1.4.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model

Gravity, Spinning, etc. Inertia Loads ACEL, Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define

OMEGA, Loads> Apply> load type

DOMEGA, Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>

CGLOC, Apply> load type

CGOMGA,

DCGOMG,

IRLF

You access all loading operations except List (see below) through a series of cascading menus. From the

Solution menu, you choose the operation (apply, etc.), then the load type (displacement, force, etc.), and

then the object (keypoint, etc.) to which you are applying the load.

For example, to apply a displacement load to a line, follow this GUI path: Main Menu> Solution> Define

Loads> Apply> Displacement> On Lines

To list loads, use this GUI path: Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type

Table 1.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis (p. 173) lists all the commands you can use to

apply loads in an acoustic analysis.

Load Type Solid Entity Apply Delete List Operate Apply

Mod- Settings

el or

FE

Displacement, Solid Keypo- DK DKDELE DKLIST DTRAN -

Pressure Model ints

Solid Lines DL DLDELE DLLIST DTRAN -

Model

Solid Areas DA DADELE DALIST DTRAN -

Model

Finite Nodes D DDELE DLIST DSCALE DCUM

Elem

Force, Moment Solid Keypo- FK FKDELE FKLIST FTRAN -

Model ints

Finite Nodes F FDELE FLIST FSCALE FCUM

Elem

Pressure, Im- Solid Lines SFL SFLDELE SFLLIST SFTRAN SFGRAD

pedance Model

boundary flag, Solid Areas SFA SFADELE SFALIST SFTRAN SFGRAD

Fluid-Structure Model

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

Mod- Settings

el or

FE

Interaction Finite Nodes SF SFDELE SFLIST SFSCALE SFCUM ,

Flag Elem SFGRAD

Finite Ele- SFE SFEDELE SFELIST SFSCALE SFBEAM,

Elem ments SFCUM,

SFFUN,

SFGRAD

Inertia - - ACEL, CG- - - - -

LOC,

CGOMGA,

DCGOMG,

OMEGA,

DOMEGA,

IRLF

Displacements (UX, UY, UZ) and pressures (PRES)

These are DOF (degree-of-freedom) constraints. For example, you specify zero displacements at a rigid fluid-

structure interface. You may also specify nonzero displacements, but remember that they are assumed to

be harmonic. You usually specify zero pressures at free fluid boundaries (where the fluid is not enclosed,

such as at an opening).

Usually, you specify these loads on the solid portion of the model to "excite" the fluid.

Flow Load

This is a mass flow rate per unit time (for example, kg/sec/sec in SI units). It represents a pulsating mass

flow rate at a node. Specify it using the FLOW force label:

Command(s): F,,FLOW

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes

Pressure (PRES)

You can specify surface loads on the solid portion instead of forces and moments.

These are not really loads but indicate surfaces that absorb sound. Specify the degree of sound absorption

as the material property MU (boundary admittance or absorption coefficient).

This denotes an interface surface between the fluid and structure part of the model.

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1.4.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options

For problems with fluid-structure interaction on both sides of a structure (e.g., a submerged plate), mesh

the structure with solid elements to provide two distinct fluid-interaction surfaces. For problems with fluid-

structure interaction on only one side of a structure, mesh the structure with shell or solid elements.

You have the following options for a harmonic acoustic analysis:

Option Com- GUI Path

mand

Dynamics Options

Forcing frequency HAR- Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Fre-

range FRQ quenc> Freq & Substeps

General Options

Number of harmonic NSUBST Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Fre-

solutions quenc> Freq & Substeps

Stepped or ramped KBC Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Fre-

loads quenc> Freq & Substeps

Output Controls

Control of printed OUT- Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

output PR

Database and results OUTRES Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

file output

Extrapolation of res- ERESX Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt

ults

The only valid option in this category is the forcing frequency range, which must be defined (in cycles/time)

for a harmonic analysis. Within this range, you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. (See

"General Options.")

You can request any number of harmonic solutions (via the NSUBST command or its equivalent GUI path)

to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the previously specified frequency

range. For example, if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the re-

sponse at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.

The loads may be stepped or ramped (via KBC or its GUI counterpart). By default, they are ramped; that is,

the load value increases gradually with each substep. By stepping the loads, you maintain the same load

value for all substeps in the frequency range.

Use OUTPR or its GUI equivalent if you want to include any results data on the printed output file (Job-

name.OUT). OUTRES and its GUI counterpart control the data on the results file (Jobname.RST). ERESX

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

and its GUI path allow you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead

of extrapolating them (default).

Note

By default, the program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file. If you

want all substeps (the solution at all frequencies) on the results file, be sure to set the FREQ field

on OUTRES to ALL (or 1).

Save a backup copy of the database on a named file using Utility Menu> File> Save as or the SAVE com-

mand. Doing so enables you to retrieve your model should your computer abort during the solution. (To

retrieve a model, reenter ANSYS and then issue the RESUME command or choose Utility Menu> File> Re-

sume.)

If you wish to apply additional load steps, repeat steps 5 and 6.

Solve the analysis and then finish.

Command(s): SOLVE

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

Command(s): FINISH

GUI: Main Menu> Finish

The ANSYS program writes results from a harmonic acoustic analysis to the structural results file, Job-

name.RST. Results consist of the following data, all of which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency

for which the solution was calculated:

Primary data

Nodal pressures

Nodal displacements

Derived data

Nodal and element pressure gradients

Nodal and element stresses

Element forces

Nodal reaction forces

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1.7.1. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)

The interaction of the fluid and the structure at a mesh interface causes the acoustic pressure to exert a

force applied to the structure and the structural motions produce an effective "fluid load." The governing

finite element matrix equations then become:

[Ms ] {U

} + [K f ] {P} = {Ff } o [R]T {U

[Mf ] {P }

[R] is a "coupling" matrix that represents the effective surface area associated with each node on the fluid-

structure interface (FSI). The coupling matrix [R] also takes into account the direction of the normal vector

defined for each pair of coincident fluid and structural element faces that comprises the interface surface.

The positive direction of the normal vector, as the ANSYS program uses it, is defined to be outward from

the fluid mesh and in towards the structure. Both the structural and fluid load quantities that are produced

at the fluid-structure interface are functions of unknown nodal degrees of freedom. Placing these unknown

"load" quantities on the left hand side of the equations and combining the two equations into a single

equation produces the following:

Ms O U K s R U Fs

+ =

oR

T

Mf P O K f P Ff

The foregoing equation implies that nodes on a fluid-structure interface have both displacement and pressure

degrees of freedom.

The three example problems presented here illustrate the application of the acoustic elements. The first

example shows the use of the acoustic absorption elements in modeling far-field problems. The second ex-

ample is a near-field problem showing the use of standing wave prediction in an enclosed space. The third

example is a problem with radiation from two waveguides, where perfectly matched layers (PML) are used

to simulate absorption.

Method)

In this problem you will determine the first flexural mode (egg mode) frequency of an annular ring submerged

in water which extends to infinity. You will perform a harmonic analysis using a frequency sweep between

34 and 38 Hz. The distance from the center of the ring to the infinite elements will at least be equal to (D/2)

+ 0.2 where D is the outer diameter of the ring and = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure

waves. Using 0.26035 for the outer radius of the ring, 1460 for the speed of sound (c), and 36 for the estimated

dominant frequency (f ), gives (D/2) + 0.2 = 0.26035 + (0.2)(1460)/36 = 8.37146. However, this is much

greater than the distance required when using the acoustic infinite element and a distance of 2 times the

outer radius of the ring will be used ( 2 x .26035 = .5207), as shown in the command listing.

/BATCH,LIST

/VERIFY,EV129-1S

/PREP7

/TITLE,AMA,EV129-1S,FLUID129,HARMONIC ANALYSIS

ET,1,PLANE182 ! structural element

ET,2,FLUID29 ! acoustic fluid element with ux & uy

et,3,129 ! acoustic infinite line element

r,3,0.5207,0,0

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

! material properties

MP,EX,1,2.068e11

MP,DENS,1,7929

MP,NUXY,1,0

MP,DENS,2,1030

MP,SONC,2,1460

! create inner and outer quarter circles

CYL4,0,0,0.254,0,0.26035,90

CYL4,0,0,0.26035,0,0.5207,90

! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 1

ASEL,S,AREA,,1

AATT,1,1,1,0

LESIZE,1,,,16,1

LESIZE,3,,,16,1

LESIZE,2,,,1,1

LESIZE,4,,,1,1

MSHKEY,1

MSHAPE,0,2D ! mapped quad mesh

AMESH,1

! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 2

ASEL,S,AREA,,2

AATT,2,1,2,0

LESIZE,5,,,16,1

LESIZE,7,,,16,1

LESIZE,6,,,5

LESIZE,8,,,5

MSHKEY,0

MSHAPE,0,2D ! mapped quad mesh

AMESH,2

! reflect quarter circle into semicircle about x-axis

nsym,x,1000,all ! offset node number by 1000

esym,,1000,all

! reflect semicircle into full circle about y-axis

nsym,y,2000,all ! offset node number by 2000

esym,,2000,all

NUMMRG,ALL ! merge all quantities

! modify outer 2 layers of el29 into type 4

esel,s,type,,1

nsle,s

esln,s,0

nsle,s

esel,inve

nsle,s

emodif,all,type,4

esel,all

nsel,all

! define el129 line element

csys,1

nsel,s,loc,x,0.5207

type,3

real,3

mat,2

esurf

esel,all

nsel,all

! flag interface as fluid-structure interface

nsel,s,loc,x,0.26035

esel,s,type,,2

sf,all,fsi,1

nsel,all

esel,all

FINISH

! enter solution module

/SOLU

ANTYPE,harmic ! select harmonic analysis

hropt,full

f,19,fx,1000.

f,1019,fx,-1000.

harfrq,34.,38.

nsubst,100

kbc,1

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1.7.2. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)

SOLVE

FINISH

! postprocess

/post26

plcplx,0

nsol,2,1,u,x,d1ux

store

conjug,3,2

prod,4,2,3

sqrt,5,4

*get,uxmx,vari,5,extrem,tmax

/COM -------------------------------------------------------------

/COM Expected Result:

/COM

/COM The following "uxmx" should equal 34.52 Hz.

/COM -------------------------------------------------------------

*status,uxmx

finish

This sample problem demonstrates the use of FLUID30 to predict the acoustic standing wave pattern of a

typical enclosure representing a room. A sound-absorption material is located at the bottom surface of the

enclosure and a vibrating structure with a cylindrical surface is located at the top right hand corner of the

enclosure. This problem will determine the acoustic pressure wave pattern when the structure vibrates at

an excitation frequency of 80 HZ.

/batch,list

/com, Harmonic Analysis - Room Acoustics

/PREP7

/TITLE,Room Acoustic Analysis

ANTYPE,HARM

ET,1,30 ! Acoustic elements in contact with walls and vibrating surface

ET,2,30,,1 ! Acoustic elements in interior (not in contact with walls)

YDIV=19 ! Number of divisions along y-axis

ZDIV=1 ! Number of divisions along z-axis

CDIV=2 ! Number of divisions along radius

LEN=27

HGT=20

RAD=0.9

! Mesh generation

K,1

K,2,LEN

K,3,LEN,HGT

K,4,,HGT

K,5,,,-1

K,6,LEN,,-1

K,7,LEN,HGT,-1

K,8,,HGT,-1

L,1,5,1

L,2,6,1

L,3,7,1

L,4,8,1

CIRC,3,RAD,7,2,90,2

ADRAG,5,6,,,,, 3

PIO4=ATAN(1)

LENC=COS(PIO4)

LENC=LENC*RAD

HGTC=HGT-LENC

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

LENC=LEN-LENC

K,15,,HGTC

K,16,,HGTC,-1

K,17,LENC

K,18,LENC,,-1

L,1 ,17,XDIV

L,10,15,XDIV

L,11,4 ,XDIV

L,17,10,YDIV

L,15, 1,YDIV

L,2 ,9 ,YDIV

L,5 ,18,XDIV

L,13,16,XDIV

L,14,8 ,XDIV

L,18,13,YDIV

L,16,5 ,YDIV

L,6 ,12,YDIV

ESIZE,,CDIV

V,1 ,17,10,15, 5,18,13,16

V,15,10,11,4 ,16,13,14,8

V,17,2 ,9 ,10,18,6 ,12,13

VMESH,ALL

! Material properties

MP,SONC,1,1100.0 ! (C) speed of sound in air (ft/sec)

MP,MU,1,0.04 ! (Beta) absorption coefficient of the walls

! ('Beta' should be between 0 - 1)

MP,DENS,2,2.35E-3

MP,SONC,2,1100.0

MP,MU,2,0.70 ! (Beta) absorption coefficient of

! the absorbing material on the floor

! ('Beta' should be between 0 -1)

MP,DENS,3,2.35E-3

MP,SONC,3,1100.0

MP,MU,3,0.0 ! (Beta) zero absorption coefficient for interior elements

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,12,15

ESLN

MAT,2

EMODIF,ALL ! Elements which have the absorbing material on the floor

! Boundary conditions

ALLS

NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0

NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN

NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT

D,ALL,UX,,,,,UY,UZ! Constrain all displacements to zero at the walls

LOCAL,11,1,27,20

NSEL,A,LOC,X,RAD

ESLN

ESEL,INVE

TYPE,2

MAT,3

EMODIF,ALL ! Interior elements are specified as Type=2 & material=3

ALLS

ESLN ! Select elements attached to interface surface

SF,ALL,FSI ! Specify vibrating surface as Fluid-structure interface

NROTAT,ALL

D,ALL,UX,.01 ! Radial vibration amplitude of Vibrating surface

D,ALL,UY,,,,,UZ

CSYS,0

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1.7.3. Example 2: Radiation From Two Waveguides

ALLS

NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0

NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN

NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT

SF,ALL,IMPD,1 ! Specify the walls as Impedance Surface flag

! to activate absorption

ALLS

FINISH

/SOLU

SOLVE

FINISH

/POST1

/SHOW,ENCL1,GRPH,1

SET,1,1 ! plot the real part of pressure response

EPLOT

/EDGE,1

/TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * REAL PART OF PRESSURE

PLNS,PRES

SET,1,1,,1 ! plot the imag. part of pressure response

/TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * IMAG. PART OF PRESSURE

PLNS,PRES

FINISH

This sample problem demonstrates the use of FLUID220 to predict the acoustic standing wave pattern. A

sound-absorption material is located at the surfaces of the enclosure, which is modeled by using PML. Refer

to Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) in the Mechanical APDL High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for

more information about using PML

/batch

/prep7

! structure dimensions

pi=3.1415926535

k=8*pi

c0=340

freq=k*c0/(2*pi)

! define elements and material

et,11,200,7

et,1,220,,1 ! acoustic

et,2,220,,1,,1 ! pml

mp,dens,1,1.

mp,sonc,1,c0

d=0.1

l=1.

s=0.5

a=2

dpml=0.25

h=d/2

rect,-l,0,s/2,s/2+d

rect,-l,0,-s/2,-s/2-d

rect,0,a,-a/2,a/2

rect,0,a+dpml,-a/2-dpml,a/2+dpml

asba,4,3,,delete,keep

aglue,all

esize,h

type,11

amesh,all

mshape,0

mshkey,0

asel,all

asel,u,,,5

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Chapter 1: Acoustics

esla

type,1

mat,1

esize,,1

vext,all,,,0,0,d,

asel,s,,,5

type,2,

mat,1

esize,,1

vext,all,,,0,0,d,

asel,s,loc,z,0

aclear,all

alls

nummrg,all

! define boundary condition

nsel,s,loc,x,a+dpml

nsel,a,loc,y,-a/2-dpml

nsel,a,loc,y,a/2+dpml

d,all,pres,0.

! hard excitation source

nsel,s,loc,x,-l

d,all,pres,1

alls

fini

! perform solution

/solu

eqslv,sparse

antype,harmic

harfrq,freq

solve

fini

/post26

/out

prcplx,0

nsel,s,loc,x,0

nsel,r,loc,y,s/2+d

*get,A1,node,0,num,max

nsel,s,loc,x,0

nsel,r,loc,y,s/2

*get,A2,node,0,num,max

nsel,s,loc,x,0

nsel,r,loc,y,-s/2-d

*get,B1,node,0,num,max

nsel,s,loc,x,0

nsel,r,loc,y,-s/2

*get,B2,node,0,num,max

nsel,s,loc,x,a

nsel,r,loc,y,a/2

*get,C1,node,0,num,max

nsel,s,loc,x,a

nsel,r,loc,y,-a/2

*get,C2,node,0,num,max

allsel

nsol,2,A1,pres,,Input_A1

nsol,3,A2,pres,,Input_A2

nsol,4,B1,pres,,Input_B1

nsol,5,B2,pres,,Input_B2

nsol,6,C1,pres,,Output_C1

nsol,7,C2,pres,,Output_C2

/com ***************Results****************************

prvar,2,4,

prvar,3,5,

prvar,6,7

/com *******************************************************

fini

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Thin Film

Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

A thin film is a small gap of fluid between moving surfaces. This thin layer of fluid can alter the structural

response of the structure by adding stiffness and/or damping to the system. Movement normal to the gap

produces a squeeze film effect. Movement tangential to the gap produces a slide film effect.

Thin film effects are important in macrostructures, but they are particularly critical in microstructures where

the damping and stiffening effects of thin layers of air can significantly affect the behavior of devices used

in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Squeeze film effects are important in devices such as accelero-

meters and micromirrors. Slide film effects are important in devices such as comb drives.

One method for assessing the effect of thin films is to use thin film fluid elements based on the Reynolds

number (which is known from lubrication technology and rarified gas physics) to calculate the stiffening

and damping effects. These effects can then be added to the overall system model. Separate element types

are used to assess squeeze and slide film effects.

The governing Reynolds equation limits the application of thin film analyses to structures with lateral dimen-

sions much greater than the gap separation. In addition, the pressure change across the gap must be much

smaller than the ambient (i.e., surrounding) pressure, and any viscous heating effects must be ignored. If

these three conditions are not satisfied, then the effects of the thin film cannot be assessed using thin film

elements. For those situations, the Navier Stokes equations must be solved using FLOTRAN to assess the

effect of the fluid.

1.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films

1.2. Squeeze Film Analysis

1.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis

1.4. Slide Film Damping

The ANSYS program has three elements for modeling thin film effects. FLUID136 and FLUID138 are used to

model squeeze film effects. FLUID139 is used to model slide film effects.

Element Dimens. Shape or Characteristic DOF

FLUID136 3-D Quadrilateral, 4 or 8-node PRES

FLUID138 3-D Line, 2-node PRES

FLUID139 1-D Line, 2-node UX or UY or

UZ

Squeeze film analysis simulates the effects of fluid in small gaps between fixed surfaces and structures

moving perpendicular to the surfaces. Depending on the operating frequencies, the fluid can add stiffening

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

and/or damping to the system. At low frequencies, the fluid can escape before it compresses. Therefore, the

fluid only adds damping to the system. At high frequencies, the fluid compresses before it can escape.

Therefore, the fluid adds both stiffening and damping to the system.

A static analysis is used to determine the damping effects at low frequencies. A harmonic analysis is used

to determine the stiffening and damping effects at high frequencies.

The FLUID136 element is used to model the fluid domain between a fixed surface and a structure moving

normally to that surface. The fluid domain is modeled by overlaying FLUID136 elements on the moving

surface of the structure (i.e., lower surface of the structure adjacent to the fixed wall).

The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop through holes in a moving structure. Microstructures

are commonly perforated to reduce the damping effects of the fluid layer. FLUID138 elements are used in

conjunction with FLUID136 elements to obtain a consistent pressure distribution, including the effects of

holes.

A squeeze film analysis can be performed on structures with known velocities or unknown velocities. If the

velocity profile is known, you can apply it directly to the fluid elements. If the velocity profile is not known

(or is too complicated), it can be determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (model

projection method). This section deals with directly applying the velocities. Modal Projection Method for

Squeeze Film Analysis (p. 201) covers the modal projection method.

1.2.1. Static Analysis Overview

1.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview

1.2.3.Transient Response Analysis Overview

1.2.4. Flow Regime Considerations

1.2.5. Modeling and Meshing Considerations

1.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options

1.2.7. Loads and Solution

1.2.8. Review Results

1.2.9. Sample Harmonic Analysis

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1.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview

1.2.11. Complex Transient Analysis

Use a static analysis to calculate the pressure distribution for low operating frequencies, where the compres-

sion of the fluid (and thus the stiffening effect) is negligible. The resulting pressure distribution can then be

used to extract a damping coefficient that reflects the damping effect of the fluid.

F

C=

vz

F is the total pressure force at the fluid structure interface and vz is the normal velocity component of the

moving structure. A typical pressure distribution on a rectangular plate is shown in Figure 1.3 (p. 187).

Use a harmonic analysis to calculate the complex pressure distribution for high operating frequencies. The

complex pressure distribution can be used to extract a damping coefficient and a stiffness coefficient. The

phase shift between the pressure and the velocity is caused by compression of the fluid. The real pressure

component contributes to the damping of the system. The imaginary pressure component contributes to

the stiffening of the system.

FRe FIm

C= K=

vz vz

FRe is the real component of the pressure force. FIm is the imaginary component of the pressure force. Omega

() is the frequency (rad/sec). The damping and stiffness coefficients are frequency-dependent. Figure

1.4 (p. 187) illustrates the frequency dependency for a typical microsystem application.

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

The DMPEXT command is used to extract frequency-dependent damping parameters for use with the

MDAMP, DMPRAT, ALPHAD, and BETAD command inputs.

A transient analysis is often necessary (for example, in problems where a moving structure closes the gap).

When there is contact, it is prudent to use a nonlinear analysis to model the contact more accurately. A linear

transient analysis can be performed when the gap between a moving structure and a fixed surface remains

relatively large. For information on the linear and nonlinear Reynolds equatons, refer to Flow Between Flat

Surfaces in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

For transient analysis example problems, see Simplified Transient Analysis (p. 194) and Complex Transient

Analysis (p. 196).

The Reynolds squeeze film approach assumes a continuous fluid flow regime. To ensure a continuous flow

regime, the characteristic length (i.e., gap thickness) must be more than one hundred times larger than the

mean free path of the fluid particles.

L0 P0

Lm (p0 ) =

p0

Lm(po) is the mean free path of the fluid at the operating pressure P0, and L0 is the mean path at reference

pressure P0. If the fluid is air at atmospheric pressure (1.01325*105), then by definition L0 is approximately

64*10-9 meters (64 m). So, for continuum theory to be directly applicable (without modification) to air at

atmospheric pressure, the gap should be greater than 6.4 m (64*10-9 meters * 100).

The applicability of the continuum theory is generally assessed using the Knudsen number, which is equal

to the mean free fluid path divided by the gap. For continuum theory to be valid, the Knudsen number

should be less than 0.01.

L L P

Kn = m = 0 0

d p0 d

For high Knudsen numbers, the continuum theory is not valid. However, the dynamic viscosity can be adjusted

to simulate the high Knudsen number flow regime. The default flow regime for FLUID136 and FLUID138 is

continuum theory (KEYOPT(1) = 0). Set KEYOPT (1) = 1 to specify the high Knudsen number flow regime.

For FLUID136, set KEYOPT(1) = 2 to specify the high Knudsen number flow regime with surface accommod-

ation factors.

The type of reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface is specified using accommodation factors.

Squeeze film models assume diffuse reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface (accommodation

factor = 1). This assumption is valid for most metals, but is less accurate for micromachined surfaces, partic-

ularly those fabricated from silicon. Materials such as silicon cause specular reflection. Typical accommodation

factors for silicon are between 0.80 and 0.90. For more information on accommodation factors, see Flow

Between Flat Surfaces in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

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1.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options

The methods used to model and mesh the fluid domain depend on the squeeze film analysis method. If the

velocities are directly applied to the fluid elements, the fluid elements can be independent of the structure.

If the velocities are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (modal projection

method), the fluid elements cannot be independent of the structure.

In the modal projection method, the FLUID136 elements must lie on the surface of the structural mesh. Use

the ESURF command to overlay FLUID136 elements on the surface of an existing structural mesh. FLUID136

supports 4-node and 8-node options, along with degenerative triangles.

The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop in the channels (holes) in a structure as shown

in Figure 1.2 (p. 186). The element supports a circular hole configuration and a rectangular hole configuration

(KEYOPT(3)). The element works in conjunction with FLUID136 to correctly compute the pressure distribution

on the structure's surface and through the channels. To correctly model the FLUID138 element:

1. Use a single FLUID138 element for each hole.

2. Align the FLUID138 element at the center of the hole. The element should extend through the depth

of the hole and have a length equal to the depth of the hole.

3. Assume the pressure at the center of the hole (flush with the plate surface in the thin film region) is

at the same pressure as the nodes modeled at the periphery of the hole. Couple the nodes of the

FLUID136 element at the whole periphery with the node of the FLUID138 element as shown in Figure

1.5 (p. 189).

Figure 1.5 Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138

Element

FLUID138 element

with the first node of the

FLUID138 element

elements lie underneath the

structure on the thin film surface.

A thin film analysis using FLUID136 and FLUID138 can be a linear or nonlinear solution for both a static and

a transient analysis. No special analysis options or load step options are required. See the Basic Analysis Guide

for general guidelines on defining the analysis type and analysis options.

Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. For a harmonic response analysis, you must use the full

method.

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

The fluid elements support pressure loads at the nodal PRES degrees of freedom and velocity body loads

(FLUE) at the node or element as shown in Table 1.2: Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements (p. 190). Pressure

loads are applied using the D family of commands. The velocity load is applied using the BF family of

commands. For the velocity load, a positive velocity load will cause a positive pressure. For a harmonic re-

sponse analysis, a positive velocity load will cause a positive in-phase pressure load. See Applying Body

Loads for details on applying body loads.

Note

Velocity body loads (FLUE) are the velocities of the moving wall in a direction normal to the wall.

They are not in-plane velocities of the fluid.

Load Type ANSYS Label

Pressure Nodal DOF PRES

Normal Velocity Body Load FLUE

The recommended equation solvers for the fluid elements are the Sparse Direct Solver (SPARSE), the Jacobi

Conjugate Gradient Solver (JCG) and the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient Solver (ICCG).

Results from a thin film fluid analysis are stored on the Jobname.RST file. The primary result from the fluid

analysis is the nodal pressures. For a harmonic response analysis, the pressures are stored as complex values

(Real and Imaginary components). "The General Postprocessor (POST1)" discusses reading results into the

database and viewing the nodal degree of freedom (pressure) results.

Each fluid element computes and stores results for the mid-plane fluid velocity (PG) and effective viscosity.

Use the element table to retrieve and view these results.

To compute the damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients from the resulting pressure distribution on the

surface of a structure, use the element table tools to compute the force on a per-element basis, then sum

over all elements to compute the coefficients. The following command sequence demonstrates how to do

this task. This example assumes parameters omega and velo exist (frequency and normal velocity (FLUE

loading), respectively).

set,1,1 ! store Real solution

etable,presR,temp ! extract "Real" pressure

etable,earea,volu ! extract element area

smult,forR,presR,earea ! compute "Real" force

ssum ! sum over all elements

*get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR ! get the total "real" force

set,1,1,,1 ! store Imaginary solution

etable,presI,temp ! extract "Imaginary" pressure

smult,forI,presI,earea ! compute "Imaginary" force

ssum ! sum over all elements

*get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI ! get the total "imaginary" force

C=abs(Fre/velo) ! Compute damping coefficient

*stat,K

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Results

*stat,C

Problem Description

A rectangular beam with perforated holes under transverse motion is modeled to compute the effective

damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients. The thin film surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136

elements. FLUID138 elements are used to model the hole regions. By altering the boundary condition of

the free FLUID138 node, we can simulate different pressure boundary conditions of the hole region. The

purpose of the analysis is to compute the equivalent squeeze stiffness and damping coefficient for an assumed

uniform plate velocity. A harmonic response analysis is performed at 150 kHz. A previous modal analysis

indicated that the pertinent eigenfrequency was 150 kHz. Since the analysis is linear, the magnitude of the

velocity can be arbitrary for computing the coefficients.

2. Holes modeled with finite resistance (FLUID138 elements modeled, pressure set to zero on fluid node

at top of plate).

3. Holes modeled with infinite resistance (no pressure specification at hole location, no FLUID138 elements).

Case 1 is typical for large diameter holes compared to the hole depth. Case 3 is typical for very high flow

resistance, which happens in the case of narrow and long holes. Case 2 is the most accurate case where the

fluid pressure drop is taken into account by the FLUID138 elements.

Results

Table 1.3: Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes (p. 191) lists the damping and squeeze coefficient

results. Figure 1.6 (p. 192) and Figure 1.7 (p. 192) illustrate the real and imaginary pressure distribution. The

input file for case 2 is listed.

Frequency Hole option Damping Coeffi- Squeeze stiffness coefficient

(kHz.) cient

150 Infinite resist- 2.016e-5 1.201

ance

150 Finite resistance 1.325e-5 .5465

150 No resistance 1.165e-5 .4607

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

Command Listing

The input file for this example is shown below for the finite-resistance Case 2

/batch,list

/PREP7

/title, Damping and Squeeze film stiffness calculations for a rigid

/com, plate with holes

/com uMKS units

ET, 2,138,1 ! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number

s_l1=60 ! Plate hole location

s_w=20 ! Plate width

s_t=1 ! Plate thickness

c_r=3 ! Hole radius

d_el=2 ! Gap

pamb=.1 ! ambient pressure (MPa)

visc=18.3e-12 ! viscosity kg/(um)(s)

velo=2000 ! arbitrary velocity (um/s)

freq=150000 ! Frequency (Hz.)

pi=3.14159

omega=2*pi*freq ! Frequency (rad/sec)

pref=.1 ! Reference pressure (MPa)

mfp=64e-3 ! mean free path (um)

Knud=mfp/d_el ! Knudsen number

mp,visc,2,visc ! Dynamic viscosity holes

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Command Listing

rmore,pref,mfp

rmore,pref,mfp

pcirc,c_r ! Hole domain

agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3

agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3

ASBA, 1, all

TYPE, 1

MAT, 1

smrtsize,4

AMESH, all ! Mesh plate domain

*do,i,1,5

nsel,all

*GET, numb, node, , num, max ! Create nodes for link elements

N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,,

N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t

TYPE,2

MAT, 2

REAL,2

NSEL, all

E, numb+1, numb+2 ! Define 2-D link element

ESEL, s, type,,1

NSLE,s,1

local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3

csys,11

NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r ! Select all nodes on the hole circumference

NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1

*GET, next, node, , num, min

CP, i, pres, numb+1, next

nsel,u,node, ,numb+1

nsel,u,node, ,next

CP, i, pres,all !Coupled DOF set for constant pressure

csys,0

*enddo

! End hole generation

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w

nsel,a,loc,y,s_w

nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9

d,all,pres ! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

nsel,all

esel,s,type,,2

nsle,s,1

nsel,r,loc,z,s_t

d,all,pres,0 ! P=0 at top of plate

dlist,all

allsel

fini

finish

/solu

antyp,harm ! Full Harmonic analysis

harfrq,freq

solve

finish

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

/post1

esel,s,type,,1

set,1,1

etable,presR,pres ! extract "Real" pressure

etable,earea,volu

smult,forR,presR,earea ! compute "Real" force

ssum

*get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR

set,1,1,,1

etable,presI,pres ! extract "Imaginary" pressure

smult,forI,presI,earea ! compute "Imaginary" pressure

ssum

*get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI

C=abs(Fre/velo) ! Compute equivalent damping

*stat,K

/com, ******* Equivalent damping **************************

*stat,C

finish

Problem Description

A simplified transient analysis is performed for a rectangular plate fixed at two ends with a hole in the center.

A stepped pressure load is applied to the top surface of the plate. SOLID185 elements model the structure.

FLUID136 elements model the thin film surface and a FLUID138 element models the hole region. Displacement

and pressure time history results are determined at the bottom of the plate on the circumference of the

hole.

Command Listing

The input file for this example is shown below.

/PREP7

/title, Simplified Transient Analysis

/com uMKS units

keyop,1,3,2 ! PRES + UZ + UY + UZ DOFs, implicit treatment

et,2,138,1 ! Hole

ET,3,185,,3 ! Structural element

s_w=20 ! Plate width

s_t=10 ! Plate thickness

c_r=6 ! Hole radius

d_el=2 ! Gap

pamb=.1 ! Ambient pressure (MPa)

visc=18.3e-12 ! viscosity kg/(um)(s)

pref=.1 ! Reference pressure (MPa)

mfp=64e-3 ! Mean free path (um)

Knud=mfp/d_el ! Knudsen number

mp,visc,2,visc ! Dynamic viscosity hole

mp,ex,3,79e3 ! Gold

mp,dens,3,19300e-18

mp,nuxy,3,.1

rmore,pref,mfp

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Command Listing

rmore,pref,mfp

block,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w,0,s_t

cyl4,0,0,c_r,,c_r,,s_t

vsbv,1,2

numcmp,all

type,3

mat,3

real,3

mshape,1,3d

esize,,3

vmesh,1 ! SOLID185 mesh

nsel,s,loc,z,0

esln,s

TYPE, 1

MAT, 1

real,1

esurf ! FLUID136 mesh

allsel

*get,numb,node,,num,max

n,numb+1,0,0,0

n,numb+2,0,0,s_t

type,2

mat,2

real,2

e,numb+1,numb+2 ! FLUID138 mesh

esel,s,type,,1

nsle,s,1

local,11,1,0,0,0

csys,11

nsel,r,loc,x,c_r

nsel,a,node,,numb+1

cp,1,pres,all

csys,0

allsel

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w

nsel,a,loc,y,s_w

nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9

nsel,a,node,,numb+2

d,all,pres ! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

nsel,all

dlist

!esel,s,type,,1

!nsle,s,1

!nsel,u,cp,,1

!cm,FLUN,node

!allsel

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

d,all,ux

d,all,uy

d,all,uz

allsel

sf,all,pres,1.e+1

allsel

fini

/solu

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

antype,trans

kbc,1 ! Specify a stepped loading

nropt,full

time,180e-6

!time,6e-6

deltim,2e-6 ! Specify time step size

outres,all,none

outres,nsol,all

outres,esol,all

cnvtol,pres,,1.e-6 ! Specify convergence values

cnvtol,u ,,1.e-6

save

solve

fini

/post26

nl=node(c_r,0,0)

nsol,2,nl,uz

nsol,3,nl,pres ! Print time history results

prvar,2,3

fini

/post1

set,last ! Retrieve results at last substep

esel,s,type,,1 ! FLUID136

etable,_gap,nmisc,2

pretab,_gap ! Print GAP value

fini

Problem Description

A complex transient analysis is performed for a rectangular top plate fixed at two ends with a hole in the

center. A voltage is applied to the bottom surface of the top plate. After the top plate makes contact with

the bottom plate the voltage is set to a release value. SOLID185 elements model the top plate. TRANS126

transducer elements are created between the plates. FLUID136 elements model the thin film surface and a

FLUID138 element models the hole region. The applied voltage is shown in Figure 1.8 (p. 197). Displacement

and pressure results at the bottom of the top plate on the circumference of the hole are shown in Figure

1.9 (p. 197) and Figure 1.10 (p. 198).

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Results

Results

Figure 1.8 Applied Voltage

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

Command Listing

The input file for this example is shown below.

/batch,list

/title, Complex Transient Analysis

!/nerr,,,-1

/PREP7

/title, Complex Transient Analysis

/com uMKS units

keyop,1,3,2 !implicit

keyop,1,4,0 !compressible

keyop,1,5,2 !fluid gap option

keyop,1,6,1 !mech gap option

et,2,185

ET,3,185 ! Structural element

s_w=20 ! Plate width

s_t=1 ! Plate thickness

d_el=2 ! Gap

pamb=.1 ! ambient pressure (MPa)

visc=18.3e-12 ! viscosity kg/(um)(s)

pref=.1 ! Reference pressure (MPa)

mfp=64e-3 ! mean free path (um)

Knud=mfp/d_el ! Knudsen number

mingapf=1e-2 ! Minimum gap for real constanst on element 136

mech_mingapf=1e-2 ! Mechanical minumum gap for real constant on element 136

app_volt=23.281 ! Applied voltage

app_pres=0 ! Applied pressure at boundaries

mp,ex,3,79e+3 ! Gold

mp,dens,3,19300e-18

mp,nuxy,3,.1

rmore,pref,mfp,0,0,1,mech_mingapf

rmore,mingapf,1.e+18,0.e-2,-4.e+0,-0.e-2,1.e-0

! mingapf,penpar,deadpres,deadspr,deaddam,deadeps

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Command Listing

!top plate

block,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w,0,s_t !INSTALL TOP PLATE

lsel,s,line,,4,5,1 !Set element depth

lsel,a,line,,2,7,5

lesize,all,,,19,-.1

lsel,s,line,,1,8,7

lsel,a,line,,3,6,3

lesize,all,,,11,-.1

lsel,s,line,,9,12,1

lesize,all,,,2

type,3 !Mesh top plate with Gold material

mat,3

real,3

!mshape,1,3d

mshape,1,3d

cyl4,0,0,s_w/50,,,,s_t+1 !Create a hole in top plate

vsbv,1,2

numcmp,volu

vmesh,1

!hole

n,10000,0,0,0 !Specify nodes for hole element (138)

n,10001,0,0,s_t

et,6,138,1,,0 !Define hole shape

r,10,s_w/200,,,pamb, !Define hole diameter and pressures

rmore,pref,mfp

type,6

real,10

mat,1

e,10000,10001

lsel,s,line,,13,16

nsll,s,1 !Tie top plate hole edge to hole element.

nsel,a,node,,10000

cp,next,pres,all

d,10001,pres,0

allsel

nsel,s,loc,z,0

cm,trun,node

allsel

emtgen,'TRUN',,,'uz',-d_el,mingapf*d_el,1.e-18

!Create transducer elements 126 using emtgen

!apply gap information

!fluid

nsel,s,loc,z,0 !Define Fluid region

esln,s

TYPE, 1

MAT, 1

real,1

esurf !Surface the solid top plate with 136 squeeze film elements

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w

nsel,a,loc,y,s_w

nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9

d,all,pres !Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

nsel,all

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

d,all,ux

d,all,uy

d,all,uz

allsel

sf,all,pres,app_pres

allsel

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

nsel,s,loc,z,-d_el !Set voltage/displacement at bottom plate

d,all,ux !V(bottom)=0V

d,all,uy !displacement(bottom)=(0,0,0)

d,all,uz

d,all,volt

allsel

cmsel,s,trun !Set voltage on top side to applied voltage value

d,all,volt,app_volt !for pulldown

allsel

fini

/solu

antype,trans !Pulldown stage

kbc,1

time,11.e-5

!autots,on !enforce regular timesteps

deltim,1.e-5,

nsubst,10,1000,2

outres,all,none

outres,nsol,2

outres,rsol,2

outres,esol,2

cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6

cnvtol,u ,,5.e-6

nropt,full

neqit,500

save

solve

time,20e-5 !Contact time.

nropt,full !Reduce number of equilibrium iterations to save time.

neqit,100

outres,all,none

outres,nsol,2

outres,rsol,2

outres,esol,2

cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6

cnvtol,u ,,5.e-6

solve

cmsel,s,trun !Setup release time

d,all,volt,1.5 !Set release voltage across

allsel

time,20.4e-5 !only limited time here

outres,all,none

outres,nsol,20 !Long grinding period here, reduce result steps so we don't go

outres,rsol,20 !over 1000 results.

outres,esol,20

cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6

cnvtol,u ,,5.e-6

cnvtol,pres,,1.e-4

cnvtol,u ,,1.e-4

autots,on !Let Autotimestep run here

deltim,.005e-5,0.001e-5,1e-5 !to better capture the overshoot movement on release

solve

time,30e-5 !After initial snapback,

autots,on !increase timestep as overshoot decays.

deltim,.5e-5,0.02e-5,1e-5

solve

fini

/POST1

allsel

GG=node(0,-0.4,0)

SET,LIST,999

SET,,, ,,, ,30

!*

!*

PLESOL, NMISC,13, 0,1.0

presol,nmisc,13

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1.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview

/out,

fini

!*list,closes,lis1

!*list,closes,lis2

/post26

NUMVAR,200

SOLU,191,NCMIT

STORE,MERGE

FILLDATA,191,,,,1,1

REALVAR,191,191

NSOL,2,GG,U,Z,UZ_2

NSOL,3,GG,PRES,,PRES_3

NSOL,4,GG,VOLT,,VOLT_4

plvar,2

plvar,3

plvar,4

fini

Modal projection techniques provide an efficient method for computing damping parameters for flexible

bodies. The Modal Projection Technique is the process of calculating the squeeze stiffness and damping

coefficients of the fluid using the eigenvectors of the structure. In the modal projection method, the velocity

profiles are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure.

1.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview

1.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique

1.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method

1.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases

For a structure undergoing flexible body dynamics, the displacement and velocity vary along the structure.

For a thin-film fluid adjacent to the structure, there is a true dependency between the structural velocity

and the fluid pressure. A modal analysis of a structure provides information on the fundamental eigenfre-

quencies and mode shapes (eigenvectors). For each mode, i, we can impress the distributed eigenvector

values as velocity loads and compute the resulting pressure distribution and hence the fluid force acting on

mode j. Therefore, we can compute a matrix of modal squeeze stiffness coefficients, Kij, and modal damping

coefficients, Cij. The diagonal terms of these matrices are the coefficients of each mode, the off-diagonal

terms represent the "cross-talk" coefficients between modes. Figure 1.11 (p. 202) illustrates the modal projection

technique.

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

From the modal squeeze and stiffness coefficients for the main diagonal terms (source mode = target mode),

other useful damping parameters can be calculated. For example, the modal damping ratio, , and the

modal squeeze to stiffness ratio, kri, can be computed by:

Where mi is the modal mass and i the eigenfrequency. The damping ratio can be used to compute ALPHAD

and BETAD parameters for Rayleigh damping (see ABEXTRACT command), or to specify constant and

modal damping by means of the DMPRAT or MDAMP commands.

The squeeze to stiffness ratio represents the relative stiffening of the mechanical system due to fluid com-

pression and resonance shift. If the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio is small (e.g., <.02), then the squeeze stiffness

affects the structural stiffness by less than 2%, which may be negligible. At higher frequencies, the ratio can

be much larger, indicating a significant stiffening of the structure.

The stiffness and damping coefficients may be strongly frequency-dependent. Figure 1.12 (p. 202) shows a

typical frequency dependency of the squeeze and damping forces on a flat plate, and the resulting stiffness

and damping constant. The frequency where the forces intersect is known as the cut-off frequency. Below

this frequency, structures may be accurately characterized by a constant damping coefficient, and stiffness

effects can be ignored. Structures which operate far above the cut-off can be described by a constant stiffness

coefficient, and damping effects can be ignored.

Figure 1.12 Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate

1.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection

Technique

The basic steps in performing the analysis are as follows:

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1.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique

3. Extract the desired mode eigenvectors.

4. Select the desired modes for damping parameter calculations.

5. Perform a harmonic analysis on the thin-film elements.

6. Compute the modal squeeze stiffness and damping parameters.

7. Compute modal damping ratio and squeeze stiffness coefficient.

8. Display the results.

Steps 4-7 have been automated using the DMPEXT command macro. Step 8 is available through the MDPLOT

command macro.

Model preparation for the modal projection method for damping parameter extraction follows very closely

to the method outlined in Modeling and Meshing Considerations (p. 189). Both the structural model and the

thin-film fluid model need to be defined simultaneously. Group the fluid nodes on the structure surface into

a node component named "FLUN". This component should only include nodes attached to FLUID136 elements.

This component defines the nodes for which the eigenvector values will be extracted from the mode-frequency

analysis.

A modal analysis of the structure is required to obtain the eigenvectors of the desired modes. The modal

analysis should be set up with the following options:

1. Use the Block Lanczos, Supernode, or PCG Lanczos (if applicable) method (MODOPT command).

2. Extract the eigenmodes of interest (MODOPT command).

3. Expand the eigenmodes of interest (MXPAND command).

The expanded eigenmodes will compute the necessary eigenvectors required for the modal projection

technique. Note: The thin-film fluid elements may be left active in the model when performing the modal

analysis. These elements will not contribute to the modal solution.

The eigenvectors from the modal analysis must be retrieved and stored in a format appropriate for use by

the thin-film fluid elements for a subsequent harmonic fluid analysis. Use the RMFLVEC command in POST1

to retrieve the eigenvectors. The data is stored in the file Jobname.EFL.

The command macro DMPEXT performs a harmonic response analysis with the thin-film fluid elements using

the eigenvector information for the desired mode(s). The macro also extracts damping parameter information

for use in subsequent dynamic structural analysis. Damping parameters extracted include the modal

damping coefficient, modal squeeze stiffness coefficient, damping ratio, and the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio.

DMPEXT requires a "source" mode number and a "target" mode number. The source mode is the mode for

which the eigenvectors are used to impart a velocity field on the fluid elements. The target mode is the

mode which is acted on by the pressure solution (fluid forces). For transverse oscillations and a uniform gap,

there is little mode interaction and hence only diagonal terms are required (source mode (i) = target mode

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

(j)). For transverse motion with nonuniform gaps, or asymmetric plate motion, mode interaction effects

(cross-talk) can be significant and should be computed (source mode .ne. target mode). Typical cross-talk

scenarios are shown in Figure 1.13 (p. 204).

Damping parameter extraction can be selected over a desired frequency range or at the eigenfrequencies

of the structure. Damping results are computed and stored in an array parameter.

Computed damping ratios may be used in subsequent dynamic structural analyses. A constant damping

ratio can be applied using DMPRAT for a subsequent harmonic or mode-superposition transient analysis.

Mode damping ratios may be applied using the MDAMP command for use in mode-superposition harmonic

and transient analyses. Note: Subsequent structural analysis using these damping parameters do not require

the thin-film fluid elements in the model.

The command macro ABEXTRACT (like DMPEXT) extracts alpha and beta damping parameters for use in

the ALPHAD and BETAD commands. These commands define Rayleigh damping and can be used in time-

transient structural analysis to model damping effects. The damping parameters are computed from two

modes defined by the user.

The command macro MDPLOT may be used to display the frequency-dependent damping parameters.

A rectangular beam with perforated holes is modeled to compute the effective damping coefficient, stiffness

coefficient, and damping ratio. The surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136 elements to represent

the thin film. The structure is modeled with SOLID185 elements. This example computes the Rayleigh

damping coefficients ( and ) and modal damping ratios i for use in a transient dynamic analysis.

The problem is defined as an extension to the earlier squeeze film example. After modeling the fluid domain,

the structure of the beam is modeled and meshed with SOLID185 elements. A modal analysis is performed

on the structure and the first two eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. RMFLVEC is used to extract

the eigenvectors for use in the modal projection method to compute the thin-film damping parameters.

The command macro ABEXTRACT is used to compute the Rayleigh parameters from the lowest two eigen-

modes . Modal damping ratios are also provided by the ABEXTRACT macro for the two eigenmodes.

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1.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method

Table 1.4: Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies (p. 205) lists the results from the damping

parameter extraction. Computed Rayleigh parameters are: ALPHAD=65212, BETAD=1.829e-8. The input file

for this example is shown below.

Frequency Modal Damping Modal Squeeze Stiffness Damping Stiffness

(Hz.) Coefficient Coefficient Ratio Ratio

55294 67419 .2758e9 .9703e-1 .2285e-2

157497 83123 .3568e10 .4200e-1 .3644e-2

/batch,list

/PREP7

/title, Damping Ratio and Rayleigh Damping Calculations for a Perforated Plate

/com uMKS units

ET, 2,138,1 ! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number

ET,3,185,,3 ! Structural element

s_l1=60 !Plate hole location

s_w=20 !Plate width

s_t=1 !Plate thickness

c_r=3 !Hole radius

d_el=2 !Gap

pamb=.1 ! ambient pressure (MPa)

visc=18.3e-12 ! viscosity kg/(um)(s)

pref=.1 ! Reference pressure (MPa)

mfp=64e-3 ! mean free path (um)

Knud=mfp/d_el ! Knudsen number

mp,visc,2,visc ! Dynamic viscosity holes

mp,ex,3,79e3 ! Gold

mp,dens,3,19300e-18

mp,nuxy,3,.1

rmore,pref,mfp

rmore,pref,mfp

pcirc,c_r ! Hole domain

agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3

agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3

ASBA, 1, all

TYPE, 1

MAT, 1

smrtsize,4

AMESH, all ! Mesh plate domain

*do,i,1,5

nsel,all

*GET, numb, node, , num, max ! Create nodes for link elements

N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,,

N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

TYPE,2

MAT, 2

REAL,2

NSEL, all

E, numb+1, numb+2 ! Define 2-D link element

ESEL, s, type,,1

NSLE,s,1

local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3

csys,11

NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r ! Select all nodes on the hole circumference

NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1

*GET, next, node, , num, min

CP, i, pres, numb+1, next

nsel,u,node, ,numb+1

nsel,u,node, ,next

CP, i, pres,all !Coupled DOF set for constant pressure

csys,0

*enddo

! End hole generation

esize,,2

type,3

mat,3

real,3

vext,all,,,,,s_t ! Extrude structural domain

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w

nsel,a,loc,y,s_w

nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9

d,all,pres ! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

nsel,all

esel,s,type,,2

nsle,s,1

nsel,r,loc,z,s_t

d,all,pres,0 ! P=0 at top of plate

dlist,all

esel,s,type,,1

nsle,s,1

nsel,u,cp,,1,5

cm,FLUN,node

allsel

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

d,all,ux

d,all,uy

d,all,uz

allsel

fini

/solu

antype,modal ! Modal analysis

modopt,lanb,2 ! Extract lowest two eigenmodes

eqslv,sparse

mxpand,2 ! Expand lowest two eigenmodes

solve

fini

/post1

RMFLVEC ! Extract eigenvectors

fini

/solu

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1.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method

finish

A transient dynamic analysis on the switch can be performed using the extracted damping parameters. The

following input illustrates a coupled electrostatic-structural time-transient solution. The electrostatic field is

assumed to be normal to the plate in the gap, and fringing effects are ignored. TRANS126 elements are used

to model the coupled electrostatic-structural interaction with the switch. The EMTGEN command is used to

generate the transducer elements. A step voltage pulse is applied over a short duration (65 micro-seconds)

then released. Rayleigh damping parameters, when used, are applied to the global mass (ALPHAD parameter)

and stiffness (BETAD parameter) matrices. We want to apply these only to the mass and stiffness matrix of

the SOLID185 elements, and not the TRANS126 elements, because doing so may overdamp the system. The

TRANS126 elements produce a damping matrix and a stiffness matrix only. Hence, we can use the ALPHAD

parameter for the global mass matrix since there is no contribution from the TRANS126 elements. To isolate

the SOLID185 elements for beta damping, we can apply the beta damping via a material damping option

(MP,DAMP). Figure 1.14 (p. 208) illustrates the displacement of a node near the center of the plate over time.

The maximum amplitude of displacement (0.11 microns) is small enough to ignore large deflection damping

effects.

/batch,list

/PREP7

/title, Damped Transient Dynamic Response of an RF MEMS switch

/com uMKS units

/com, Small deflection assumption

et,1,200,6

ET,3,185,,3 ! Structural element

s_l1=60 ! Plate hole location

s_w=20 ! Plate width

s_t=1 ! Plate thickness

c_r=3 ! Hole radius

d_el=2 ! Gap

pamb=.1 ! ambient pressure (MPa)

visc=18.3e-12 ! viscosity kg/(um)(s)

pref=.1 ! Reference pressure (MPa)

mfp=64e-3 ! mean free path (um)

Knud=mfp/d_el ! Knudsen number

mp,ex,3,79e3 ! Gold

mp,dens,3,19300e-18

mp,nuxy,3,.1

mp,damp,1,1.829e-8 ! Material damping (from squeeze film results)

! Build the model

pcirc,c_r ! Hole domain

agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3

agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3

ASBA, 1, all

TYPE, 1

MAT, 1

smrtsize,4

AMESH, all ! Mesh plate domain

esize,,2

type,3

mat,3

real,3

vext,all,,,,,s_t ! Extrude structural domain

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l

nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

d,all,ux

d,all,uy

d,all,uz

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

allsel

aclear,all

save

nsel,s,loc,z

cm,base,nodes

emtgen,'base',,,'uz',-d_el ! generate Transducer elements

allsel,all

nsel,s,loc,z,-d_el

d,all,uz,0

d,all,volt,0

cmsel,s,base

d,all,volt,10

allsel,all

fini

/solu

antyp,trans

alphad,65211 ! alpha damping computed from Squeeze-film theory

kbc,1

time,.000065

deltime,2.0e-6

outres,all,none

outres,nsol,all

solve

time,.0002

cmsel,s,base

d,all,volt,0

allsel,all

solve

fini

n1=node(0,2,0)

/post26

nsol,2,n1,uz

prvar,2

plvar,2

finish

If a structure does not undergo significant deformation, the gap between the structure and the fixed wall

may be assumed to be constant (small signal case). If the structural deformation in the gap is significant,

the change in the gap may effect the damping of the structure (large signal case). The gap is defined as a

real constant in the thin-film fluid elements. Use SETFGAP to automatically define and/or update the gap

real constants for the thin-film FLUID136 elements. The command can be used to:

Create real constant table entries for every selected FLUID136 element (large signal case).

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1.4. Slide Film Damping

Update an existing real constant table according to structural displacements for every FLUID136 element

(large signal case).

This option allows you to check the dependence of the damping parameters over the deflection range of

the structure.

Slide film damping occurs if two surfaces separated by a thin fluid film move tangentially with respect to

each other, because energy is dissipated due to viscous flow. Typical applications are damping between the

fingers of comb drives and horizontally-moving seismic masses.

FLUID139 is used to model slide film damping. FLUID139 can model Couette and Stokes flow (Figure

1.15 (p. 210)). Couette flow assumes a constant velocity gradient across the fluid gap. Tangentially moving

surfaces at low frequencies produce a nearly constant velocity gradient in the fluid, so Couette flow is ap-

plicable to low frequencies.

Stokes flow assumes that the velocity gradient is not constant across the fluid gap. Tangentially moving

surfaces at high frequencies do not produce a constant velocity gradient, so the Stokes flow is applicable

to high frequencies. The transition from Couette to Stokes flow occurs near the cut-off frequency.

fc =

2 d2

where is the fluid density, the dynamic viscosity and d the gap separation.

Couette flow does not occur at high frequencies, because inertial effects are important and viscous friction

is only able to accelerate a thin fluid layer near the moving surface. The penetration depth is given by

2

=

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

Low frequencies:

Moving Wall

Plate velocity Couette flow:

A

FD = p

d

d

High frequencies:

Moving Wall

Plate velocity Stokes flow:

FD =A

sinh ( ) + sin( )

2d 2d

2

cosh ( ) - cos( 2 )

2d d

FLUID139 models the effect of viscous flow in the thin film with a series of mass-damper elements, as shown

in Figure 1.16 (p. 211). Couette flow is modeled using a two-node option. Stokes flow is modeled using a 32-

node option. In the 32-node option, the end nodes (node 1 and 32) are connected to the structural portion

of the model with structural degrees of freedom, and the series of mass-damper elements are contained

within "auxiliary" nodes (nodes 2-31).

The gap separation distance (GAP) and the overlap area of the surfaces (AREA) are specified as real constants

for FLUID139. If the overlap area changes during the analysis, the area change rate (DADU) must also be

specified as a real constant. A changing overlap area is typical in lateral comb drives.

dA

A new = A initial + (un ui )

du

AREA is the initial overlap area, DADU is the change in the overlap area with respect to the surface displace-

ment, and un and ui are the location of the interface nodes (1 and 32). Note: For a constant surface area,

DADU is the width of the overlap surface.

FLUID139 may be used for a prestress static analysis in conjunction with a prestress harmonic analysis, as

well as a full transient analysis. Prestress analysis is required if the plate area changes due to the structural

displacement. A typical command sequence for a prestress harmonic analysis would include the following:

/solu

antyp,static

pstress,on

.

.

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1.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example

solve

fini

/solu

antyp,harmonic

pstress,on

.

.

solve

finish

KEYOPT(3) specifies the continuous flow options. For a no-slip assumption at the wall, use the continuum

theory (KEYOPT(3) = 0). For slip flow where the Knudsen number is much less or much greater than 1.0, use

the first order slip flow condition (KEYOPT(3) = 1). For slip flow with a Knudsen number of approximately

1.0, use the extended slip flow option (KEYOPT(3) = 2).

TK

Node I I J

Node J

First wall Second wall

TK

Node I Node J

I+32 = J

KEYOPT(2)=1 and KEYOPT(3)=1

First wall Second wall

TK Lm

I I+1 I+2 I+3 I+29 I+30 I+31 I+32

Node I Node J

Comb drive resonators are a common application for slide film damping. Figure 1.17 (p. 212) illustrates a

typical comb drive assembly consisting of fixed and moving comb drives, springs, and a central mass.

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

Details on the comb drive geometry are given in the input file listed below. The electrostatic behavior of

the moving comb drives are represented by two TRANS126 transducer elements with prescribed Stroke vs.

Capacitance data obtained from finite element runs. The structural behavior of the crab legs is modeled by

a spring element. The inertial effects of the central mass are modeled with a mass element. Damping occurs

between the comb teeth (lateral dimension), and between the comb teeth and the substrate (vertical dimen-

sion). Four FLUID139 elements are used to model the lateral and vertical damping (two per comb drive).

The cut-off frequency is well below the frequency range for the analysis; therefore, Couette flow is assumed.

Since the comb drive effective surface area changes with displacement, the DADU real constant is used

(equal to the width of the plate area).

A static prestress analysis is run using a DC bias voltage on the input and output fixed comb drives. A har-

monic analysis sweep is then performed using a small AC voltage. The displacement (magnitude and phase

angle) of the central mass is shown in Figure 1.18 (p. 212). Figure 1.19 (p. 213) shows the current.

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1.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example

/prep7

/title Comb drive resonator with FLUID139 Couette damping

! DRIVE COMB

! |

! |

! CRAB LEG SPRING --- CENTRAL MASS --- CRAB LEG SPRING

! |

! |

! PICK-UP COMB

! Reference:

! "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing",

! Lin, L., Howe, R.T., J. Microelectromechanical Systems,

! VOL 7, No. 3, Sept 1998

E = 190e3 !Young modulus

d = 2.33e-15 ! density

hb = 2 ! beam thickness

wb = 2 ! beam width

Lb = 100 ! beam length

k = 5.699 ! mechanical stiffness

! comb parameter

n= 9 ! number of finger

np=n*2 ! number of finger pairs

x0= 10 ! initial finger overlap

L0= 26 ! finger length (stator comb)

L=20 ! finger length (moving comb)

gi= L0-x0 ! initial gap

w= 4 ! finger width

h= hb ! finger thickness

gp=3 ! finger gap (lateral)

g= 3 ! comb gap (vertical)

Mr = 1.96563e-11 ! mass

areal=np*h*x0

! Vertical gap area

areav=n*w*x0

x1 = 14

cx1 = 0.97857e-2

x2 = 15

cx2 = 0.96669e-2

x3 = 16

cx3 = 0.95445e-2

x4 = 17

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Chapter 1: Thin Film Analysis

cx4 = 0.94185e-2

x5 = 18

cx5 = 0.93384e-2

! Voltage conditions

Vi = 40 ! input dc bias

Vo = 60 ! output dc bias

Vac = 10 ! input ac bias

! Damping parmeters

po=0.1 ! reference pressure

dens=1.17e-18 ! density

fc=nu/(2*3.14159*dens*(g**2)) ! cutoff frequency

daduv=w*n ! change in plate area - vertical

dadul=h*np ! change in plate area - lateral

! Model

n,1,0

n,2,0

n,3,0

n,4,0

r,1,,,gi,,

rmore,x1,cx1,x2,cx2,x3,cx3

rmore,x4,cx4,x5,cx5

e,1,2

e,2,3

r,2,Mr

type,2

real,2

e,2

r,3,k

type,3

real,3

e,2,4

! Lateral dampers

et,4,139 ! Slide-film damper, Couette flow, Continuum theory

mp,visc,4,nu

mp,dens,4,dens

r,4,g,areal,-dadul,po

type,4

mat,4

real,4

e,1,2

e,2,3

! Vertical dampers

r,5,g,areav,-daduv,po

real,5

e,1,2

e,2,3

d,1,ux,0

d,3,ux,0

d,4,ux,0

d,2,uy,0

d,2,volt,0

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1.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example

/solu

d,1,volt,Vi

d,3,volt,Vo

pstres,on

solve

fini

fr0=60000

fr1=120000

/solu

antyp,harm

d,1,volt,Vac ! AC voltage component on capacitor

d,3,volt,0

pstres,on ! prestress

harfrq,fr0,fr1

nsubs,60

outres,all,all

kbc,1

solve

/post26

nsol,2,2,u,x,ux2

esol,3,2,,nmisc,24,ir

esol,4,2,,nmisc,25,ii

plcplx,0

/axlab,y, Displacement (um)

plvar,2 ! plot displacement versus time (frequency)

plcplx,1

/axlab,y, Phase angle

plvar,2

plcplx,2

/axlab,y, Current (pA)

plvar,3,4

fini

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amplitude, 172

Index analysis options

acoustics, 171

analysis type

A acoustics, 165

acceleration, 129

Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 79

ACEL command, 43, 129

boundary conditions, 81

acoustic analysis, 165

mesh updating, 83

load step options, 175

remeshing, 84

loads for, 172

arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis

reviewing results from, 176

example problems, 87

acoustics, 165

artificial viscosity, 105

absolute pressure, 165

axis of rotation, 135

absorbing boundary condition, 167

amplitude, 172

applications of, 165 B

axisymmetric cases, 167 backward time integration method, 59

boundary admittance, 167 Bingham viscosity model, 119, 123, 131

circular or spherical boundary (RAD), 167 boundary conditions, 104

compressible fluid, 165 FLOTRAN analysis, 11

coupled acoustic analysis, 165 laminar and turbulent flow, 33

coupling matrix, 177 thermal analysis, 40

definition of, 165 transient analysis, 62

density, 167 bulk temperature, 42

far-field problems, 177 buoyancy, 43

fluid load, 177

fluid-structure interaction, 165, 177 C

fluid-structure interface, 170 Carreau viscosity model, 119, 123, 131

forcing frequency, 172 CGLOC command, 135

harmonic acoustic analysis, 166 CGOMEGA command, 135

infinite acoustic elements, 167 collocated Galerkin approach, 46, 161

inviscid fluid, 165 compressible flow analysis, 4, 23, 103

mean pressure, 165 compressible fluid, 165

meshing the model, 168 conduction limit, 60

modal analysis, 165 conductivity matrix algorithm, 44

outgoing pressure wave, 167 conjugate heat transfer, 4, 44

particle velocity, 165 convergence, 60, 140

pressure changes, 165 coordinate systems, 133

pressure gradient, 165 Couette flow, 209

sample fluid-structure acoustic analysis (batch), 177 coupled acoustic analysis, 165

sample room acoustic analysis, 179 coupling algorithms, 145

solving acoustics problems, 165 cross-talk, 203

sound-absorption material, 179

speed of sound (SONC), 167 D

standing wave pattern, 179 D command, 33, 81, 136, 153

transient acoustic analysis, 165 DA command, 33, 81

uncoupled acoustic analysis, 165 database

unsymmetric matrices, 171 backing up, 176

wavelength, 169 density, 39, 119

adiabatic boundaries, 40 displacements, 174

advection limit, 60 distributed resistance, 136

advection term, 161 divergence, 105

ambient radiation, 40

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Index

drag, 38 boundary conditions, 11

characterizing flow, 25

E compressible flow, 4, 103

effective viscosity, 24 compressible flow analysis, 10

elements convergence, 13, 17

FLOTRAN, 7 convergence and stability tools, 15

example problems coordinate systems, 7

arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 87 divergence, 20

compressible flow, 106 DOF capping, 16

incompressible flow, 38 domain file, 14

modal projection method, 204 element characteristics, 7

multiple species, 154 element limitations, 8

slide film, 211 evaluating, 20

squeeze film, 191 examining results, 12

thermal analysis, 47 files, 12

volume of fluid analysis, 70 flow regime, 10

fluid properties, 117

free surface, 4

F global iterations, 17

files graphical solution tracking, 17

Jobname.RST, 176 incompressible flow, 4

FLDATA1 command, 25, 39, 59 inertial relaxation, 15

FLDATA10 command, 120 laminar flow, 4

FLDATA11 command, 120 meshing, 11

FLDATA12 command, 126, 131 modified inertial relaxation, 15

FLDATA13 command, 43, 126 multiple species transport, 4

FLDATA14 command, 42, 103, 126 nodal residuals file file, 13

FLDATA15 command, 129 non-Newtonian fluid flow, 4

FLDATA17 command, 103, 129 overview, 10

FLDATA18 command, 44, 139 overwrite frequency option, 12

FLDATA19 command, 140 print file, 13

FLDATA20 command, 140141 problem domain, 10

FLDATA21 command, 140 quadrature order, 16

FLDATA22 command, 140 relaxation factors, 15

FLDATA23 command, 140 residuals, 13

FLDATA24 command, 25, 33, 36, 161 restart file, 13

FLDATA25 command, 43, 161 restarting, 14

FLDATA31 command, 36 results file, 12

FLDATA33 command, 161 setting parameters, 11

FLDATA34 command, 36, 161 solvers, 139

FLDATA35 command, 68 solving, 11

FLDATA36 command, 67 special features, 133

FLDATA37 command, 44, 145 stopping, 19

FLDATA38 command, 59 thermal analysis, 4, 39

FLDATA4 command, 61, 69 transient analysis, 59

FLDATA4A command, 5960 turbulence model, 10, 17

FLDATA7 command, 117, 119, 130, 150 turbulent flow, 4

FLDATA8 command, 120 types, 3

FLDATA9 command, 120 verifying results, 20

FLOCHECK command, 62 flow regime

FLOTRAN analysis thin film, 188

applications, 3

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Index

fluid analyses K

acoustics, 165 (see acoustics) KEYOPT command, 133, 151

slide film, 209 Knudsen number, 188

squeeze film, 185

thin film, 185

fluid properties

L

initializing and varying, 126 laminar flow, 4, 23, 25

specifying, 117 large signal cases, 208

tables, 120 lift, 38

user-defined file, 118, 127 load step options

user-programmable subroutines, 118, 132 acoustics, 175

fluid property types, 117 loads, 40, 171

fluid-structure interaction, 165, 174, 177

fluid-structure interface, 170 M

forced convection, 4, 43 mass imbalances, 33

forces, 174 mass types, 59

forcing frequency, 172 material model interface, 4

free convection, 43 meshing, 32, 39

free surface analysis, 4 FLOTRAN analysis, 11

mixture types, 149

G modal projection method, 201

generalized symmetry boundary conditions, 33, 81 modified inertial relaxation, 153

global iterations, 60, 140 moments, 174

gravitational acceleration, 129 monotone Streamline Upwind approach, 46

monotone streamline upwind approach, 161

moving wall, 33

H MP command, 39, 117

harmonic acoustic analysis, 166 MSADV command, 161

harmonic acoustic analysis guidelines, 166 MSCAP command, 153

heat balance, 4647 MSDATA command, 150151

heat fluxes, 40 MSMETH command, 153

heat transfer (film) coefficients, 40 MSNOMF command, 150

hydraulic diameter, 24 MSPROP command, 152

MSRELAX command, 153

I MSSOLU command, 153

IC command, 150 MSSPEC command, 149150, 152

ICE command, 66 multiple species transport, 4, 149

ICVFRC command, 66

impedance, 174 N

incompressible flow analysis, 4, 23 natural convection, 4

boundary conditions, 33 Newmark time integration method, 59

difficult problems, 36 non-fluid properties, 39, 117

example problem, 38 non-Newtonian fluid flow analysis, 4, 130

meshing requirements, 32 non-Newtonian viscosity models, 119, 123

inertial relaxation, 106

infinite acoustic elements, 167

inlet parameters, 25

P

inlet values, 33 particle velocity, 165

intersections, 33 PERI command, 33

INTSRF command, 38 periodic boundaries, 33

/PICE command, 66

PLVFRC command, 69

power law viscosity model, 119, 123, 130

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 219

Index

preconditioned generalized minimum residual solver,

141 T

pressure gradient, 165 temperature equation, 39

pressure surface loads, 174 temperature field algorithm, 44

pressure wave limit, 60 temperature load, 40

property calculations, 103 temperature offset, 126

property types, 117, 120 thermal analysis, 4

example problems, 47

R loads and boundary conditions, 40

radiosity solver method, 47 property specifications, 39

ratio of specific heats, 103, 129 thermal boundary conditions, 40

reference pressure, 129 thermal conductivity, 39, 119, 125

reference properties, 129 thin film analysis, 185

relaxation factors, 43, 153 Couette vs. Stokes flow, 209

reviewing results cross-talk, 203

acoustics, 176 flow regime, 188

Reynolds number, 24 large signal cases, 208

rotating reference frames, 135 modal projection method, 201

rotational speeds, 135 slide film, 209

squeeze film, 185

S time steps, 60

sample acoustic analysis TOFFST command, 126, 129

batch method, 177 total temperature, 103

search directions, 140 transient analysis, 59

semi-direct solvers, 140 boundary conditions, 62

SFE command, 67 settings, 60

SFL command, 67 terminating, 61

SIMPLEF algorithm, 145 tri-diagonal matrix algorithm, 140

SIMPLEN algorithm, 145 turbulence model, 2425

slide film, 185, 209 turbulence ratio, 25, 36

solution, 171 turbulent flow, 4, 23

Solvers, 139, 171 turbulent kinetic energy, 25, 33

sparse direct solver, 143, 171

species mass fractions, 150 U

specific heat, 39, 103, 118, 124 uncoupled acoustic analysis, 165

specified flow, 33 units, 117

specified pressure, 33 unspecified boundary, 33

squeeze film, 185

squeeze film analysis V

harmonic analysis, 187 variable density option, 43

static analysis, 187 velocity capping, 36

transient analysis, 188 viscosity, 39

squeeze stiffness effect, 185 Bingham model, 119, 123, 131

stationary wall, 33 Carreau model, 119, 123, 131

stepped or ramped loads, 175 effective, 24

Stokes flow, 209 power law model, 119, 123, 130

streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin approach, 46, 161 viscous heating, 43

surface tension coefficient, 65, 117, 119, 125 volume of fluid analysis, 65

surface-to-surface radiation, 40, 47 boundary conditions, 67

Sutherland's law, 123 example problems, 70

swirl, 136

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220 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Index

input settings, 67

loads, 66

postprocessing, 69

W

wall roughness, 33

wall static contact angle, 117, 119, 126

Release 13.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 221

Release 13.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

222 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

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