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DisplacementCapacity

DesignFundamentals
Roy A. Imbsen
Principal
Imbsen Consulting

1
DisplacementCapacityDesignApproach
p p y g pp
BriefcomparisonofcurrentLRFDandguide
specifications
Dampingmodification&Displacement
magnification
f
ImplicitDeflectionCapacity SDCBandC
MomentCurvaturemodelgeneration
Loaddeflectiongeneration
Load deflection generation Pushover
Pushover
analysiscapacity

2
AASHTOAdopted2007GuideSpec.

3
ProjectPhases
2002AASHTOT3CommitteeMeeting
2003MCEER/FHWA
TaskF34RoadMap

TaskF35SuggestedApproach

2004NCHRP2007/Task193AASHTOGuideSpecifications
2004 NCHRP 20 07/Task 193 AASHTO Guide Specifications
forLRFDSeismicBridgeDesign
AASHTOT3CommitteeandVolunteerStates
2006TrialDesigns

2007TechnicalReview

2007AASHTOAdoptionasaGuideSpecificationwiththe
2007 AASHTO Adoption as a Guide Specification with the
continuoussupportandguidanceoftheT3Committee

4
OverallT3ProjectObjectives
j j
AssistT3CommitteeindevelopingaLRFD
p g
SeismicDesignSpecificationusingavailable
specificationsandcurrentresearchfindings
Developaspecificationthatisuserfriendlyand
f f
implementalintoproductiondesign
Completesixtasksspecificallydefinedbythe
Complete six tasks specifically defined by the
AASHTOT3Committee,whichwerebasedonthe
NCHRP1249reviewcomments

5
Summary
SingleLevelHazardfor1000yearreturn
period applicable to all regions of the US
periodapplicabletoallregionsoftheUS
SinglePerformanceCriteriaforNo
Collapse
p
UniformHazardDesignSpectrausingThree
PointMethodwiththenewAASHTO/USGS
M
MapsforthePGA,0.2sec,and1.0sec
f h PGA 0 2 d10
NEHRPSiteClassSpectralAcceleration
Coefficient

6
Summary(continued)
PartitionofSeismicDesignCategory(SDC)into
four groups (A,B,C & D) of increasing level of
fourgroups(A,B,C&D)ofincreasinglevelof
designrequirementandspecifications
complexityy
IdentificationofEarthquakeResistantSystem
forSDCCandDbasedonthreetypesoflateral
loadpathmechanisms
Detailedflowchartstoguidethebridge
designerthroughthenewGuideSpecifications
withreferencetospecificarticles

7
Summary(continued)
DisplacementBasedApproachwithdesign
factors calibrated to prevent collapse and
factorscalibratedtopreventcollapseand
reflectboththeinherentreservecapacityto
deformunderimposedseismicloadsandto
accommodaterelativedisplacementsatthe
d l i di l h
supportsandarticulatedconnections.
Use of closed form equations for implicit
Useofclosedformequationsforimplicit
displacementcapacityforSDCBandC
Pushover Analysis for Displacement Capacity
PushoverAnalysisforDisplacementCapacity
ofSDCD

8
Summary(continued)
Newsupportwidthequationsconsistentwith
current LRFD Specifications for SDC A B and C with
currentLRFDSpecificationsforSDCA,BandCwith
SDCDcalibratedtotheGuideSpecification
p y p
CapacityProtectionofcolumnshear,superstructure
andsubstructureforSDCCandD
CapacityProtectionofcolumnshearforSDCB
SteelSuperstructureDesignOptionbasedonForce
ReductionFactorsincludingtheuseofductileend
diaphragms
diaphragms
LiquefactionDesignMinimumRequirementsfor
(
SDCC&D(recommendedforB) )

9
10
11
12
Comparison of Current and Proposed
LRFD Specifications
F F

FE

Elastic Response

E Forced Based Method

13
Elastic Response
F F

FE
Plastic Hinge
R

FD
D

pd Ductile Design Response

14
Elastic Response
F F

FE

Displacement
Di l
RD Rd Capacity Plastic Hinge Capacity
Determined using Section
FSER Analysis
y with Limiting g
Steel and Concrete Strains

pd E
pc
Performance Based Design

15
DesignApproaches
Force
Force Displacement
Displacement
Division1AandCurrent New2007AdoptedGuide
p
LRFDSpecification Specification
Completedesignforservice Completedesignforservice
loadrequirements loadrequirements
q
Elasticdemandforcesw/ Displacementsdemandsw/
appliedprescribedductility displacementcapacity
factorsRforanticipated evaluationfordeformability
d f
deformability
bilit asdesignedforserviceloads
d df l d
Ductileresponseis Ductileresponseisassured
assumedtobeadequate withlimitationsprescribed
w/o verification
w/overification f
foreachSDC
h SDC
Capacityprotection Capacityprotectionassured
assumed

16
DisplacementCapacityDesignApproach
p p y g pp
BriefcomparisonofcurrentLRFDandguide
specifications
Dampingmodification&Displacement
magnification
f
ImplicitDeflectionCapacity SDCBandC
MomentCurvaturemodelgeneration
Loaddeflectiongeneration
Load deflection generation Pushover
Pushover
analysiscapacity

17
DampingModification(4.3.2)
The following characteristics may be considered as justification for
the use of higher damping (maximum 10%).
Total bridge length is less than 300 ft.
Abutments are designed for sustained soil mobilization.
Supports
S are normall or slight
li h skew
k (less
(l than
h 20).
20)
The superstructure is continuous without hinges or expansion
j
joints.

18
DisplacementMag.(4.3.3)
p g ( )
1 T
*
1 T*
Rd = 1 + 1.0 for > 1.0 (4 3 3 - 1)
(4.3.3
R T R T
T*
Rd = 1.0 for 1.0 (4.3.3 - 2)
T
in which :
T * = 1.25TS (4.3.3 - 3)
R = maximum expected displacement ductility of the structure
= 2 for SDC B
= 3 for SDC C
= D for SDC D
where :
TS = period determined from Article 3.4.1
3 4 1 (sec.)
(sec )
D = maximum local member displacement ductility demand
determined in accordance with Article 4.9. In lieu of a
detailed analysis, D , may be taken as 6.

19
DisplacementCapacityDesignApproach
p p y g pp
BriefcomparisonofcurrentLRFDandguide
specifications
Dampingmodification&Displacement
magnification
f
ImplicitDeflectionCapacity SDCBandC
MomentCurvaturemodelgeneration
Loaddeflectiongeneration
Load deflection generation Pushover
Pushover
analysiscapacity

20
RequirementsforDuctileDesign

Abilitytodeforminelasticallywithoutserious
d
degradationofstrength.
d i f h
Carefulselectionoflocationsofductility(e.g.,
where plastic hinges will form)
whereplastichingeswillform).
Detailingofplastichingestoensureadequate
y
ductility.
Nonductilemodesoffailure(e.g.,shearor
bond)aretobeavoided.Thiscanbedone
throughacapacitydesignapproach.
h h i d i h

21
DuctileResponse
p

22
NonductileResponse
p

23
DesignforSDCB,C,&D(4.7)
Conventional Fullductilitystructureswitha
plastic mechanism having 4.0 D 6.0 fora
plasticmechanismhaving for a
bridgeinSDCD
Limitedductility y ForstructureswithaPlastic
mechanismreadilyaccessibleforinspection
D < 4 .0
havingforabridgeinSDCBorC
LimitedDuctility Forstructureshavingaplastic
mechanismworkinginconcertwithaprotective
system.Theplastichingemayormaynotform.
Th l i hi f
ThisstrategyisintendedforSDCCorD

24
PlasticHingingForces(4.11.2)
g g ( )
Center of Gravity
VL + VR

Mu Mu

From column h L
interaction diagram
VL VR
AXIAL Mu
MAXIMUM Mu
LOAD PPH PPH
PDL + PPH PROBABLE a
PDL MOMENT = Mu
PDL - PPH
MOMENT
COLUMN INTERACTION DIAGRAM

25
Performance Criteria
PerformanceCriteria

One
Onedesignlevelforlifesafety
design level for life safety
Seismichazardlevelfor7%probabilityof
exceedancein75years(i.e.,1000yearreturn
d i 75 (i 1000 t
period)
Lowprobabilityofcollapse
Mayhavesignificantdamageanddisruptionto
y g g p
service

26
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)

27
28
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)
p p y ( )

P 1

Spalling Equation by
= 1.6 1 1+ Berry and Eberhard
H A f 10( D )
g c
H

The drift capacity for all curves are shown as a


function of the slenderness ratio
Fb
where: L
F = Fixity Factor ranging from 1 to 2
b = column width or diameter
L = column clear height

29
ReinforcedConcreteSpallingfromBerryandEberhard

6.00

5.00
city (%)

Experimental (C1)
4.00
Drift Capac

3.00

2.00
D

1.00

0.00
01
0.1 0 15
0.15 02
0.2 0 25
0.25 03
0.3
D/H

30
AnalyticalDataBaseofColumns

31
32
DriftCapacityvs.D/HfortheColumnsDesignedin
Accordance with the Design Specifications
AccordancewiththeDesignSpecifications
6.00

5.00 Yield (C2)


Spalling (C3)
city (%)

4.00 Ductility 4 (C4)


Drift Capac

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
D/H

33
DeterminationoftheDriftCapacityforSDCB.
6.00
Experimental (C1)
5.00 Yield ((C2))
Spalling (C3)
acity (%)

4.00 Ductility 4 (C4)


SDC B (C5)
Drift Capa

3 00
3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
01
0.1 0 15
0.15 02
0.2 0 25
0.25 03
0.3
D/H

34
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)

35
DeterminationoftheDriftCapacityforSDCC
6.00
Experimental (C1)
5.00 Yield (C2)
Spalling (C3)
pacity (%)

4.00 Ductility 4 (C4)


SDC C (C6)
3 00
3.00
Drift Cap

2.00

1.00

0.00
01
0.1 0 15
0.15 02
0.2 0 25
0.25 03
0.3
D/H

36
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)

37
ComparisonofSDCBandCwith
Ductility 2 and Ductility 3
Ductility2andDuctility3
4
Ductility 2
35
3.5
Ductility 3
3 SDC B
Drift Capacity (%)

SDC C
2.5

1.5
D

0.5

0
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
D/H

38
4.00
Experimental (C1)
3.50 Lap Spliced Poor Conf. (C7)
Cont. Reinf. Poor Conf. (C3)
3.00 SDC B
acity (%)

SDC C
2.50
Drift Capa

2.00

1.50
D

1 00
1.00

0.50

0 00
0.00
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
D/H

39
SDC
SDC

40
SDCCoreFlowchart

41
SDCB(3.5)
( )

42
SDC C
SDCC

43
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)

44
DisplacementCapacitySDCB&C(4.8.1)
Ho =Heightofcolumnmeasuredfromtopoffootingto
top of column (ft )
topofcolumn(ft.)
Bo =Columndiameterorwidthmeasuredparallelto
thedirectionofthedisplacementunder
p
consideration(ft.)
=factorrepresentingcolumnendrestraint
condition:
diti
=1.0forfixedfreecolumnboundaryconditions
=2.0forfixedfixedcolumnboundaryconditions
2 0 for fixed fixed column boundary conditions
Forpartialrestraintatthecolumnends,interpolation
is permitted.
ispermitted.

45
DisplacementCapacityDesignApproach
p p y g pp
BriefcomparisonofcurrentLRFDandguide
specifications
Dampingmodification&Displacement
magnification
f
ImplicitDeflectionCapacity SDCBandC
MomentCurvaturemodelgeneration
Loaddeflectiongeneration
Load deflection generation Pushover
Pushover
analysiscapacity

46
PlasticMomentCapacityforDuctileConcrete
MembersforSDCB,C,andD(8.5)
b f S C C d (8 )

Equal Areas

Figure8.51MomentCurvatureModel

47
MomentCurvatureDiagram
g

48
PlasticMomentCapacity
SDCB,C&D(8.5)
MomentCurvatureAnalysesy M
ExpectedMaterialProperties
Axial Dead Load Forces with Overturning
AxialDeadLoadForceswithOverturning
M CurveIdealizedasElasticPerfectlyPlastic
Elastic Portion of the Curve Pass through the point of
ElasticPortionoftheCurvePassthroughthepointof
markingthefirstreinforcingbaryield
Plasticmomentcapacitydeterminedfromequalareas
Plastic moment capacity determined from equal areas
ofidealizedandactual

49
MomentCurvatureDiagram


=
y

50
PushoverofaSingleColumn
f g

51
FromtheEquivalentCurvatureDiagram
q g

AtYieldCondition:
At Yield Condition:
TheElastoPlasticYieldDisplacementcan
b
becalculatedas
l l t d
y =y (L/2)(2L/3)
1/3 y L2
=1/3

52
FromtheEquivalentCurvature
Diagram (cont.)
Diagram(cont.)
AtUltimateCondition:
p =p Lp
(u y)Lp
Therefore,thePlasticdisplacementcanbe
Therefore, the Plastic displacement can be
calculatedas
Dp =p (L 1/2Lp)
=((u y)L
) Lp (L
(L 1/2Lp)
Andfinally,
Du =Dy +Dp
=1/3y L2 +(u y)Lp (L 1/2Lp)

53
ConceptofDuctilitybasedonIdealizedElasto
Pl ti R
PlasticResponsetoRealResponse
t R lR

Indicates real response y First yield displacement


Indicates idealized response y Equivalent Elasto-Plastic yield displ.
Vu Ultimate lateral load u Ultimate displacment
Vy First yield of rebar Displacement ductility Factor:

= u where y = y (Vu/Vy)
y

54
PropertiesandApplicationsofReinforcing
Steel,PrestressingSteelandConcreteforSDC
B,C,andD(8.4)
For
ForSDCBandC,theexpectedmaterial
SDC B and C the expected material
propertiesshallbeusedtodeterminethe
section stiffness and overstrength
sectionstiffnessandoverstrength
capacities.
ForSDCD,theexpectedmaterialproperties
For SDC D the expected material properties
shallbeusedtodeterminesectionstiffness,
overstrength capacities and displacement
overstrengthcapacities,anddisplacement
capacities.

55
ReinforcingSteel(8.4.1)
Reinforcingbars,deformedwire,colddrawnwire,
weldedplainwirefabric,andweldeddeformed
wirefabricshallconformtothematerialstandards
asspecifiedintheAASHTOLRFDBridgeDesign
Specifications.
Specifications
Useofhighstrengthhighalloybarswithan
ultimate tensile strength of up to 250 ksi shall be
ultimatetensilestrengthofupto250ksi,shallbe
permittedforlongitudinalcolumnreinforcement
p
providedthelowcyclefatiguepropertiesarenot
y g p p
inferiortonormalreinforcingsteelswithyield
strengthsof75ksiorless.

56
ReinforcingSteel(8.4.1)
continued
Useofwireropeorstrandshallbepermittedfor
spiralsincolumnsifitcanbeshownthrough
testingthatthemodulusoftoughnessexceeds14
k i
ksi
ForSDCBandC,useofASTMA706orASTMA
615 Grade 60 reinforcing steel shall be permitted
615Grade60reinforcingsteelshallbepermitted.
ForSDCD,ASTMA706reinforcingsteelin
members where plastic hinging is expected shall
memberswhereplastichingingisexpectedshall
beused.

57
ReinforcingSteelStressStrain(8.4.2)

58
ReinforcingSteelModeling(8.4.2)

59
Reinforcing Steel (8.4.2) (cont.)
ReinforcingSteel(8.4.2)(cont.)

60
ConcreteModeling(8.4.4)
g( )

61
MandersConcreteModel(8.4.4)

62
MandersModel(8.4.4)continued
7.94 fl 2fl
E c = 33 w 1.5 fco
2.254 1 +
= fco
fcc 1.254

fco
fco
fcc
E sec =
f cc

cc = 5 cc 1 + 1 co Ec

fco r=
E c E sec

x= c f xr
cc fc = cc
r 1 + xr

Thevalueofcu isobtainedfrombalancingthe
strainenergycapacityofthetransversesteelwith
thestrainenergyrequiredtochangetheconcrete
fromanunconfinedstatetoaconfinedstate.

63
AnalyticalPlasticHingeLength
Framing into a Footing or a Cap (4 11 6)
FramingintoaFootingoraCap(4.11.6)

64
AnalyticalPlasticHingeLengthforNon
casedPrismaticShafts(4.11.6)

65
AnalyticalPlasticHingeLengthfor
Isolated Flare to Cap (4 11 6)
IsolatedFlaretoCap(4.11.6)

66
DisplacementCapacityDesignApproach
p p y g pp
BriefcomparisonofcurrentLRFDandguide
specifications
Dampingmodification&Displacement
magnification
ifi ti
ImplicitDeflectionCapacity SDCBandC
MomentCurvaturemodelgeneration(goto146)
Loaddeflectiongeneration
Load deflection generation Pushoveranalysis
Pushover analysis
capacity

67
LocalDisplacementCapacityforSDCD(4.8.2)
Inelastic
Inelasticquasistaticpushoveranalysis(IQPA),shallbeusedto
quasistatic pushover analysis (IQPA) shall be used to
determinethereliabledisplacementcapacityofastructureor
frame.
IQPAisanincrementallinearanalysis,whichcapturestheoverall
IQPA i i t l li l i hi h t th ll
nonlinearbehavioroftheelements,includingsoileffects,by
pushingthemlaterallytoinitiateplasticaction.
Eachincrementofloadingpushestheframelaterally,throughall
possiblestages,untilthepotentialcollapsemechanismis
achieved.
IQPAisexpectedtoprovideamorerealisticmeasureofbehavior
thanmaybeobtainedfromelasticanalysisprocedures.
Theeffectofseismicloadpathonthecolumnaxialloadand
The effect of seismic load path on the column axial load and
associatedmembercapacitiesshallbeconsideredinthe
simplifiedmodel

68
MemberDuctilityRequirementfor
SDC D (4 9)
SDCD(4.9)

69
LRFD MemberDuctility
Requirement for SDC D (4 9)
RequirementforSDCD(4.9)
pd
D = 1 + (4.9-5)
yi
Where:
pd = plastic displacement demand (in.)

yi = idealized yield displacement corresponding


to the idealized yyield curvature, yi ,
shown in figure 8.5-1 (in.)
Pile shafts should be treated similar to columns.

70
Shear Demand & Capacity (8.6.1)
ShearDemand&Capacity(8.6.1)

SDCBisthelesserof:
SDC B Vu is the lesser of :
Forceobtainedfromlinearelasticseismicanalysis
Force, Vpo, corresponding to plastic hinging with
Force,,correspondingtoplastichingingwith
overstrength
SDCCandDistheforceassociatedwiththe
Vu
overstrengthmoment M po

71
ConcreteShearCapacitySDCB,C&D
(8 6 2)
(8.6.2)
Vc = vc Ae (8.6.21)
(8.6.2 1)

Ae = 0.8
0 8 Ag (8 6 22)
(8.6.22)
IfPciscompressivethen
Pu 0.11
0 11 f c
vc = 0.032 {1 + } f c
2 Ag
0.047 f c (8.6.23)
Other ise (i e not compression)
Otherwise(i.e.,notcompression)
vc = 0 (8.6.24)

72
ConcreteShearCapacitySDCB,C&D
(8.6.2)
Concrete Shear Capacity Vc withintheplastichinge
ConcreteShearCapacity,V within the plastic hinge

SDC D Equation
D

B 2 -
C 3 -
D pd 4.9-5
1+
yi

73
74
#18, tot 24

75
StrainCompatibilityAnalysisoftheCross
Section
First Bar Yield

Ultimate

76
LoadDeflectionDiagram
f g

Idealized Yield

77
LoadDeflectionDiagram
(cont )
(cont.)
Plastic hinge length: .08 x L + fy x db = 50 in
40
Gross Moment of Inertia = 30.72 ft4
19 9 ft4
Effective Moment of Inertia = 19.9
Stage Deflection (in) Curvature (rad/in) Moment (k-ft)
Yield 3 68
3.68 0 000053
0.000053 7357
Ultimate 21.51 0.000839 10349
Idealized Yield 4.96 0.000072 9927
Id li d Ultimate
Idealized Ulti t 21 51
21.51 0 000839
0.000839 9927
21.51
displacement ductility = = 4.3
4.96

78
ProblemAssignment44 Solution
MultiColumn
Multi ColumnPushoverAnalysis
Pushover Analysis
ConstructtheCapacityLoadDeflectiondiagramforthe
frameshownbelow.
D.L.
Long. Reinforcement VP1+VP2+VP3
21.3 21.3
#11 tot 15
28
2 CL 48 MP2 =Plastic moment
using PD.L. axial force

VP3
Spiral VP1 VP2
Reinforcement fc = 5,000 psi
#5 @ 44 fy = 68,000
, psi
p
PD.L.Tension
T i PD.L. PD.L.+ Compression
C i

COLUMN SECTION 3MP2


Tension or Compression =
2 21.3'

79
IdealizedValues:
YieldCurvature(1/in)=.000128
e d Cu vatu e ( / ) 000 8
PlasticMoment(kft)=3652
UltimateCurvature(1/in)=01409

Axial Load 933 kips

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015
Curvature (1/in)

80
IdealizedValues:
YieldCurvature(1/in)=.00013
Yield Curvature (1/in) = 00013
PlasticMoment(kft)=3898
UltimateCurvature(1/in)=01287
Axial Load 1220 kips
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 0.0012 0.0014
Curvature (1/in)

81
IdealizedValues:
YieldCurvature(1/in)=.000132
( / )
PlasticMoment(kft)=4129
UltimateCurvature(1/in)=.001188
Axial Load 1507 kips

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 0.0012 0.0014
Curvature (1/in)

82
CalculateElasticStiffnessKiforColumns1,2
and 3 based on effective EI
and3basedoneffectiveEI
Plastic Moment 3EI
UseEI= Yield Curvature
andK= L3

Watchforunits!!
2
Column EI (k-ft ) "Ki" (k/ft)
#1 2377604 325
#2 2498718 342
#3 2606692 356

83
CalculatePlasticShearVpi andtheYield
Deflections for Columns 1 2 and 3
DeflectionsforColumns1,2and3
Use Vpi =
UseV Mp
L
and yi =
and Vppi
Ki

Column
Col mn Vpi (kips) yi (in)
#1 130.4 4.8
#2 139.2 4.9
#3 147 5
147.5 5

84
CalculatePlasticHingeLength
g g
fy
p = .08L+
08L+ 6 db
40
08 x 28' x 12 in/ft + 6 x 68 x 1
.08 1.41"
41"
p = 40
= 26.9" + 14.4" = 41.3"

85
CalculatePlasticDisplacementp for
all Three Col mns
allThreeColumns
Use p =(
Use = (u y)xl p =
) x lp , = p (L
(L p/2)

Column
C l u y p (rad)
( d) p (in)
(i )
#1 0.00128 0.0529 16.7
#2 0.00116 0.0479 15.1
#3 0.00106 0.0438 13.8

86
ConstructCapacityLoad
Deflection Diagram
DeflectionDiagram
500

capacity = 18.8 in 450


417 18.8
415 400
409
350

ps)
Total Shear (kip
300

250

200
T
150

100

50
5.0
0 4.8
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
4.9 deflection (in)

87
CalculateShearDemandtoCapacityRatio
f G
forGoverningColumn
i C l
IfshearD/Cratios
IfshearD/Cratios<1thantheframedisplacement
1thantheframedisplacement
capacityisgovernedbyflexuraldeformation.
IfshearD/Cratios>1thentheframedisplacement
/ p
capacityshouldberevisedtoreflectthefactthat
shearisgoverning.

88
Example:PushoverAnalysisofaslender
twocolumnbent
W=600 kips W=600 kips

Long. Reinforcement
#10 tot 68
Ratio = 2.525% P,

=5.5

45.33 ft
D=

2 CL

Spiral transverse fc=4 ksi


Reinforcement #7@3.8 fy = 60 ksi 16ft

89
Variationsinaxialload
18000
P=2000 kips
16000
P=600 kips
14000 P= 0 kips
P= -800 kips
12000
kips-ft)

P= -1800 kips
10000
Moment (k

8000 P(kips) Mp(k-ft) y(1/ft) (EI)eff K(k/ft)

6000 -1800 7908 0.000879 8993518 290

-800
800 9426 0.000870
0 000870 10831993 350
4000
0 10530 0.000876 12026039 388

2000 600 11330 0.000888 12759009 412

2000 13060 0.000890


0 000890 14675806 474
0
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
Curvature (1/ft)

90
VariationsinLong.Steel
Moment (kips
(kips-ft)
ft)
Case with Axial Force P = -700 kips (Tension)

4.0%
20000
3.5%

15000 3.0%
2.5%

2.0%
10000
1.5%

1.0%
5000
Using ultimate strain

0
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
Curvature (1/ft)

91
VariationsinLong.Steel
M oment ((kips-ft)
p ) Case with Axial Force P = 1900 kips (Compression)

4.0%
20000 3.5%

3 0%
3.0%
2.5%
15000
2.0%

1 5%
1.5%
10000
1.0%

5000 Using ultimate strain

0
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
Curvature (1/ft)

92
ForceDemandsonCapacity
Protected Members (4.11.2)
ProtectedMembers(4.11.2)
M po = mo M p (4.11.21)

where:
Mp = idealized
idealizedplasticmomentcapacityofreinforced
plastic moment capacity of reinforced
concretememberbaseduponexpectedmaterial
properties(kipft)

M po = overstrengthplasticmomentcapacity(kipft)

mo = overstrengthmagnifier
1.2forASTMA706reinforcement
1.4forASTMA615Grade60reinforcement

93
DesignForcesresultingfromPlasticHinging
Single Column & Pier(4 11 3)
SingleColumn&Pier(4.11.3)
Single Column Bent
Weak Direction of Pier
Weak Direction of a Bent

STEP 1: Determine
i Over-strength
h Plastic
l i Moment Capacity
i
Concrete: MPH = 1.3 Mu
Steel: MPH = 1.25 Mu

STEP 2: Determine Corresponding Shear Force,


M top + M bot
VPH = PH PH

h
where:
h = column height between plastic hinges
No adjustment
j in Axial Force

94
PlasticHinging Column
I t
InteractionDiagram
ti Di
Center of Gravity
VL + VR

Mu Mu

From column h L
interaction diagram
VL VR
AXIAL Mu
MAXIMUM Mu
LOAD PPH PPH
PDL + PPH PROBABLE a
PDL MOMENT = Mu
PDL - PPH
MOMENT
COLUMN INTERACTION DIAGRAM
(NOTE: = 1.30 for concrete and = 1.25 for steel)

95
DesignForcesresultingfrom
Plastic Hinging Two or More Columns (4 11 4)
PlasticHingingTwoorMoreColumns(4.11.4)

BentswithTwoorMoreColumns
STEP1:DeterminetheOverstrengthMomentCapacity
STEP 2 D t
STEP2:DeterminetheCorrespondingShearForce
i th C di Sh F
STEP3:DeterminetheTotalShearForceintheBentand
Co espo d g O e tu
CorrespondingOverturningAxialForces
g a o ces
STEP4:DetermineRevisedOverstrengthMomentsand
ShearsCorrespondingtoNewlyCalculatedAxialForces.
C l
CycletoStep3UntilShearForceiswithin10%ofPrevious
S 3 U il Sh F i i hi 10% f P i
Value.

96
CapacityProtectionPhilosophy
p y p y
Expectedmaterialproperties
Overstrengthforceswithexpectedmaterial
andresistancefactors
Maximumandminimumaxialloadeffects

97
PropertiesandApplicationsofReinforcing
Steel,PrestressingSteelandConcreteforSDC
B,C,andD(8.4)
For
ForSDCBandC,theexpectedmaterial
SDC B and C the expected material
propertiesshallbeusedtodeterminethe
section stiffness and overstrength
sectionstiffnessandoverstrength
capacities.
ForSDCD,theexpectedmaterialproperties
For SDC D the expected material properties
shallbeusedtodeterminesectionstiffness,
overstrength capacities and displacement
overstrengthcapacities,anddisplacement
capacities.

98
SDCB,C,andD(8.3)
General Initialsizingofcolumnsshouldbeperformedusing
StrengthandServiceloadcombinationsdefinedinthe
AASHTOLRFDBridgeDesignSpecifications.
g g p f
ForceDemandsonSDCB Thedesignforcesshallbethe
lesseroftheforcesresultingfromtheoverstrengthplastic
hinging moment capacity or unreduced elastic seismic forces
hingingmomentcapacityorunreducedelasticseismicforces
incolumnsorpierwalls.
ForceDemandsonSDCCandDThedesignforcesshallbe
b d
basedonforcesresultingfromtheoverstrengthplastic
f lti f th t th l ti
hingingmomentcapacityorthemaximumconnection
capacityfollowingthecapacitydesignprinciples.
LocalDuctilityDemandsSDC DThelocaldisplacement
D
ductilitydemands,,ofmembersshallnotexceedthe
maximumallowabledisplacementductilities.

99
EarthquakeResistingSystems(ERS,3.3)
q g y ( )
RequiredforSDCCandD
Mustbeidentifiablewithinthebridgesystem
b d f bl h h b d
Shallprovideareliableanduninterruptedload
path
th
Shallhaveenergydissipationand/orrestraintto
control seismically induced displacements
controlseismicallyinduceddisplacements
ComposedofacceptableEarthquakeResisting
Elements (ERE)
Elements(ERE)

100
ERS (3.3)
( )

Permissible
Earthquake
Resisting
S t
Systems(ERS)
(ERS)

101
CapacityProtectionPhilosophy
p y p y
Expectedmaterialproperties
Overstrengthforceswithexpectedmaterial
andresistancefactors
Maximumandminimumaxialloadeffects

102
DesignforSDCB,C,&D(4.7)
g f ( )
Conventional Fullductilitystructureswitha
plasticmechanismhavingforabridge
p g 4.0 D 6.0 g
inSDCD
Limitedductility ForstructureswithaPlastic
mechanismreadilyaccessibleforinspection
D < 4.0
havingforabridgeinSDCBorC
LimitedDuctility Forstructureshavingaplastic
mechanismworkinginconcertwithaprotective
system The plastic hinge may or may not form
system.Theplastichingemayormaynotform.
ThisstrategyisintendedforSDCCorD

103
MemberDuctilityRequirementfor
SDC D (4 9)
SDCD(4.9)

104
MemberDuctilityRequirementfor
SDC D (4 9)
SDCD(4.9)
pd (4.9-5)
D = 1 +
yi
Where:
pd = plastic displacement demand (in.)

yi = idealized yield displacement corresponding


to the idealized yield curvature, yyi ,
shown in figure 8.5-1 (in.)
Pile shafts should be treated similar to columns.

105
CapacityDesignRequirementfor
SDC C & D (4 11)
SDCC&D(4.11)
Capacity
Capacityprotectionisrequiredforallmembers
protection is required for all members
thatarenot participatingaspartoftheenergy
dissipatingsystem
Capacityprotectedmembersinclude:
Superstructures
Jointsandcapbeams
Spreadfootings
Pilecaps
Foundations

106
LRFD OverstrengthCapacityDesignConcepts
f SDC C & D L
forSDCC&DLong.(4.11)
(4 11)

107
LRFD OverstrengthCapacityDesign
C
ConceptsforSDCC&DTrans.(4.11)
t f SDC C & D T (4 11)

108
PlasticMomentCapacity
SDCB,C&D(8.5)
MomentCurvature Analyses M
MomentCurvatureAnalyses
ExpectedMaterialProperties
Axial Dead Load Forces with Overturning
AxialDeadLoadForceswithOverturning
M CurveIdealizedasElasticPerfectlyPlastic
El ti P ti
ElasticPortionoftheCurvePassthroughthepoint
f th C P th h th i t
ofmarkingthefirstreinforcingbaryield
Plasticmomentcapacitydeterminedfromequal
Plastic moment capacity determined from equal
areasofidealizedandactual

109
MinimumSupportLengthRequirements
SDC A, B, C & D (4.12)
SDCA,B,C&D(4.12)

110
PlasticMomentCapacityforDuctileConcrete
MembersforSDCB,C,andD(8.5)
b f S C C d (8 )

Equal Areas

Figure8.51MomentCurvatureModel

111
ForceDemandsonCapacityProtected
Members (8 5)
Members(8.5)
M po = mo M p (8.51)

where:
M p == idealizedplasticmomentcapacityofreinforced
idealized plastic moment capacity of reinforced
concretememberbaseduponexpectedmaterial
properties(kipft)

M po = overstrengthplasticmomentcapacity(kipft)
mo = overstrengthmagnifier
1.2forASTMA706reinforcement
1.4forASTMA615Grade60reinforcement

112
Shear Demand & Capacity (8.6.1)
ShearDemand&Capacity(8.6.1)

SDCBisthelesserof:
SDC B Vu is the lesser of :
Forceobtainedfromlinearelasticseismicanalysis
Force, V po , corresponding to plastic hinging with over
Force,,correspondingtoplastichingingwithover
strength
SDCCandDistheforceassociatedwiththe
Vu
overstrengthmoment M po

113
CapacityProtectionPhilosophy
p y p y
Expectedmaterialproperties
Overstrengthforceswithexpectedmaterial
andresistancefactors
Maximumandminimumaxialloadeffects

114
MaxAxialLoadinDuctileMember
SDC C & D (Sec 8 7 2)
SDCC&D(Sec8.7.2)

115
MaxAxialLoadinDuctileMember
SDCC&D(Sec8.7.2)
( )

A higher axial load value, Pu, may be used provided


that a moment-curvature pushover analysis is
performed to compute the maximum ductility
capacity of the member.
member

116
Max.LongitudinalReinforcement
(Sec 8 8 1)
(Sec8.8.1)

117
Min.LongitudinalReinforcement
For Col mns (Sec 8 8 2)
ForColumns(Sec8.8.2)

118
Min.LongitudinalReinforcement
For Pier Walls (Sec 8 8 2)
ForPierWalls(Sec8.8.2)

119
ConcreteShearCapacity
SDCBandC(8.6.2)
ForSDCB,theconcreteshearcapacity,,ofa
For SDC B the concrete shear capacity Vc of a
sectionwithintheplastichingeregionshallbe
determinedusing:g
=2
D

ForSDCC,theconcreteshearcapacityofasection
withintheplastichingeregionshallbedetermined
p g g
using:
D = 3
120
ConcreteShearCapacitySDCB,C&D
(8.6.2)
Concrete Shear Capacity Vc withintheplastichinge
ConcreteShearCapacity,V within the plastic hinge

SDC D Equation

B 2 -
C 3 -
D pd 4.9-5
1+
yi

121
LateralReinf.inPlasticHingesSDC
C & D (Sec 8 8 7)
C&D(Sec8.8.7)

The volume of lateral reinforcement, s or w, specified


in Article 8.6.2 provided inside the plastic hinge region
as specified in Article 4.11.7 shall be sufficient to ensure
that the column or pier wall has adequate shear capacity
and confinement level
le el to achieve
achie e the required
req ired ductility
d ctilit
capacity.

122
LateralReinf.inPlasticHingesSDC
C & D (Sec 8 8 7)
C&D(Sec8.8.7)
F
For columns
l designed
d i d to t achieve
hi a displacement
di l t ductility
d tilit
demand greater than 4, the lateral reinforcement shall be either
butt-welded hoops or spirals.
Combination of hoops and spiral shall not be permitted except
in the footing or the bent cap. Hoops may be placed around the
column
l cage in
i lieu
li off continuous
i spiral
i l reinforcement
i f in
i the
h
cap and footing.
At spiral
i l or hhoop tto spiral
i l discontinuities,
di ti iti the th spiral
i l shall
h ll
terminate with one extra turn plus a tail equal to the cage
diameter.

123
LateralReinf.outsidePlasticHinges
SDC C & D (Sec 8 8 8)
SDCC&D(Sec8.8.8)
The volumetric ratio of lateral reinforcement required
outside of the plastic hinge region shall not be less than
50% of that determined in accordance with Articles 8.8.7
and Article 8.6.
yp outside the pplastic hinge
The lateral reinforcement type g
region shall be the same type as that used inside the
plastic hinge region.

124
LateralReinf.outsidePlasticHinges
SDC C & D (Sec 8 8 8)
SDCC&D(Sec8.8.8)
At spiral or hoop to spiral discontinuities, splices shall be
provided that are capable of developing at least 125% of the
specified minimum yield stress, fyh, of the reinforcing bar.
Lateral reinforcement shall extend into footings to the
beginning of the longitudinal bar bend above the bottom mat.
Lateral reinforcement shall extend into bent caps a distance
which is as far as is practical and adequate to develop the
reinforcement for development of plastic hinge mechanisms.

125
LateralReinforcementinPlasticHinge
Region (4 11 7)
Region(4.11.7)

Plastic Hinge Region-the


maximum of:
1.5 sectional dimension in
the direction of bending
Moment
M t demand
d d exceeds
d
75% of the maximum
plastic moment
Analytical
A l ti l plastic
l ti hinge
hi
length

126
REQUIREMENTSFORCAPACITY
PROTECTED MEMBERS (8 9)
PROTECTEDMEMBERS(8.9)
Capacityprotectedmemberssuchasfootings,
p yp g
bentcaps,oversizedpileshafts,joints,andintegral
superstructureelementsthatareadjacenttothe
p
plastichingelocationsshallbedesignedtoremain
g g
essentiallyelasticwhentheplastichingereaches
itsoverstrengthmomentcapacity,Mpo.
Theexpectednominalcapacity,M
The expected nominal capacity Mne,isusedin
is used in
establishingthecapacityofessentiallyelastic
membersandshouldbedeterminedbasedona
strain compatibilit anal sis sing a M
straincompatibilityanalysisusinga
diagramasillustratedinFigure8.51andoutlined
inArticle8.5.

127
SuperstructureCapacityforIntegralCapsfor
L Di ti f SDC C d D (8.10)
Long.DirectionforSDCCandD (8 10)
Moment
Momentdemandcausedbydeadloadorsecondarypre
demand caused by dead load or secondary pre
stresseffectsshallbedistributedtotheentirewidthofthe
superstructure.
Thecolumnoverstrengthmoment,Mpo,inadditiontothe
Th l h M i ddi i h
momentinducedduetotheeccentricitybetweentheplastic
hingelocationandthecenterofgravityofthe
superstructureshallbedistributedtothespansframinginto
h ll b di ib d h f i i
thebentbasedontheirstiffnessdistributionfactors.
Thismomentdemandshallbeconsideredwithinthe
effectivewidthofthesuperstructure.

128
129
130
SuperstructureCapacityDesignforTransverse
Direction (Integral Bent Cap) for SDC C and D
Direction(IntegralBentCap)forSDCCandD
(8.11)
Bentcapsareconsideredintegraliftheyterminate
attheoutsideoftheexteriorgirderandrespond
monolithicallywiththegirdersystemduring
dynamicexcitation
Momentdemandcausedbydeadloadorsecondary
M d d db d dl d d
prestresseffectsshallbedistributedtotheeffective
width of the bent cap Beff
widthofthebentcap,

131
SuperstructureCapacityDesignforTransverse
Direction(IntegralBentCap)for
SDCCandD(8.11)
Thecolumnoverstrengthmoment,Mpo,andthemoment
induced due to the eccentricity between the plastic hinge
inducedduetotheeccentricitybetweentheplastichinge
locationandthecenterofgravityofthebentcapshallbe
distributedbasedontheeffectivestiffnesscharacteristicsof
the frame The moment shall be considered within the
theframe.Themomentshallbeconsideredwithinthe
effectivewidthofthebentcap.Theeffectivewidth,Beff,shall
betaken:

132
Integral
B tC
BentCap
(
(8.11)
)

133
SuperstructureDesignforNonintegral
BentCapsforSDCCandD(8.12)
Nonintegralbentcapsshallsatisfyallrequirementsstated
g p y q
forframeswithintegralbentcapinthetransverse
direction.
Forsuperstructuretosubstructureconnectionsthatare
For superstructure to substructure connections that are
notintendedtofuse,alateralforcetransfermechanism
shallbeprovidedattheinterfacethatiscapableof
transferring the maximum lateral force associated with
transferringthemaximumlateralforceassociatedwith
plastichingingoftheERS
Forsuperstructuretosubstructureconnectionsthatare
intended to fuse the minimum lateral force at the interface
intendedtofuse,theminimumlateralforceattheinterface
shallbetakenas0.40timesthedeadloadreactionplusthe
overstrengthshearkey(s)capacity,Vok

134
JointDesignforSDCCandD(8.13)
g f ( )
Momentresistingconnectionsshallbedesignedto
transmitthemaximumforcesproducedwhenthe
columnhasreacheditsoverstrengthcapacity,Mpo
Momentresistingjointsshallbeproportionedso
that the principal stresses satisfy the requirements
thattheprincipalstressessatisfytherequirements
ofEq.1andEq.2.
Transversereinforcementintheformoftied
columnreinforcement,spirals,hoops,or
l i f t i l h
intersectingspiralsorhoopsshallbeprovided.The
jointshearreinforcementmayalsobeprovidedin
theformofcolumntransversesteelorexterior
h f f l l i
transversereinforcementcontinuedintothebent
cap.

135
JointDesignforSDCCandD
(Continued)(8 13)
(Continued)(8.13)
Wheretheprincipaltensionstressinthejoint,p
p p j pt,
asspecifiedinArticle8.13.2islessthan,the
0.11 f c

transversereinforcementinthejoint,rs,shall
satisfyEq.1andnoadditionalreinforcement
y q
withinthejointisrequired.
Wheretheprincipaltensionstressinthejoint,pt,
is greater than 0.11 f then transverse
isgreaterthan,thentransverse
c

reinforcementinthejoint,rs,shallsatisfyEq.2and
additionaljointreinforcementisrequiredas
indicated in Article 8 13 4 for integral bent cap
indicatedinArticle8.13.4forintegralbentcap
beamsorArticle8.13.5fornonintegralbentcap
beams.

136
JointPerformance(C8.13.1)
f ( )
Arationaldesign
is required for joint
isrequiredforjoint
reinforcementwhen
principaltension
stress levels become
stresslevelsbecome
excessive.The
amountsof
reinforcement
reinforcement
requiredarebased
onastrutandtie
mechanism similar
mechanismsimilar
tothatshown.

137
JointProportioning(C8.13.2)
p g( )
Thefigure
illustrates the
illustratesthe
forcesacting
onthejointas
j
wellasthe
associated
principal
stresses.

138
ColumnShearKeyDesignforSDCC
and D (8 15)
andD(8.15)
Column shear keys shall be designed for the axial and
shear forces associated with the columns over-strength
moment capacity, Mpo, including the effects of
overturning. The key reinforcement shall be located as
close to the center of the column as possible to minimize
d l i a force
developing f couple
l within
i hi the
h key
k reinforcement.
i f
Moment generated by the key reinforcing steel should be
considered in applying capacity design principles.

139
InfluenceofColumnBaseDetailontheContribution
ofSteelShearResistingMechanism

140
P Requirements
q
Displacementcheckforcolumndesign

141
142
143
144
145
RetrofitEvaluationMethodC
f
Plasticcurvaturecapacitydetermination
Implicitdeflectioncapacityforpoorly
detailedelements

146
147
148
RetrofitEvaluationMethodC
f
Plasticcurvaturecapacitydetermination
Implicitdeflectioncapacityforpoorly
detailedelements

149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
LearningOutcomes
ExplaintheDisplacementCapacityDesign
Approach
Definefullandlimitedductileresponseand
explainthecorrelationtotheSDCs
Defineimplicitandpushoverdisplacement
capacity
Defineexpectedandoverstrengthmaterial
properties.
DefinetheComponentCapacity/Demand
RetrofitMethod(MethodC)

158